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pg 319Glossary

In constructing the glossary below I have endeavoured to include the meaning of all the words in the manuscript that may prove problematic, whether they are obsolete, obscure or examples of dialect. I have tried to include as many variants of Joyce's spellings as possible, and it would seem useful at this point to comment on her orthography. Although her system of spelling may appear erratic and individualistic when compared with printed examples of the same period, it was not entirely uncharacteristic of early modern writers. Firstly, with regard to consonants, we would expect to find a single consonant instead of a double in such words as putt, usse, forgott, nuttmeggs, and widdow, for example, and entirely the reverse in aples, apointment, borowed and maner. But Joyce's unfamiliar use of double and single consonants would not have been an uncommon orthographic practice in her own time. Nor would her mis-matching of consonants, especially the use of c and k (in leecks, coock and reconing) and that of d with g (in dischardge and tilladge); such instances served to increase the strength of the consonant. Joyce reinforced the letter s in a similar way by adopting the Middle English form of sh in such words as shuger (sugar) and shute (suit), and there are also frequent occasions in which Joyce switched a c for an s, and vice versa—see her spelling of leace, cheeces and sider. In addition, though the terminal e had been silent since the fourteenth century, its use among Elizabethan writers was still common- place.1 Joyce frequently added an e where we would not expect to see one, in fore, yeare, ore and loade, for instance, while omitting one in such cases as tru, cam, purs, and hors.

Secondly, with regard to the use of vowels, as Dawson-Kennedy and Skipton have pointed out, 'vowel interchanges may be found in infinite variety' in the Tudor and Stuart periods.2 Like consonants, they tend to appear in either double or single format where in modern English we would expect to see the opposite: in foorth (forth) and doo (do), for instance, and contrariwise in boke (book) and toke (took). Vowels appear in a variety of combinations: replacing u with w for example, is not unusual (howse, accownts, bownd and dawghter) and the substitution of ee with ie or ei is also familiar (beseege, feeld). Other strange spellings include the interchanging of e with ea, so that cleared, rearing and Easter appear as clered, rering and Ester, but here is pg 320 replaced with heare. Similar patterns of exchange see o used in place both of oa (sope, cote) and ou, of which the latter is extremely common in Joyce's manuscript: armor and cosin replace the more modern armour and cousin, while ould stands for old, sould for sold and coult for colt. Furthermore, whereas in modern usage the letter y is used in the middle of a word when it is required phonetically (mayor and not maior) and always at the end of a word (easily), Joyce used y, i and ie interchangeably throughout her writing, regardless of their position. On most occasions the meaning in clear (kyng, lyfe, yf, tyme) but occasionally words look more unfamiliar (dier for dyer, flaied for flayed and Julie for July). Consequently, words that do not fit into the broad spelling patterns discussed above or any in which the meaning is not immediately obvious have been explained, either in square brackets in the text, or in the glossary below.

  • a. of

  • a more. of more

  • a (dialect). have; should a bin putt downe. should have been put down

  • abate(d); abating; abatted. abate(d): reduce, deduct, lessen; abatement of usse. reduction of use or interest

  • accers; aker(s). acre(s): parcel of land measuring 4840 square yards

  • afares. affairs

  • aforehand. beforehand

  • against (time). drawing towards, near the beginning of, in preparation for;

  • against Crestmas. for Christmas; against the Earl of Leven. before the arrival of the Earl of Leven

  • agon; agonn; agonne. ago

  • ague. ague: acute fever, either hot and sweating or cold and shivering

  • aiveries. aviary (-ies): a large enclosure or cage for birds

  • aker.see accers

  • alderman. alderman: member of the governing body in cities and boroughs, next in importance to the mayor

  • Alholand(s) church/parish. All Saints' church/parish

  • Alholan(d)tide; All Hollantide; Allholandtide. Allhollandtide: All Hallows' or All Saints' Tide, the first week in November

  • al(l)ias. alias: also known as; otherwise

  • All Saints' Tide.—see Alholandtide

  • allam. alum: astringent mineral salt used in dying, tawing (preparation of white leather) sizing and medicine

  • almes man. alms man: man in receipt of alms, charity

  • al(l)mina(c)k(e). almanac: annual table or book of tables containing astrological, astronomical and medical information and including dates for fairs and markets, etc.

  • pg 321ambler. ambler: an ambling horse or mule

  • an(n)iseed water. distilled or cordial water made with aniseed

  • antidot. antidote: medicine given to counteract a disease or a poison

  • Antwarp. Antwerp

  • anuety(-ies); anuetye(s); anewety; an(n)uit(i)e. annuity(-ies): annual. grant, income or allowance

  • An(n)unciation; Anunciasion. Annunciation: the Feast of the Annunciation, 25 March, also St Mary's Day, officially the first day of the year until 1752

  • anunt (dialect). anant: opposite

  • apeece. apiece: each, individually, severally

  • apern(e)(es)(nes)(s). apron(s)

  • apoticarier; apoticary; apotycari(e)(er); apotycary. apothecary: preparer and dispenser of drugs and medicines

  • apurtinances. appurtenances: minor rights or privileges that belong to a property, and are transferred with it

  • aquavite; aquavity. aqua-vitae: strong spirit, such as brandy

  • aquittance; aquittans. acquittance: a release in writing from an obligation

  • arainment. arraignment: an interrogation; in law an indictment before a tribunal

  • arere(ges)(s). arrear(s), arrearage(s): overdue payment

  • ashen. ashen: made of wood from the ash tree; ash coloured (whitish-grey)

  • As(s)ises. Assizes: judicial sessions, presided over by a judge

  • assay. assay: try

  • Assension Day. Ascension Day: Thursday after Rogation Sunday (fifth Sunday after Easter)

  • Assension Eve. Ascension Eve: Wednesday following Rogation Sunday

  • atorney; atur(r)ney. attorney: person appointed to act for someone else in business and financial matters; professional legal agent practising in the courts of Common Law

  • auggmentation. augmentation: increase or addition to

  • awgger. auger: tool for boring holes in wood

  • axltreese. axle-trees: spindles or axles, the fixed wooden bar on which the opposite wheels of a carriage revolve

  • baccon. bacon: cured flesh from a pig

  • baies; bay(e)s(e). baize (fabric): mixed plain weave cloth with a woollen weft, and a lighter warp; shagge bayes. shag baize: baize with a loose woven weft and a long nap; baies of billding. bays of building (construction): division of a barn or other buildings of c. 15–20 feet in length

  • bail(l)if(f)(e); baily(ff)(e); bayliffe. bailiff: officer of justice under a sheriff; agent or steward of a manor, and collector of its rents

  • pg 322band. band: neck band of a collar or shirt; collar or sometimes a ruff

  • band pott. pot with a collar?

  • barragon. barracan, barragan, barragon: a coarse camlet, probably of goat's hair

  • barrit. barrelet: a small barrel or cask

  • Bartlemewtide. Bartholomewtide: the time of remembrance for Bartholomew, the apostle (St Bartholomew's Day, 24 August)

  • bast. bast: flexible inner bark of the lime or linden tree

  • bazen; bason. basin

  • bead ale. bid-ale: charity feast for the aid and benefit of someone in financial distress, at which those invited provide donations

  • beare; beere. beer

  • beare (charges). bear: to carry, support (i.e., to cover charges)

  • bedlam-me; bedlam man. bedlamer or bedlamite: an inmate of bedlam, a madman or lunatic

  • bed coard. bed cord: cord for stretching the sacking of a bed

  • beedles. beadle(s): constable, town crier

  • be(e)(o)f(f)e. beef: ox, cow or bull flesh

  • bellipeeces; bellye peeces. belly-piece(s): part of the dress covering the belly

  • bend (of leather). bend-leather: leather of a 'bend', the thickest leather suitable for soles of boots and shoes

  • bery. berry: chief house of a manor, or the Lord's seat, especially in Herefordshire (c. 1656—Blount)

  • betwixt. betwixt: between

  • bever. beaver; bever hatt. beaver hat: felt hat, in which the wool had been pounded in water to transform it into felt

  • biing(e). buying

  • bill. bill (tool): implement for pruning hedges, cutting wood and lopping trees; bill (document): acknowledgment of a debt promising to repay it at a stated time

  • billet(ed)(ted)(ing). billet(ed)(ing): give quarters; lodge

  • billets. billet(s): wood cut to a suitable length for fuel

  • bird lyme. bird-lime: a sticky substance made from the berries or roots of certain trees usually for trapping small birds

  • bit and bosses. bit and bosses: mouthpiece and adjacent parts of a horse's bridle

  • blakwatterd (see alsowatered). black watered

  • blanketting. blanketing: a soft plain weave fabric with a short and smooth nap, used for insulating

  • bludding. blooding: letting blood, bleeding

  • bodkin. bodkin: small pointed instrument for piercing holes or fastening up hair

  • pg 323bod(d)y(es); bodies (a pair of). bodice: an undergarment for the upper body with stays, often of whalebone, or a tight fitting outer garment.

