pg 376APPENDIX C NOTES
The Dedication to Love (page 1)
l. 14. numerous Shrine. Poems provide Love's shrine; they are, at once, written in 'numbers' or rhythmical periods and offered in abundance. Stanley's versification is considered in the Introduction (part II).
The Gloworme (page 2)
Saintsbury: 'Sir Egerton Brydges thought that "A stile of poetry so full of quaint and far-fetched conceits cannot be commended as the most chaste and classical"; but that, "among trifles of this kind, The Glow-worm is singularly elegant and happy". Perhaps a later judgement, while waiving the indispensableness, or even pre-eminence, of chastity and classicality in verse, may doubt whether The Glow-worm itself is not rather too "elegant" to be as "happy" as some other things even of its author's. The last verse redeems it, though, to some extent.'
Praz suggests that this poem may be derived from Voiture, ii. 420, Pour le Grillon ('Je demeurois dans un four chaud'), Étrennes de quatre animaux, &c.
l. 2. animated. A favourite conceit with Stanley. A marginal note in C indicates Marino as the ultimate source. Stanley placed a similar note against 'living bark' in 'Arion', p. 340, l. 175. The reference is to Marino's description of the bull as an 'animata nave' in Il rapimento d'Europa ('In quella parte a punto'), La Sampogna, Paris, 1620, pp. 104 ff., l. 278. Stanley cites Marino's usage in the 'Excitations' to Moschus's 'Europa', 51. Sherburne, p. 95, employs 'animated Night' in 'The Night, or the fair Mourner'.
l. 9. terrestrial Galaxie. Another popular conceit found, for example, in Shirley, p. 19, 'Narcissus', l. 72.
The Breath (page 3)
Source: Honoré d'Urfé, L'Astrée, Rouen, 1616, ii, ff. 155–6:
Il Parle av Vent
- Doux zephir que ie vois errer follastremens
- Entre les crins aigus de ces plantes hautaines,
- Et qui pillant des fleurs les plus douces haleines,
- Auec ce beau larcin vas tout l'air parfumant.
- pg 377Si iamais la pitié te donna mouuement,
- Oublie en ma faueur icy tes douces peines:
- Et i'en va dans le sein de ces heureuses plaines,
- Où mon malheur reteint tout mon contentement.
- Va, mais porte auec toy les amoureuses plaintes
- Que parmy ces forests i'ay tristement empraintes,
- Seul & dernier plaisir entre mes desplaisirs.
- Là tu pourras trouuer sur des lèures iumelles
- Des odeurs & des fleurs plus douces & plus belles,
- Mais rapporte les moy pour nourrir mes désirs.
ll. 5–10. Cf. Hammond's 'The Spring', Saintsbury, ii. 496, in which the spring
- Solicits gardens for the breath of roses,
- To pay as homage to thy sweeter lips;
- Where such nectarean fragrancy he sips,
- That richly laden to the East he roves,
- And with thy breath perfumes those spicy groves. …
Desiring her to burn his Verses (page 3)
Source: Marino, iii. 87, Madonna arse le Poesie dell' Autore ('Non sazia ancor questa crudel Tiranna'): Praz (confirmed by manuscript note in C).
The Night (page 4)
Saintsbury: 'The metrical arrangement here is very delightful, and the Chorus-adjustment particularly happy.'
Praz: 'The title of The Night in the 1647 edn., Amori notturni, was evidently suggested by Marino's poem Amori notturni in Lira (parte seconda); however, the two poems run on different lines, apart from the last stanza of Stanley's, where such expressions occur as "th'envious Morn", "night, with these joys crown'd, outshine the day", which find parallels in Marino's "Invido Sol, che questa notte oscura/Era a me più che'l dì lucida e pura".'
Excuse for wishing Her lesse Fair (page 6)
Praz notes Tasso, iii, no. 532, Canzone ('Mentre ch'a venerar movon le genti'), as the basis of Stanley's argumentation, particularly ll. 21–40 and 71–75 of the Italian.
pg 378Chang'd, yet Constant (page 7)
The time and care Stanley spent in achieving the beauty of this lyric are displayed in C's many drafts and revisions. He may have taken his original inspiration from d'Urfé's Villanelle de Hylas sur son Inconstance, in L'Astrée, 1616, i, ff. 170–1:
- I'ayme à changer, c'est ma franchise,
- Et mon humeur m'y va portant:
- Mais quoy, si ie suis inconstant,
- Faut-il pourtant qu'on me mesprise?
- Tant s'en faut, qui m'arrestera,
- Beaucoup plus d'honneur en aura.
- Faire aymer vne ame barbare,
- C'est signe de grande beauté,
- Et rendre mon coeur arresté,
- C'est vn effect encor plus rare.
- Si bien que qui m'arrestera, …
- Arrester vn fais immobile,
- Qui ne le peut faire aisement?
- Mais arrester vn mouuement,
- C'est chose bien plus difficile.
- C'est pourquoy que. …
- Et pourquoy trouuez-vous estrange
- Que ie change pour auoir mieux?
- Il faudrait bien estre sans yeux
- Qui ne voudrait ainsi le change.
- Mais celle qui …
- On dira bien que cette belle,
- Qui rendra mon coeur arresté,
- Surpassera toute beauté,
- Me rendant constant & fidelle.
- Par ainsi qui. …
- pg 379 VI
- Venez doncques cheres Maistresses,
- Qui de beauté voulez le prix,
- Arrester mes legers esprits,
- Par des faueurs & des carresses
- Car celle qui. …
Stanley's poem can be compared with Sherburne, p. 109, 'Change defended' ('Leave Chloris, leave, prethee no more'), a translation from St. Amant's sonnet, 'Jamais rien n'approcha de mon heureux destin'.
Saintsbury: 'Here, perhaps for the first time, we get the fire of the period communicating to the verse its own glow and flicker. It is a pity he allowed himself double rhymes in stanza 3, which break the note (those at the end of st. 4 do not).'
The Self-Deceaver (page 10)
Source: Montalvan, pp. 274–5, La Desgraciada Amistad: 'Mi engaño y mi disengaño': Thomas.
Celia singing (page 13)
Praz suggested that this song was reminiscent of Voiture, ii. 332, Sur une belle voix ('Lorsque Bélise veut chanter'), but marginalia in C indicate Théophile and Marino as sources. On examination the poem proves to be a conflation of the imagery of Théophile, i. 209, Stances ('Quand tu me vois baiser tes bras'), ll. 19–24:
- La rose en rendant son odeur
- Le Soleil donnant son ardeur,
- Diane et le char qui la traine,
- Une Naïade dedans l'eau,
- Et les Graces dans un tableau,
- Font plus de bruict que ton haleine …
and Marino, iii. 42, Bella Cantatrice:
- Habbi Musica bella,
- Anzi, Musa nouella, habbiti il vanto
- De le due chiare cetre,
- Che le piante mouean, mouean le pietre.
- Che val però col canto
- Viuificar le cose inanimate,
- Se nel tuo viuo cor morta è pietate?
- pg 380 O chiari, ó degni honori,
- Porger l'anima a i tronchi, e torla a i cori,
- O belle, ö ricche palme,
- Dando la vita a i sassi, uccider l'alme.
Poems in praise of a beautiful woman singing or playing were extremely popular in England, as well as on the Continent. Carew, Shirley, Lovelace, Waller, Felltham, Cotton, and Reynolds all composed poems on this subject. Cf. Stanley's French and Latin treatments of the theme (pp. 14 and 244).
A la mesme (page 14)
Saintsbury: 'Stanley does not, like some more modern English writers of French verse, neglect his final e's, but he takes remarkable liberties with the caesura.'
l. 3. subtile, 'qd Sapho λεπιὸν πῦρ, Catull: vera reddidit. Tenuis flam¯a', Virg. mollis flam¯a': C marginalia.
The Returne (page 15)
See p. 400, note to Song ('Beauty, thy harsh imperious chains').
Song ('When I lie burning in thine eye') (page 15)
An interesting example of Stanley's method of amalgamating conceits from various poems to form a new poem. From the many echoes in Stanley's poetry cf. ll. 3–4 to 'The Farewell' (p. 40, ll. 7–8), ll. 5–8 to 'Celia Singing' (p. 13, ll. 11–16), and ll. 9–10 to 'The Exchange' (p. 42, ll. 1–2).
