Donald Woodward (ed.), The Farming and Memorandum Books of Henry Best of Elmswell, 1642

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  • a

    prep. a weakened form of (i) of, as in a threavestrawe FB 210, 222, (ii) on+ger., as in ⁓ tuppinge FB 3, ⁓ wriglinge FB 21, + adv. gen., as in ⁓ dayes by day FB 140, ⁓ nights by night FB 17, 29, 133; see on

  • abated

    pa. p. reduced in value FB 146, ⁓ pa. t. made a reduction of App. I iii 134, abatinge of falling in value from FB 170

  • ability

    ability to pay, wealth, means FB 146, 150

  • able

    able to pay, wealthy FB 150, capable, qualified FB 152, ablest most wealthy FB 147, 150, 154

  • aboute

    (in time references) at, on FB 19, passim

  • abroade

    out of doors, in the open FB 60, 179, 190

  • accounted of

    esteemed, valued FB 165, 214

  • acquittance

    a receipt in full MB 29, App. I iv

  • additions

    titles App. I iii 131

  • admonish

    advise FB 12

  • after-loggings

    after-temsings, the coarse flour that remains after the fine flour has been sifted FB 173

  • after-that

    see that

  • againe

    adv. back FB 167, 184, 211, App. I iii 132

  • against

    conj. in preparation for when, by the time that FB 34, 167, ⁓ prep. (of time) towards, before, in time for FB 14, passim, in preparation for FB 33, passim, (of position) facing, exposed to FB 124, 127, 137

  • ahunge

    hung FB 107

  • airish

    cool, fresh FB 26

  • allman revitts

    a light armour from Germany made with movable rivets App. II i

  • ambergreece

    ambergris, grey amber, a scented waxy material used in perfumes and in cooking MB 5

  • amerciamentes

    fines imposed by the manorial court App. I v

  • amongst

    adv. besides other things, intermittently FB 52

  • an

    prep. on, ⁓ ende on end FB 32, 195, 218

  • and

    if FB 116

  • anchitricoes

    lambs' testicles fried with parsley FB 36 [etymology unknown; CBR's anchit ricoal is an incorrect reading]; in recent times still a delicacy in the Yorks. Dales, but not known by this name

  • anon

    soon, shortly FB 157

  • anoynte

    daub (mortar) FB 218

  • aquavitae

    any kind of ardent spirits MB 5

  • ardelles, arders, ardures, errdalls

    ploughed lands or lands lying fallow FB 207, App. II ii, iii, vi

  • arke

    a large wooden chest or bin for storing meal or fruit App. II ii

  • arse

    the tail-end (of a wain) FB 79, 215, the butt-end (of a sheaf) FB 75, 81,91

  • arte

    technique, the terme of ⁓ the technical term FB 179

  • ary

    v. plough, fallow FB 129

  • as

    such as, for instance FB 38, passim

  • ashepayle

    ash-stakes, ash-paling MB 12

  • assignes

    persons legally appointed to receive a right or a property App.II vii

  • avaleable

    beneficial FB 139

  • awne

    the bearded sheath that covers the grain of many varieties of cereal FB 89, 166

  • ayred

    kept fresh, ungrazed, not stocked FB 140 f.

  • backeward

    late FB 25

  • badgers

    itinerant dealers in corn, licensed middlemen between producers and consumers FB 168

  • balk(e)

    a ridge of unploughed land between ploughed lands, used as a boundary and for access FB 43, passim, MB 69, App. I ii, iii 131, a tie-beam in a barn stretching from wall to wall FB 79, 88, balkes a loft or store-place between the cross-beams of the stable and the roof App. II v; see also gallowbauke, sweath(-)balke

  • balme

    a fragrant garden herb called Balm Mint or Balm Gentle, Melissa officinalis FB 105 ff.; much liked by bees and still used by bee-keepers to attract swarms

  • band(e)

    a tie of straw for binding sheaves FB 73, 81 ff., 186, a rope of hay or straw for binding or sewing thatch FB 102 ff., 219, 227, 231 f., a hay-rope FB 53, a cart-rope FB 79, a rope for dragging a rake FB 85, a course FB 59, a strip of cloth, a carrying cloth FB 128 f. (see bearinge-bandes), men's bands neck-bands, shirt collars, ruffs FB 176

  • barberey

    in barber's fashion, by shaving FB 21 (MS error for barberly)

  • bare

    infertile FB 89

  • barre

    a hurdle FB 21 ff., passim, shepe ⁓ a hurdle for a sheep-fold App. II ii

  • bashe

    beat (with the wings) FB 180

  • bason

    basin FB 107

  • basse

    a mat or some other article made of bast, the fibre of the lime-tree App. II iii

  • battle

    nutritious FB 43

  • beacon

    a division of a wapentake FB 146, 152 ff., MB 56, App. I iii 134

  • beaked

    warmed, seasoned by exposure to heat FB 195, beakinge ger. FB 195

  • beare out

    endure, resist FB 46

  • bearer

    one who is obliged to assist a subsidy-man bear the burden of a levy, a second-class tax-payer FB 145 ff.

  • bearinge-bandes

    carrying cloths FB 128, 229

  • beaser stone

    bezoar stone, an antidote MB 5

  • beastlings

    beestings, the first milk after giving birth FB 16, 140

  • beck(e)

    stream FB 44, passim, MB 69

  • be(e)dstockes

    bed-frames App. II ii

  • beeld

    shelter, protection FB 110, 124

  • beesome

    a brush, a broom FB 172

  • behooveful

    necessary FB 62

  • bellweather

    a bellwether, the leading sheep of the flock, identified by the bell round its neck FB 162

  • belly

    swell out FB 124

  • beneficiall

    beneficent, of benefit, for beingto the howse for the benefit of the house, probably a euphemism for sealing a bargain with a drink FB 167

  • benjamin

    gum benzoin, a brittle resin from the E. Indies with a fragrant odour and an aromatic taste, used in medicine and perfumery MB 5

  • berke

    encrust, clot FB 16

  • betimes

    in good time, early, promptly FB 31, passim

  • bill

    an official list, account, or return FB 145 ff., 212, an official schedule of instructions FB 155, a pruning hook App. II v

  • bincke borde

    (?) a bench-table (a long, low table?), or (?) a plank forming the top of a bench App. II iii

  • binder

    one who binds sheaves FB 79 ff., passim

  • bitted

    chipped FB 9f., 19

  • blame

    v., to(dat. inf. used predicatively after to be) blameworthy, filthy FB 10, 18

  • blares

    n. cries, bleats FB 137, blaringe ger. lowing, bellowing FB 189

  • blea, bley

    blackish blue FB 143, 165

  • bledde

    yielded (grain in threshing) FB 87, bleedeth, bleeds pr. t. FB 76, 222

  • bley.

    see blea

  • bloodinge

    letting of blood FB 134

  • blowe

    deposit eggs FB 32, 134

  • board, borde

    a table(-top) FB 107, passim, App. II i, ⁓ ends table ends FB 101

  • boat

    a sauceboat App. II viii

  • boated

    put on the boat FB 200

  • bole armonicke

    bole armeniac, an astringent earth brought from Armenia and used as an antidote and styptic MB 5

  • bolles

    bowls FB 110, boll-roakinge a heap of pease reaps laid overnight in the middle of an unfinished stack as a temporary covering FB 101 [OScand. bolli 'bowl' + hroka 'to heap above the rim of a vessel', later north. Engl. dial. rook, roak, ruck 'to pile up, heap']

  • borde

    see board; bordened laid with boards FB 36, bordeninge ger. FB 182

  • botte

    a mark, stamped or daubed onto sheep's bodies to indicate ownership pg 288FB 17, 140, 160, see also burne and botte; these are the only citations in NED and EDD, but Purvis (1947) quotes from a document of 1575, where John Hornsay of Fridaythorp (8 miles from Elmswell) testified that his brother James's sheep-mark was 'a bott of the far shoulder and another on the nar [near] buttock', and the term was recently still in use among the blackface-sheep farmers of the N. Yorks. moors

  • bottle

    a bundle of hay or straw FB 102 ff., passim, ⁓ up make (hay) up into bundles FB 125

  • bottome

    a grassy bottom end of sloping land FB 17, passim, ⁓ grass FB 50hay FB 54

  • bought in

    purchased for stock FB 19, 40

  • boules

    the game of bowls MB 72

  • boultinge tubb

    a wooden bin into which flour or meal is sifted App. II i

  • bound, bun

    enclosed, with sides App. II ii, iii

  • bounder

    a boundary FB 189 f., App. I iii 131 f.

  • braces

    timbers supporting the rafters of a roof FB 216

  • brake

    a comb for dressing flax or hemp App. II iii

  • branded

    brindled, brown with darker streaks MB 21

  • brandreth(e), brandrith

    an iron trivet or three-legged grate for supporting cooking pots over the open fire App. II i, v, vi

  • brantness

    steepness FB 1

  • breadth(e)

    a width of the swath or stroke of a scythe FB 51, 81

  • breake out

    erupt with the scab FB 116, breakinge out ger. FB 116

  • breeke, britch

    the rump FB 116, 135

  • broade-lande.

    see land(e)

  • brode clothe

    cloth two yards wide App. II ii

  • broken(-)mouth'd

    with teeth missing FB 15, 19

  • browe

    the upper end of a hill FB 158, 178, App. I iii 131

  • buffett stool

    a low stool App. II vi

  • bulls

    see harrowe bulls

  • bullsegge

    a bull castrated when fully grown FB 222

  • bun

    see bound

  • burne

    a burn-mark, a brand, ⁓ and botte a dual-purpose marking iron which can either be heated to burn the owner's mark into the horns and hides of cattle (HB's mark is I-B , see MB 21) or else dipped into boiled tar so that the owner's mark can be daubed as a botte on the skins of sheep FB 119

  • bury

    beat, thrash, thresh FB 222, 231, buryer a thresher FB 222, buryinge ger. FB 210

  • burying towell

    a funeral cloth for carrying the coffin MB 64

  • bushell

    a dry measure of 8 gallons FB 75 f., passim, MB 10, App. II i, a wooden vessel used as a bushel measure 171 f., App. II iii, v

  • but

    adv. only FB 45, passim, just, exactly FB 168; ⁓ conj. except that FB 189, ⁓ onely that except that FB 226

  • buttes

    odd arable strips that have been ploughed separately from the rest of a flat or furlong FB 63, 67, 202 f.

  • buttresses

    butterises, farrier's tools for paring horses' hooves App. II iv

  • buy in

    purchase for stock FB 40

  • by and by

    presently FB 21

  • cadgers

    carriers, itinerant dealers with pack-horses, fetching and carrying between the farms and other suppliers or outlets of produce FB 171; here, they are the agents (them that carry for them) of local millers, hence the name Cadger Lane in Little Driffield (O.S. 6″) for the track that leads from King's Mill to Sykes Lane in Elmswell

  • calfe gate

    see gate n.2

  • cambricke

    a fine white linen (originally made at Cambrai in Flanders) FB 176

  • canded

    crystallized FB 114

  • candle tayl'd

    with a tail like a candle, small-tailed FB 10

  • capes

    grains of corn which still have their husk after threshing FB 171

  • cappinge leather

    leather used for patching the worn-out parts of shoes or boots FB 223

  • carkeises

    (living) bodies FB 46, 161

  • carpente clothe, carpitt

    a coloured woollen table cloth App. II i, vi

  • carr(e)

    a marsh FB 8, passim, MB 50, App. I ii, v

  • carriage

    conveyance, cargo FB 181

  • carry (up)

    take (up) FB 19, App. I iii 131 f., carryed pa. t. FB 118, passim, carryinge out ger. clearing FB 52

  • cartrope

    a rope for fastening a load of corn or hay to a cart or wain FB 79

  • case

    physical condition FB 143, a seed pod, nuttmeges ⁓ (?) the whole shell of nutmeg MB 5, pepper ⁓ case-pepper, a type of capsicum, the seed-pod of Guinea pepper MB 5

  • casinlyers

    (?) boards on which dung was allowed to dry in the cow-stalls, the resulting product being known as casin(g)s, once a common source of fuel in the E. Riding App. II iii

  • cast

    v. warp FB 182, throw off a swarm FB 105, 107, ⁓ pa. t. turned FB 160, ⁓ n. the throwing (of seed) or the seed thrown FB 84, ⁓ downe v. set back FB 132, casten defeated FB 153, warped FB 195, thrown, put FB 74, (of metal) cast FB 72, ⁓ downe set back FB 142, ⁓ up reckoned FB 149, castinge ger. warping FB 195, 200, swarming FB 105, 107, ⁓ at the nose sneezing MB 66

  • catchers

    catching equipment, specifically the hives FB 109 ff.