  • boies. boy's or boys

  • boke(s). book(s)

  • bond. bond: legal deed binding a person (obligor) to pay a stipulated amount to another party (obligee)

  • bon(e)lace; bone lace. bone lace: lace made usually from linen thread and ornamented with a leafy or floral design, worked on bone bobbins

  • bonne setter; bonsetter. bonesetter: person who sets broken or dislocated bones

  • boords. board(s): long piece of sawn timber, thinner than a plank

  • boshell(s); bozshell; bushell. bushel(s): unit of capacity containing four pecks, or eight gallons

  • botomed; botominge; botteming; bottoming. bottomed (-ing): putting a new bottom on

  • bowcer; burcer. bursar: treasurer of a college

  • bownd. bound

  • Brasennose; Brazennose. Brasenose College, Oxford

  • braune; brawne. brawn: boar or swine fattened for the table

  • brazell. brazil: reddish-brown dye yielded by brazil wood

  • brazen. brass; brazen furnes. brazen furnace: brass oven

  • bred(e)(s)(es); bredth(s) (of wood). breadth(s): (piece or width)

  • breking (blocks). breaking up; breking (horse). breaking: training, breaking in

  • bretheren; brethern. brethren: brothers

  • brimes; brimmes. brims

  • bringing to (an animal). bringing to: mating with

  • broache. broach: a pointed rod of wood or iron such as a spit

  • brod. broad

  • brought (by an animal). brought: gave birth to

  • bruer. brewer

  • bruing. brewing

  • brusse. brush

  • buck. buck: male deer

  • bucking(s). bucking(s): cloth boiled in a lye (alkalised water) of wood ashes as part of the process of bleaching it

  • buckl(e)s (thatching). buckles: a fastening or strap used by thatchers?

  • buckram; buckran. buckram: linen or cotton of varying quality, sometimes stiffened with gum or paste

  • bugle. bugle: tube shaped glass bead, usually black; bugle band black. black band ornamented with bugles

  • burdding peece. birding piece: firearm for shooting birds

  • pg 324burges. burgess: freeman or citizen of a borough; an elected member of parliament for a borough; a borough official

  • buriing. burying

  • burning glass. burning glass: concave lens to concentrate the sun's rays and produce combustion

  • busk. busk: stiffening for the corset; the corset itself

  • bus(s)tian. bustian: worsted cloth, with a twilled weave

  • butchard. butcher

  • but(t)ler. butler: servant in charge of dispensing liquor and managing the wine cellar

  • button boy. page; boy servant in livery

  • cabidge. cabbage

  • cadis. caddis ribbon: worsted binding or tape

  • cal(l)dron(e). cauldron: large kettle or boiler

  • cal(l)ico(w); calycow. calico: imported cotton cloth, named after the city of Calicut on the Malabar coast

  • cal(l)iman(c)(k)o; kalimanco. calamanco: worsted textile woven in a satin or broken twill weave with a bright, and lustrous chequered appearance, dating from around the 1590s

  • cambrick. cambric: fine white linen originally made in Cambray, Flanders

  • camellto; camillto. camletee?: camlet cloth transformed by adding a sheen

  • campis (Latin). campus (plural—campi): field

  • Candlmas; Kandl(e)mas. Candlemas: Feast of the Purification of the Virgin Mary, 2 February.

  • Candlemas tearm. Candlemas term: probably a reference to a sub-session of the Hilary term after Candlemas, the feast itself having been excluded from legal business in the medieval period

  • cannens; can(n)ons. canons: clergymen who, along with a dean, manage the affairs of a cathedral

  • cantting. canting: to speak in the whining tones of beggars, i.e., to beg; to speak in the jargon or 'cant' of thieves; to chant, sing

  • can(n)vas; canves. canvas, canvass: strong, coarse unbleached cloth of hemp or flax

  • cap(pe) paper. cap-paper: a type of wrapping paper

  • capers. capers: flower buds of a South European shrub, grown for pickling

  • capias. writ of capias: writ commanding the officer to arrest the person named

  • capon(s). capon(s): castrated cock

  • caria(r)dge; cariag(d)e; cari(d)ge(s). carriage(s)

  • carier; caryer. carrier: transporter of goods, porter

  • car(r)iing(e). carrying

  • pg 325carnasion. carnation: human skin colour; a rosy pink or sometimes deeper crimson colour carpinder. carpenter

  • carpit; carpeting. carpet(ing): a thick fabric usually of wool used to cover tables and beds

  • carter. carter: cart driver

  • casement. casement: frame or sash for a window

  • casse. case

  • castle soap. Castile soap: fine, hard soap made from soda and olive oil

  • cat(t)(e)l(l)(e). cattle: livestock held as property

  • caule. caul: a close fitting women's cap; a netted headdress or cap, often richly decorated

  • chafingdishes. chafing-dish(es): vessel holding burning fuel, a portable grate

  • chamber pott. chamber pot: bedroom vessel for urine and slops

  • chamberlaine. chamberlain: attendant of the bedchamber

  • chamlet(t). camlet: traditional worsted of wool, goat's hair, silk, linen or cotton, or silk in a variety of combinations; tirky camlet. camlet from Turkey?

  • chancell. chancel: eastern part of a church separated by rails or a screen

  • char(e)cole(s); charcoll. charcoal(s)

  • chariage; charidge.—see cariadge cheece(s). cheese(s)

  • cheef(f)(e) rent. chief rent: rent paid by a customary freeholder (whose lands were governed by the customs of the manor but had been granted in free tenure at some point by the lord)

  • cheesells. chisels

  • chei(e)r(s). chair(s)

  • chell. shell: bowl?

  • chenay. cheyney: woollen or worsted stuff; phillip and cheny. Philip and Cheyney: worsted plush fabric made in Norwich from 1622

  • chikins(e). chickens

  • church wardin. churchwarden: elected lay official of a parish church

  • churched; churching(e). churched (-ing): Anglian church ritual celebrating the return to the public sphere of a woman after childbirth

  • cipher. to perform elementary arithmetic, usually with arabic numbers

  • clarit wine. claret wine: originally yellowish or light red wine, but from 1600 more generally red wine

  • clar(c)k(e); clerck. clerk

  • cleaved; cleve; cle(e)ving. cleave(d) (-ing): separate by splitting or dividing, especially wood

  • clements boule or bowle. clements bowl: pot carried from house to house on St Clement's Night (November 23) to beg drink with

  • pg 326clered. cleared

  • cloeth. cloth

  • cloister. cloister: covered walk in a monastery or college, often round an open quadrangle

  • closett. closet: private room; side-room for storage

  • clothier. clothier: person engaged in the cloth trade

  • clouded; clowded. clouded: with cloud-like markings

  • coberd. cupboard

  • cobweb.—see lawn

  • cock (brass). cock: spout or pipe for regulating the passage of liquid, a tap

  • cocking. cocking: to put into cocks

  • cockloft. cock-loft: small, upper loft

  • cocks (of hay). cock(s): conical heaps (of hay)

  • cole. coal

  • coller; collering; culler(d)(ed); cullering. colour(ed), colouring

  • com to (horses). come to: mate with

  • comit(t)ant. comitant: accompanying

  • comitties; comittres; comitty. committee(s): the various committees appointed to run Hereford during the Civil War

  • commitatus (Latin). comitatus: county, earldom

  • comodeties. commodities

  • composision. composition: a mutual agreement, often as a form of compromise in relation to debts

  • comunion. communion: administration of the christian sacrament, the Lord's Supper