Stanley probably saw Lovelace's 'To Althea, From Prison' ('When Love with unconfined wings') in manuscript, and is certainly indebted to his cousin in ll. 1–4.
Praz notes Guarini's madrigals XI and XXV as possible sources of Stanley's poem, but, as he admits, the imagery is all rather too commonplace to require a direct source.
Saintsbury: 'Sir Egerton [Brydges] thought this … "a very elegant little song, with all the harmony of modern rhythm". One might perhaps substitute "with more of the harmony of contemporary rhythm than Stanley always attains".'
The sick Lover (page 16)
Source: Guarini, f. 6ov, Madr. VI, Amante infirmo ('E cosí pur languendo'): Praz.
pg 381Song ('Celinda, by what potent art') (page 17)
Source: Lope de Vega, iii. 283–4, Doriano a los zarcillos de Lucinda ('Si a las orejas te pones'): Praz.
Delay (page 18)
Cf. Hammond's poem on the same subject, Saintsbury, ii. 492–3 ('Delay, whose parents Phlegm and Slumber are').
A common theme; Praz notes in passing a possible source in Guarini, f. 69, Madr. XXIII, 'Voi volete ch'io mora'.
ll. 19–20. Praz mentions Tasso, ii, no. 90, 'Mentre nubi di sdegno', as a source of this conceit, but, as he points out, the imagery is so commonplace that a particular source can hardly be determined with any accuracy.
Commanded by his Mistris to woo for her (page 19)
As indicated by Stanley in the text, this is a translation from Marino. Praz gives the specific source: iii. 272 ff., L'Amante ruffiano ('Strane guise d'amar, d'amor fedele'). Stanley's translation is really a pastiche, as Praz shows, of stanzas 1, 2, 8, 9, 14, 15, part of 21, and 22.
Saintsbury: 'The whole piece has a special interest as showing how this "conceit" and "false wit" actually encouraged the growth of the stopped antithetic couplet which was to be turned against both.'
l. 1. President. Precedent, of course; the Italian is esempio.
The Repulse (page 20)
l. 21. Now I have lost the blisse. Despite the agreement of all authorities to the contrary, I have followed Miss Helen Gardner (The Metaphysical Poets, Penguin Books, 1957, p. 283) in deleting the negative from this line. It seems unlikely so fine a metrist as Stanley, inventing this stanza form, would depart from its pattern in the final stanza. Of the possible emendations to the unmetrical 'Now I have not lost the blisse', the omission of 'not' rather than of 'Now' seems preferable. The sense of the stanza—and that of the entire poem—is defined more logically by the affirmative statement, which gives point to the ironical conceit involving the loss of something never owned.
Praz's comparison of the final conceit in Tasso, ii, no. 433, 'Se tu mi lasci, perfida, tuo danno', with this stanza of Stanley's poem need not be invalidated by the necessity for emendation. Consideration of the poems shows that Stanley took little more than his basic idea from Tasso, if indeed he was working with this model, and that he expanded on tins considerably.
- pg 382Se tu mi lasci, perfida, tuo danno:
- Non ti pensar che sia
- Misera senza te la vita mia.
- Misero ben sarei
- Se miseria i'stimassi e non ventura
- Perder chi non mi cura
- E ricovrar quel che di me perdei.
- Misera tu, che per novello amore
- Perdi quel fido core
- Ch'era piú tuo che tu di te non sei;
- Ma il tuo già non perd'io
- Perché non fu mai mio.
Cf. Stanley's theme with Carew, pp. 16–17, A deposition from Love ('I was foretold, your rebell sex').
The Enjoyment (page 22)
Source: St. Amant, i. 112 ff. La Jouyssance ('Loin de ce pompeux edifice').
The sensuous enjoyment of nature was a popular theme in seventeenth-century French poetry. St. Amant's piece and its many imitations owed their immediate inspiration to Marino's Amori notturni and Trastulli estivi.
In England Carew, pp. 49–53, wrote the most beautifully exuberant poem on this theme, 'A Rapture' ('I will enjoy thee now my Celia, come'). Other examples of this type of poem are Cleveland's 'To Chloris: A Rapture', Randolph's 'A Pastorall Courtship' and 'Upon Love Fondly Refus'd', and Cartwright's 'Song of Dalliance'. For a discussion of the retraite amoureuse and its implications with its opposite theme, the contemplative retreat, see Frank Kermode, 'The Argument in Marvell's "Garden" ', EC, 1952, ii. 225–41.
Stanley has considerably modified the tone of St. Amant's poem by omitting the erotic stanzas—particularly 16–18. A full translation of St. Amant's poem is found in A New Collection of Poems and Songs, 1674, pp. 79–90, 'Far from the stately Edifice', the author of which is unknown.
Loves Innocence (page 26)
l. 1. Ivy. 'Catull. Vt tenax edera huc, et huc, Arborem implicat errans. In nupt. Jul: et Manl. 62': C marginalia.
ll. 9–10. 'bonum non abscondis amorem. Catull: Ibid.': C marginalia.
l. 16. our wils. 'Cornel: Agrip: occult, philos, 3. 23': C marginalia.
l. 17. Illegible marginalia in C.
pg 383The Bracelet (page 27)
Source: Tristan L'Hermite, p. 81, Le Bracelet ('Amour en soit beny, le sujet de mes vœux'): Praz.
ll. 5–8. A popular conceit with Stanley and others of his time; see, particularly, Lovelace, 'To Amarantha, That she would dishevell her haire', p. 20, ll. 5–6.
The Kisse (page 28)
Praz notes that this song is based upon the commonplace conceit of the kiss literature of Secundus and Marino, but suggests the closeness of it, in particulars, to Voiture, ii. 288, 'Ce soir, que vous ayant seulette rencontrée'.
l. 24. A common conceit, but cf. Lovelace, p. 97.
Apollo and Daphne (page 29)
Sources: Garcilasso, p. 219, A Daphne ya los bracos le crecian: Marino, i. 81, La Trasformazione di Dafne: Praz.
As in 'Celia Singing' (p. 13) Stanley takes the best from two poets to make up one of his own poems. Garcilaso's final tercet gives him the imagery of ll. 5–6, whereas that of Marino provides him with ll. 9–10.
Speaking and Kissing (page 29)
Again, as in 'The Kisse' (p. 28), the imagery of this poem is perhaps too commonplace to require a direct source. Praz, however, offers Marino, ii. 28 ff, Baci dolci, & amorosi ('Filli, cor del mio core'), the third from last stanza of which provides some interesting comparisons:
- Quando un molle rubino
- Amante anima sugge,
- Vien a l'uscio vicino
- Per fuggir, ma non fugge,
- Che'n vita la sostien quel, che la strugge.
l. 1. The air which thy smooth voice doth break: Cf. Carew, p. 66, 'An Hymeneall Dialogue', l. 6: 'For though your voyce the ayre did breake'.
pg 384The Snow-ball (page 30)
Source: Marino, ii. 93, Giuoco di neve ('Come il ferir fia poco'): Praz.
l. 20. Antiperistasis: For a seventeenth-century definition of this word—'the opposition or contrast of circumstances'—see Philemon Holland, Plutarch's Morals, 1603, 5Z1. John Needler also employed the word in his poem on Lovelace's Lucasta, 1649 (Lovelace, p. 7).
The Deposition (page 31)
ll. 3–4. Cf. 'Opinion', p. 240.
l. 18. That none are fair but who are kind: Praz notes Guarini's maxim, in itself a commonplace, in Madr. LXVII, Pietà fa bella ('Dolce, amato, leggiadro, unico, e caro'), f. 88v.
To his Mistresse in Absence (page 31)
Source: Tasso, ii, no. 326, 'Lunge da gli occhi vostri': Praz. It is interesting to see what Stanley adds in making his translation:
- Lunge de gli occhi vostri
- Io vivo del pensiero
- Pensosa vita; e vivo perché i'spero
- Spero il lieto ritorno;
- E s'avverrà che nel felice giorno
- La mia dolce speranza in me si moia,
- Spero viver di gioia.