  • cavinge-rake

    a barn-floor rake for separating chaff and empty ears from corn FB 193

  • cawsy

    a causeway FB 225

  • cedull

    a schedule App. II i

  • certaine

    certainty, att a ⁓ dependably, without change FB 30, 47, 125, att some ⁓ dependable FB 17, of a ⁓ certainly FB 29

  • chaffbedd

    a mattress stuffed with chaff instead of feathers etc. App. II v

  • chaffindishe, chafinge dish, chafynge dyshe

    a pan of hot charcoals for chafing or warming whatever is placed over it FB 177, App. II i, ii

  • chalder

    a dry measure of four quarters or 32 bushels FB 200

  • champion

    open, level (country) FB 167

  • chappe

    a jaw FB 9

  • charger

    a large dish for serving meat etc. App. II i

  • checke

    cracke FB 22, checketh pr. t. FB 172

  • cheife

    height, prime FB 45

  • chesse

    a layer FB 200

  • chinnell-oates

    oats grown on light, gravelly soil (thin clay and chalk), in Yorks. dial. called chinnel or channel FB 85

  • chizell

    bran FB 173

  • choise

    choosy, discriminating FB 134

  • chopp

    a blow, a set-back FB 158

  • christning sheet

    a cloak or blanket (apparently with buttons in this instance) in which a baby is christened MB 64

  • chyrurgery

    surgery MB 6

  • clagge

    v. clog FB 107, clagges n. clots (of dirty wool) FB 17

  • clamme

    clammy, sticky FB 119

  • clappe

    beat (something) with the hands FB 111 f., clapped pa. p. FB 111, clappinge ger. FB 110, 112

  • clay-barley

    barley sown on clay-lands FB 92, clayes clay-lands FB 78, passim, MB 9

  • cleane

    clear (of testicles), gelded FB 1 f., 35, 164, (of wheat or rye corn) unmixed, pure FB 70, passim, free of weeds FB 75, cleanly clean FB 33

  • cleansed

    pa. t. passed the after-birth FB 135, ⁓ pa. p. cleared (of sheep) FB 142

  • cleave

    stick, cling FB 52, 177, 228, cleaveth pr. t. FB 119

  • clipper

    a (sheep-)shearer FB 30, 159 ff., clippinge sheep-shearing MB 9

  • clives

    a clevis, an iron loop for connecting a cart (etc.) to the gear of the draught animal App. II iii

  • close

    adj. compact, close-fitting FB 27, closed, shut up, enclosed FB 1, 45, 111, 137, 140, 180 (at 1, 45, with reference to a ram with both testicles shut up in the back instead of pendant in the scrotum), ⁓ adv. firmly, compactly App. I iii 131

  • clott(e)s

    clods FB 177, 217, 227, clottinge melles clod-malls, large wooden hammers for breaking up clods of earth FB 217

  • clout, clowte

    cover with a sewn clout or cloth FB 3, 143

  • coales, coles

    charcoal FB 177, (sea) coals FB 186, MB 24

  • coates

    petticoats FB 74

  • cobbe

    a male swan FB 196

  • cocke

    n. a heap of harvested crop (grass, corn rakings, peas) drawn up with fork and rake FB 52 ff., 93 ff., great ⁓ two or more small cocks drawn together FB 52ff., small ⁓ a cock drawn with foot and rake out of a windrow FB 53 ff., ⁓ v. put up into cocks FB 53 ff., 93 ff., cocked (up) pa. p. FB 54, passim, cockinge ger. FB 52, 98, ⁓ pr. p. FB 55

  • cocke-webbe-lawne

    cobweb lawn, a very fine, transparent linen FB 176

  • codd(e)

    the scrotum FB 1 f., passim, a bag, a pillow, a cushion FB 186, App. II ii, iii, iv, codwaires, codwares pillow-cases App. II ii, iii

  • coles

    see coales

  • collop munday

    the day before Shrove Tuesday, a day for eating collops, i.e. slices of fried meat, esp. bacon, usually accompanied by fried eggs MB 73

  • come (comes, commeth) ridd(e)

    get(s) on, achieve(s) progress FB 59, 102, 178

  • commination

    in the Anglican liturgy a recital of divine threats against sinners App. I iii 132

  • commons

    rations, share of pasture FB 142

  • compasse

    circumference FB 101

  • conceited

    fancy, fancifully made FB 188

  • condition

    stipulate, bargain FB 186, 209, conditioned pa. p. FB 186, 220

  • conditionally

    on the condition FB 204

  • constant

    regular FB 92, constantly always FB 58, passim, regularly FB 71, passim, all the time FB 87, passim

  • coope, coupe

    a small ox-cart with closed sides and ends, two-wheeled or with runners FB 177, passim, mucke ⁓ a dung cart MB 70, ⁓ lynings the boards forming the sides of a coup FB 27

  • corne

    a grain FB 165, 214

  • corps

    a (living) body FB 32

  • cost

    expense, (be) at(for, with), (bear) the expense (for, of) FB 188, 197 f.

  • cotterills

    cotter pins, notched wooden pins or bolts FB 22

  • coucheth

    lies FB 226

  • counte

    reckoning, in ⁓ for counting as, being reckoned as FB 164

  • counter, cownter

    a writing table for making up one's accounts App.II i, ii, iii, iv

  • coupe

    see coope; ⁓ band a strip of pease reaps sliced off the end of the stack FB 101; ⁓ lynings see coope

  • coupled

    jointed, shorte ⁓ with short joints between the back and the hindquarters (of a horse) FB 167

  • course

    n. sing, and pl. method FB 5, 11, layer(s), row(s) FB 59, passim, rows forming the frame of a stack FB 100 f. ⁓ adj. coarse FB 114, passim, courser comp. FB 133, coursest sup. FB 54, 134

  • court baron

    the manorial court which enforces the customs of the manor App. I v, ⁓ leet the manorial court of record, for dealing with petty offences, and for electing minor officials to enforce the bye-laws App. I v

  • covyn

    conspiracy to deceive FB 151

  • cowe-gate

    see gate n. 2;geast, ⁓ jeast see geast; ⁓ hold a cowhouse FB 192

  • cowle

    a large wooden tub App. II v

  • cownter

    see counter

  • cradle

    a light wooden frame attached to a scythe, with a row of long curved teeth parallel to the blade, to lay the corn more evenly in the swath FB 77, 81, 83, ⁓ teeth FB 193

  • cragge

    cling, hold together FB 102

  • creame-kitte.

    potte a wooden pail for keeping cream in and here also, by metonymy, the name of a cream feast FB 157

  • creave

    a small pen, sty, or hut FB 11

  • creele

    an open-topped slatted bench used in sheep shearing FB 160

  • croches

    forks (of branches or boughs) FB 193

  • crook(e)

    v. bend FB 89, ⁓ n. a pot-hook attached to the galley-bauk (see gallowbalk) App. II iii, v, vi, see also hey crooke, looke crooke

  • crosse

    prep. across FB 103, 108, ⁓ adv. crosswise FB 172, 200, ⁓ cloath(e)s linen cloths worn across women's foreheads FB 175 f.

  • crosse dayes

    the week-days preceding Ascension Day or Holy Thursday, alluding to the carrying of crosses in perambulating the parish boundaries FB 14; Beverley greate Fayre, held in Ascension Week, is called the Crosse Fayre FB 183

  • crosse over.

    thwart across, athwart FB 23, 93, 95, 103

  • crowne

    the round top of a hive FB 105 ff., ⁓ pinne a peg or stopper to close the top of a hive FB 105 f., 112, 114

  • crushing

    pr. p. squeezing, pressing FB 164

  • cunnigarth

    see garth

  • cuses

    north. dial. kewses, here prob. cow parsnip, Heracleum sphondylium, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris FB 56

  • cutte his foreman out

    mow the swath-balk of the man in front (the mowers proceeding in a staggered line) FB 51

  • dagger

    an upright piece of wood nailed to the bars in the middle of a hurdle FB 22 ff.

  • dames, dammes

    dams, mothers, FB 7, passim, wives or mothers FB 157

  • dance

    hop about FB 136

  • dayes

    adv. gen., a ⁓ , on ⁓ by day, in the day FB 140, 189

  • daytaile

    daytime, by ⁓ (paid) by the day FB 74, ⁓ folkes, ⁓ men day-labourers FB 58, passim

  • day(-)worke

    the amount of land that can be worked in a day FB 62 ff.

  • dazed

    bewildered FB 189

  • deader

    duller, less active FB 14

  • deale

    a plank of fir-wood FB 181 f., 199, reade ⁓ planks of Scotch pine FB 199 f., white ⁓ planks of Norway Spruce FB 182, 199

  • demaine

    demesne, (land) held in the lord of the manor's own hands FB 25, passim

  • demise

    conveyance, lease App. I iii 132, demised pa. p. leased App. I i

  • demminge

    ger. damming FB 159

  • depasture

    graze App. I iii 131, depasturinge ger. App. I iii 131 f.

  • desse

    n. a pile of layered and watered straw FB 218, ⁓ v. arrange in a pile or in layers FB 226, dessed pa. p. FB 218, 231, dessinge ger. FB 218

  • diaper, dyaper

    linen cloth patterned with diamond shapes MB 64, App. II i, vi

  • dinte

    a stroke (of a sickle) FB 74

  • disbincke

    a sideboard for dishes, a dresser App. II ii

  • discerned

    distinguished, differentiated FB 192

  • dispatch

    ready ⁓ prompt completion of business FB 146

  • disposed on

    disposed of, distributed FB 144

  • distreine

    levy a distress FB 149, 152

  • distres(se)

    a legal distraint whereby goods are seized and either sold or redeemed in order to pay a debt, fine, or levy FB 144

  • distringas

    a writ directing the sheriff to distrain FB 144

  • divisions

    boundaries FB 43

  • dod(d), dodde

    awnless FB 76, passim, dodded hornless FB 1, passim

  • doe

    cheat FB 213

  • doubt

    anticipate, suspect FB 122, fear for FB 124

  • dower

    money or property made over to either party on a marriage FB 188

  • downdrens

    afternoon meals FB 186

  • drape out

    cull out FB 122, 184, drapinge out ger. FB 122

  • draught(e), drawgte

    a team of draught beasts and the wain-load FB 78, passim, a harness App. II ii, iii, v, a draft, a sketch App. I iii 131

  • drave

    pa. t. drove FB 163

  • drawe (out)

    pull (straw) straight (for thatching) FB 102, passim, draweth pr. t. FB 217, 219, drawinge ger. FB 228, drawne pa. p. FB 218, 230, drewe pa. t. FB 229 f.

  • draweth

    stretches FB 189, drawinge ger. FB 45

  • drawgte

    see draught(e)

  • dresse

    make ready FB 87, clean FB 215, prepare and finish (skins) as leather MB 10, ⁓ of remove FB 194, dressed, drest pa. p. cleaned, made ready FB 8, 17, 33, ⁓ out removed, refined out FB 173, dressinge ger. preparing FB 107, cultivating, pruning FB 220 f.

  • dressinges

    ornaments of clothing FB 176

  • drive

    delay FB 29, driven pa. p. FB 180, ⁓ adj. (?) ill-formed FB 166

  • droppe

    give off drops, drip FB 114

  • dry

    dry up FB 20, dryeth pr. t. FB 8

  • dubler

    a large plate App. II i, ii, iii

  • dublett

    a man's close-fitting body-garment with or without sleeves MB 49

  • dumplings

    round puddings (a nickname for short, plump lambs) FB 6

  • dunge out

    pass out as excrement FB 11

  • durse, durze

    (of ears of corn) shake out, fall FB 83, dursed pa. p. FB 87

  • dyaper

    see diaper

  • dyet

    expense allowance MB 68, App. II vii

  • dykers

    ditch-diggers FB 220

  • earemarke

    mark the ear as a sign of ownership FB 6, eare-mark'd pa. p. FB 13

  • earnest

    a downpayment, a deposit FB 49, 198

  • ease

    convenience FB 137, eaves FB 218, easily gently FB 11, 108, 111, smoothly FB 103

  • eatage

    aftermath, what has been left for grazing after the hay has been cut FB 202, 206

  • eate

    pa. t. ate FB 129

  • eaven

    evenly FB 75, passim

  • eize

    an eaves FB 102, passim, eizes pl. eaves, the edges of a roof or thatch of a stack FB 101, eized pa. p. provided with an eaves FB 229 f., eizinge ger. FB 229, eize-knife a knife for cutting thatch at the eaves FB 219, 230

  • ell

    a length of 45 inches FB 175 f.