  • confectianary. confectionary: confectioner, maker of cakes and sweetmeats

  • consideracion; consideration (of money). consideration: compensation, reward or remuneration for lending money (cf. toleration)

  • contrebusion or contribusion(s) (money). contribution money: local tax, often imposed by the military to support forces in the field or prevent plunder

  • coock maid. cook-maid: female servant employed to assist with the cooking

  • cordovan. cordovan: made of Cordovan leather

  • corence; corents. currants

  • cornelion (ring). cornelian: reddish quartz, used for seals

  • corviser. corviser (-or): shoemaker

  • cosen; cosin(s). cousin(s)

  • costes (of veal). costelet(tes): cutlet, or small cut of meat, usually veal or mutton

  • cote. coat

  • cott(s). cot(s): a small building for protection or shelter; swines cotts. swine cots: pig-cots; pig shelters

  • cottened (of fabric). cottoned: having a soft, fluffy nap

  • pg 327coult(s). colt(s)

  • coultsfoote; cowlts foote. coltsfoot: weed used in medicine

  • counsell; cowncell; cownsell. counsel: advice; opinion; judgement

  • cource; cowrce. coarse

  • courier (cloth). [no record found]

  • cowncel(l)(er)(or). councellor: provider of legal advice

  • coventry blue (thread). Coventry-blue: blue thread, made in Coventry and used for embroidery

  • coverlet(t)(s). coverlet(s): uppermost bed covering, counterpane

  • cowcombers; cowcumbers; cucomber. cucumber(s)

  • cownffett dishes. comfit dishes: sweetmeat dishes

  • cownters. counters: round pieces of hard material such as metal or ivory used for arithmetical calculation

  • cowper. cooper: maker of wooden vessels made from staves and hoops, e.g., buckets, tubs

  • cowping (vessels). cooping: to bind with hoops

  • coyfes. coif: close fitting hat covering all round the head

  • crestes. crest: finishing stone for a roof ridge or wall; abbreviation for 'cresttile': bent tiles used to cover the ridge of a roof

  • crier (court). crier: court officer that makes announcements and maintains order

  • cristen(ed)(ing). christen(ed)(ing): initiation into the christian church, baptism Cristmas. Christmas

  • crock. crock: metal or earthern ware vessel

  • crule. crewel: thin worsted yarn with two threads used for tapestry, embroidery, fringing and other decorative items

  • cruppier. crupper: leather strap buckled to the back of a saddle and passing under the horse's tail to stop it slipping forwards

  • culler—see coller. colour

  • cum(me). come

  • curlles; currles. curls: hair curls? currlings irorn. curling iron

  • curry comb. curry comb: metal comb for rubbing down or grooming horses

  • cypress cat. cyprus-cat: cat with dark markings, a tabby

  • damask rose. damask rose: pink or light red rose, supposed to have come originally from Damascus

  • damsons. damsons: small, dark coloured plums

  • dawbing. daubing: coating with a layer of plaster, mortar, clay

  • dawncer; dawncing. dancer (-ing)

  • day or dey maid. dey-maid: dairy maid

  • de (Latin). de: of, from

  • pg 328deare. deer

  • deccesed. deceased

  • delving. delving: digging, especially in preparing land for a crop

  • demi; demy(e). demi-: half; one yeare demy. one and a half years

  • deseas(s)ed; de(s)ses(s)ed.see deccesed

  • det(t). debt

  • dettors. debtors

  • dey maid. see day maid

  • diching. ditching: making and repairing ditches

  • dier. dyer: person employed in the dyeing of cloth and other materials

  • diet(t); diet(t)ed. diet(ed): daily food; obtain(ed) daily food

  • diing(e). dyeing

  • dim (abbrev). dimidius (-a, -um): half

  • dimety: dimity(e). dimity: cotton fabric with decorative weave

  • dissburced; dissburs(s)(ed). disbursed: paid out; expended

  • dissburs(e)ment(s); dissbursmunts. disbursements: money paid out, expended

  • divers. divers: various, several, sundry

  • doa (obsol). doa: a female deer; female hare or rabbit

  • dowlace; dowlas. dowlas: loosely spun and woven linen

  • dram. dram: measure of quantity of one eighth of an ounce

  • draw (of animals). draw: to pull a vehicle or implement

  • draw well. draw-well: a deep well from which water is drawn with a rope and bucket

  • draw(e)s (of wood). draws: poles felled and drawn from the wood and piled in clusters of one or two dozen

  • drench(ing). drench(ing): administering a draught of general medicine to an animal

  • dressing (horse). dressing: grooming or rubbing down; treat with a remedy

  • drin(c)k. drink; beverage; alcohol; to drink(e). to buy drink

  • duble. double

  • dublett. doublet: close fitting garment with or without sleeves usually worn by men

  • duch. dutch

  • duese. dues

  • durst. dare

  • dyssburced.—see dissburced

  • eche. each

  • el(l)ce; ells(e); els(e)(se). else: other; all comodities ellse. all other commodities

  • elicompane. elecampane: perennial plant used in medicine; roots were steeped in wine

  • pg 329ell(e)(s). ell(s): measure of length—English ell equals 45 inches

  • el(l)ow. yellow

  • erned. earned

  • errants. errands

  • estatute. e'statute: statute or bond

  • Ester. Easter

  • et (Latin). et: and

  • extent. extent: writ to recover debts due to the crown

  • faggot(t)(s). faggots: sticks, twigs and small branches used for fuel

  • faier; faire. fair: gathering of sellers and buyers of goods, often with entertainment, set down by charter

  • fairing. fairing: a present given at, or brought from a fair; a gift

  • fallow. fallow: ploughed land left unsown, to destroy weeds or improve yield

  • faucets.—see spiggets and faucets

  • fer(r)it(t); ferrett (silk). ferret silk: silk from inferior or damaged cocoons

  • fesant. pheasant

  • fetched (an old debt). fetched: elicited

  • fier. fire

  • fil(l)etts. fillets: head bands of ribbon, string or other material

  • filletting. filleting: to bind or tie up hair with a fillet

  • finde to; fownd to (dialect) (a child). to find: to stand as sponsor to, to answer for a child at baptism

  • firinge. firing: fuel, material for a fire

  • firkin. firkin: a small cask for liquids or solids measuring a quarter of a barrel

  • firr tree staffe; firre staves. fir staffs: walking staffs made from fir wood

  • flag(g)on. flagon: large bottle or vessel for holding wine or other drinking liquid

  • flaied. flayed: skinned

  • flanell; flanill(s); flanulls; flanylls. flannel(s): woollen cloth with a tight warp and loose weft, having a smooth soft surface

  • fla(s)skit(s). flasket(s): small fl ask; basket

  • Flaunders. Flanders, Belgium

  • flax. flax: plant from which linen fibres are extracted

  • flaxen. flaxen: made from flax

  • florished. flourished: ornamented or embellished

  • fludd. flood

  • footing. footing: making the foot part of socks, boots etc.

  • pg 330forberance. forbearance: abstaining from demanding payment of a debt; here money paid to a creditor, in addition to interest, for allowing the repayment of a loan to be deferred

  • forrow. furrow: narrow trench made in the earth with a plough

  • fould. fold: enclosure, often for domesticated animals

  • fownd to.—see finde

  • frice. frieze: hard, rough woollen cloth with a curly nap formed by circular scrubbing

  • Friers. Friars: originally a Dominican priory (Blackfriars) outside Widemarsh Gate, but during this period an almshouse

  • frock. frock: outer garment worn indoors by women and children, consisting of a bodice and skirt

  • frogge locks. frog lock: specialist type of lock?