Loves Heretick (page 32)
Source: Marino, iii. 87, Amore incostante ('Chi vuol veder, Marcello'): Praz. Marino's own source was Ovid, Amores, ii. iv, whom John Oldham translated, Poems & Translations, 1683, pp. 99 ff.
ll. 19–20. A popular idea which Stanley employs with a mildness not characteristic of the normal, full-blooded treatment of the period displayed in Carew, p. 103, 'The second Rapture',
- Give me a wench about thirteene,
- Already voted to the Queene
- Of lust and lovers,
or, for that matter, in Randolph, 'Acolastus a voluptuous Epicure'.
pg 385La belle Confidente (page 34)
Saintsbury: 'On this Sir Egerton [Brydges]: "However far-fetched these ideas may be, there is uncommon elegance and ingenuity in the expression, and polish in the versification." There is also something more than polish— a concerted effect which "elegance and ingenuity" do not often reach.'
La belle Ennemie (page 35)
l. 4. 'Propert: subtrahe colla iugo. Cic: cuius a cervicibus iugum servile deiecerant. Phil: 1: Oppian. Cyn: 2. οὔτι φέρει δοῦλον ξυγόν et Pind. od: 2. Pyth. Epod. 4.': C marginalia.
The Dream (page 35)
Source: Lope de Vega, i. 24–25, 'O burlas de amor ingrato': Praz.
Saintsbury: 'The actual and full In Memoriam arrangement is the point of interest here. Stanley, however, is even less successful than the few other seventeenth-century practitioners in getting the full rhythmical sweep of the form into operation. He breaks the circle and so loses the charm.'
To the Lady D. (page 36)
Lady Dormer was the fourth of Sir William Hammond's five daughters. She married Sir Robert Dormer, Kt., of Chearsley in Buckinghamshire.
Praz notes the similarity of this to the dedication in Boscan, pp. 2–3: A la Duquesa de Soma ('A quién daré mis amorosos versos').
The Divorce (page 38)
Praz points to the 'strong affinity' between this and Tasso, ii, no. 90: 'Mentre nubi di sdegno.'
Time Recover'd (page 39)
Source: Girolamo Casone, Rime, Trivigi, 1598, Rubar il tempo al tempo ('Godiamci, anima mia'): Praz.
The Bracelet (page 39)
Cf. Donne, i. 58, 'The Funerall' ('Who ever comes to shroud me, do not harme'), for Stanley's immediate inspiration.
Claim to Love (page 41)
Source: Guarini, f. 60, Madr. V, Amor inevitabile ('Crudel, perch'io non v'ami'): Praz.
pg 386To his Mistress who dreamed he was wounded (page 42)
Source: Guarini, f. 62v, Madr. X, Sogno della sua Donna ('Morto mi vede la mia Morte in sogno'): Praz.
The Exchange (page 42)
ll. 1–2. Cf. 'Song' ('When I lie burning in thine eye'), p. 15, ll. 9–10.
The Exequies (page 45)
Saintsbury: 'A very good stanza, the rhythm rising and swelling admirably.'
l. 6. Garcilasso, Égloga segunda, l. 1100, 'tã dulce que [a] una piedra enterneciera': Wilson from C marginalia.
l. 15. Cf. Seneca, Hippolytus, 607: 'Curae leves loquuntur, ingentes tacent.' Stanley also uses this idea in the poem, 'In hi Excuse for having no sooner celebrated the memory of Mr Sandys', p. 330, l. 5.
ll. 17–20. Cf. Shirley, p. 6, 'To his Mistris upon the Bayes withered', ll. 1–4:
- Fair cruel, see the bays which thou
- Didst send to crown my verse:
- How well with cypresse, and sad ewe
- Would it become my herse!
l. 21. kinder flowers. Stanley cites several classical sources for his assumption that these flowers are 'Commonly Roses' and ends by referring to Garcilasso, Égloga tercera, ll. 221–4:
- cistellos [sic] blancos de purpureas rosas
- las quales esparciendo derramaban
- Sobre una Nympha muerta que lloraban …: Wilson from C.
The Silkworm (page 46)
Source: Marino, ii. 72, Madr. LXV, Bombice d'Amore ('Fabro de la mia morte'): Praz.
ll. 15–16. Praz points in particular to the similarity of this conceit to Marino's conclusion; Stanley had Theognis in mind: Οὗτος ἀνήρ, φίλε Κύρνε, πέδας χαλκεύεται αὑτῷ; I, verse 539: C marginalia. Also cf. the opening lines in Lovelace, p. 149, 'Song' ('In mine one Monument I lye').
pg 387A Ladie weeping (page 47)
Wilson's comparison of C with the Spanish shows that Stanley was not translating, as Thomas and Praz had suggested, 'Corre con pies de sonorosa plata' from Montalvan's novels, but rather that he was working from Montalvan's play El Señor don juan de Austria, Act I (Tomo primero de las Comedias del Doctor Juan Perez de Montalvan, Alcalá, 1638, f. 220). Though the two pieces are quite similar, in the play Montalvan has 'un clavel' for 'una flor', l. 8; 'humedas' for 'liquidas', l. 9; and 'arroyo' for 'diluvio', l. 11. Stanley's title and his introduction of 'Gillyflower', 'humid', and 'stream' prove that he was translating from the play.
l. 2. A River flying from it selfe away. 'S. Amant. Plainte sur la mort de S[ylvie] Ruisseau qui cours apres toy mesme Et qui te fuis toy mesme aussy': C marginalia.
The Revenge (page 49)
Source: Ronsard, Œuvres, ed. Paul Laumonier, Paris, 1914–19, ii. 276, Ode XIII, A sa maistresse ('Jeune beauté, mais trop outrecuidée'): Praz.
Praz notes that Stanley wisely omits the trite passage, 'La beauté semble à la rose vermeille', &c., and simplifies the mythological imagery of Ronsard's conclusion.
Song ('I will not trust thy tempting graces') (page 50)
Saintsbury: 'Another capital stanza mould, especially in I. The next is even better.'
Song ('No, I will sooner trust the Wind') (page 51)
Cf. Q. Ciceronis inter frag: Petron: ('Trust thy ship unto the wind'), p. 334. The manuscript poem may offer a source for this popular song.
To a blinde Man in Love (page 51)
Source: Marino, iii. 239, Ad un' orbo ammogliato and Risposta: Praz. Sherburne, p. 112, translated Marino's Madr. LXXXVI: 'A Maid in Love with a Youth blind of one Eye' ('Though a Sable Cloud benight').
Song ('Wert thou yet fairer then thou art') (page 54)
The author of this very popular song is unknown. Saintsbury suggested Walter Montagu. Another possible candidate is Walter Moyle. The poem occurs, among other places, in Latine Songs, 1685, p. 28, with a Latin translation by Henry Bold. In Bold's Poems, 1664, there are a number of epistles addressed to his friend 'W. M.', who turns out to be Moyle (p. 197).
pg 388The poem is found in various forms in many song-books and miscellanies of the period: e.g. Select Musical Ayres and Dialogues, &c, 1653; The New Academy of Complements, 1669, 1671; The Jovial Garland, 1672; Synopsis of Vocal Musick, 1680; and Cantus, Songs and Fancies, 1682.
The Relapse (page 56)
Saintsbury: 'One of the author's best. Double rhymes often brought him luck.'
An anonymous poem in B.M. MS. Egerton 2013 (printed by Norman Ault, A Treasury of Unfamiliar Lyrics, 1938, p. 218) may be based in part on Stanley's lyric—cf. Stanley's first lines with ll. 1–2 of the manuscript poem:
- Go, turn away those cruel eyes!
- For they have quite undone me.…
To the Countess of S., &c. (page 57)
Sir Thomas Hawkins translated The Holy Court, a Jesuit manual by Caussin, in 1626. It was republished in five volumes in 1650. Stanley may have presented these to the Countess of S. Brydges and Saintsbury have supposed the lady to be Dorothy Sidney or Spencer, Countess of Sunderland, and Waller's 'Sacharissa'. I have not been able to confirm or disprove their suppositions.
Song ('I languish in a silent Flame') (page 57)
Source: Voiture, ii. 336, 'Je me tais et me sens brûler': Praz. Stanley translates only the first and fourth stanzas.