  • ende

    to an ⁓ consecutively FB 125

  • errdalls

    see ardelles

  • er(r)e

    prep. and conj. before FB 97, 181

  • estaited

    given as an estate App. II vii

  • estreates

    extracts, copies of records App. I v

  • evering

    the wooden rim or timber edging along the top of a wain FB 177

  • exceedinge

    exceedingly FB 80, 89, 175

  • experience

    expertise FB 115, experienced proven by experience, wise FB 1

  • experimentally

    by experience FB 76

  • extraordinary

    adv. extraordinarily FB 3, 136, ⁓ adj. additional FB 197

  • extreame

    extremely FB 56

  • eye-brue

    eyebrow FB 2

  • faggett-marke

    a sign for the number five (four vertical strokes crossed diagonally by a fifth), so called from its resemblance to a faggot, a bundle of sticks FB 141

  • faine

    obliged, necessitated FB 83

  • fainte

    lacking in nourishment, unsatisfying (antonym of hearty) FB 225

  • fall

    n. a sequence of lands in an open field MB 75, first ⁓ birth (of an animal that drops from its mother) FB 7, 18, ⁓ v. drop from the womb, be born FB 5 ff., falleth is allotted, entitled to FB 38, 40, fallinge pr. p. being born FB 4, firstger. FB 16, fall (to) v. begin (eating) FB 124, ⁓ to grasse begin to eat grass FB 6, ⁓ to the grownd(e) begin to eat pasture FB 6 ff., 17

  • fallowe

    plough (without sowing) in order to destroy weeds FB 129, fallowed pa. p. FB 164

  • false

    removable, temporary FB 79; the intended function of ⁓ shelvings is not clear from the context but they may have been harvest ladders, cf. Fitzherbert (1534), 14, 'many wains have cart ladders behind and before', and Jenkins (1972), 174

  • farm(e)

    rent, lease App. I i, iii 131, farmer lessee App. I i

  • fast

    firmly FB 160

  • fatham, fathome

    a measurement of six feet FB 23, 59

  • fatt(e)

    fat, fattened (for slaughter) FB 4, passim, App. II vi (of earth) rich, fertile FB 50, 89 f.

  • faugh

    fallow land FB 25, passim, ⁓ sheepe sheep grazed for part of the year on fallow land FB 42

  • fawdes

    bundles, armfuls FB 27

  • fayrsy

    a disease of animals (esp. of horses) closely allied to the glanders, producing mucus in the nose and swellings under the jaw MB 66

  • feased

    trimmed FB 162

  • fee

    estate FB 149, ⁓ farm (rent) the fixed rent of an estate held in fee simple App. I i, iv

  • feeing cloth

    see feyinge cloth

  • felfes, felves

    felloes or fellies, the curved pieces of wood forming the rim of a spoked wheel FB 58, App. II v

  • fell

    was allotted FB 41, fell by lot FB 41, ⁓ to began App. I iii 131

  • feltered

    tangled FB 96

  • felves

    see felfes

  • fenced

    hedged or railed FB 140

  • feoffment

    an endowment FB 188

  • fey (up)

    clear (up) FB 87, feyed pa. p. cleaned (of chaff), winnowed FB 6, feyinge ger. winnowing FB 89, 210, ⁓ cloth, feeing cloth (?) a winnowing cloth (used as a bed-spread or dust-cover ?) FB 186, App. II iii

  • field

    a large block of commonable arable FB 189, (with reference to sheep grazing and frequently in the phr. to ⁓ ) fallow lands FB 4, passim, ⁓ sheepe sheep fed on the common fallows for their wool as distinct from fatte sheepe, fed in the closes for slaughter FB 118, passim

  • fillbert-trees

    (cultivated) hazel-nut trees FB 107

  • filler

    an assistant stacker who fills in the centre of the stack within the frame provided by the courses FB 100, fillinge the centre of a stack lying within the courses FB 100 f.

  • filmes

    membranes FB 36

  • finde

    provide FB 117, 222

  • fine

    an entry fee FB 197 f.

  • firkin

    a small barrel App. II vi

  • fistula

    a long, sinuous, pipe-like ulcer MB 66

  • flackett, flackitte

    a flask or small beer cask App. II iii, v, vi

  • flaggie

    growing with flags or rushes FB 66

  • flailebands

    the straps or thongs of a flail FB 222

  • flatt(e)

    a major division of a common arable field, a furlong FB 25, passim, MB 70, App. I iii 131, II i

  • flayle-handstaffes

    flail handles FB 193, 195

  • flea

    flay FB 11, 136

  • fleame

    a kind of knife or lancet for bleeding horses and cattle App. II iv

  • flecken

    change colour FB 84

  • flesh

    meat FB 186, App. II v

  • flinty

    flint-coloured FB 165 f.

  • flitte

    move, change residence FB 213

  • flower

    flour FB 107, ⁓ de lyce the heraldic lily FB 49, flowered (of wood) grained, patterned FB 199

  • fodder

    feed with dried hay FB 47, see fother

  • fogge

    aftermath, the grass that grows after the hay has been cut FB 204, 225

  • fold(e)

    n. a pen or enclosure for sheep FB 18, passim, the sheep contained in a fold, a flock FB 1, ⁓ barr(e)s hurdles forming a pen FB 22, App. II vihankes see hankes, ⁓ mucked dunged from the folding of sheep FB 25, 164, ⁓ v. pen (sheep) in a fold FB 21, passim, folded pa. p. FB 158, foldinge ger. FB 21, the manuring of ground by shifting a fold of sheep about it FB 164

  • folk(e)s

    servants FB 168, 172

  • foote-marke

    v. and n. (place) a mark of ownership on a swan's foot FB 196

  • for

    in case of, to prevent from FB 59, 108

  • forborne

    spared, left FB 50

  • force

    power FB 78, man-power FB 58, forcinge ger. clipping (the long, hairy wool off a sheep) FB 13

  • fore

    situated in front, earlier, first, chief, hence ⁓ eatage the first bite of the grass FB 18, ⁓ ende the beginning FB 15, (of corn in growth) the most forward part FB 83, ⁓ furre the front furrow FB 73, 96, 157, ⁓ garth the front yard FB 99, 216 (= ⁓ yard FB 141, 188, 226), ⁓ hold an advance FB 17, ⁓ man the man in front FB 51, the head farm-worker FB 77, passim, ⁓ mowe a stack of corn in the front of the barn FB 88, ⁓ nooke a front corner FB 59, ⁓ orchard FB 180

  • foretolde

    told beforehand FB 59

  • forker

    one who forks the harvested crop from field to wain FB 58 f., 76 f., 86, 178, or from wain to stack and stacker FB 100

  • forkes

    the centres or forked rafters supporting the roof-tree of a house FB 232

  • forkinge

    ger. making a forked incision, notching FB 137; forking the ears of a sheep was one way of ear-marking, hence HB's concern, for the Best sheep were not forked but stoud or stowed, see stowing

  • forme, fourme, furme

    a bench FB 117, App. II i, ii, iii, v, vi, a mould or frame FB 195

  • forth of

    out of FB 39

  • fortnights

    adv. gen. of a fortnight, ⁓ old a fortnight old FB 179 f., 222

  • forward, foward

    early, well-advanced FB 18, 42, 50

  • forwith

    forthwith, at once FB 8

  • fother

    n. dried hay, fodder FB 122, passim, a load, a quantity (of) App. II vi, ⁓ v. feed with dried hay FB 60, passim, fathered pa. t. FB 126 ff., ⁓ pa. p. FB 14, 132, App. I iii 131, fotheringe ger. FB 14, passim, App. I iii 131

  • founde

    provided FB 117

  • fourme

    see forme

  • foward

    see forward

  • foyst

    grow musty FB 172

  • francinsence

    frankincense, an aromatic gum-resin from trees of the genus Boswellia MB 66

  • free

    generous, yielding plenty of grain FB 87

  • freledge

    freedom App. II vii

  • fresh

    (of land) unpastured, free from stock, 'aired' FB 14, 141 f., new-grown (grass) FB 139, 142

  • frise

    frieze, a kind of coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side only MB 15, 26

  • froughy

    soft, spongy FB 51

  • frundell

    a dry measure, probably of two pecks i.e. half a bushel FB 114, 173

  • full

    trample down FB 133, fulled made full (with animals), stocked FB 14

  • fulthe

    fill, sufficiency FB 6

  • funerals

    funeral expenses App. II vii

  • furme

    see forme

  • furniture

    equipment, trappings, FB 78, App. II v, vi

  • furre

    furrow FB 24, passim

  • furtherance

    a source of help FB 83, 88

  • gagge

    a slit FB 196

  • galloway

    a small sturdy riding horse or pack-horse App. II vi

  • gallowbalk(e), -bau(l)ke

    a galley-bauk, the iron bar in a chimney from which the pot-hooks hang App. II iii, iv, v, vi

  • galloyes

    a gallows-shaped iron apparatus from which cooking pots are hung over the fire App. II ii

  • gang of felves

    a set of felloes making a complete circle App. II v

  • gappe

    a breach in a hedge FB 62, passim

  • gares

    triangular corners of arable land that require ploughing separately from the through lands FB 71

  • garner

    a granary FB 169, passim, App. II vi

  • garnewingle

    a garnwindle, a machine for winding a skein of yarn into a ball App. II iii

  • garnyshe

    an embellishment, ⁓ of vessell a full set of pewter dishes App. II i

  • garth(e)

    a small close FB 56, passim, a yard FB 216, App. II ii, vi, Ash ⁓ App. I ii, Chappel(l) ⁓ FB 64, 205, MB 69, App. I ii, Coney ⁓, Cunni ⁓ ('rabbit close') FB 63, passim, MB 69, App. I ii, Football ⁓ FB 205, Hempe ⁓ FB 141, the Lord's ⁓ FB 142, 204, MB 69, App. I ii, Sheep ⁓ FB 205, see also foregarth, staggarth

  • garthinge

    a garden App. II vii

  • gate

    n.1 a way, a road FB 25, passim, ⁓ lawe a right of way, a toll for such FB 26

  • gate

    n.2 a right of pasturing purchased for a season at a fixed price per animal FB 190 ff., 220, MB 14, calfe ⁓ MB 8, cowe ⁓ FB 220, MB 27, halfe ⁓ a pg 298right of pasturing a young animal at half the price of a full-grown animal FB 191, MB 21, pig ⁓ MB 11

  • gate

    n.3 agate, an entrance FB 64, the Carre ⁓ the entrance into the Carr FB 64, ⁓ steade a gateway FB 64 f.

  • gavelock

    an iron crowbar App. II ii

  • gawtes, gowtes

    (castrated) boar pigs FB 221, 232

  • geast, jeast

    an agistment, the putting out of animals to rented pasture at a fixed price per head FB 190 ff., MB 14, see gate n.2; cow(e) ⁓ FB 192, MB 15; geasters, gesters, jeast cattle animals that are pastured by means of agistment FB 190, MB 14

  • geastinge

    jesting FB 231

  • geld(e)

    gelt, barren FB 3, passim, App. II v

  • gentills

    maggots FB 32

  • gesters

    see geasters

  • gettes

    begets FB 45

  • gett into

    succeed in obtaining FB 9, gett up prepare, service FB 196

  • gilts

    young female pigs FB 221, 232

  • gimmer

    a young female sheep not more than once shorn FB 2, passim, MB 9, App. II iv

  • girdle

    a belt MB 72

  • give

    fetch (a price) FB 14 f., ⁓ over give up FB 124

  • glanders

    a contagious disease in horses, producing swellings beneath the jaw and a discharge of mucus from the nose MB 66

  • godspenny

    earnest-money paid on hiring a servant FB 117, 207 ff., MB 9

  • goe back

    relapse, lose weight FB 18, passim, goe of sell, get sold, be disposed of FB 13, passim, goeth of pr. t. FB 166

  • good(e)s

    live-stock FB 16, passim, App. I iii 132, v, possessions FB 144

  • goodman

    a title of address used of a male householder below the rank of gentleman FB 69, MB 21

  • goody

    good wife, a title of address used of a housewife MB 73

  • gorre

    cud, half-digested food FB 20

  • gowtes

    see gawtes

  • graingers

    outlying tenant farmers FB 162

  • graininges

    the two splits or forking braces of a rake shaft FB 85

  • grass(e)-belly'd

    with bellies close to the grass (an epithet given to short round lambs) FB 6, 9

  • grater

    a rasp or scraper App. II v

  • grave (up)

    dig (up) FB 119, 177, 227, graven pa. p. App. I iii 131

  • grease horne

    a horn to hold the grease that mowers smear on the strickles FB 50, greasers persons employed to grease lambs FB 47, 117

  • greate.

    by ⁓ (making payment) by the piece (of land worked) FB 203

  • greenes

    green weeds FB 89, 91, 97

  • greenesse

    freshness, vigorous growth FB 1

  • greet(e)s

    grits, gravels, the local name for the low-lying gravelly pastures south of Elmswell FB 140, 191 f., MB 15, ⁓ sheepe sheep pastured on the greets FB 158

  • grey(-)wheate

    poss. an old Cone wheat known as Blue Cone, Blue Poll, or Grey Poll, because of its bluish-grey chaff FB 165 f.