  • frost nailling. frost-nailing: driving nails into a horse's shoes to stop it slipping in icy weather

  • fuggered. figured: to mark with figures; to embellish or decorate with a pattern (on the loom)

  • furnes (dialect). furnace: a large boiler fixed in brickwork

  • furniture (of draught animal). furniture: harness and trappings

  • further pasture. further pasture: the pasture situated furthest away (cf. hither pasture)

  • fus(s)tian; fustean. fustian: cloth made of cotton and flax, i.e., with a linen warp and cotton weft; homes fustian. [no record found]

  • fyllett.—see filletts

  • fyllett bredth. fillet breadth: the breadth of a fillet

  • gaile. gaol, jail

  • galanes. gallon(s): english measure of capacity consisting of eight pints

  • galoone. galloon: narrow close woven ribbon or braid of gold, silver or silk for trimming

  • garner. garner: storehouse for corn, granary

  • garritt. carrot

  • gimlet; gymmlet. gimlet: a boring tool

  • girdle. girdle: belt worn around the waist

  • girdler. girdler: maker of girdles and belts

  • girth(s). girth(s): band of leather or cloth around the body of an animal used to secure a pack or saddle

  • glasier; glazier. glazier: tradesman concerned with the fitting and removal of glass

  • glover. glover: maker, or seller, of gloves

  • Go(o)d(d)y. Goody: respectful title usually given to a married woman

  • Goodman. Goodman: the master of a house or other establishment

  • pg 331Goodwife; Goodwyfe. Goodwife: the mistress of a house or other establishment

  • gorgets; gorgit(t)s. gorget(s): deep cape-like collar, fastened under the chin, covering the neck and breast

  • gossip(s); gossiping. gossip(s)(ing): female friend invited to be present at the birth; sponsor for a child

  • goun(e); gowned); gown(e)(es). gown(s)

  • graffing. grafting: inserting a shoot from one tree into another

  • grain(d)g(e) land. grange land: land belonging to a farm held by the church or a manorial lord

  • gratis. gratis: without charge, cost or payment

  • graunted. granted

  • grawnd. grand

  • greene geese. green geese: young geese

  • grete. great

  • groates. groat(s): unit of currency worth 4d, not issued for circulation after 1662

  • grogram; grogran. grogram: a cloth made of grogram or grograin yarns, large rounded twists that could be watered to make mohair

  • guift. gift

  • gymmlet.—see gimlet

  • haberdasher. haberdasher: dealer in caps and small wares, e.g., tape, ribbons, thread

  • haifer; heifer; heyfer. heifer: a young cow that has not calved

  • handcarcher; handchercher; handkarcher(s); han(d)kerchers. handkerchief(s)

  • hank. hank: a skein of yarn or thread

  • harper. harper: person who plays a harp

  • hartichoks (obsol). hartichoke(s), hartichough(s): obsolete form of artichoke

  • hatchet. hatchet: light, small axe

  • head staule or staulle. head-stall: part of the bridle or halter that fits round the head

  • hear(e); her(e). hair

  • hearbage; herba(d)g(e). herbage: herbaceous growth or vegetation covering a large expanse of ground, e.g., pasture

  • hearing (obsol). hearing: obsolete form of herring

  • heifer.—see haifer

  • hemp. hemp: annual herbaceous plant cultivated for its fibres

  • heyfer.—see haifer

  • Hillary tearme. Hilary term: one of four law terms (along with Easter, Trinity and Michaelmas) during which time courts were open for business, running from January until Easter

  • pg 332hind (obsol). hand: obsolete word for handle

  • hindes. hind(s): servant, especially agricultural

  • hit(t) (pronoun). it

  • hither pasture. hither pasture: the pasture situated nearest in distance (cf. further pasture)

  • hitherto. hitherto: as yet; until now

  • hogg(e)shead(s); hog(g)shed(s); hogshead(s). hogshead(s): a large cask for liquids, designated in 1423 as 63 old-wine gallons, or 52.5 imperial gallons; in Hereford, a hogshead of cider contained 110 gallons

  • hol(l)and. holland: linen fabric from the province of Holland in the Netherlands, in a number of varieties

  • Holimott; Hollyment. Hallmote or Halmote court: court baron; lord of the manor's court

  • holing. holeing?: to make a hole

  • Holirood Day; Holirooday; Holiroode Day. Holyrood Day: Rood Day— Festival of the Invention of the Holy Cross, May 3, or Festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, September 14

  • homiley. homily: sermon; religious discourse, especially one with educational intent

  • hops. hops: ripened cones of the female hop-plant, used for brewing

  • hors locks. horse locks: shackles for horses feet

  • hose. hose: leg covering

  • hott water. strong spirit or liquor

  • hunny. honey

  • hurden (cloth). harden, herden, hurden: coarse fabric made from hards or hurds

  • hurds. hurds: the coarser parts of flax and hemp

  • huswyfes powndes (of wick yarn). housewife's pounds: a specific measure of weight

  • imbrodered; imbrotherd. embroidered

  • imprimis (Latin). first of all; especially

  • in graine. engrain, ingrain: to dye crimson or scarlet with cochineal; to dye in fast colours

  • in part of. in part of: in part payment of

  • in tyme of. in time of: during

  • inc(k)le; inkle. inkle: linen tape used for a variety of purposes; type of ribbon

  • increse (of livestock). increase: growth in numbers through breeding

  • indentures. indentures: deed or sealed contract; paier of indentures. indentures between two or more parties having two or more copies: originally both copies were written on one piece of parchment which was then cut or torn so that both could be matched at a later date, hence a pair of indentures

  • indifferently. indifferently: impartially, indiscriminately

  • pg 333ingros(s)ing. engrossing: writing out in legal form

  • intreted. entreated

  • irons. irons (for a bushel). iron clasps for a bushel container; irons (for a smoothing iron or steel). iron rods that were heated and inserted into a box-type iron

  • iron munger. iron monger: seller of ironware and hardware

  • italiano. Italian cloth?

  • jack(e). jack: machine for turning the spit when roasting meat or lifting heavy weights

  • Jack an apes. jackanapes: tame monkey or ape

  • jeine fustean; jeines fustian. jene fustian, jean: twilled cotton cloth, a type of fustian

  • jointer; joynture. jointure: provision of property for a wife in the event of her widowhood

  • jorney(s); jurney. journey(s)

  • jowle (fish). jowl, jole: head (and shoulders) of certain fish, such as salmon and sturgeon

  • joyner. joiner: craftsman in wood, usually undertaking lighter, more ornamental work than a carpenter

  • Justeses of Peace. Justice(s) of the Peace: local magistrate charged with keeping the peace and other responsibilities

  • kaies.—see kay

  • kalimanco.—see calimanco

  • Kandl(e)mas.—see Candlmas

  • kay(es); kayse. key(s)

  • keeper. gamekeeper: servant employed to take care of game and prevent poaching; nurce keeper. nurse-keeper: sicknurse

  • kersey. kersey: coarse woollen cloth, usually ribbed and woven from long wool

  • killen; killin. kiln; killen heare. kiln hair: cloth of hair fabric for a kiln

  • kings provysion. provision: ordinance for checking the king's autonomy—here a tax granted to the king by Parliament

  • kirtle(s). kirtle(s): a gown; a skirt or outer petticoat

  • knott (garden). knot: intricately designed flowerbed, or laid out garden plot; knotts (ribbon). knots: decorative knots of ribbon

  • Lady Day. Lady Day: a day kept to celebrate some event in the life of Mary, mother of Jesus Christ, so Conception (December 8), Assumption (August 15), Nativity (September 8), or Annunciation (March 25)

  • Lam(m)as. Lammas: ancient festival of ripening corn (Lammas Day, 1 August)

  • pg 334lambative. lambitive: medicine taken by licking, often with a liquorice stick

  • lanthorn. lantern

  • lap(pe). lap: to wrap or fold in

  • lasing; lased. lacing; laced

  • lathes. lathe(s): supporting structure, a stand?

  • lawn(d)(e); lawne. lawn: fine linen resembling cambric; cobweb(b) lawne. cobweb lawn: a very fine transparent lawn

  • leace. lease: contract conveying land between parties for a stated period of time, usually for a fee or rent

  • leaps. leaps: matings

  • lecter. lecture

  • leefftenant. lieutenant: officer next in rank to a captain

  • lemmster ore. Lemster (Leominster) ore: a fine carding wool from the Ryland sheep in the Vales of Hereford

  • lewne. loan

  • lewsing. loosening

  • licker. liquor: fluid; goosse licker. goose grease or oil for lubrication; soft licker. soft grease?