The modest Wish (page 59)
Source: John Barclay, Poematum Libri Duo, Oxford, 1636, ii. 54–55, Vota Modesta ('Da mihi thura puer, tu vates concipe verba').
E Catalectis vet. Poet. (page 60)
Source: Catalepton VIII (Virgil), 'Villula, quae Sironis eras, et pauper agelle'.
Scaliger's edition of P. Virgilii Maronis Appendix, &c., was published in 1552, 1573, 1575, 1595, and 1617. Stanley may have been working with one of these. Stanley's title also suggests, however, Andrea Torresano's Aldine Press edition, Diversorum Veterum Poetarum in Priapum lusus, Venice, 1517 and 1534.
pg 389On the Edition, &c. (page 60)
Others among the contributors to the first folio edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's Comedies and Tragedies, 1647, were Waller, Denham, Lovelace, Herrick, Brome, Shirley, Howell, L'Estrange, Corbet, and Cartwright.
ll. 13–14. Cf. Bion's 'Epitaph on Adonis', p. 67, ll. 63–64.
On M. Shirley's Poems (page 62)
ll. 11–12. Cf. 'The Bud/To a young Gentlewoman', p. 327, ll. 35–39, and my notes to that poem.
On Sir J. S. his Picture and Poems (page 65)
These lines were engraved under Marshall's portrait of Suckling in Fragmenta Aurea, 1646.
Thorn-Drury (in his copy of Brydges's Stanley, 1814) said, 'Lovelace probably founded his unintelligible lines on Voiture on these'. Lovelace's lines (p. 236) were contributed to John Davies's translation of Voiture's Letters of affaires, love and courtship, 1657, which Davies may have undertaken at Cumberlow Green. The Lovelace poem took the place of the following French lines, which, in turn, may have inspired Stanley:
- Tel fut le Celebre Voiture,
- l'Amour de tous les beaux Espris:
- Mais bien mieux qu'en cette peinture,
- Tu le verras dans ses escris.
Pythagoras his moral Rules (page 68)
Stanley probably made his translation of the Aurea Carmina from Joannes Curterius's edition, Hieroclis philosophi commentarius in aurea Pythagoreorum carmina …, Paris, 1583 and 1585. Joannis Crispini also printed Latin and Greek versions of the poem in his Vetustissimorum authorum georgica, bucolica & gnomica, &c, and added notes from various commentators. Another edition that Stanley seems to have known was Iamblichi … de vita Pythagorae, &c., Franeker, 1598.
John Hall reprinted Stanley's translation from the 1651 edition with his own version, Hierocles Upon the Golden Verses of Pythagoras, 1657. In his pg 390note to the reader Hall says: 'I should not have presumed upon this translation, after the Originall had been drawne in English, by the pencill of that incomparable and excellently Learned Gentleman; Th; Stanley of Cumberlow in the County of Hertford, Esquire, had I not been a little more implicite in the Sence of Hierocles, which he sometimes, very judiciously varies from: but I chose rather to betray my own weaknesse, than to leave thee unacquainted with so curious a piece.…' Hall's remarks may, in part, have prompted Stanley to some of the revisions he made in his translation for the History of Philosophy.
Anacreon (page 74)
The text Stanley employed in making his translation of the Anacreontea was Henri Estienne's (Stephanus's) editio princeps, Anacreontis Teii odae, Paris, 1554. This small quarto contained the Greek text, printed in Garamond type, with a Latin translation and notes by Estienne.
Stanley's poems are at times closer to the Latin than the Greek, but it is probable that he worked from both, basing his translations on the Greek and turning to the Latin when he was in doubt about a reading, or when the Latin offered a turn of phrase better suited to his own version. Stanley's weaknesses as a student of Greek at this point in his career were no doubt overcome with the assistance of Fairfax, Hammond, and Sherburne.
In his 'Excitations' on Anacreon Stanley borrows freely from Stephanus's notes, though he does not always credit his source. On several occasions, however, he makes direct reference to the editio princeps as his text.
Translations from the Anacreontea were popular in England during the middle of the seventeenth century. In the following comparisons I have only drawn on those poets whose work has some direct bearing on that of Stanley.
Beauty II (page 75)
ll. 9–12. Sherburne, p. 72, also translates these lines in a note on the 'Rape of Helen':
- Beauty armes alone doth yield:
- That's the womans Spear and Shield.
- Fire and sword both vanquish'd are,
- When they meet a Foe that's fair.
The Picture XXVIII (page 86)
ll. 11–15. Cf. Sherburne, p. 70, where a note on the 'Rape of Helen' cites these lines:
- pg 391Her fair arched eye-brows see
- You so cunningly dispose,
- That they may not part, nor close:
- But by a divorce so sleight
- Be disjoynd, may cheat the sight.
Sherburne, like Stanley, did not always credit his sources in his notes. We may be justified in supposing, therefore, that these lines are Stanley's and represent an early version of his translation.
XXXIV (page 90)
ll. 1–3. Cf. the opening of the translation of this piece in Herrick, p. 194, 'Fly me not, though I be gray'. Sherburne included a translation of this ode in his text, p. 107.
- Scorn me not Fair because you see
- My Hairs are white; what if they be?
- Think not 'cause in your Cheeks appear
- Fresh springs of Roses all the year,
- And mine, like Winter, wan and old,
- My Love like Winter should be cold:
- See in the Garland which you wear
- How the sweet blushing Roses there
- With pale-hu'd Lillies do combine:
- Be taught by them; so let us joyn.
The Bee XL (page 92)
ll. 7–8. Cf. Herrick, p. 50, 'The wounded Cupid. Song' ('Cupid as he lay among'), ll. 8–9:
- A winged Snake has bitten me,
- Which Country people call a Bee.
Bion (page 101); Moschus (page 106)
Some of Stanley's translations from Bion and Moschus are quite close to the Latin versions of Theocriti, Moschi, Bionis, Simmii … Omnia studio & opera Danielis Heinsii, 1604. Stanley used some of Heinsius's notes in the 'Excitations'. The Stephanus edition of Moschi, Bionis, Theocriti, &c, 1555, may also have been employed by Stanley in preparing his translations and notes, as well as that of Crispini (see p. 389, 'Pydiagoras his moral Rules').
pg 392Europa (page 107)
l. 5. In a note to this line Stanley quotes Dante (Purgatorio, ix, ll. 16–18). This is his only reference to the Italian. By it he illustrates why the third quarter of the night produces the most faithful dreams:
- —la mente nostra peregrina
- Piu da la carne, & men dai pensieri,
- A le sue vision quasi & divina.
- —the wandring mind
- Doth least to earth to spirit most incline,
- And in her visions is well-nigh divine.
Kisses (page 121)
I have not been able to determine the text which Stanley worked from in making his translations from Johannes Secundus. The Opera were often published after 1541; either of the editions of 1619 and 1631 (Leyden) could have served Stanley's needs.
Stanley translates Basia I–VII, IX, and XIV–XVIII. He may have omitted some of the others, like VIII: 'Quis te furor, Neaera', because they were too sensuous for his liking.
III (page 123)
Thomas Jordan prints the following 'Answer' to Stanley's translation from Secundus (Claraphil and Clarinda, 1650, f. C5):
- A Kiss you had, the fair One gave
- What you did crave,
- But (wisely) limited her Treasure
- For further Pleasure;
- Extract no more of Honey from those Hives,
- For fear you surfet on Preparatives.
Cupid Crucified (page 132)
The text which Stanley used for his translation and for some of his notes was Dominici Baudii Amores, edente Petro Scriverio, Leyden, 1638. The notes were by Joseph Scaliger and Eliae Vineti. Stanley followed Scaliger's emendations to the text. (For further particulars of this edition, see below: 'Venus Vigils'.)
Venus Vigils (page 135)
Full details of the history of this poem are given by Cecil Clementi, Bibliographical and other Studies on the Pervigilium Veneris, 1913.
pg 393In 1638 Petrus Scriverius published a small quarto in which he brought together both codices (Thuaneus and Salmasiams) and most of the important scholarship on the Pervigilium (op. cit.; Clementi, no. 49). Six years later Rivinus brought out a similar edition (Clementi, no. 53), which Stanley almost certainly employed along with the Scriverius in preparing his translations (see note to 'Janus Anysius, Ad Veneram', p. 154). Stanley also incorporated many of the notes by Lipsius, Pithou, Dousa, Weitzius, and Salmasius, which Scriverius had printed with his own commentary on the poem.