  • grisseld

    grey, grizzled App. II vii

  • groat(e)

    a coin worth four pence FB 20, passim; it ceased to be issued for circulation in 1662

  • grocers

    wholesale dealers FB 183

  • grone

    aftermath, what has been left for grazing after the hay has been cut FB 225

  • grownd-ivy

    the herb alehoof, Glechoma hederacea, formerly much used for its medicinal properties FB 134

  • grundsell

    a foundation MB 12

  • gyell toobe

    a tub for fermenting gyle or wort (an infusion of malt) into beer App. II ii

  • gyrdiron

    a griddle or short-legged grill for supporting pots etc. over the fire App. II i

  • hackes

    see pease hackes

  • hailinge

    ger. dragging, pulling FB 83

  • halfe shirts

    chemisettes, embroidered stomachers over which a bodice is laced from side to side FB 176

  • hal-pence

    half-pence FB 33, 118, also ⁓ pennie FB 36, ⁓ pennies FB 40, 167

  • hand

    direction, on the mending ⁓ getting better, recovering FB 189

  • handsomely

    neatly FB 81, 207, 231

  • hand wave

    smooth (the surface of a measure of corn) with the hand FB 173, ⁓ waved pa. p. FB 173

  • hang strawe

    one who hangs straw, a nickname for a thatcher FB 231

  • hankes

    looped lengths of rope for fastening hurdles FB 23 f., synonymous with folde ⁓ FB 23, 116 and hankings FB 23

  • hanted

    accustomed, made familiar FB 192

  • happed

    covered FB 25

  • hard

    closely, immediately FB 135

  • harden, hardin, hardinge

    (cloth) made of hards i.e. the refuse of flax (or hemp), producing a very coarse cloth such as sackcloth FB 114, 186, App. II ii, iii, iv, v

  • harder

    hardier FB 4, hardin, hardinge see harden

  • hardlande-grasse

    grass (for hay) grown on firm, well-drained land FB 51

  • hardly

    hardily, in hard conditions FB 20

  • hard(-)meate

    fodder (dry food, hay or straw) FB 123 ff., 138

  • harrowe bulls

    harrow bars FB 177, ⁓ spindles cross-pieces mortised through the toothed bars of a harrow FB 193

  • haunt(e)

    v. habitually dwell in FB 56, ⁓ n. resort FB 142, getteof go among FB 121, 132

  • haver

    oats FB 43, passim, App. II ii, ⁓ barne FB 87

  • hawme

    v. cut stubble FB 102

  • head(e)

    a headland, where the plough team turns at the end of a flat or pg 300furlong FB 43, passim, App. I iii 131, the upright at each end of a hurdle FB 22 ff., an ear of grain FB 171, part of the trappings of a wain or its team App. II iii

  • headinge

    ger. beheading, pollarding FB 195

  • headstall

    a noose, the part of a halter that fits round the head FB 85

  • heale, heele

    the lower end of a scythe blade, the part furthest from the point FB 51, 81

  • hearte

    vigour, in ⁓ fertile FB 84, 89, out of ⁓ infertile FB 84, heartlesse infertile FB 60, hearty nourishing, wholesome (antonym of fainte) FB 173, 225

  • hebbles

    wooden hand-rails (of a plank bridge) FB 27

  • heck(e)

    a wooden grating across a stream, a weir FB 27, ⁓ stower a spar of a fodder rack FB 193, 195, see also horseheck, standheck

  • heckle

    a metal comb for dressing flax or hemp App. II iii

  • heele

    see heale; ⁓ hobbs hob-nails on the heel of a boot or shoe MB 34

  • helm(e)

    a removable platform forming a shed or 'hovel' underneath which cattle, wains, etc. can be sheltered, and on top of which can be set a thatched stack of pease FB 99, 103, passim, App. II ii, iii, v, vi; see Woodward (1982), Fitzherbert (1534), 38, who recommends stacking and covering pease and beans on 'a scaffolde … and the husband may set shepe or catel vnder the same scaffold and wyll serue hym in stede of an house', Tusser (1580), 132: 'Stack pease vpon houell abrode in the yard, / to couer it quicklie, let owner regard', and Marshall (1788), 334

  • hemme in

    draw in, confine (with the rake) FB 57

  • heppen

    handy, able FB 208, heppenly ably, skilfully FB 207

  • hey band(e)s

    ropes of twisted hay FB 61, 102, ⁓ crooke a long rod with a barbed head for pulling hay out of the stack FB 61, 129, ⁓ leath a hay barn FB 60, ⁓ mowe a pile or stack of hay in a barn FB 134, ⁓ rake a rake for gathering loose hay FB 129, ⁓ spade a heart-shaped spade for cutting slices of hay FB 61, 101, ⁓ waine FB 62 (see waine)

  • high

    good, superior FB 2, 143, chief FB 148 f., 152 f.

  • hinder

    adj. back, rear FB 59, 73, 157, ⁓ ende (of corn in growth) the most backward part FB 83

  • hingers

    hangers or hooks App. II iii

  • hither

    near(er) FB 27, passim, App. II v

  • hoast-howses

    hostelries for farmers and countrymen to put up at on market days FB 167

  • hog(ge)

    a young sheep from weaning till first shearing FB 2, passim, MB 10, App. II ii, iv, v, a young pig App. II v, vi

  • hogsheads

    large casks or butts of various sizes, usually more than 50 gallons in capacity FB 177, App. II vi

  • hold

    n. grip, pressure FB 164 (cf. north. dial. to plough with a ⁓ to plough deeply), ⁓ of v. keep off FB 158, ⁓ out endure, bear (being heaped up again) FB 172

  • holdinge calfe

    a calf kept for stock not for slaughter App. II iii

  • holland

    a linen cloth (reputedly from Holland) FB 176

  • honey-meisure

    a vessel for measuring out quantities of honey FB 114

  • hookes

    curved implements with a cutting edge (for weeding) FB 222, (for reaping pea-plants) FB 96

  • hopled

    see hopple

  • hopper

    a basket FB 16, App. II iii, a wooden funnel through which grain is poured into the grind-stones of a mill FB 173, ⁓ galde galled, i.e. having bare patches (in a corn-field), as a result of the seedsman casting unevenly from the hopper or seed-basket FB 84

  • hoppinge tree, hoppintrey

    the ox-pole of a wain FB 215, App. II ii

  • hopple

    v. fasten two of an animal's legs together to prevent straying FB 11 f., 44, hopled, hoppled pa. p. FB 11, 135, hopples n. fetters FB 136

  • horseheck

    a fodder rack for horses App. II iii, vi

  • horsspice

    (?) horseradish, Cochlearia Armoracia, whose pungent root is scraped or grated as a condiment MB 5

  • hough

    the hock or projecting joint in a sheep's leg FB 9, 18

  • house, howse

    shed, barn FB 117, passim, a henhouse FB 180, a warehouse FB 200, ⁓ end the end compartment of a barn FB 102, ⁓ side the side of a warehouse FB 182

  • howsoever

    in any case, at any rate FB 80, 108, 121.

  • hucksters

    pedlars, hawkers, or small shop-keepers FB 46

  • hudde

    the back of the chimney or grate FB 195

  • humour

    a bodily fluid, in this case the tears of sheep infected with ovine contagious ophthalmia, or 'Pink Eye', the first sign of which is a running eye FB 134; the disease is caused by the organism Rickettsia conjunctivae, which, once a sheep's eye has been damaged by an irritant like dust, flies, grass or stubble, pierces the cornea and causes the eye to film over and ulcerate

  • hundreth

    a great or long hundred (120) FB 5, passim, App. II ii

  • hunge

    having pendant testicles FB 1, 36, 43

  • hunger

    v. keep hungry FB 191

  • husband

    a husbandman FB 75, husbandly economical FB 130

  • huswife-cloath

    a linen cloth, neither fine nor coarse, for family use FB 175

  • hutt(e)

    shepheards ⁓ a heap of turf, earth, or stones raised or dug up to mark a territorial boundary App. I iii 131 f., ⁓ v. mark a boundary by setting up hutts, hutted pa. p. App. I iii 131, huttinge ger. App. I iii 131

  • ill

    grievously FB 52

  • illions

    waxed threads for sewing shoe-leather FB 223

  • increase

    germination, propagation FB 92

  • indeferent, indifferent

    adj. middling, moderate, decent FB 43, passim, impartial App. II ii, ⁓ adv. (also indifferently) moderately, quite FB 14, passim

  • in-field

    the regular arable lands lying near the farmstead, as distinct from the out-field, which is not permanent arable FB 94

  • ing(e)

    a watery meadow, ⁓ Close MB 48, App. I iii 133, News MB 48, St Nicholas ⁓ s FB 67, 202 f., ⁓ grownd(es) FB 51, 54

  • inned

    gathered in FB 76

  • intacke

    an enclosure of waste or common FB 44, 65 f.

  • intituled

    entitled FB 115

  • in-webbe

    the inner of the two webs on a swan's foot FB 196

  • jack(e)

    a foot-soldier's sleeveless leather jacket App. II i, a mechanical contrivance such as a meat-jack for turning the spit App. II vi

  • jeast

    see geast

  • jointure, joynture

    an estate held jointly by husband and wife as a provision for the wife should she be widowed, the widow's portion of that provision FB 188, App. II vii

  • just

    adj. and adv. exact(ly) FB 147, 199

  • keeping(e)

    ger. looking after, maintaining, sustaining with food (as in high ⁓, lowe ⁓) FB 3, 43, 191, ⁓ n. a flock FB 1, passim, App. I iii 132, a charge MB 9

  • kell

    the omentum, a fatty membrane covering a sheep's intestines FB 161

  • kemp(e)

    a coarse, stout hair, a bristle ⁓ haires FB 13, ⁓ hayres FB 34, ⁓ hair'd adj. FB 16

  • Kentish wheate

    the local name for a variety of wheat-seed favoured in the Wolds and supposedly named after its county of origin FB 76; cf. Marshall (1788) II, 3 and Strickland (1812) 122

  • kept att under themselves

    kept below their best condition FB 143

  • kercher

    kerchief, hand ⁓, necke ⁓ FB 176

  • kettle

    a metal cauldron for boiling liquids over a fire App. II ii, iii, v, vi

  • key

    a quay FB 166, keyes prob. pins or pegs for fastening pikestowers and shelvings to a wain FB 79; cf. loade-pinnes, and Fitzherbert (1534), 14, who mentions 'the keyes and pikstaues' as parts of a wain

  • killne, kylne

    a building with a furnace for drying grain (or possibly for burning lime ?) FB 80, App. I ii, ⁓ haire, ⁓ hayre a hair cloth on which grain was laid in a drying kiln App. II i, ii

  • kilps

    the movable or detachable handles of a pot App. II iii

  • kimbling, kimiell, kimlin, kynmell.

    a kimnel, a large tub used for kneading, brewing, salting, etc. FB 173, App. II i, ii, iii, v, vi

  • kind

    genus, species, breed FB 115, kindely adj. good-natured FB 12, kind, favourable FB 50, 84, 108, ⁓ adv. naturally FB 15, thoroughly, fully FB 84, 89

  • kine, kye, kyne

    cows FB 130, passim, MB 14, App. II i, ii, v, vi

  • kirne

    a churn App. II iii

  • kitte

    see creame-kitte

  • kittle

    ticklish, itchy FB 136

  • kneppe

    bite, nibble FB 189

  • knotte

    a quantity of rope for sale tied by a knot FB 23, a pimple FB 117

  • kye

    see kine; kylne see killne; kyne see kine; kynmell see kimblinge

  • labour

    work (for their food) FB 131 f., 142, ⁓ on the ground graze FB 138, 161

  • land(e)

    a length of ridged arable land (or former arable land) between two furrows FB 8, passim, MB 75, App. I iii 131, broade ⁓ in Elmswell a land about 28 foot in breadth FB 24, passim

  • land-irons,

    londirens firedogs, perhaps with a rack to support a spit App.II i, vi

  • lappe

    wrap, fold FB 85, passim, lap'd, lapped pa. p. FB 34, passim, lappinge ger. FB 34

  • lards-wifes

    wives of lairds or Scottish landed proprietors FB 176

  • latte

    a lath, a narrow strip of wood forming part of the trellised framework on which a roof-thatch is hung FB 232, latted furnished with laths FB 232, lattewoode wood for making laths FB 23

  • latten

    an alloy of copper, zinc, lead, and tin, similar to brass App. II i

  • lattewoode

    see latte

  • laver

    a large metal basin for hand-washing App. II i

  • lawne

    a kind of linen, usually fine FB 176

  • lay

    place, make to lie down (to rest) FB 17, passim, layd pa. t. FB 131 f., 158, layd(e) pa. p. placed FB 25, flattened to the ground FB 56, ⁓ up reserved FB 4, 141, layinge pr. p. FB 17

  • layen

    pa. p. (of lie) lain FB 56, (of a close) unused (but probably confused with laid, pa. p. of lay, meaning reserved for hay by removing the beasts from it) FB 50

  • layes

    taxes, rates, levies FB 191

  • lead(e),

    leed n. a cauldron App. II i, ii, vi, ⁓ v. carry home by cart FB 52, passim, MB 21, leadinge ger. FB 58, passim, ledd(e) pa. t. FB 69, passim, ⁓ pa. p. FB 72, passim

  • leap(e)

    a large deep basket FB 34 f., 104, App. II v

  • leare

    a barn FB 159; the lime ⁓ FB 159 appears to be identical with the lime leath FB 127 and perhaps the hey-leath FB 60. Perhaps the barn was lime-washed or was used for storing lime or had a lime-kiln attached to it

  • least

    conj. lest FB 32

  • leath

    a barn, hey ⁓ FB 60, lime ⁓ FB 127, see leare

  • leave

    adv. willingly FB 173

  • leavy

    leafy FB 54, leavyest sup. FB 124

  • ledd(e)

    see lead(e); leed see lead(e)

  • lette

    adj. hindering, obstructive, (of weather) rainy FB 179, 195, 215, ⁓ v. lease out FB 186, 192, letten pa. p. FB 197, 202, letteth pr. t. FB 192, lettinge ger. FB 178, 186, 197

  • ley(e)

    a ridge or land of arable converted to pasture FB 21, 29, 43, MB 21, App. I i, ⁓ a lea, a scythe FB 81, 90

  • libbe

    castrate FB 163, 221, libbed pa. t. FB 163, ⁓ pa. p. FB 35, 163, 221, pg 304libbeth pr. t. FB 163, libbing(e) ger. FB 163, 221 f., 232, libbers gelders FB 221 f., 232

  • life

    v. live MB 74

  • light

    v. settle, come down FB 106 f., 111, fall FB 122, alight, dismount FB 188, lighted pa. t. settled FB 106

  • like

    adj. similar FB 214, better ⁓ more like they should be FB 161, worse ⁓ less like they should be FB 123, ⁓v. thrive FB 4, 46, 191, likinge pr. p. FB 13

  • limir

    a limber, shaft of a horse-drawn vehicle App. II iii

  • linger

    after hanker for, have a craving for FB 16, 142

  • linnes

    linen cloth(e)s FB 175

  • liske

    a loin, a flank FB 17

  • list

    pleases FB 38 f., 139, like FB 85

  • litter

    straw used as bedding for animals FB 231

  • loaden

    laden, loaded FB 59, 169, loader a man who stands on top of a wain and arranges the hay, corn, or pease which is forked up FB 58, passim

  • loade-pinnes

    pegs or pins for (?) fastening the shelvings onto a wain FB 215, cf. keyes

  • lofty

    in good condition FB 3, passim, loftily adv. FB 5, 8

  • loggery

    thick, coarse, of strong growth FB 86, 91, 94, 99

  • londirens

    see land-irons

  • long(e)

    ginger, mace, synamon prob. whole pieces of the original commodity as distinct from smaller pieces and ground or powdered forms, MB 5, cf. middle mace; read(e) (wheate) prob. a Rivet or Cone wheat (Triticum turgidum) which had tall, reed-like straw and a red grain FB 165 f.