  • lickeres; licorass. liquorice

  • lights (offal). lights: lungs of an animal cooked as food

  • linen; linin. linen: cloth woven from flax; items made from linen

  • linge pinnes. linch-pin(s): pin passing through the axletree to hold the wheel in place

  • liverey sadles. saddles in livery colours and designs

  • liver(e)y; liveries. livery(s): suit of clothes or uniform for employees

  • loaff(e); lof(f)e(s). loaf (-ves)

  • loine. loin: joint of meat cut from the lower part of the back

  • loke money. look for money

  • loked work. looked for work

  • lokes. locks

  • lokinge to. looking to: looking after, tending or nursing

  • lolnding. lulling?: soothing with sounds or caresses

  • long (adverbial phrase). for a long time

  • long iron. land-iron?: andiron or firedog, an iron bar used to support burning wood

  • loope lace. loop-lace: lace patterns worked with a needle on a fine net

  • lordship. lordship: land belonging to a lord

  • lotting. lotting: sorting into lots or sections

  • lowp. loop

  • Lowsonday. Low Sunday: Sunday next after Easter

  • lugges. lugs: rods for thatching

  • Lukes Day. St Luke's Day: 18 October, a customary day for paying accounts

  • pg 335mab(b)(es)(s). mab(s): mop

  • mace. mace: dried outer part of the nutmeg

  • Maiar; maier; maior(e). mayor: chief office-holder of a city or borough corporation

  • mainchettes; manchet(e). manchet(s): the best wheaten bread

  • make even. make even: to clear the account between the two parties

  • marchant. merchant

  • maria(d)g(e). marriage

  • maried. married

  • mark(e)s (money). mark(s): money of account in which one mark equals 13s 4d

  • mason. mason: person working in stone

  • math. a mowing; after math. after-math: second mowing of the grass that has grown after the early summer mowing; later math. later-math, lattermath: the later mowing, or aftermath

  • mault(e). malt: grain prepared for brewing or distilling; barley mault. barley prepared for brewing or distilling

  • maultsive. malt sieve

  • meale. meal: edible part of a pulse or grain ground into a powder

  • medley (cloth). medley: cloth woven of mixed colours

  • melted her greace. to melt one's grease: to exhaust one's strength through excessive effort

  • mem(i)randon. memorandum: a note to aid memory, or to remind the writer of a certain event

  • mercer. mercer: dealer in textile fabrics, especially those of high quality

  • metheglin. metheglin: spiced or medicated mead, originally peculiar to Wales

  • Micha(e)l(l)mas; Mickaellmas(s); Mi(c)klmas. Michaelmas: Feast of St Michael, Michaelmas Day, St Michael and all Angels, 29 September

  • mid(d)somer. midsummer: June 21, the period of the summer solstice

  • millard (dialect). millud: miller

  • millian; million. Milan: fabric from Milan in Lombardy; bare millian or million. bare Milan: Milan fabric with a short nap or no nap, or threadbare

  • millner. miller

  • millons. melon(s): any kind of edible gourd; pumpkin

  • mingled (cloth). mingled: cloth woven in mixed colours

  • mittins. mittens: coverings for the hands with separate parts for the thumbs

  • moety. moiety: a half; one of two parts into which something has been divided

  • mohere. mohair; fabric made from goat's hair alone, or twisted with jersey, worsted, silk or linen

  • mon(e)(n)th(es)(s); munths. month(s)

  • moorne; moorhing(e). mourn(ing)

  • pg 336more. moreover

  • morgage. mortgage: conveyance of real estate to a creditor as security for a cash debt

  • morow. morrow: the following day

  • morter. mortar: sand and lime mixed with water used to bind bricks or stone (adding hair made a type of plasterer's cement)

  • mow (noun). mow: stack of hay, grain, corn, beans, peas etc.

  • muffe. muff: a cylindrical covering for both hands, used by men and women

  • mus(s)cadin(e); muscudine. muscadine-wine: muscatel, a strong, sweet wine made from muscat grapes

  • muscovy(e) (duck). musk-duck: domesticated, South American duck, mistakenly called the Muscovy or Barbary duck

  • musk. musk: reddish brown substance secreted by the male musk-deer

  • musskit(t). musket: hand gun

  • mut(t)onn(e); mutons. mutton: sheep carcass or sheep flesh; sheep intended for consumption

  • nagg(e). nag: a small riding horse or pony

  • naile. nail: a measure of length for cloth of 2.25 inches or a sixteenth of a yard

  • naught. naught: of a bad condition or poor quality; of no worth or value

  • neeldes (dialect). nilds: obscure dialect form of needles

  • neett or neette pinnes. net-pins: pins used in net making

  • new derectory. Directory for Public Worship: church liturgy introduced in 1645

  • nunnes thrid. nun's thread: fine, white sewing cotton, as used by nuns

  • nurce; nurse. nurse: woman employed to suckle or more generally attend to young children

  • nurce keeper.—see keeper

  • nursed. nursed: suckled; cared for

  • nuse. news

  • nuttme(e)ggs. nutmegs: spice from the East Indies; case nuttmeggs. case nutmegs: a type of nutmeg used in cookery and medicine?

  • ob (abbrev). obolus: a half penny

  • oliffe(s). olive(s); oliffe culler. olive colour: dull yellow-green colour

  • os(s)tler. ostler: stableman or groom at an inn

  • otes. oats

  • ounce(s). ounce(s): unit of weight of one sixteenth of a pound

  • overseer(e)(s) for the poor. overseer(s) for the poor: parish officer appointed annually to administer poor relief

  • packsaddle. packsaddle: saddle adapted for the carrying of packs

  • pg 337packthrid. packthread: stout thread or twine used for tying up bundles or packs

  • pads. pad(s): soft stuffed saddle; basket or pannier

  • paier; paire. pair

  • paiing. paying

  • paiment(s). payments

  • Pallas; Pallice. Bishop's Palace, Hereford

  • pal(l)e(s). pale(s): stake, used especially for fencing; a fence

  • paler. paler: person who erects a paling or fence

  • pallsey. palsy: impairment of muscles or sensation; paralysis

  • pamflet(t)s; pamphilletts. pamphlets

  • pane (saffron). pane: plot or section of more or less rectangular-shaped ground for cultivation

  • parchment. parchment: animal skin, dressed and prepared for writing

  • parler. parlour

  • parochia (Latin). parish

  • Parris. Paris, France

  • parshare waggon. Pershore wagon: the wagon from Pershore?

  • parson(n). parson: beneficed clergyman

  • past boord; paste-boorde. paste board: board made from sheets of paper that have been stuck, compressed and rolled together

  • pasty. pasty: meat pie

  • pealls (bells). peal(s): the ringing of a set of bells; changes rung on a set of bells, sometimes lasting several hours

  • peck(e). peck: a unit of measurement of dry goods equal to a quarter of a bushel or 2 gallons

  • pecking. pecking: to indent or mark

  • peell (of hay). pile? of hay

  • peres. pears

  • perfumer. perfumer: person employed to perfume rooms; person engaged in making or selling perfumes

  • perpetian. perpetuana: a light, smooth, finished woollen serge

  • pese. peas

  • pewterer. pewterer: maker of pewter goods

  • philletting.—see filletting

  • phiseck; phis(s)i(c)k; physic. physic: medicine, medical treatment or regimen

  • phisision. physician: academically trained doctor qualified to practice medicine

  • piche. pitch; burggin piche or pitch. burgundy pitch?: resinous juice of the spruce fir

  • pigi(o)ns. pigeons

  • pg 338pikevells. pike weels?: wicker traps for catching pike, or baskets for holding them in

  • pilles. pills

  • pin(in)es; pinmes; pinn(i)es; pinns. pins

  • pinked. pinked: cut or perforated in a pattern for ornamentation

  • pip(p)in(s). pipkin(s): small pot or pan used mainly in cookery

  • plaiers. players: musicians, performers

  • plaistering. plastering

  • plating (saddle). plaiting: to interweave or gather in folds

  • plock(s). plack(s)?: small plot of ground; small amount of anything plock(s)?: wood, log

  • plow(ing); plowinge forrow. plough, plow(ing)

  • plowe tymber. plough timber: timber for the plough

  • plumbes. plums

  • plump (obsol). plump: obsolete form of pump

  • pluss. plush: fabric with a longer and softer nap than velvet

  • pocket(t)(ts); pockitts; poketts. pocket(s): small pouch or bag worn on the person

  • point(e)s; poynts. point(s): a tagged cord or lace used as fastenings in place of buttons; thridden pointes. thread points

  • polonia; polony. Polonia: Poland, polish

  • pomatom. pomatum: pomade, more commonly a scented ointment applied to the skin (f. 61?), but also a cider drink made from apples (f. 40v?).

