Main Text

pg 361THE COMMENTARIESpg 362

pg 363COMMENTARY ON PHÆNOMENA UNIVERSI

O6r

Page 2, ll. 7–12: Cum nobis homines—this is written as if it were meant to follow on from a (lost) introduction or perhaps even from the kind of matter that was later to occupy Part II of IM.

l. 12: experientiam quandam literatam—this expression is used here in an unusually general sense—perhaps to mean the legitimate method (cf. NO, O2v(SEH, I, p. 204)). More often it refers to a useful but low-grade means of achieving improvements in the mechanical arts. For this meaning see NO, O3r, P2v (SEH, I, pp. 204, 209); AL, 2N3v (SEH, III, p. 389); and (above all) DAS, 2H2v–2l3v (SEH, I, pp. 623–33). Also see Lisa Jardine, Francis Bacon: discovery and the art of discourse, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1974, pp. 143–9; idem, 'Experientia literata or Novum Organum? The dilemma of Bacon's scientific method', FBLT, pp. 47–67.

O6v

ll. 15 ff: universa philosophia Graecorum—the contrast between the Greek rationalists and their descendants on the one hand, and the chemists and other empirics on the other, is developed to the full in the NO treatment of idols of the theatre (H1v ff. (SEH, I, pp. 173 ff.)), which actually echoes (H2r (SEH, I, p. 173)) the words of PhU.

O6v–O7r

Page 2, l. 28–P. 4, l. 3: Sed Naturalis Historia—cf. DGI, D7r–v; PAH, b1r (SEH, I, pp. 395–6). CDSH (fo. 226r (SEH, III, p. 191)) gives examples of historians responsible for these sins: 'Namque [c–t: Nam quá] multus Plinius in fabulis, antiquitate & Censurâ morum: Gesnerus aut haereditatem historiæ suæ ex multis partibus Philologiæ, ex paucis Philosophiæ …'Also see DAS, M3r–v (SEH, I, p. 501). For these and other aspects of pre-Baconian natural history, see William B. Ashworth, Jr., 'Natural history and the emblematic world view', Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, ed. D. C. Lindberg and R. S. Westman, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1990, pp. 303–32.

O7r–v

Page 4, ll. 10–12: Artifex enim—the same point is made with very similar wording in NO, O1v (SEH, I, p. 203).

ll. 15–18: fructifera Experimenta—for the distinction between experiments of light and fruit see NO, A4r (SEH, I, pp. 128–9): 'Neque illud imprimis omittendum est, quòd omnis in experiendo industria, statim ab initio opera quædam destinata, præpropero & intempestiuo studio captauit; Fructifera pg 364(inquam) Experimenta, non Lucifera, quæsiuit; nec ordinem diuinum imitata est, qui primo die lucem tantùm creauit, eique vnum diem integrum attribuit; neque illo die quicquam materiati operis produxit, verùm sequentibus diebus ad ea descendit.' Also see NO, I3v, O2r, Q3r (SEH, I, pp. 180, 203, 215).

O7v

Page 4, ll. 19–26: Intervenit & illud—cf. NO, M3v (SEH, I, p. 195).

ll. 28–31: Namque Historia illa—cf. NO, C1r (SEH, I, p. 141); PAH, b1v(SEH, I, pp. 396–7).

O8r

Page 6, l. 1: filum aliquod Labyrinthi—cf. NO, A4r–v, L4r (SEH, I, pp. 129, 191); SI, Q10r (SEH, II, p. 687); IL, T2r cf. SEH, III, p. 634.

ll. 11–19: Primo, ut mittant—cf. NO, L3r (SEH, I, p. 190).

O8v

Page 6, ll. 19–30: Secundo ut homines—cf. CDSH, fos. 217v–218r (SEH, III, pp. 194–5); also cf. NO, Q2v (SEH, I, pp. 214–15): 'Qyòd verd ad rerum Vilitatem attinet, vel etiam Turpitudinem, quibus (vt ait Plinius) honos præfandus est; eæ res, non minùs quàm lautissimæ & pretiosissimæ, in Historiam Naturalem recipiendæ sunt. Neque proptereà polluitur Naturalis Historia … Nam quicquid Essentiâ dignum est, id etiam Scientiâ dignum; quae est essentiæ imago. At vilia æquè subsistunt ac lauta. Quinetiàm, vt è quibusdam putridis materijs, veluti Musco & Zibetho, aliquandò optimi odores generantur; ità & ab instantijs vilibus & sordidis, quandoquè eximia lux & informatio emanat. Verùm de hoc nimìs multa; cùm hoc genus fastidij sit planè puerile & effœminatum.' Cf. Pliny, Historia naturalis, I, Præfatio: 'Sterili materia rerum natura, hoc est, vita narratur, & hæc sordidissima sui parte, ut plurimarum rerum, aut rusticis vocabulis aut externis, imo barbaris, etiam cum honoris præfatione ponendis.' Also see PAH, b4v (SEH, I, p. 400); Aristotle, Works, V, Departibus animalium, I. 5. 644b–645a: 'We therefore must not recoil with childish aversion from the examination of the humbler animals … we should venture on the study of every kind of animal without distaste … If any person thinks the examination of the rest of the animal kingdom an unworthy task, he must hold in disesteem the study of man.'