  • looke

    v.1 observe, take note, ⁓ howe many(and) according to how many FB 26, 38, 70, 104, 113, 150, 169 f., 196, 211, ⁓ howe much according to how much FB 49, ⁓ (to) what(and) according to what FB 157, 220

  • looke,

    lowke v.2 weed, ⁓ crooke a hook-shaped tool for cutting up weeds in growing corn App. II iii, lookers weeders of corn FB 222, lowking ger. MB 24

  • loome

    an implement FB 82

  • loose

    v.1 lose FB 10, passim, looseth pr. t. FB 153, loosinge ger. FB 78, 127, 138

  • loose

    v.2 loosen FB 10, 46, 111, loosed unyoked FB 170, loosinge ger. unyoking FB 88

  • lovinger

    more adhesive, more clinging FB 231

  • lowe

    inferior FB 3, in poor condition (antonym of lofty) FB 20, 25, 143

  • lowking

    see looke v.2

  • luggs

    vertical bars attached to the galley-bauk and from which a pot-hook is suspended App. II iii (see gallowbalk)

  • lust

    vigour, strength, in ⁓ in good health FB 5, lusty vigorous, strong FB 187, 208 f., lustyest sup. FB 179 pg 305lye make to lie, lay, set, put FB 21, passim, lyen pa. p. FB 163, lyeth pr. t. FB 81, 121, lyinge out ger. FB 80, 101

  • maddes

    maggots, larvae of the blow-fly FB 8

  • make

    on make much of, fondle FB 12

  • malkes

    maggots FB 134, 162, 164

  • malster

    a maltster, a maker of malt FB 170

  • manners

    manors FB 196

  • marke

    a coin worth 13s. 4d. FB 168, 207 f., a guideline, keepe att the ⁓, stande att the ⁓ stay true to shape FB 181, 195

  • markette

    send produce for sale at market FB 166

  • markinge

    a mixture of tar and pitch for marking sheep FB 118 ff., ⁓ panne FB 160= potte FB 119, 159 f.

  • marmilitt

    marmalade MB 5

  • mart

    a market MB 31

  • maskingphat,

    massfatt a mashvat, a vat in which malt is infused in the process of brewing App. II ii, vi

  • massledine

    maslin, a mixture of different types of grain, especially wheat and rye FB 25, passim

  • master

    gain control of, manage (with regard to sucking milk) FB 137, ⁓ bee the queen bee, formerly supposed to be a master or king bee FB 113

  • mastick

    a gum from the bark of the mastic tree, Pistachia Lentiscus, formerly much used in medicines MB 66

  • matrix

    the uterus or womb FB 11

  • mattrice-coate

    a matted fleece which comes off the sheep's back in one piece, having the appearance of a woollen mattrice FB 30

  • maunde

    a basket, with two lids, to carry on one's arm FB 174

  • mawme

    soften FB 177

  • meades

    drinks made of fermented honey and water FB 114

  • mease

    a serving FB 223

  • meate

    n. food (of any kind) FB 20, passim, MB 8, App. II iii, attand wage paid partly by food and partly by money FB 47, 221, ⁓ v. feed FB 50, passim, meated pa. p. FB 220, ⁓ pa. t. FB 221

  • meete

    suitable FB 140

  • mell

    a heavy wooden mallet or beetle FB 177, App. II iii

  • mett(e)

    a dry measure of two bushels FB 171 f., 186, MB 9, App. II i, ⁓ poake a two-bushel corn bag FB 167, 171, 208

  • mettle

    metal FB 193

  • middle

    mace (?) middle-sized pieces of mace (the shell of nutmeg) as distinct from long mace and ground mace MB 5

  • mid-side

    the middle of the side FB 216

  • mild

    racke (?) an unidentified type of rake or rack App. II iii

  • milke

    of draw milk off FB 11

  • millne-eye

    the opening in the runner of a mill through which the meal escapes FB 172

  • minde

    take care FB 104, 108, take note FB 51, minded watched FB 135, mindinge taking notice of, remembering FB 137

  • mirhe

    myrrh, a tincture of gum-resin from the plant Commiphora (Balsamodendron) Myrrha, used in medicine MB 66

  • mislinge

    drizzling FB 74

  • moneths

    adv. gen. of a month, ⁓ old a month old FB 180

  • moone

    rider a ewe that rides with the moon (i.e. is mounted every month because she is infertile ?), a barren ewe FB 3

  • moore

    folkes, ⁓ men hired servants from the N. Yorks. moors FB 80, 179, 186 f.

  • mornings

    adv. gen., on ⁓ in the morning FB 138, 179

  • mosker

    decay FB 195

  • motion

    a proposal, a suggestion FB 188

  • moules,

    mowles lumps of earth FB 177, 180

  • mouse-ear'd

    (of willows) having catkins FB 22

  • mouter,

    mowter a multure, the proportion of corn taken by the miller as his due FB 171, 173

  • mowe

    n. a stack of hay or corn stored in a barn FB 55, passim, ⁓ brest the side of a mowe FB 88, ⁓ burnt spoiled by becoming overheated in the mowe FB 92, ⁓ fork a fork for pitching hay or corn on the mowe FB 157

  • mowe

    v.1 stack corn or hay in a barn FB 77, mowed pa. p. FB 87 f., mowinge ger. FB 79

  • mowe

    v.2 cut with a scythe FB 50, passim, mowen pa. p. FB 80, passim, mowinge ger. FB 79, passim

  • mowles

    see moules; mowter see mouter

  • muche

    a quantity FB 214

  • muckinge

    ger. clearing of dung FB 169

  • muggewarte

    mugwort, wormwood, Artemesia absinthium FB 106

  • murle

    crumble FB 107, 118

  • myxed

    pa. p. joined, annexed App. II i

  • naughtiness

    worthlessness FB 77

  • naves

    wheel-hubs App. II v, vi

  • navle-stringe

    the umbilical cord FB 7

  • nayle

    a measure of length for cloth, 2¼ inches FB 175, ⁓ toole a tool for making nails App. II iv

  • neafe

    a fist FB 200

  • neare

    recently FB 13, near-hande nearly FB 27, close to FB 94

  • neate-, nout-, nowt-heard

    cattleherd FB 191 f., App. I iii 131

  • neaver

    so (in a conditional clause) no matter how FB 55, passim

  • nebbe

    a beak FB 196, ⁓ marke n. and v. (make) a mark of ownership on a swan's beak FB 196

  • nest-bird

    a nestling allocated to the owners of the ground where the nest was made FB 196

  • nick

    record by means of a notch (on a stick) FB 164, nicked pa. t. FB 141

  • nighted

    overtaken by nightfall FB 168, nights adv. gen., a ⁓, on ⁓ at night FB 17, passim

  • noble

    a coin worth 6s. 8d. FB 4, passim, nobles a peece a noble each FB 4, passim

  • nooke

    a corner FB 59, 229, nook'd, nooked cornered FB 64, passim

  • noones

    adv. gen., att ⁓, on ⁓ at noon FB 51, 137, 192, 220, 223

  • nose

    grissles the cartilages of the nose FB 1

  • noutheard,

    nowtheard see neate(-)heard

  • occasions

    needs, requirements FB 58

  • of

    prep. and adv. by, from, of, off, passim, at FB 20

  • offell

    remnants, refuse FB 113

  • on

    prep. at, in, of, on, passim

  • onely

    best, proper FB 14, 27, 61

  • order

    manage, look after FB 105, prepare FB 109, orderinge ger. preparing FB 113, managing FB 115

  • other

    adj. another FB 39, 142, second FB 85, any other FB 91, ⁓ pron. (the) others FB 18, 101, 142, 188, 203

  • outleyes

    outlying temporary pastures (see leye) MB 14

  • out-ligger

    an outlier or outlayer, one who gathers and lays out the cut corn in bands for the binders FB 79 ff., 95 f., 186, 220, 223, outligginge rake a wooden-toothed gathering rake used by outliggers FB 82

  • out-webbe

    the outer of the two webs of a swan's foot FB 196

  • overstride

    stride beyond FB 84

  • overthwart

    adj. transverse FB 95, ⁓ prep. across FB 199, 230, overwhart lyers cross-beams App. II iii

  • ox(e)-gange

    a measure of land, about 12 acres in Elmswell FB 66, passim MB 20, App. I i, ii, II v

  • packe-cloath

    stout cloth used for packing FB 49, packthridd stout twine for packing with MB 5

  • pain(e)full

    painstaking FB 90, 220

  • pales

    stakes, fencing FB 231

  • pannell

    a pack-saddle FB 169, App. II iii, vi

  • paste

    pastry FB 172

  • patches

    blotches, marks FB 32

  • peas(e)

    n. sing. (pl. peases) a pea(-plant), pease (a mass n. like corn, hay), ⁓ hackes tools for hacking off pea-plants in reaping App. II iii, ⁓ hook(e)s curved cutting tools for reaping pea-plants FB 96, 157, ⁓ pullers reapers of pease, the harvested plants being rolled up into a reap or round bundle FB 96 f., 157, ⁓ stacke FB 126 f., 179, App. II, ii, vi, waine (see waine) FB 100

  • peck(e)

    a dry measure, a quarter of a bushel FB 114, passim, MB 10, a container used as a peck measure FB 180, App. II iii

  • pellitt

    moyles (sheep-)skin mules or slippers App. II iv

  • pelts

    raw skins of sheep, stripped of their wool FB 45

  • penne

    a female swan FB 196

  • pennie-grasse

    yellow rattle, Rhinanthus Crista-galli, a common meadow plant whose ripe seed-pods resemble pennies FB 50; the withering of the plant was commonly taken as a sign that meadow grass was ready for mowing

  • pent

    up penned in FB 162

  • perish

    cause to die FB 179

  • perswade

    urge, recommend FB 142

  • perteseye

    a partizan, a barbed, long-handled spear used by foot-soldiers App. II i

  • pettie

    constable a minor constable, a parish officer representing the High Constable of the wapentake in maintaining the peace and in performing various administrative duties FB 146 ff., 212

  • phill

    and chany Phil(ip) and Cheyney, a name for a type of ordinary worsted or woollen cloth MB 72

  • piggate

    see gate n.2

  • pikes

    pitchforks FB 195

  • pikestower

    a stave or rod coming to a point or, when fixed, forming an angle, perh. (as for wagons in later times) a bracket to support a shelving FB 79, 215; cf. Fitzherbert (1534), 14, who lists 'pikstaues' as parts of a wain

  • pile

    a blade (of grass) FB 129

  • pilinge

    ger. heaping FB 36 f., covering with piles of straw (for mending thatch?) FB 231

  • pillow-beares,

    -beer(e)s, -bers pillow-cases MB 64, App. II iv, v, vi

  • pincheth

    nips, makes thin FB 123

  • pinde

    a pound for stray beasts App. I v, pinded shut up, constipated FB 16, pinder a manorial officer responsible for impounding stray beasts FB 170, pinding(e) ger. being constipated FB 137, 140, the impounding of stray beasts MB 49