  • ponne. pond

  • porcion; porsion; portion. portion: share of family goods given to a child on adulthood or at marriage

  • pore. poor

  • poringe. porridge: pottage or soup

  • por(c)k(es). pork(s): swine, pig or a hog

  • pos(s)net(t)(s). posnet(s): small metal pot for boiling with a handle and three feet

  • post fine. post fine: duty paid to the Crown for the licence to levy a fine potingers. pottinger(s): metal, wood or earthernware vessel for liquid or semi-liquid food; porringer

  • potle. pottle: a measure of quantity for liquids and dry goods equal to two quarts or half a gallon

  • poulce; powlce. pulse: edible seeds of leguminous plants such as peas, beans and lentils

  • powder blue. powder-blue: powdered smalt (pulverised blue glass), especially for laundry use

  • powle (money). poll; poll tax

  • powle davy(e). poldavy: coarse canvas or sacking

  • pg 339powles. poles; standard powles. standard poles: upright timbers or scaffold poles; tall poles erected for display during celebrations

  • pownd (livestock). pound: enclosure retained by local authority to detain livestock found straying or trespassing, and for keeping livestock seized for non-payment of debt etc., until redeemed

  • pownd(e)(s). pound (sterling): unit of currency of 20 shillings (240d); pound (avoirdupois): unit of weight of 16 ounces; Britten claims in Hereford and Gloucester the unit could be 18 ounces.

  • precher(s). preacher

  • preching(e). preaching

  • prentis. apprentice

  • prises. prices; pigges at 20s price. pigs costing 20s

  • prosses. process: formal commencement or proceedings of an action at law

  • provinder. provender: food and provisions, especially fodder for horses

  • proving (document). proving: establishing the validity of

  • prunelo. prunella: a strong fabric, originally silk and then worsted, often used for the gowns of barristers or graduates, or the uppers of ladies' boots and shoes

  • pulce—see poulce

  • pultry. poultry

  • purce; purs. purse

  • purslane. purslane: herb, sometimes a pot-herb, used in salads

  • putt foorth. put forth: to place the money with an individual or institution for the purposes of increasing its value; to layout money for profit

  • qininge. quoining?: to secure or raise with a quoin or wedge; to provide with quoins or corners

  • quarrill. quarry

  • quart(e)(es). quart(s): unit of capacity of 2 pints

  • quier. choir

  • quier(s); quyer (of paper). quire(s): 24 (or 25) sheets of paper

  • quinces. quinces: hard, pear-shaped fruit of a small tree, used to preserve and flavour

  • quishi(o)ns. cushions

  • raceved; recev(v)ed. received; rece by. received by way of, or from

  • raine(s). rein(s): long narrow strap attached to the bridle

  • rash. rash: a smooth fabric made of silk or worsted, with a say warp

  • rawle (and pin). roll: roller

  • reame. ream: a quantity of paper, properly 20 quires or 480 sheets

  • reasings—see also resings. raisins

  • pg 340rece (abbrev).—see raceved

  • receight(s); receyghts; reseight(s). receipts: amounts of sums received

  • reconed; reconing. reckoned (-ing)

  • redy. ready

  • redy money. ready money: cash

  • relacon. relation

  • removes. remove(s): the act of removing an old horse shoe

  • renued. renewed

  • rep(e)rasion(s); rep(e)ration. reparation(s): repair

  • rering. rearing: raising to maturity

  • resedue. residue

  • resings of the sonne; resings solis or sollis. raisins, especially those from Spain

  • reson. reason

  • rewed. rewed: marked with stripes or lines

  • riband(s). ribbon(s)

  • ribanding. ribboning

  • rick (of hay). rick: constructed stack of hay

  • ridle. riddle: sieve with a coarse mesh

  • roane; rone. roan: colour in which the predominant shade is interspersed with others

  • rosen. rosin or resin: solid residue of distilled crude turpentine

  • rowle. roll: padded support for a gown or petticoat worn round the waist; a round pad of hair or other material used as part of a headdress; bumme rowle. bum roll: also known as a 'roll farthingale', and similar to first definition above

  • ruff(e)(es). ruff(s): decorative neckware usually of starched muslin or linen;

  • ruffe beeffe. rough beef

  • ruffstocks. ruff stock(s): stiff band for a ruff

  • sack(e). sack: general name for white wines imported from the Canaries and Spain

  • sackcloth. sackcloth: coarse fabric used for sacks or bags

  • sadler. saddler: maker or dealer in saddles and saddlery

  • saf(f)ern. saffron: dried crocus stigmas

  • safgard. safe-guard: outer skirt worn by women to protect their clothes when riding

  • saieth. sayeth

  • salemon; samonne. salmon

  • salit(ts). sallet(s): salad

  • salit oyle. salit oil: oil made of olives

  • pg 341salt peeter. saltpetre: potassium nitrate—chief constituent of gunpowder and used medicinally; salt peeter men. saltpetre men: men appointed to find saltpetre for making gunpowder

  • sarc(e)net(t). sarcenet, sarsenet: very fine soft silk material satin. satin: silk fabric with a glossy front surface, in which the warp almost completely covers the weft

  • saw pitt. saw pit: pit over which a frame was erected to support timber being sawn with a long handled saw by two men, one in the pit and one above it sawcers. saucers: deep plates or dishes, used for sauce or condiments, and more generally as receptacles

  • sawiers; sawyers. sawyer(s): workman involved in sawing timber, especially in a saw-pit

  • say. say: fine cloth resembling serge, usually of wool scabling (tiles). scabbling: the rough dressing of stone, or as here, tiles scol(l)er(s). scholar

  • score. score: a set or group of twenty; debt

  • scotch or scots cloth. scotch cloth: fabric resembling lawn but cheaper, said to have been made of nettle fibres scowps. scoops: ladles or shovels; baskets

  • scowring. scouring (watering place): clearing and cleansing; scouring (fabric): removing dirt and grease using some detergent process

  • scracses. scratches: a disease of the feet in horses, in which the pastern (between the fetlock and the hoof) appears as if scratched

  • scrivener. scrivener: scribe, clerk or copyist

  • search. searce: a sieve or a strainer

  • seasoned upon. seisined upon: seized upon

  • second bred. wheaten bread of second quality, baked from flour more coarsely sifted than that for best quality bread

  • seednes. seedness: seedtime; seednes or sidnes cake. seednes cake: cake for seedtime, here offered in November and December

  • segge (dialect). segge: obscure or dialect form of sedge, a coarse grassy rushlike plant

  • seid. said

  • seling. sealing

  • seller. cellar

  • seme. seam

  • ser(d)ge. serge: single warp fabric made of silk, silk and wool, wool and linen, or wool

  • servitaw; servitor(s); serviter. servitor: man-servant, caretaker or assistant; officer in certain institutions

  • sesstern. cistern: may have been used in a well-appointed dining room for washing dishes, or more generally to store water or other liquid

  • pg 342sett foorth or fourth.—see putt foorth

  • sexton. sexton: church officer responsible in the main for the ringing of the bells and digging graves

  • shellboords. shield-boards: strong board on the right side of the plough

  • sher(e)s. shears

  • shethe. sheath

  • ship. sheep

  • shipp. ship; ship(p)ing money. ship money: ancient war-time tax to provide ships for the king's service

  • Shore Thursday. Sheer Thursday: Maundy Thursday, the Thursday in Holy Week

  • shote. shoot

  • Shroff Sunday. Shrove Sunday: Quinquagesima or Shrove Sunday, the last Sunday before Lent

  • Shroftide. Shrovetide: Shrove Sunday, Shrove Monday and Shrove Tuesday

  • shuerty (-ies). surety: a formal pledge to undertake the completion of a task, to provide security for an undertaking

  • shugar; shug(g)er(r). sugar; peece shuger. lumps of sugar? powder shuger. pulverized or ground sugar; shug(g)er(r) lo(a)f(f)e(s). sugar loaf (-ves): conical moulded lump of hard refined sugar

  • shuing(e). shoeing; shuing(e) … rownd. attaching or replacing all four horse shoes

  • shumaker. shoemaker

  • shuse. shoes

  • shut(t)e(s). suite(s): either of clothes, or in law; law shute. law suit: prosecution of a claim in a court of law; shute of buckles. suit of buckles: set or series of buckles

  • sidnes cake.—see seednes cake

  • sift; sive(s). sieve(s)

  • sill. sill: strong, horizontal timber

  • silven. silver

  • simbills. cymbals?