Stanley's translation was made, with a few deviations, from the 'Codex Salmasianus', which was the most recently discovered manuscript of the Pervigilium.
Upon the author of the poem Stanley says in the 'Excitations':
The opinions of Learned Men concerning the Author of this Poem differ much; Manutius (whom Erasmus follows) and Lilius Giraldus ascribe it to Catullus Veronensis; others (amongst whom is Scaliger) to Catullus Urbicarius. Lipsius refers it to the times of Augustus, Barthius to Seneca; Salmasius to some co[n]temporary with Solinus. But it is not possible to discover more of the Author then the stile confesseth, that he was of the more modern time.
[Martial III, xii] (page 141)
Stanley translates this poem ('Unguentum, fateor, bonum dedisti') in his discussion of Anacreon IV (p. 76), ll. 9–10, and says 'The custome used by Grecians and Romans, of pouring Wine and sweet ointments upon the tombs of their friends is every where known. …'
The Hostesse (page 141)
See the Virgilian Appendix: Copa ('Copa Surisca, caput Graeca redimita, mitella'). The translation is also included among Stanley's notes to Anacreon IV (p. 76).
Stanley could have found his text in Torresano's Diversorum veterum poetarum, &c, 1517 or 1534 (see note on p. 388 to 'E Catalectis vet. Poet.').
ll. 23–24. Stanley apparently was led into this fragmentary structure in an effort to avoid the implications of the Latin lines:
- est tuguri custos armatus falce saligna,
- sed non et uasto est inguine terribilis.
l. 25. Tabor and Pipe: The origin of these words is again difficult to determine. The Latin here is 'Calybita'—the priest of Cybele. The Latin itself, however, is not certain.
[From Archilocus] (page 142)
See Elegy and Iambus, ed. J. M. Edmonds, The Loeb Classical Library, 1931, pg 394ii, p. 110, number 25. Stanley translates the poem in reference to Anacreon XV (p. 81).
The Debauche (page 142)
Source: St. Amant, i. 135, La Débauche ('Nous perdons le temps à rimer'). Stanley's translation is very close to the original. He condenses only a few lines and employs much of the French vocabulary in literal translation. Stanley introduces this piece in reference to Anacreon XV (p. 81), saying: 'This false inference [ll. 11–14] (frequent with Anacreon) is largely Paraphas'd by St Amant in his Debauche, a piece suiting with the genius of our Poet.'
[Anth. Pal. v. 83] (page 144)
Introduced as commentary to Anacreon XX. (p. 83), Stanley ascribes this poem to Dionysius the Sophist. In the Greek Anthology the author is anonymous.
Aristenaetus to Philocalus (page 144)
See Epistolographi Graeci (Didot edition), Paris, 1873, pp. 133–4, Epistle 1: Λαΐδα τὴν ἐμὴν ἐρωμένην εὖ μὲν ἐδημιούργησεν ἡ φύσις, &c. Cited in reference to Anacreon XXVIII–XXIX.
[Verses on a Picture, &c] (page 146)
In a note to Anacreon XL Stanley quotes the first line from Pignorius (Lorenzo Pignoria, 1571–1631) and says that these verses are underneath 'an excellent Picture, representing the subject of tins Ode'. Stanley's source may have been Alciati's Emblems, the 1621 edition of which is annotated by Pignorius. The epigram, noted in comparison with Alciati's 'Emblema CXII' ('Alveolis dum mella legit, percussit Amorem'), is given below.
- Dum puer alveolo furatur mella Cupido,
- Furanti digitum cuspide fixit apis.
- Sic etiam nobis brevis, et peritura voluptas,
- Quam petimus, tristi mixta dolore nocet.
Gold (page 146)
Source: Marino, ii. 120, Canzone ('O dell'avara gente'). Cited by Stanley in exposition of Anacreon XLVI.
Adonis (page 148)
Source: Ronsard, Oeuvres, Paris, 1609, p. 793, Adonis ('Fictes, qui n'est point feint aux enfans de la Muse'). Stanley begins his translation at l. 217. The paraphrase forms part of Stanley's commentary on Bion, Idyl I.
pg 395[Marino, Lira ii, Madr. V] (page 150)
Source: Scherzo tirato dall' Amor fuggitivo di Mosco ('Udito hò, Cithera'), p. 11. See Moschus, Idyl I.
[From Marino's Il rapimento d'Europa] (page 150)
Source: La Sampogna, Paris, 1620, pp. 104 ff. ('In quella parte a punto'). Stanley translates ll. 38–150, drawing a comparison with Moschus' description of Europa's basket.
[From Oppian's Halieutics] (page 153)
Source: Halieutics, v. 366 ff. (Bibliotheca Graecorum Scriptorum (Didot), Paris, 1848, p. 360): Γαῑα, φίλη ὀρέπτειρα σὺ μὲν τέκες ἠδ᾽ ἐκόμισσας φορβῇ χερσαίῃ &c. Stanley's reference: Moschus, Idyl V, ll. 4–5.
[Anth. Pal. IX, 362] (page 153)
Stanley translates only the first twelve lines of this poem, which begins: ῾Ιμεροεὶς ᾽Αλφεῑε Διὸς κοτινήφορον ὕδωρ.… The lines are cited in comparison with Moschus, Idyl VIII.
[De Rosis—From Luxorius] (page 153)
In his notes to 'Cupid Crucified', l. 80, Stanley says the author 'seems to reflect upon some new original of the Rose, different from that of Adonis or Venus; the same perhaps to which Luxurius alludes …'. The poem is given by Scriverius in his own notes to l. 23 of the Perviligium Veneris (Clementi, no. 49).
- Hortus erat Veneris roseis circumdatus herbis,
- Gratus ager dominæ: quem, qui vidisset, amaret.
- Dum Puer hîc passim properat decerpere flores,
- Et velare comas, spinâ libavit acutâ
- Marmoreos digitos: mox ut dolor adtigit artus,
- Sanguineamque manum, tinxit sua lumina guttâ,
- Proruit ad Matrem frendens, defertque querellas:
- Unde Rosæ, Mater, cœperunt esse nocentes?
- Unde tui flores pungunt latitantibus armis?
- Bella gerunt mecum Floris color et cruor unum.
[Janus Anysius, Ad Veneram] (page 154)
The poem, beginning 'Venus Dea Gnidi', is cited by Rivinus in his edition of the Perviligium Veneris (Clementi, no. 53).
pg 396Sylvia's Park (page 156)
Source: Théophile de Viau, ii. 193 ff., La Maison de Silvie ('Pour laisser, avant que mourir'). The French poem, describing the Duchess of Montmorency's small retreat near Chantilly, is in ten odes, totalling more than 1,000 lines. Théophile wrote part of the poem while under the protection of Montmorency, and part while in prison in Paris. The whole piece exhibits, therefore, various moods and a general lack of unity. Stanley has condensed vigorously and achieved a pastoral unity that is thoroughly pleasing.
As a representative of the genre which celebrates a patron's estate, 'Sylvia's Park' may have been known to Marvell and may have contributed something in tone and imagery to his own composition, 'Upon Appleton House'.
ll. 91–110. The image of fish striving to be first to sacrifice life to a beautiful woman was popular in the poetry of the period: Cf. Donne, i. 46, 'The Baite', and Lovelace, p. 111, ll. 142–7 of 'Aramantha. A Pastorall'. A comparison with Marvell, i. 79, stanzas lxxxi–lxxxiii, however, is particularly provocative.
l. 173. such respect. The French reads: 'Où le Soleil est si discret/Qu'il n'y force jamais les ombres. …'
Acanthus Complaint (page 163)
Source: Tristan l'Hermite, p. 101, Plaintes d'Acante ('Vn iour que le Printemps rioit entre les fleurs').
One of Stanley's most successful translations, this poem may also have been known to Marvell—cf., in particular, ll. 85–102 with 'The Mower's Song' (i. 45–46) and 'Damon the Mower' (p. 43, stanza vii).
Oronta (page 168)
Source: Girolamo Preti, Le Poesie, Venice, 1651, pp. 114–25, Oronta.