  • pine

    v. become wasted and feeble FB 32, pineth loses bulk, shrinks FB 76

  • pine,

    pinne n. a wooden peg FB 106 ff. pingle nibble FB 127

  • pinnd

    fastened with pegs App. II v

  • pinne

    see pine

  • pinnion

    cut off the pinion of a bird's wing FB 180, 196

  • piper

    a bag-piper FB 162, 184

  • pismire

    an ant FB 180

  • pitte

    make pits in FB 50

  • plaine

    way open road, unobstructed path FB 189

  • plate

    armour plating App. II i

  • platforme

    a plan App. I iii 131

  • plette

    a plait, a twist, a strand, two ⁓ two-ply rope FB 23

  • plight

    condition FB 14

  • plough

    heading the head or share-beam of a plough, the wooden frame to which the share is fixed MB 26, ⁓ staffes staves (terminating in a spade) for cleaning mud and rubbish from the coulter and mould-board of a plough FB 193, ⁓ stringe rope suitable for plough reins FB 23, 110

  • ply

    pr. t. subj. work diligently, apply himself FB 178

  • poake,

    poke a narrow corn-bag FB 28, passim, App. II iii, v, vi

  • pointe

    the tip of the blade of a scythe, attand att heale (heele) where the tip and the heel of the blade cut FB 51, 81

  • poke

    see poake

  • pole,

    polle a poll, a head, per ⁓ per head FB 150, 155 f., ⁓ money money levied at a fixed rate per head, poll-tax FB 154

  • possett

    a hot milk drink curdled with ale FB 27, ⁓ bowle a bowl for drinking possetts App. II vi

  • pottle

    a liquid measure of two quarts or half a gallon FB 35, passim, MB 5

  • pough

    (?) a bag, a swelling (on a tree?) FB 107; more likely a MS error for bough

  • powder

    blue powdered blue glass (or smalt) for use in laundering MB 5

  • poynts

    laces for fastening doublets, shoes, etc. MB 72

  • precept

    an order for collection or payment of money under a rate App. I iii 134

  • premised

    pa. p. proposed beforehand FB 186

  • prescription

    a legal title or right founded upon long established custom App. I iii 132

  • present

    immediate FB 154, presently straightaway FB 106, 136, promptly FB 180, 194

  • presidents

    precedents, guidelines from past experience App. I iii 133

  • presser

    a large clothes cupboard App. II iii

  • presuspeckted

    pa. p. suspected beforehand (of having a lamb turned wrong way in the belly) FB 135

  • privy

    tithes the small or vicarial tithes MB 32

  • prizes

    prices FB 14, 175

  • procter,

    proctor an agent for the collection of tithes, a tithe-farmer FB 37 ff., 178

  • proude

    swollen FB 165

  • provest

    a provost FB 149, the Provost of Beverley Minster

  • prye-grasse

    a bluish-coloured speary grass of poor quality such as Carex panicea App. I iii 132

  • pubble

    well-filled, firmly plump FB 90, 165

  • puder-platter

    a pewter plate or dish FB 36

  • pullayne,

    pulleine, pullon poultry, chickens App. II i, ii, v

  • purges

    purgatives MB 68

  • putte

    forth depart FB 18, send out (to pasture, etc.) FB 39, passim, ⁓ pa. t. FB 118, ⁓ pa. p. FB 17, 189, displayed for sale FB 25, puttinge forth ger. being put out to pasture FB 189

  • putte

    of sell FB 18, get rid of FB 122, ⁓ pa. t. got rid of, sent away App. I iii pg 310131, ⁓ pa. p. sent away (with something less than originally desired), beaten down in abargain FB 181, puttinge of ger. selling FB 13 ff., 161

  • putte

    to add FB 109, 114, pa. t. FB 116

  • putte

    up inf. put into an enclosure (for fattening) FB 16, ⁓ pr. t. FB 196, ⁓ pa. t. FB 161, ⁓ pa. p. placed in containers FB 114, 170

  • pye

    a magpie FB 32

  • pyke

    a round stack with a pointed top FB 60 f., 126 f.

  • quarte

    a quarter FB 214

  • quarter

    one of the four parts of a beast, each part including a leg FB 20, hence quartered adj. FB 4ff., 44, ⁓ (of money) a farthing FB 174, 178, 220, (of a length of cloth) nine inches FB 175, (of time) three months FB 213, MB 8, (of grain) a dry measure of eight bushels FB 87, 165 ff., 200, 210, 222, MB 13, App. II i, ii, v, vi, halfe ⁓ secke a four-bushel sack FB 167, 171, ⁓ cliffe wood cleft into four pieces FB 22, 55, ⁓ tale, taile a reckoning of grain by quarters FB 210, 222

  • quarterne

    a quarter of a pound FB 116

  • quicke

    adj. live FB 6, lively FB 19, 170, quicker busier FB 14

  • quye

    a heifer up to three years of age or before it has calved App. II i (= whie)

  • rabbitt

    fix by means of a tongue and rebate MB 12

  • rack(e)

    a bar to support spits, etc., or perh. a fire rake App. II i, iii, vi, a fodder rack FB 128, see also mild racke

  • radicall

    moisture the elemental moisture or humour which according to pre-modern science was necessary for life FB 5

  • raffe-merchant

    a merchant in foreign timber, esp. in deal FB 199

  • ragge

    become ragged FB 20, 30

  • rainge,

    range an iron cooking apparatus App. II vi

  • rainginge

    ger. roaming FB 135, ⁓ pr. p. FB 44

  • rake

    v. walk, go App. I iii 132, ⁓ n. a sheep walk or pasture MB 69, App. I ii, a narrow track, a rut, a furrow FB 158

  • rakers(-)after

    women who rake up the remnants of hay after each cock is forked up and loaded into the wain FB 58 f., 178, 223

  • rakins,

    rakings scattered corn raked up after the sheaves have been stooked or loaded FB 77, passim

  • rammers

    heavy lengths of wood held upright for beating earth FB 177

  • rancke,

    ranke (of corn) thick, dense, crowded together FB 9, passim, (of sheep flesh) swollen, fat FB 16, rankest thickest FB 73

  • range

    see rainge

  • raper

    a rapier App. II iv

  • rate

    an assessment for a subsidy, a local levy FB 149 f., App. I iii 133 f., a general price or charge FB 184, 191 f., att a ⁓ at one price FB 165, 192, 224, rated pa. p. assessed FB 146 f., 150, 156, App. I iii 134, (of hay) spoiled by exposure to wet FB 55

  • rayse

    make plump, fill out FB 142

  • raysinge

    ger. cutting up FB 79

  • read(e),

    redde red FB 16, passim, ⁓ weed(e)s corn-poppies, Papaver rhoeas FB 56 f., ⁓ deale see deale; wilfes see wilfe; longe ⁓ see under long(e)

  • ready

    (of a person) deft FB 35, (of a method) easy, quick FB 136, (of an action) prompt FB 146, readyest easiest FB 27

  • reape

    a bundle of harvested pea-plants FB 97 ff., 179

  • reckon

    a chain or vertical bar from which cooking pots are hung over the fire App. II iv

  • recusants

    people who refused to attend services of the Church of England FB 147

  • redde

    see read(e)

  • reele

    a reel on which thread is wound from a distaff App. II iii

  • reffine

    refined MB 5

  • regarding

    pr. p. observing, giving attention FB 107

  • regele,

    rigelle a cow with a striped back MB 21

  • regiment

    a regimen, a set of rules MB 6

  • remarkable

    worthy of notice FB 158 (without the hyperbolic connotations of the modern sense)

  • rende

    melt FB 48

  • replevin

    a writ granting restoration of distrained goods on security given for submission to trial and judgement App. I iii 132

  • reysons

    sonne sun-dried grapes MB 5

  • ridd(e)

    progress, dispatch, speed FB 59, see come ridd(e)

  • riddle

    a coarse-meshed sieve for separating chaff from corn FB 177

  • ride

    (of rams) mount a ewe FB 5, 44, (of ewes) be mounted FB 43,116

  • riding(e)

    ger. FB 44, time the mating season FB 16, 43 f., 116

  • ridinge

    one of the three main administrative divisions of Yorkshire FB 144, 146, 152

  • rigelle

    see regele

  • rigge

    n. a ridge (the summit of the raised soil between the furrows of an arable land) FB 73, 157, (of a roof) FB 228, ⁓ tree the horizontal beam at the top of a roof FB 232, ⁓ (up) v. provide with a ridge or roof-top FB 101, 103, rigginge ger. FB 101, ⁓ n. the straw forming the ridge of a stack FB 102, 104

  • riggon

    a ram with one testicle not pendant but closed up in the back FB 1, passim, MB 9

  • rime,

    ryme hoar-frost FB 132, 138

  • ringe

    a circle, a rim FB 9

  • ripe

    ripen FB 84, ripeth pr. t. FB 84

  • rise

    (of wool) lift FB 29, risen pa. p. FB 29 f.; it is the growth of new wool (the rise) which lifts the fleece from the skin of the sheep

  • rive

    split FB 22, riven pa. p. cloven FB 22 f., ⁓ forth ploughed up FB 90, pg 312rivinge ger. tearing FB 118, ⁓ out tearing up, ploughing App. I iii 131 f.

  • robbers

    bees from one hive which rob honey from another when nectar has become scarce FB 177

  • room(e)stead(e)

    a compartment FB 78, passim, a room FB 198

  • roote

    or lowe ladder the bottom ladder of several ladders tied together FB229

  • ropeth

    clings, draws out into sticky threads FB 119, ropinge pr. p. FB 122

  • rose

    water water distilled from roses and used as a perfume MB 5

  • rotte

    a liver disease contracted by sheep fed on moist grounds FB 14

  • rowell

    iron a farrier's tool for (?) cauterizing the wound from a rowel, a small ring of leather or hair inserted beneath an animal's skin for drawing off 'ill humours' App. II iv

  • rowle

    roll FB 73, 97, rowlinge ger. FB 73; harvesting by rolling apparently entails gathering the crop in the crook of the arm instead of in the grip of the hand

  • rowtinge

    lowing, bellowing FB 189

  • ruddle

    a riddle, a coarse sieve for separating chaff from corn App. II v

  • ruffes

    starched linen collars with horizontal flutings FB 176, MB 64

  • rule

    a standard FB 48, 184

  • rundle

    a roundle, a small round hill, a tumulus FB 67

  • runtish

    undersized, stunted, FB 6, 9

  • rye

    sift (winnowed grain) with a circular motion FB 171, ryinge a sieving, the amount that is sieved in one go FB 172

  • rymes

    see rime

  • sadden

    become firm FB 131, saddened pa. p. FB 131, saddeninge ger. FB 131

  • sadder

    more solid, heavier FB 231

  • saile

    a sale FB 89, 144

  • salt(e),

    sawte a salt-cellar App. II ii, iii, iv, vi, viii

  • salters

    salt-dealers FB 166

  • salve

    a mixture of tar and grease for smearing the skins of sheep to prevent scab and to kill lice FB 42, 48, 116, salvinge ger. FB 46, salvy marked with salve FB 143

  • sand-bagge

    a bag of sand for sanding the strickle FB 50

  • sattle

    settle, sink, shrink FB 28, passim, diminish in size, go thin FB 18, 20, sattled pa. t. FB 230, ⁓ pa. p. FB 60, passim, sattlinge ger. FB 79

  • saugh(e)

    a sallow, the goat willow, Salix Caprea FB 55, passim

  • sawte

    see salt(e)

  • scabb(e)

    a skin disease in sheep FB 5, 10, 46, 116f.

  • scaffold

    a platform (here made of three table ends, see FB 101) inserted into the top half of a pease stack for the forker to stand on FB 100

  • scaled

    pa. t. scattered, spread FB 132

  • scale

    dishes thin shallow dishes generally used for skimming milk FB 27

  • scepp, skepp

    a large lidless basket FB 171, a straw bee-hive App. II iii, v

  • scoupe

    a scoop or ladle FB 218

  • scoure,

    scower, scowre have diarrhoea FB 6, 12, 16 f., scouringe ger. FB 17

  • scudde

    dirt, scum FB 159

  • scummer

    a ladle for removing scum from the cooking pot App. II i, vi

  • scuttle

    a shallow wooden basket FB 172, 227 f.

  • seal(e)inge

    panelling, wainscotting App. II v, ⁓ work the panelling of rooms FB 182

  • search

    examine FB 21

  • seas

    large wooden buckets FB 177

  • secke

    n. a sack FB 167, 171, ⁓ up v. put into sacks FB 167

  • seedsman

    a sower of seed FB 84, 207 f.