  • simnill. simnel: bread or cake made with white flour and sometimes fruit, eaten in mid-Lent or Mothering Sunday in some areas

  • Simon and Judes Day. St Simon and St Jude's Day, 28 October

  • sinamond. cinnamon: East Indian spice having restorative and carminative properties

  • sipers. cypress: fabric imported originally from or through Cyprus; silk sipers. silk cypress

  • sise. size (magnitude): dimensions of an item; size (substance): glutinous substance used to dress or prepare a range of materials

  • sisters thrid. sisters thread: fine sewing thread

  • pg 343sithe. scythe: agricultural tool for mowing crops or grass

  • sithence. sithence: since then

  • sive(s).—see sift

  • skaine. skein: quantity of thread or yarn; of cotton equal to 80 turns on a 54 inch reel, usually tied in a loose knot

  • skarlet(t). scarlet: a woollen puke cloth of vivid red colour; bastard skarlet(t).bastard scarlet: inferior scarlet

  • skellit. skillet: metal cooking utensil, usually with feet and a long handle

  • skinins; skinm(es); skinne(s); skinn(i)s. skin(s)

  • slived silk. slived or sleaved silk: silk divided by separation into filaments

  • smale. small

  • smock(e)(s). smock(s): female undergarment; shift

  • smo(o)thing iron or steel(l)e. smoothing-iron: probably a box-type iron designed to accept heated rods, but can also refer to a flat iron

  • snafle. snaffl e: simple bridle bit

  • soine. essoin: court excuse or exemption; soine peny. essoin penny?: cost of exemption

  • sojorn. sojourn: to stay temporarily, to lodge

  • som(m)(e); sum. sum: sum total of amounts; some

  • somer. summer

  • sope. soap

  • sorrel. sorrel: of a bright chestnut or red-brown colour

  • sowsing fish. soused fish: pickled fish

  • spar(r)ow bills. sparrow bills: small amounts owing

  • spend. spend: expend, use

  • spiggets and faucets. spigot(s) and faucet(s): old type of tap consisting of a spigot—a tapered tube—the narrow end of which was inserted into the barrel, and a faucet—a wooden plug or screw used to close the other end

  • spincter. spinster: a legal term for woman as yet unmarried

  • spittle. spittle: small spade

  • spring tree. swingle tree?: pivoted crossbar for a carriage

  • squared; squaring (timber). squared (-ing): timber made square or rectangular in cross section

  • St James tide. St James' tide, 25 July

  • St Mari or Mary Day.—see Annunciation

  • St Markes Day. St Mark's Day, 25 April

  • St Martins de Campis. St Martin's in the Fields, London

  • staies. stays: laced underbodice stiffened with whalebone, originally in two pieces that were laced together

  • stamell; stamill. stammel: a coarse woollen cloth or linsey woolsey, usually dyed red

  • pg 344stand bownd. stand bound: to be bound in law to perform an undertaking, here to provide surety for a debt

  • stat(t)ute debt. statute debt: debt guaranteed by statute, usually statute merchant or statute staple.

  • statute lace. statute lace: type of lace regulated by statute staul(l)e.—see head staule

  • steele. steel: any steel instrument such as a weapon, a flat iron, or a knife sharpener

  • steeres. steers: young oxen, especially those that have been castrated stipering up (obsol). stiper: a prop; stipering: to prop up stock(e); stok. stock (money): amount of cash held as capital; stock (garment): band for a shirt or ruff

  • stominger. stomacher: an ornamental covering for the chest

  • ston(n)(e) (weight). stone: measure of weight of 14 pounds avoirdupois; in Hereford a stone of hemp weighed 12 pounds

  • stoned (male horse). stoned: not castrated

  • store swine. store-swine: pigs kept for breeding as part of the stock of the farm; lean pigs for fattening

  • Stranne. Strand, London

  • streinthen. strengthen

  • stript (tiffany). striped: having stripes

  • stuard. steward: person who manages an estate on behalf of his employer

  • stuff(e) (fabric). stuff: woven textile fabric

  • sturgion. sturgeon: large fish found in coastal and river waters

  • subberb. suburb: residential area outside the walls of a town or city

  • surety.—see shuerty

  • sug(g)er. —see shugar

  • supt. supped: ate supper

  • surerender. surrender: relinquish possession of

  • surjon(s). surgeon(s)

  • sussingle(s). surcingle(s): girth for horse or other animal

  • sweetmetes. sweetmeats: sweet foods such as confectionary, candied or sugared foods

  • tabee(ne); taby(e). tabby: silk taffeta

  • table (f.52v). supply of food

  • tafetey; tafety(e); taf(f)itey; tafity(e). taffeta: plain woven fabric stiffened with extra weft threads

  • tailers silk. tailor's silk: tailor's silk thread

  • tallow. tallow: animal fat separated by melting and clarifying, and used for soap, candles, dressing leather etc.

  • pg 345tamelletto; tamil(l)etto. tammy cloth, hot-pressed to give a glossy finish?

  • tamma; tammar. tammy: cloth woven of yarn shrunk and smoothed by scouring

  • tanner. tanner: person who tans hides to make leather

  • tassis. tasses: plates of armour to protect the lower trunk and thighs

  • tawny. tawny: brown colour in a variety of shades; composite colour of brown with orange or yellow

  • teare. tear: finest quality fibres, often referring to hemp or flax

  • teith. tithe: tenth part of the annual produce of land due to the church

  • telling (money). telling: counting or numbering

  • tenter hoocks. tenterhook(s): hooks to hold cloth in place on a tenter, or stretcher, after it has been treated; a metal hook for any purpose

  • thacke. thatch

  • theef(f)(es). thief (-ves)

  • thence. thence: from there, from that place

  • thither. thither: towards that place; there

  • thrastle(s). throstle(s): thrush, especially a song-thrush

  • thrave(s). thrave, threave: measure of straw or fodder, often 2 stooks with 12 sheaves in each, but which varies by locality

  • threefollwing—see also twy fallowing. thryfallowing or tryfallowing: ploughing or fallowing the land a third time (recommended by Tusser in July)

  • thrid. thread

  • throshing. threshing: separating grain from the straw by beating

  • thrumb; thrumme(s). thrum(s): waste thread or yarn;

  • thrumb mabb; thrumme mabbs or mabbes. thrum mab(s): mop of waste thread or yarn

  • tick (bed). tick: mattress covering

  • tif(f)any; tyfany. tiffany: a thin transparent silk gauze with a flowered pattern til(l)a(d)ge. tillage: tilled or ploughed land, suitable for arable cultivation tining(e); tyning. tining: enclosing, fencing or hedging, including repairing, especially a new hedge with dead thorns

  • tinker; tynker. tinker: mender of kettles, pots and other household items

  • tinsell riband. tinsel ribbon: ribbon interwoven with gold or silver thread to make it sparkle

  • tirk(e)y; tirki; turky. turkey (adjective): from Turkey, turkish; turkey (noun): a a turkey

  • to halfes. to halves: so as to have a half share in the profits

  • toke. took

  • toleraation; tol(l)erasion; toleration (debt). toleration: the cost of tolerating the non-payment of a debt (in addition to interest), forbearance

  • toule. toll

  • trace of onions. string of onions

  • pg 346trecle. treacle: medicinal compound, with a number of ingredients, used as a general antidote to poisons and malignant illnesses

  • trenchers. trencher(s): plate of wood, earthenware or metal

  • triminge (horse). trimming: decorating?