Stanza 3: 'Cicero. Philip: 1: in a contrary sense insepultam sepulturam effecerant. Eurip: Phoen. τάφος ἄταφος': C marginalia.
Echo (page 179)
Source: Marino, iii. 68 ff., Eco ('In un bosco frondoso').
I cite only major variants from C in an attempt to show the relationship between the early manuscript version of this translation and the first printed version.
ll. 65–66. This entry is conjectural. Stanley's corrections to these lines were so numerous that it is virtually impossible to tell the order in which he conceived the alterations.
pg 397Love's Embassy (page 187)
Source: Boscan, iii. 195 ff., Octava rima ('En el lumbroso y fertil oriente'). The Spanish, over 100 stanzas long, is originally a translation of Cardinal Bembo's 'Ne l'odorato e lucido Oriente': Praz. For a comparison of Stanley's translation with its source, see Thomas.
The Solitude (page 193)
Source: Góngora, ii. 52 ff., Soledad primera ('Era de el año la estación florida'). Góngora's style was particularly difficult for Stanley. In his other attempt at translating one of the Spaniard's major poems, Stanley put the work aside after 40 lines (see 'Polyphemus and Gallatea', p. 348).
Again I am prompted to point out the similarity of some lines in Stanley's translation to imagery employed by Marvell. These comparisons, if one is inclined to admit they are such, raise the larger question of Stanley's importance to his period as a provider of poetic imagery which influenced, directly or indirectly, the writings of his contemporaries.
ll. 67–100. The classical echoes, particularly of Virgil, are prominent in these lines; however, cf. Marvell, pp. 59–60, 'Upon Appleton House', stanzas i–vi.
A Platonick Discourse Upon Love (page 197)
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's Commenta sopra una canzona de amore da H. Benivieni was first published in 1487 and often republished in the next century. The 'Sonnet' was, in itself, Benivieni's attempt to summarize in a few stanzas what Marsilio Ficino had discussed in his commentary upon Plato's 'Symposium'. The commentary is Pico's only important work in the vernacular.
An epigram in Bodleian MS. Fairfax 40, f. 611, suggests that Stanley was heavily indebted to William Fairfax for assistance in completing his translation from Pico:
- Upon Mr Stanley's Booke
- of Philosophers supposing
- itt the worke of his Tutor W: Fa:
- Such is the mistery of Platonick Loue
- The worke of tow the Act of one doth proue
- Tow soules in one soe doe Affections tye
- As tow in one doe liue till both doe dye
- I wrong nott him as Author who did writ
- This learn'd discourse to doe his Louer right
- Sense 'tis butt Just in Loues Platonick ways
- When one doe's well yett tow shall have the Prayse.
pg 398Professor Osborn, Yale University Library Gazette, April 1958, pp. 6–7, points out that the editor of The Muses Library (probably William Oldys) said in reference to The History of Philosophy that the 'greatest Part of the Work, as well as the Notes on Euripides truly [belonged] to Mr. W. Fairfax; tho' his Modesty, and Friendship declin'd the Reputation' (1737, pp. 343–4). Oldys claimed to have got his information from members of the Fairfax family. It would appear that he had seen the epigram, the title of which may have led him to confuse the History with the Discourse.
In fairness to Stanley it should be pointed out that the claim against him of obligation to his tutor probably stemmed from a misreading of his lines to Fairfax, p. 43, 'Answer' ('If we are one dear friend! why shouldst thou be'), which embody polite compliments quite natural from student to tutor.
Poems from Aurora (page 230)
Source: Montalvan, La Hermosa Aurora (ff. 1–48): Thomas.
The first two complaints are sung by the heroine Aurora. Her lover, Pausanias, sings the third song, as Thomas says, 'with a view to making her acquaintance'. In the last Pausanias expresses his love and, as a result, is successful in his suit.
Poems from The Prince (page 234)
Source: Montalvan, La Prodigiosa (ff. 362–418). As for Aurora, Thomas prints both the English and the Spanish texts.
Thomas supplies the following summary to give the context of the six songs: 'Gesimenes, a youth with a distressful past, makes the acquaintance of Ismenia, the heroine, through hearing her sing. … Gesimenes, having got to know Ismenia, tells her his sad story; whereupon, to divert his grief, she sings [the second song]. … Ismenia soon acquires a lover, Perozes, who sings [the third song]. … The lady, however, has what she thinks good evidence that he is about to marry another, and so, after reproaching him, she runs away and hides herself from him. From her retreat she overhears him singing ["Ismenia's eyes my soule divide"]. … Being still unconvinced, she continues to avoid him, so he conveys to her the … verses ["Divinest Syren, cruell faire"]. … The story of the loves of Perozes and Ismenia is carried no further in the verse portion of the novel. There is, however, one more song, due to the appearance of Gesimenes, whose grief once more requires diverting, [sung by Ismenia].'
Thomas points out that Stanley's normal practice in translating these songs is to recast the short lines of the quatrain into a couplet of four- or five-foot lines.
p, 236. Song iv. 'Ismenia's eyes my soule divide': Mock Songs and Joking Poems, pg 3991675, p. 101, contains what may be a paraphrase of this song entitled, 'The Platonick Lover' ('Ismaena I do not admire/Thy Star-like eyes', &c.).
POEMS, 1647The Blush (page 238)
Saintsbury: 'Interesting to compare prosodically with The Dream [p. 246] and Opinion [p. 240]. A much older fashion of couplet, here and there overlapped and breathless, but pointing towards the newer.'
ll. 5–6. Cf. Secundus, Basia, XVII, 'Qualem purpureo diffundit mane colorem': C marginalia.
ll. 11–12. Cf. Virgil, Eclog. i. 23: 'sic parvis componere magna solebam': C marginalia.
To Chariessa, beholding her self in a Glasse (page 238)
Source: Marino, i. 6 [La Donna allo Specchio], 'Amor, non dissi il ver, quando talora', and [Lo Specchio], 'Fosti di pianto, e del mio pianto umore', i. 7. Praz notes the comparison between Stanley's final conceit and ll. 7–8 of Marino's Lo Specchio:
- quanto del cor nel vivo specchio io celo
- miri, e la sua belta nel mio dolore.
A marginal note in C confirms Praz's assumption. In making his translation Stanley characteristically has fused the imagery of the two models.
Other versions of this popular theme were written by Carew, 'A Looking-Glasse' and 'On his Mistres lookeinge in a glasse', Randolph, 'To one admiring her selfe in a Looking-Glasse', and Shirley, 'To a L. upon a Looking Glasse sent'.
ll. 5–6. A common image, but cf. Tristan l'Hermite, p. 91, L'Innédulité punie, ll. 7–10—Praz:
- Courant vers vn Miroir auec impatience,
- En fit l'expérience.
- Des feux refléchissants du cristal dans ses yeux,
- Embraserent soudain ce cœur audacieux. …
ll. 9–12. Praz points out the popularity of this conceit among Italian poets. It also found its way into French libertin poetry in various treatments of the jouyssance of nature. Cf. Stanley's translation from St. Amant on p. 22, ll. 61–70.
pg 400The Picture (page 239)
The ultimate source for the basic conceit of this poem is Martial, i, no. cix: Praz.
ll. 1–2. Cf. Lope de Vega, iii. 183, 'Regalo, bien y thesoro': Praz.
The cold kisse (page 240)
l. 6. Snatching their fleeting spirits in that breath. C contains an elaborate gloss on this line citing, among others, Cicero, Bion, Garcilasso, Virgil, Ovid, Euripides, Statius, and Quintilian.
Opinion (page 240)
l. 16. Since reason sees but with the eyes of sense. 'Nihil est in in-': C marginalia.
The Magnet (page 241)
Hammond employs similar imagery in 'Mutual Love' ('From our Loves, heat and light are taught to twine'), Saintsbury, ii. 490.
Saintsbury: [Line] '9 "he" 1647, altered to "she" in 1656. One would expect "he" to avoid identical rhyme, but Stanley was a scholar and the Greek is ἡ Μαγνῆτις λίθος, and the other things to be "asked" are feminine.'
l. 18. Cf. Marino, ii. 9, Cantatrice crudele ('O tronchi innamorati'), ll. 9–10: Vincent from C marginalia.