  • seeminge

    appearance FB 9

  • senight

    seven nights (and days), a week FB 157, 183, 185

  • sent downe

    pa. p. dispatched (from London) into the country FB 154

  • services

    courses of food, dishes FB 31, 160, 217

  • sesse

    an assessment, a tax or levy FB 191, MB 72

  • sett

    pa. p. entered (in a bill of assessment) FB 145

  • sette

    n. the area of arable ground enclosed by the setting of a movable sheep fold FB 25, ⁓ on v. put to work FB 93

  • setters

    planters of quickset hedges FB 220

  • severall

    separate, individual FB 23, passim

  • severed

    pa. p. cut off, marked off from an adjacent plot of land FB 67, 69

  • sewe

    pa. t. sowed FB 94

  • shadowes

    shades, head-dresses which project to shade the woman's face FB 176

  • shake

    drop ripe grain from the ear of corn FB 84, shaken cracked FB 199

  • shanked

    legged, short ⁓ short stalked FB 141

  • share

    shear FB 32

  • sharpe

    sharpen FB 31, 72

  • sheafe-corn

    corn in sheaves FB 91

  • sheare

    v. clip wool FB 26, reap with a sickle FB 70 ff., 223, ⁓ n. a shorn sheep, two ⁓, three ⁓, etc. sheep shorn twice, thrice, etc. and are thus two-year old, three-year old, etc. FB 3, passim, shearer a reaper of corn FB 70 ff., 178, 187, shearinge ger. reaping FB 70 ff., ⁓, sheeringe n. a lamb that has been shorn once FB 2, passim

  • sheddes

    partings made in a sheep's wool to grease the skin FB 116

  • sheirest

    thinnest, most diaphanous FB 176

  • shelving(e)s

    projecting boards, rails, or frames added to a wain to increase its capacity for carrying a harvest load FB 23, 58, 79, 215

  • shewe

    a display (of horses) FB 183, 185

  • shift

    v. manage FB 4, change about FB 94, ⁓ n. make a ⁓ manage, make an effort FB 31, 123, made a ⁓ pa. t. FB 125

  • shill

    v. separate FB 30, shilled pa. t. FB 126

  • shippinge

    ships FB 166, 168

  • shoote

    produce ears of grain FB 84, have diarrhoea FB 6, 8, 16, 20, 162, shooting ger. shedding (a load) FB 87, ⁓ discease diarrhoea FB 20

  • shorte

    crumbly FB 173

  • shott

    a young weaned pig App. II i

  • sidelange

    fasten the front and the back foot of the same side together to prevent an animal from straying FB 44

  • side wivers

    see wivers

  • sikes,

    sykes streams or ditches in wet land, the name of a piece of land divided or bounded by sikes FB 220, 225, MB 69, App. I ii, Corn ⁓ FB 65, 225, greate ⁓ FB 64, 140, 225, Little ⁓ MB 69, App. I ii, Mount ⁓ mound sikes (with reference to a natural mound) FB 63, 205, TwoApp. I ii

  • singular

    particular FB 154

  • sitte

    stay, settle FB 213

  • skeel(e)

    a wooden bucket or milking pail FB 227, App. II iii, v, vi

  • skelboises,

    skelbooses, skelbouthes the partitions of cow-stalls, perh., as in later times, specifically those that separate the stalls or booths from the mowstead of the barn App. II ii, iii, v; cf. Ellis (1952) and Hartley and Ingilby (1968), 33

  • skellitt

    a large three-legged cooking pot App. II vi

  • skepp

    see scepp

  • skill

    a reason, an argument, good ⁓ reasonable, right MB 74

  • skreene

    a screen, a partition dividing a room or building into parts and pierced by one or more doors FB 49

  • slacke

    a shallow valley App. I iii 131 f.

  • slaine

    n. smut, a mildew in corn which turns grain into a black powder FB 92, 166, ⁓ adj. infected with smut FB 89, 92

  • slantlinge

    aslant, slantingly FB 195

  • slay

    be affected by smut FB 92

  • slecktrough

    a trough of water for slaking (cooling) the smith's iron App. II iv

  • sledd

    a sledge, used for hauling heavy loads on steep slopes App. II iii

  • slezy-holland

    a type of fine linen cloth originally manufactured in Silesia in Germany FB 176

  • slidinge

    ger. slipping off FB 158

  • slippe

    miss, overlook FB 25, 92

  • slise

    a flat knife for removing portions of thatch FB 219

  • slive

    yoake a type of yoke or (?) tether App. II iii [cf. the v. slive to slide, to slip past quickly]; Fitzherbert (1534), 14, lists 'a copyoke, a paire of sleues' as items associated with a wain

  • sloumie

    not properly filled out, slack, soft FB 90

  • smarringe

    ger. smothering, suffocating FB 24

  • smoute

    a small hole used as a passage-way FB 106, 112, 142

  • snath

    v. prune FB 194, snathinge axe FB 193

  • snodde,

    snoode smooth FB 5, passim

  • snookinge

    ger. poking about with the nose FB 126

  • snubbed

    checked in growth, eaten close FB 131

  • snuffinge

    ger. snuffling FB 126

  • something

    adv. somewhat FB 83, 89

  • sommered

    pa. p. provided with pasture during the summer FB 117, 211

  • soppes

    tufts of wet green grass among the hay FB 52

  • sortable

    all of a kind FB 181 f.

  • sowinge bandes

    hay ropes for sewing down thatch FB 219

  • spanne

    a hand's breadth, about nine inches FB 231

  • sparre

    the rafter of a roof FB 219, 232

  • sparrie,

    sparry hard and stiff, speary FB 43, 129

  • spaught

    a youth, a stripling FB 207

  • speld,

    spell'd fitted with bars FB 109 f., spelle a horizontal wooden bar, a rail FB 22 ff., 28, 105 ff., 114, spellinge ger. fitting a hive with the bars between which the bees will work honeycombs FB 105

  • spellowe

    a speech-mound, the name of a plot of land containing a mound presumably once used for local assemblies FB 64, 121 ff., 204, ⁓ Close FB 204, MB 69, App. I ii

  • spende

    use up, consume FB 174

  • spheare

    a globe or other device for showing the position and movements of the planets and stars MB 6

  • spreader

    a spreader of grass in hay-making FB 52, 69

  • springe

    new growth FB 5, 14, 18, 100, the beginning FB 168, springy having springs of water FB 6, 14

  • spurte

    squirt FB 134

  • stacke-garth,

    staggarth, staikgarthe a stack-yard FB 64, passim, App. II ii stacker the farmhand who lays down the courses of a stack FB 100

  • staddle

    the foundation of a hay-cock, pike, etc. FB 55, 57, 61, the place where a stook of corn has stood FB 77, 178, ⁓ hay, ⁓ hey hay from the base of a stack FB 125, 219, ⁓ stead the place where a stook of corn has stood FB 86

  • stagg

    a castrated bull or young ox App. II v, vi

  • staggarth,

    staikgarthe see stacke-garth

  • stalls

    bee-hives FB 111

  • stand

    n., heck(e)s standing fodder racks FB 125, 169, 225 f., App. II vi, = ⁓ rackes App. II v; ⁓ tubbe a large open tub or barrel FB 113

  • stande

    v. att the marke stick to the standard, keep true to shape FB 195, ⁓ us to cost us a price of FB 130, standinge on severall stalls being kept in separate hives FB 111

  • stapple

    the fibre or pile of a fleece with respect to the quality of its texture FB 5, passim

  • starke

    adj. sturdy, robust, strong FB 28, ⁓ adv. strongly, firmly FB 104

  • statute-day

    the annual fair for hiring of servants FB 212

  • steadinge

    ger. placing, supplying FB 170

  • steare

    n. a steer, a young ox, esp. one that has been castrated MB 21, ⁓ adj. thick FB 85, tough FB 90, 126, 225

  • steepfatt,

    stepfat a cask for soaking anything App. II ii, vi

  • stine

    (?) the convex surface of an eyeball, the cornea FB 134 [OE stīgand 'riser'?]

  • stintinge

    common land where rights of grazing entail a limit to the number of beasts FB 187

  • stirke

    a young bullock or heifer App. II i

  • stocke

    a frame App. II iii, see also be(e)dstockes, swingle stock

  • stomacke

    appetite, gette them into ⁓ FB 44, keepeth them in ⁓ FB 138

  • stone

    a testicle FB 1, passim, a measure of weight, fourteen pounds FB 181, 200, stoned castrated FB 13

  • stooke

    n. a shock of twelve sheaves FB 71, passim, MB 15, ⁓ v. set up sheaves in stooks FB 70, passim, stooker one who arranges sheaves in stooks FB 79, passim, stookinge ger. FB 70, 80, 91

  • stoole

    a stand or table for bee-hives FB 107, 110 ff.

  • storax

    a fragrant gum-resin in solid or liquid form from the trees Styrax officinalis or Liquidambar orientale MB 5

  • store

    a quantity, an abundance FB 50, 185

  • stot(te)

    a young (castrated) ox, a steer FB 225, MB 21, App. II ii

  • stowers

    stout staves or spars used as upright supports on the side of a wain FB 58, see also hecke ⁓, pike ⁓

  • stowinge

    ger. cutting off the tip of a sheep's ear as a mark of ownership FB 137; for the different ear-marks and their terms see Hartley and Ingilby (1972), 27, and The Blackface Sheep-Keepers Guide

  • stowme

    steam, hot vapour from corn sweating in the barn FB 104 [Du. stoom]

  • straite,

    strate adj. and adv. narrow, tight(ly) FB 105, 111, 119, MB 47

  • straited

    narrowly confined FB 31, straiter more narrowly FB 28, 33

  • stricken

    levelled off with a strike or strickle FB 171, 173

  • strickle

    a scythe sharpener, a flat square piece of wood with a handle, pitted all over with small holes, smeared with grease, and thickly coated with sharp sand FB 50 f., a smooth straight piece of wood for striking off surplus grain from the top of a corn-measure FB 171

  • stricklinge

    stiffly FB 13

  • strike of

    make grain level with the rim of the measure by striking it off with a strickle FB 173

  • stripmilke kine

    (?) cows allowed to suckle their calves until the udders are almost empty, when the last creamy drops are drawn off by hand for domestic use App. II v

  • stubble

    stout, sturdy FB 208, ⁓ barley winter barley sown on a stubble field as distinct from barley sown on fallowed land FB 187; cf. Fitzherbert (1534), 39, who remarks that 'in some places they sowe theyr pg 317wheate vppon theyr pees-stubble, the whiche is neuer soo good as that that is sowen vppon the fallowe'

  • stumpie

    full of short thick stalks FB 56

  • sturdie

    giddiness from water on the brain, a disease caused by hydatids, the larvae of the tapeworm FB 3, sturdy giddy, afflicted with the sturdy FB 124

  • stye

    a ladder FB 216, App. II iii

  • stythie

    an anvil App. II iv

  • subsidy-man

    a man of sufficient wealth to be assessed for the payment of a public subsidy or tax FB 145 f., 150

  • subvertinge

    ger. turning over, breaking up (ground) App. I iii 132

  • summeringe

    ger. pasturing during the summer FB 130, 220

  • suppe

    of take sips from FB 139

  • swangs

    low-lying stretches of watery untilled ground FB 65

  • swanner

    a swanherd FB 196

  • swarth

    greensward, pasture-grass FB 29, 131, App. I iii 131 f.

  • sweate

    n. fermentation FB 52, 55, 63, ⁓ v. ferment FB 55

  • sweath(e),

    swheath a swath, the stroke made by a scythe FB 51, 81, 85, a width of hay or corn mown by a stroke of the scythe FB 53, 57, 81, 90, 178, a breadth of land equivalent to a width of mown hay or corn, about a quarter of a broadland or seven feet FB 201, ⁓ balke a ridge of short grass or corn-stubble left between adjacent swaths FB 51, 81 f., ⁓ ra(c)ke a large drag rake, the width of a swath, used for gathering the scattered hay or corn FB 72, passim, App. II iii, v

  • sweet(e)

    powder a perfumed powder from musk, amber, etc. used as a cosmetic MB 5, ⁓ water scented water for washing the skin or sprinkling on clothes MB 5

  • swhitch, switch

    n. a pliant stick or a riding whip FB 11, 136, ⁓ v. whip FB 136, switchinge knife a trimming knife FB 219

  • swill

    a large shallow tub App. II v

  • swingle stock

    a board on which flax is beaten with a swingle App. II iii

  • swipple

    the striking part of a flail FB 222; in FB 196 the same term is used of a quite different implement, one which when heated can be used for boring holes in a swan's beak and is presumably made of iron and pointed—perhaps a small poker

  • switch,

    switchinge knife see swhitch

  • sword

    a diagonal cross-bar FB 22 ff., ⁓ hanger the loop on a sword-belt from which a sword is hung FB 85

  • sykes

    see sikes

  • table

    himselfe provide his own food MB 43

  • tainte

    an infection or some physical sign of malnutrition FB 158

  • take

    undertake FB 186, ⁓ him tardy catch him out, suspect him of pg 318cheating FB 171, ⁓ tuppe receiving a ram, copulate FB 3, 143, taken tuppe pa. p. FB 17, ⁓ up(p) remove (from the pasture grounds) FB 5

  • tansey

    tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, a herb with yellow flowers and bitter aromatic leaves FB 36, 163

  • tares

    vetch, Vicia sativa, grown as fodder MB 17

  • tarre-kettle

    a tar-pot FB 35 (= tar-potte FB 34), marke an identifying mark of hot tar mixed with pitch, pressed onto the sheep's body with a marking iron FB 17

  • tashled

    matted together with dirt FB 120

  • teame,

    teme n. an ox-chain for linking several yokes App. II ii, iii, ⁓ v. empty (a wain) FB 60, 76, 88, teamed pa. t. FB 179, pa. p. FB 88, teaminge ger. FB 60, 88

  • teaster(ne),

    tester a canopy over a bed App. II i, v

  • teen'd,

    teended pa. p. taken a tenth of, tithed FB 40, 53, 69, teendinge ger. FB 39 f.