  • trisells. trestles

  • trobles. troubles

  • truckl bed. truckle-bed: low bed on castors or truckles, often pushed under a higher bed during the day

  • tuffe. tuftaffeta?: fabric with tufts of yarn or silk that had silk mixed with it

  • tufftes. tufts: clusters of fabric gathered at the base

  • tunne. ton (capacity): measure of timber of 40 or 50 cubic feet; ton (weight):20 hundredweight (cwt), or 2240 pounds

  • turffes. turf(s): sod or slab or grass, cut from the surface of the soil

  • turning the pace (horse). part of the training process when breaking in a horse

  • Twelf Eve. Twelfth Eve: the evening before Twelfth Day (Epiphany,6 January)

  • twelvmonth; twellv or twelve month. twelvemonth: a twelve-month period, a year; untill this tyme twelvmonth. until a year from now

  • twiggen; twiggin. twiggen: made of twigs or wickerwork

  • twilly. twilled: having ridges or diagonal lines on the surface; twilly wise. twilled style

  • twister. twisted thread

  • twy fallowing; twyfolling—see also threefollwing. twyfallowing: ploughing or fallowing a second time after the first ploughing in April

  • tyfany.—see tifany

  • tyning.—see tining

  • tynker.—see tinker

  • undersheriff. undersheriff: deputy or subordinate to the sheriff, the royal representative in the shires, with responsibility for the execution of the law

  • upsitting. upsitting: the first occasion a woman receives visitors after giving birth

  • urinall. urinal: glass vessel used to receive urine for the purposes of inspection; a chamber pot

  • us(s)(e). use: premium on money lent; interest; usse moneys. use monies:moneys gained through lending

  • valence. valance: a drapery border hanging from the bed canopy

  • val(l)et(t) wood. cleaned or prepared wood?

  • valleys (with axletrees). part of the axle mechanism on a carriage

  • vate. vat

  • pg 347vele. veal: flesh of a calf for consumption

  • verdigrece. verdigris: green/blue substance used as a pigment and for medicine

  • verser. verser: written in verse; moorning verser. mourning verses

  • vi(c)ker; vickkr. vicar: priest; vicker of the quier. vicar choral: cathedral officer or priest appointed to sing part of the services

  • vide(licet) (Latin). namely; that is to say

  • viling. filing

  • vint(n)er. vintner: wine merchant, or innkeeper selling wine

  • vittails; vit(te)les. victuals: food, provisions

  • wad[?] wicks. wad wicks?: wicks made from matted silk or cotton fibres rather than tow or flax?

  • waights. weights

  • waiing(e); weiing. weighing

  • waine(s). wain(s): large open vehicle drawn by oxen or horses

  • wainscot. wainscot: oak boarding, used mostly for panels

  • wait(e)(s). wait(s): one who waits in attendance; a musician

  • walker. walker: a fuller of cloth; one who treads and beats cloth in order to thicken and clean it

  • walchman. welshman

  • wallet. wallet: bag for holding provisions

  • walsh. welsh

  • want(t)ed; want(ing). want(ed)(ing): lacking, missing, deficient; wanting one

  • month. one month missing

  • wardins. wardens: old variety of baking pear

  • ware. wore

  • warming pan(ne). warming-pan: long-handled covered metal pan containing hot coals, for warming beds

  • warp. warp: lengthwise threads in the loom, usually twisted harder than the crosswise weft or woof

  • wash beetle. wash-beetle: a wooden mallet for beating clothes during the washing process

  • wassell. wassail: spiced ale drunk at Christmas and New Year celebrations

  • wat(t)ched. watchet: light blue cloth, or light blue in colour; watched blue silk. light blue silk; wattched tafetey. light blue taffeta

  • watered. watered: having a wavy damask-like pattern from being sprinkled with water and passed through a calender (machine that presses cloth under rollers); blakwatterd. black watered

  • watter cowrse. watercourse: stream; artificial channel for water

  • weather, wether (livestock). wether: male sheep, especially a castrated ram

  • pg 348wedges. wedge(s): tapered piece of wood or other material, used for cleaving or splitting wood or stone

  • weiing.—see waiing

  • wench(e). wench: young woman; maid; girl

  • whal(e)bon(e). whalebone

  • whay (medicinal). whey: the serum or watery part of the milk, to which was added a variety of ingredients for medicinal purposes

  • wheeler. wheelwright: maker of wheels and wheeled vehicles

  • whelp. whelp: young dog, puppy

  • whett stonne. whetstone: stone used to give a smooth edge to cutting tools once they have been ground

  • whit(t)ed. whited: whitened

  • whiting. whiting: whitewash

  • whit(t)(e)meat; whitmete. whitemeat: dairy produce such as cheese and milk, and sometimes eggs

  • Whitson Day or Monday; Whitsontide; Whit(t)son Eve. Whitsuntide: the season of Whit Sunday—a Christian festival celebrated on the seventh Sunday after Easter—and the following days

  • whood; whoode. hood

  • whooper. hooper: a craftsman that makes and fits hoops for barrels, etc.; a cooper

  • whoop(pe)s. hoops

  • who(o)p(p)ing. hooping: making hoops

  • wier. wire

  • winter. winter: to pass the winter; to provide food and shelter during the winter

  • with out. without: lacking, outside; with out Widmarsh Gate. outside Widemarsh Gate

  • withies; withy. withy (-ies): willow

  • wodcox; woodcocks. woodcock(s): migratory bird highly regarded as a food

  • wodden. wooden

  • woof. woof: threads that cross the web of material from side to side, also known as the weft

  • woonts. want(s): mole; woont hil(l)ocks. mole hills

  • wosted; wo(o)s(s)tid. worsted: fabric made from twisting long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel

  • worts. worts: general name for any plants of the cabbage family; plants, vegetables or herbs used for culinary and medicinal purposes

  • Yeark shere. Yorkshire

  • yeard(des)(e)(s); yerd. yard(s): measuring rod of 3 feet (36 inches) in length

  • yeat. yeat or yat: gate

  • yeock. yoke

  • pg 349The following books have been used in the construction of the glossary:

  • B. W. Adkin, Copyhold and other land tenures of England (London, 1907)

  • T. Blount, Glossographia: or a dictionary (1656)

  • J. Britten, Old Country and Farming Words: Gleaned from Agricultural Books(London, 1880)

  • C. R. Cheney, ed., Handbook of Dates for Students of English History (Cambridge reprint, 1996)

  • E. Cocker, The Young Clerks Tutor Enlarged, eighth edition (1675)

  • T. Coghan, The Haven of Health, fourth edition (1636)

  • C. W. Cunnington and P. Cunnington, A Handbook of English Costume in the Seventeenth Century, third edition, (London, 1972)

  • E. A. Gooder, Latin for Local History: An Introduction, second edition (Harlow, 1978)

  • R. G. Griffiths, 'Joyce Jeffreys of Ham Castle: A 17th Century Business Gentlewoman', Parts 1 and 2, Transactions of the Worcestershire Archaeological Society, 10 (1933) and Appendix, 11 (1934)

  • J. Harland, ed., The House and Farm Accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall in the County of Lancaster, at Smithills and Gawthorpe, from September 1582 to October 1621, Chetham Society, 43 (1857) and 46 (1858)

  • J. Hart, K INIKH or The Diet of the Diseased (1633)

  • C. Heresbach, Foure Bookes of Husbandry, Collected by M. Conradus Heresbachius, Councellor to the high and mightie Prince, The Duke of Cleve (1601)

  • E. Kerridge, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England (Manchester, 1985)

  • R. Milward, A Glossary of Household, Farming and Trade Terms from Probate Inventories (Chesterfield, 1986)

  • S. Needham, A Glossary for East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire Probate Inventories (Hull, 1984)

  • W. W. Skeat and A. L. Mayhew, eds., A Glossary of Tudor and Stuart Words (Oxford, 1914)

  • S. D. Smith, ed., 'An Exact and Industrious Tradesman': The Letter Book of Joseph Symson of Kendal, 1711–1720 (Oxford, 2002)

  • T. Tusser, Five Hundred points of good Husbandry (1638)

  • D. Woodward, ed., The Farming and Memorandum Books of Henry Best of Elmswell, 1642 (Oxford, 1984)

  • J. Wright, ed., The English Dialect Dictionary (London, 1898)

  • Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition on CD-Rom (1989)

  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, Volumes 1–3 (1993 and 1997)

  • Words of Old Worcestershire (Kidderminster, 1981)

pg 350

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
1 C. Barber, Early Modern English (London 1976), 17.
Editor’s Note
2 G. E. Dawson and L. Kennedy-Skipton, Elizabethan Handwriting 1500–1650: A Guide to the Reading of Documents and Manuscripts (London, 1966), 17.
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