The Idolater (page 242)
Source: Marino, ii. 101, Sacrificio Amoroso ('A voi, che vivo essempio'): Vincent from C marginalia.
Song ('Beauty, thy harsh imperious chains') (page 242)
Title: this poem was entitled 'Palinode' in 47, where it followed 'The Returne' (p. 15).
On a Violet in her Breast (page 243)
Source: Marino, iii. 83, Madr., 'Fiori, stelle d'Aprile': Praz.
Sherburne's 'Violets in Thaumantia's Bosome' is also a translation from Marino's madrigal. The notes he made while engaged in translation are pg 401found in his copy of Marino's Lira, iii (British Museum shelf-mark 1063. a. 22), a presentation copy from Stanley. Carew, 'On a Damaske rose sticking upon a Ladies breast', Habington, 'To Roses in the bosome of Castara', and Herrick, 'Upon Roses in Julias bosome' and 'To Roses in Julias bosome', also employed this popular theme.
Saintsbury: [Line] '6 "hills of snow" is probably as old as the Garden of Eden (if there was snow there). But Stanley must have known the exquisite second verse of "Take, oh take those fips away" in The Bloody Brother. I would ask any one who despises this as a mere commonplace love-poem to note—if he can—the splendid swell of the verse to the fourth line, and then the "turn" of the final couplet. With Stanley and his generation that swell and turn passed—never to reappear till William Blake revived it nearly a century and a half afterwards.'
Title: called Eidem in 47 where it followed A une Dame qui chantoit (p. 11).
Song ('Foolish Lover, go and seek') (page 244)
Hammond's poems on this subject, Saintsbury, ii. 491, present various echoes of Stanley's poetry.
The Parting (page 245)
A popular theme with Marino and his followers, the exact debt this poem owes to the Italian has not been determined.
ll. 15–16. Cf. 'On a Violet in her Breast' (p. 243).
Expectation (page 247)
Saintsbury: 'There is a suggestion here of John Hall's beautiful Call ("Romira, stay"), and the two pieces appeared so close together that it is difficult to say which may have been first. Perhaps the resemblance was what made Stanley omit it in 1651.'
l. 1. Cf. Simonides: ῎Ανθρωπος ἐὼν μή ποτε φάσηις, ὅ τι γίνεται αὔριον, &c. Anthologia Lyrica Graeca (Diehl), v. 67: Comparison drawn by Stanley in C marginalia. Philip Ayres's translation from the Greek is found in Saintsbury, ii. 344.
l. 9. Cf. Horace, Carmen, i. xi, 'Tu ne quaesieris scire', &c: C marginalia.
Counsell (page 248)
l. 6. Love such perjurie allowes. 'Athen: lib: 12. ὡς δὲ λόγος, καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡδοναῖς ταῖς περὶ [τὰ] ἀφροδίσια, ἃ δὴ μέγιστα δοκοῦσιν εἴναι, καὶ τὸ ἐπιορκεῖν συγγνῶμην εἴληφεν παρὰ θεῶν, ὥσπερ καθάπερ παίδων τῶν ἡδονῶν οὐδὲ τὸν λογισμὸν κεκτημένων./Plato': C marginalia.
pg 402Expostulation with Love in Despaire (page 249)
Saintsbury: 'The interest of this piece is almost wholly centred on the penultimate line, which, being an evident and intended contradiction to
- Amare liceat si potiri non licet,
gives us at once the connexion, in Stanley's mind, with that strange, Mrs. Grundy-shocking, but "insolent and passionate" piece which is attributed, credibly enough, to Apuleius, but rather less credibly as a latinizing of Menander's ᾽Ανεχόμενος. The contrast of the sensuous fire of this with Stanley's rather vapid and languid metaphysicalities is a notable one.'
l. 18. Neither, or both are equall happinesse. 'Sen: idem interest an habeas an non concupiscas': C marginalia.
On S. John Baptist (page 250)
Source: Marino, iii. 207, Nella decollation [di San Giovanni Battista] ('Quasi Aurora novella'): Vincent.
A Paraphrase upon Psalme CXLVIII and Psalme CXXXIX(pages 251 and 262)
The alterations made to the scribal transcript in C are numerous and often difficult, if not impossible, to follow. I print in the apparatus only those changes which seem of real interest and I have, in some cases, simplified by reproducing only the first draft: e.g. ll. 41–48. Generally, I have ignored the various in-between thoughts, because, though occasionally interesting in themselves, they do not represent a distinct stage in the poem's development, but merely early thoughts in the second (revised) state.
Often the corrections are so involved that they produce errors in 47: e.g. l. 43, Psalme CXLVIII
I have not cited variants in the use of relatives, though it is perhaps of interest to note that normally when there is variation C reads that and 47 substitutes which or who.
The French source for these psalms remains unidentified. Racan and Desportes paraphrased them, but Stanley was not working from their versions.
PSALTERIUM CAROLINUM, 1657(page 270)
For a discussion of this work and its source see the Introduction under Text and Canon, p. xlii.
pg 403POEMS AND SELECTIONS FROM MISCELLANEOUSSOURCES(page 319)[Passati piaceri] (page 319)
ll. 5–8. Cf. Marino, i. 90, Boscherecce ('Que rise, o Thirsi, e qui ver me rivolse'): Vincent from C marginalia.
- Qui con meco s'assise, e qui mi cinse
- Del caro braccio il fianco, e dolce intorno
- Stringendomi la man, l'alma mi strinse.
Selections fromTHE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY, 1655–62(page 322)
Henri Estienne published Diogenes Laertius's 'Lives of the Philosophers' in two volumes in Paris, 1570. This edition contained the first nine books of the 'Lives' and a commentary on them. Casaubon issued a similar work with notes in Paris, 1593, and the third edition appeared in Geneva, 1615. In 1641 Gassendi published his Animadversiones in librum X Diogenes Laertii, Leyden. Besides translating from Laertius, Stanley brought together a great deal of material from other sources, as the following selections themselves suggest.
Love sleeping (page 322)
Source: The Greek Anthology: see W. R. Paton's edition in The Loeb Classical Library, 1916–18, xvi, no. 210.
[Aristotle's Hymne to Vertue] (page 323)
Source: Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers: see E. R. Hicks's edition in The Loeb Classical Library, 1950, i. 451.
[The Pythagorick Letter] (page 323)
Source: Lucius Caeclius Lactantius, Firmianus, Divinarum Institutionum, Book VI, chap. iii.
pg 404POEMS FROM MANUSCRIPT(page 325)The Mystery (page 326)
ll. 7–10. It is not quite clear from the manuscript how Stanley intended the altered version of these lines to read. Line 7 stands as given in its corrected form, and apparently was to precede line 8. Line 8 itself is left unfinished. My completion of the line is purely conjectural. Stanley may have intended it to read, 'Then at weakest when [at] strongest', or again, 'Weakest when the day is strongest'. The other alterations are clear.
A rather scribbled marginal note opposite line 3 may indicate Apuleius as the source of the opening lines, or of the entire poem. I have not been able to locate anything corresponding to the riddle in Apuleius.
The Bud (page 327)
The theme of 'budding beauty', which has its beginnings in the Greek Anthology, was popular with seventeenth-century English poets. Waller, Sedley, Etherege, and Marvell were among those who composed poems on the subject. Stanley's poem may be a translation, perhaps from Ronsard, but I have been unable to locate its source.
Song ('Clorinda, when I go away') (page 327)
The idea of infidelity being punished by loss of beauty is, again, a timeless one. Horace (Odes, ii. viii) and Ovid (Amores, iii. iii) employed it, as did many others. Stanley's particular source has not been identified, but he may owe something to Shirley, p. 17, 'Cupid ungodded'. Cf. ll. 35–39 with Shirley's:
- Stoop to the Justice of thy fate,
- We can unmake that did create.