  • teme

    see teame

  • tempse,

    temse a hair sieve for sifting flour App. II iii, iv, temps'd tempsed sieved through a temse FB 172 f., ⁓ breade bread made with fine flour FB 172, tempseloafe FB 186

  • tende

    attend FB 188

  • tente

    look after FB 192

  • tester

    see teaster(ne)

  • tewe

    work, temper (mortar) FB 217, 227, 229

  • thacke

    n. thatch FB 102, 217, 219, 227 f., drawer one who pulls straw straight for thatching FB 219, 227, thake v. thatch FB 219

  • that

    pron. whoever FB 21, ⁓ adv. rel. when FB 17, passim (e.g. after Ladyday ⁓ FB 17, till after supper ⁓ it beginne to bee darke FB 108), ⁓ conj. so that FB 16, passim (e.g. ⁓ if they bee gimmer lambes FB 16, ⁓ the winde shoulde come to dry them FB 99), ⁓ the linking el. in cpd conjs such as after ⁓ FB 22, passim, although ⁓ FB 25, because ⁓ FB 18, passim, before ⁓ FB 47, besides ⁓ FB 160, for ⁓ FB 45, 117, whiles ⁓ FB 88

  • theake

    v. thatch FB 231, theaker a thatcher FB 231

  • then

    conj. and quasi-prep, than FB 20, passim

  • thorough,

    thorowe adv. through FB 7, 39, ⁓ prep. through FB 52

  • thowe

    a thaw FB 130

  • thrashers

    threshers FB 222

  • threave

    a thrave, a measure of straw, two stooks of twelve sheaves each FB 210, 222, 224, MB 16

  • thrid

    a thread FB 223

  • throden

    grow, thrive FB 6

  • through

    adj. allowing full passage, ⁓ lands the main arable lands in a furlong, allowing full-length ridges and furrows to be ploughed in regular sequence (as distinct from gares) FB 71

  • throwe

    out scatter (a harvested crop) evenly about with a fork in order to pg 319dry it FB 53, 55, throwinge out ger. FB 52, 54, 98, throwne out pa. p. FB 54, antonym of throwne togeather FB 56

  • tickett

    a certificate FB 211 f.

  • tiffeny

    tiffany, a transparent gauze muslin FB 176

  • tifled

    tumbled FB 53

  • tiftinge

    ger. preparing, making ready FB 50, 52, 98, 105

  • to

    prep. for (in ⁓ drinke FB 31, 200, ⁓ a godspenny FB 207 ff., MB 29), with (in putte … ⁓ the hogges FB 124), about (in speakeApp. I iii 132)

  • toiled

    pa. p. exhausted FB 107

  • tolde

    pa. t. counted FB 141

  • tophet

    hell-fire, hell-on-earth MB 6

  • toppinge

    up ger. completing (the roof of a stack) by putting on the ridging FB 101

  • torrett

    a movable hook or ring in a socket, for attaching an animal to a chain, to reins, etc. App. II iii

  • towe

    the coarse and broken part of flax MB 31

  • towle

    a toll FB 182, 200

  • towne

    a village FB 44, passim, MB 41, ⁓ side the untilled verges of land between the village and the fields FB 17 f., 189

  • toy

    a trinket FB 188

  • traces

    ropes by which draught beasts pull a plough, etc. FB 228

  • tractable

    amenable FB 188

  • traile,

    trayle v. drag FB 72, passim, traileth, trayleth pr. t. FB 77, 85, trayled pa. t. FB 160, traylinge ger. FB 72, 80, 85, 92, 178, traylers n. draggers (of sheep from the pen to the shearers) FB 162, (of sweathrakes) FB 220

  • treate

    n. bran FB 173, ⁓ of v. negotiate about FB 188

  • trencher

    a flat serving plate MB 5, App. II iv, vi

  • trifled

    trampled down FB 91

  • tripe-wives

    women who prepare and sell tripe, the intestines of oxen prepared as food FB 46; the selling of molten tallow, made from the fat around the kidneys and liver of sheep and oxen, was a natural side-line

  • trundle bed

    a low bed on wheels which could be run under another bed App. II vi

  • try

    test, find out FB 49, tryed up pa. p. melted down, rendered FB 46, tryed with tested against FB 148

  • tune

    a tun, a drinking cup App. II iii

  • tup(e),

    tuppe n. a ram FB 1, passim, App. II ii, v, ⁓ v. be mated by a ram FB 44, tupped pa. p. FB 44, tuppinge ger. FB 3

  • turne

    a tourn, the regular court held by the sheriff or his deputy at each wapentake in the county, the chief court of record FB 153

  • turned of

    pa. p. got beyond FB 140

  • turne up theire heeles

    die FB 46

  • twel-peece.

    short for twel-pence peece perh. a plot of land with an annual rent of twelve pence but more likely here a piece of land pg 320distinguished by a small round mound, a tumulus jocularly likened to a shilling piece FB 67, 202

  • twich,

    twitch v. draw tight, tie, fasten FB 111, MB 66, twitches n. pinches (with the shears) FB 32

  • twininge

    ger. twisting FB 79

  • twitch,

    twitches see twich

  • tyed

    pa. p. bound, obliged FB 162, 186

  • tyred

    attired, dressed FB 188

  • unbun

    unbound, without sides App. II ii

  • under

    growth a growth of shorter and finer wool underlying the outer fleece FB 161

  • underlay

    an extra cylinder of straw placed under a bee-hive to increase its capacity FB 108 ff.

  • undressed

    (of meal) unrefined, with the bran still present FB 173

  • unputte

    forth not put out to graze FB 169

  • unteamed

    unemptied FB 88, 95, 99

  • use

    n. habit, custom FB 124, ⁓ v. accustom FB 137, ⁓ to are accustomed to FB 24, passim, used pa. t. FB 157, 180, useth pr. t. FB 180

  • vardgreace

    verdigris, a green substance derived from the action of acetic acid on copper and used in dyeing and medicinal preparations MB 5

  • vendible

    saleable FB 143

  • vent(e)

    n. an outlet, an escape FB 27, 104, a sale FB 181, 183, ⁓ v. sell FB 168

  • vildely

    vilely FB 123

  • vitrioala romana

    Roman vitriol, a medicinal substance made by exposing pyrites to the air until calcified MB 66

  • voyded

    got rid of FB 6, voyder a basket for dirty linen or else a bowl for dirty dishes or for clearing remnants of meals from a dining table App. II ii

  • vylde

    vile MB 74

  • wain

    the waning of the moon FB 163, ⁓, waine, wayne, wean(n)e a wain, a long, flat, heavy-duty cart, with or without sides, probably two-wheeled, and drawn by oxen yoked to a pole FB 23, passim, App. II, passim, ⁓ body FB 94, folkes FB 88, forke a fork for loading a wain FB 76, ⁓ rake FB 76, 86, 93, 100, ⁓ way a road suitable for wain traffic FB 62 ff.

  • walke

    a sheep walk or pasture MB 22, App. I iii 131, walked matted FB 30

  • wallers

    wall-builders FB 220

  • wallplates

    roof-timbers stretching from wall to wall for the support of joists or rafters FB 232

  • wandell,

    wandill a wandale or furlong, a portion of lands in an open arable field, as in the field names Garton little ⁓ FB 187, longe ⁓ FB 83; also an pg 321individual land within a furlong named 'wandale' FB 201, the references here being to lands prob. exchanged in order to form a pasture of consolidated ley-lands called The NorthClose FB 62, 140 (later known as Wandales, a close lying in Maskhills Pastures north of the beck on the 1815 plan of Elmswell manor), and which, with The South ⁓ Close FB 62, 140, formed the (newe) ⁓ closes FB 125, 132, 140

  • wasted

    pa. t. got through, used up MB 54

  • waster

    a sheep that will not fatten, one that is wasting away FB 10, 158

  • waxe

    grow FB 16, passim

  • wayed

    pa. p. weighed FB 40

  • way(-)gate

    a departure FB 125, 131

  • wayne,

    wean(n)e see wain

  • weapontackes

    wapentakes, the main administrative divisions of the Yorkshire ridings FB 146, 152, 154, 156

  • weather,

    wedder, wether a castrated ram FB 1, passim, MB 9, App. II i, ii, v

  • weekes

    adv. gen. of a week, ⁓ old a week old FB 140

  • weekinesse

    moisture FB 127, weeky moist, juicy, pliant FB 22

  • welke

    fade, wilt, wither FB 50, 52, 98, welked pa. p. FB 52, 55 f., 97, welkinge ger. FB 91

  • wente

    of pa. t. sold FB 170

  • wether

    see weather

  • whette

    v. sharpen FB 56, 222, ⁓ n. the interval between two sharpenings of a scythe FB 51

  • whie,

    why(e) a heifer up to three years of age or until it has calved FB 225, MB 21, App. II ii, v, vi

  • while

    a period of time FB 142

  • whinnes

    whins, furze or gorse bushes, Ulex europaeus FB 28

  • whipcoarde

    tough hempen twine used for binding FB 110

  • white

    balls balls of whiting (finely powdered chalk) used for cleaning silver or pewter plate MB 5, ⁓ corne FB 104 (see wheate), deale see deale, weedes weeds with white flowers FB 56, ⁓ wheate prob. a bread wheat, Triticum vulgare, a beardless variety with white grain FB 76, 165 f., ⁓ wilfe see wilfe

  • whole-sale

    weeke the first week of Beverley Cross Fair during which the York grocers and others buy wholesale FB 183

  • why(e)

    see whie

  • wigger

    strong FB 207

  • wikes

    twigs etc. used as temporary markers (for tithing) FB 57

  • wilfe

    a willow FB 67, 193 ff., 229, reade ⁓ crack willow or withie, Salix fragilis (the wood is red when seasoned) FB 193 f., white ⁓ white willow, Salix alba (the underside of the leaves are silvery white and the wood is white) FB 193

  • winders

    people employed to wind wool FB 33, 36

  • windle-strawe

    a stalk of withered grass FB 129

  • wind(e)rowe

    a row of mown hay, barley, etc., raked together FB 53, 55, 57, ⁓ stooke a stook of corn formed by two rows of sheaves in the manner of a windrow FB 91

  • winge

    of brush off with a bird's wing FB 114

  • winter

    provide with food and shelter through the winter MB 11, wintered pa. p. FB 117, 211, MB 12, wintering ger. FB 143, MB 9

  • wispe

    a bundle, a handful of straw FB 102, 195

  • withall

    adv. with FB 7, passim, in addition, as well FB 160

  • without

    outside FB 122, App. I iii 132

  • wivers

    long beams, side ⁓ the long beams or purlins at the side of a house supporting the frame of the roof FB 232

  • wolde

    pa. t. would FB 127, wold(e), wolds, woulds n. the high chalk- land(s) rising above the clay-lands of Elmswell FB 43, 94, 186 f., 191, corn grown on wold-land FB 88, ⁓ barley FB 90, 92, lande FB 92 (cf. clay-barley, clay lande)

  • woll'd,

    woolde woolled, having wool FB 19, 143

  • womle

    a boring tool, a gimlet or an auger, or else an apparatus for twisting hay-ropes App. II ii

  • wonderfull

    amazing (without connotations of approval) FB 130

  • wont(e)

    pa. p. accustomed FB 65, passim, wonted pa. p. made familiar with their surroundings FB 192, wontinge pennies wages paid to a herdsman for tending geast cattle till they are used to their new grazing grounds FB 191 f.

  • woolde

    see woll'd

  • woort trowyght

    a wort trough, a tub for the infusion of malt etc. in making beer App. II ii

  • worme-eate

    become eaten by wood-worm FB 199

  • wormewood

    the bitter herb Artemisia absinthium FB 106

  • wormy skinn'd

    having a sheepskin spoilt by malkes or maggots of the blow-fly FB 15–16

  • worne out

    obliterated FB 201, used up App. I iii 132

  • would(e)

    should, ought to FB 8, passim

  • woulds

    see wold(e)

  • wreath(e)

    a twist FB 177, 218, a circular band of twisted straw forming a layer of a bee-hive FB 105, 108

  • writte

    pa. t. wrote FB 115

  • wrote(n)

    pa. p. wrooted or turned up with the snout, grubbed FB 226, 232 [there is perhaps a blend of form and sense here between wrote(n), pa. p. of wroot, and wrought, pa. p. of work, cf. 'wee putte in the swine to work amongst it' FB 231, and 'the swine wrought in it' FB 226]

  • wrought

    pa. t. worked, laboured (to find food) FB 226, ⁓ pa. p. worked, mixed FB 227

  • wykes

    corners (of mouth or eye) FB 20

  • yard-broad

    cloth of a yard's breadth FB 175

  • ye

    indeed FB 152

  • year(e)ing(e), yeering(e)

    n. a yearling, a one-year-old animal FB 190, 192, App. II v, ⁓ adj. one-year-old FB 225

  • yirling(e)

    a handful, a yelm (of straw) FB 129, 230

  • yower

    an udder FB 11 f., 136

pg 324

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