That Shirley's conceit may have interested Stanley is indicated by 'On M. Shirley's Poems', p. 62, ll. 7–12. In turn, Shirley may have owed something in immediate inspiration to Carew, p. 18, Ingratefull beauty threatned, ll. 13–14:
- Tempt me with such affrights no more,
- Lest what I made, I uncreate. …
Sent with a Booke (page 329)
l. 6. Friendship's longer liv'd then love. Cf. 'To Mr. W. Hammond', pp. 61–62, l. 34. The motif is given fullest expression in the 'Register of Friends'. James M. Osborn discusses the ideal amicitia which 'runs like a leit-motif' through Stanley's poetry in 'Thomas Stanley's Lost "Register of Friends"', Yale University Library Gazette, 1958, xxxii. 1–26.
pg 405On the E: of Essex (page 329)
Cancelled in C, this is probably a translation of an epigram prefixed to La Calprenède's Le Comte d'Essex, 1639, a tragedy with which Stanley was evidendy familiar (see p. 372). I have been unable to see a copy of La Calprenède's play.
In Excuse for having, &c. (page 330)
The background of this and the following poems on the death of Henry Sandys is discussed in the Introduction, pp. lvi–lvii.
l. 4. Cf. Seneca, Hippolytus, 607. Stanley used the same idea in 'The Exequies' p. 29, l. 15.
Palme Sunday (page 333)
Source: Marino, iii. 186, ll. 7–12, Nel di delle Palme ('Dove si vide mai'):
- O Duce inuitto, e forte,
- Huom, che vinto esser può, combatta auante
- Che vada trionfante,
- Ma'n te, che certo sai
- Di riportar vincendo eterna gloria,
- Il trionfo preceda a la vittoria.
The Rose (page 334)
Source: Guarini, f. 97, Madr. LXXVIIII, Rosa donata: Vincent.
- Donó Licori a Batto
- Vna rosa, cred'io, di paradiso;
- E sì vermiglia in viso
- Donandola sì fece, e si vezzosa,
- Che parea rosa, che donasse rosa.
- Alor disse il pastore,
- Con vn'sospir dolcissimo d'Amore,
- Perché degno non sono
- D'hauer la rosa donatrice in dono?
Q. Ciceronis inter frag: Petron: (page 334)
Source: Petronius, Satiricon, 137: 'Quisquis habet nummos, secura nauiget aura.'
[Seneca, &c.] (page 334)
The attribution of these lines to Seneca is made by Stanley in the index to C. I have not been able to locate them.
pg 406Arion (page 335)
Source: St. Amant, i. 73–82, L'Arion ('Les sens pleins de merveille et remplis d'allégresse').
I print the first draft of this poem and cite only major revisions in the apparatus. The clumsiness of the first draft suggests that Stanley was simply determining a rhyme pattern and that he was ultimately planning thorough revision and condensation. Such alterations, however, are often merely sketched in by Stanley and thus preclude the possibility of an editorial 'reconstruction'.
Love Triumphant (page 343)
Source: Preti, Le Poesie, 1651, pp. 191–9, Amor Trionfante ('Scesa del terzo Cielo'): Vincent. Stanley translates the 189 lines of the original almost verbatim.
Polyphemus and Gallathea (page 348)
Source: Góngora, ii. 34 ff., Fábula de Polifemo y Galatea ('Estas que me dictó, rimas sonoras'): Wilson. Stanley begins his translation from stanza IV: 'Donde espumoso el mar sicilïano.'
[Draft fragment from Filli di Sciro (page 350)
Source: Guidubaldo Bonarelli, Filli di Sciro, favola pastorale. … Ferrara, 1607, i. i. 1–86.
Stanley was not alone in his interest in this play. In 1655 Filli di Sciro, or Phillis of Scyros was published by J. S. Gent. On 18 August 1683 Sherburne wrote Wood asking to borrow the Bodleian copy of this translation, desiring to compare it with 'the curious Original'. When Sherburne was told he could not borrow the book, he asked for a transcription of a few passages. These he obtained and wrote Wood the following opinion of the translation: 'I find it farr short of the Original Ingenuity, and the work of a very Artlesse Undertaker, and therefore, may wel beare the Name of J. S., whether James Shirley, or other such like, and deserve the Commendacion of J. H. or James Howell. You know the Proverb Similes habent Labra Lactucas.'
These letters, contained in Bodleian Wood MS. F. 44, are the basis for identifying the play as the work of Shirley, and Praz has offered Sherburne's opinions as evidence that the relation of Shirley to the group of poets around Stanley 'could not have been so intimate as one would be inclined to think it at first'. Praz may be overstating the case; at least it should be remembered that Sherburne's opinion was not necessarily the same as that held by him or Stanley more than thirty years earlier. Recently, W. W. Greg, A Bibliography pg 407of the English Printed Drama to the Restoration, London, 1951, vol. ii, no. 745, has identified 'J. S.' as 'Jonathan Sidnam'. In a note to the 1655 edition the author mentions that this translation and another made from Guarini's Il Pastor Fido had been completed 'neer twenty years agone'. Greg has uncovered a translation of Guarini, 'very similar in style to the present work', in manuscript B.M. Add. 29493, dated 1630 and signed with Sidnam's name.
A gloss added in the 1701 edition of Sherburne's Seneca to Stanley's lines on Sherburne (see p. 362) suggests that Sherburne himself made a translation of the play, but no further evidence of this work has been uncovered, unless an advertisement cited by Greg of 'Filida Seiro, a Pastoral, in Quarto', which appears among the 'Playes' 'printed by Iohn Playfere' in W. Killigrew's Three Plays, 1665, be to a proposed edition of Sherburne's translation.
The interest Stanley and Sherburne had in the Italian pastoral may have been fostered in part by a knowledge of the esteem Marino had had for the play. He wrote not only a commendatory poem to Bonarelli ('Tolsemi al bel Matauro') and lines In morte di Guidubaldo Bonarelli ('—Tirsi, il mio caro amor, Tirsi morio'), but also a long prologue, La notte ('Fermate ormai, fermate'), prefixed to the sixth edition, 1612. A translation of this last was included in the English edition of the play in 1655.
Though the fragment of Stanley's translation preserved in C represents less than half the first scene of the pastoral, a few other lines from later parts of the play are also found in C; these suggest that Stanley continued working on the play beyond the first scene and that he may have gone to a new blank-book to transcribe his translation. The two fragments are:
- Whither so fast deare Niso? to Amintas:
- But whither goes A wthout N
- from the opening of I, v, and
- Ormine hearst thou not come faster where
- The heart beats quick the foot moves slow
- from the opening of Act II.
The Italian text is available in a modern edition by Giovanni Gambarin, Scrittori d' Italia, no. 186, published in Bari in 1941.
Synesius–Hymns 1 and 2 (pages 351–334)
The hymns were published by Henri Estienne in 1568, 1586, and 1618: S. Cyrenaei … Hymni vario lyricorū versuum genere.
l. 70. The eyes for Theise: the scribe in D habitually put an extra letter in words like these and their, i.e. therir; but he was also prone to scribal errors. I have emended here, therefore, despite the fact that the line reads well with These alone, because it was not normal for Stanley to deviate from the formal metrical pattern established in a poem.
pg 408'A Register of Friends': Hammond (page 356)
ll. 23–26. Bracketed in manuscript. Cf. 'Oronta', p. 178, l. 305.
Lovelace (page 360)
ll. 9–10. Bracketed in manuscript. Cf. 'Oronta', p. 177, l. 281 et passim.
Sherburne (page 362)
The variant readings found in 1702 very probably represent alterations made to the text by Sherburne.
l. 48. The gloss to this line in 1702 is discussed above on p. 406 in notes to Stanley's translation from Filli di Sciro.
POEMS OF UNCERTAIN AUTHORSHIP(page 367)Song (page 367)
This song was also printed in Gamble's Ayres and Dialogues, 1659, where it follows Jordan's epithalamium on Stanley's marriage. That Stanley possessed a copy of the song and that this copy was inadvertently included in C by the scribe is not unlikely.
To my most ingenious, &c. (page 368)
In his copy of Brydges's edition of Stanley (1814) Thorn-Drury notes that these lines are almost certainly by Stanley. A. W. Ward attributed them to Thomas Shadwell (DNB, ii. 1302 b). Thomas Sprat should also be considered a candidate. I have not, however, found the poem printed elsewhere, and external evidence would seem to confirm Thorn-Drury's suggestion. Stanley is the only one of this group whom we know to have had connexions with both Alexander and Richard Brome. The date of the poem alone would probably rule out Shadwell. Unfortunately there is little in the lines themselves that aids in establishing authorship.