O9r

Page 6, ll. 34–5: sed Naturam, ut fortunam—NO, Q3v (SEH, I, p. 216).

Page 8, ll. 3–4: ad regnum illud—a favourite image of Bacon's often related to the alphabet image, cf. ANN, fo. 24r; NO, I2r–v (SEH, I, p. 179).

ll. 9–11: A qua etiam supplices—cf DO, C4r (SEH, I, p. 145); CV, A5r (SEH, III, p. 595).

O9v

Page 8, ll. 12–13: Natura rerum—for this important distinction see DGI, D4r–D5r and cmt thereon (p. 384 below); CDSH, fo. 217r (SEH, III, p. 189); pg 365PAH, a4v (SEH, I, p. 395); NO, C1r (SEH, I, p. 141); AL, 2B4r (SEH, III, p. 330); DAS, L4r–v (SEH, I, p. 496).

l. 16: fossilium—used here in its Aristotelian sense to denote minerals or refractory stones generated from earthy, dry exhalations; cf. PhU, P3v; DPAO, K7v.

O9v–O10r

Page 8, 22–6: Quid enim ad nos—cf. DGI, D7v.

ll. 28–30: omnino pri|mas partes—;see DGI, D4r–D5r and cmt thereon (p. 384 below). Also see NO, K2r (SEH, I, pp. 183–4).

O10r

Page 8, ll. 31–3: Num forte fulguris—cf. DGI, D5v.

Page 10, ll. 4–9: Atque à Phaenomenis ætheris—Bacon is implicitly or explicitly making several points here. In saying that natural history might normally begin with the history of the ether, i.e. with the history of the heavens, he may have been thinking of the fivefold distribution of history of generations later found, for instance, in DGI (D8r–D9r). In that distribution history of the heavens stood first and Bacon began his survey of the distribution with it, but in PhU he set that history aside in favour of something more universal, something shared by both globes, the sublunary as well as the superlunary. He thereby implicitly denied the divorce between the two globes, the conficta divortia which he so often railed against elsewhere (see, for instance, DGI, D11r), and chose instead to start with dense and rare, a distinction which he regarded as one of the most universal and 'primordial' in nature (see cmt on TC, G6r (p. 406 below)). So important was this distinction that he later devoted a whole history to it (HDR), and raised it to the rank of primary 'schematism of matter' (see ANN, fo. 24r). The definition of dense and rare is his usual one, cf. ANN, loc. cit. and HDR, A1r–v (SEH, II, pp. 243–4); also see cmt on PhU, P1r (p. 367 below), and DVM, fo. 18r (p. 324).

O10v–O11r

Page 10, ll. 10–26: propositio illa gemella—the same propositions and arguments are advanced with similar wording in NO, 2K4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 311–12); also cf. CDNR, R11r–S1v (SEH, III, pp. 22–5); HDR, A2r–A4r (SEH, II, pp. 243–4); HDR(M), fo. 22v. Telesio (DRN, I, pp. 60–4) also insisted that the quantity of matter neither increased nor diminished; cf. DPAO, M6r.

O11r

Page 12, l. 8: majorem & minorem sphæram—cf. NO, 2B1r–v, 2M4v, 203r (SEH, I, pp. 262–3, 323, 332).

O12r

Page 12, ll. 32–4: de visceribus terræ—see cmt on PhU, P3r (p. 368 below); also see DGI, D11r, and Introduction, 2 (h).

pg 366 O12r–v

Page 12, l. 37–P. 14, l. 4: Cum vero non conjicere—cf. PAH, c2r (SEH, I, pp. 401–2); see also HNE, C4r–v (SEH II, pp. 17–18).

O12v

Page 14, ll. 10–13: Postremo observationes—cf. DO, C2r (SEH, I, p. 143): 'adiungimus sæpiùs obseruationes nostras, tanquam primas quasdam conuersiones & inclinationes, ac veluti aspectus Historiæ ad Philosophiam: vt & pignoris loco hominibus sint, eos in Historiæ fluctibus perpetuo non detentos iri; vtque, cùm ad opus Intellectûs deueniatur, omnia sint magis in procinctu.'

χ (table).

Page 14, l. 17–P. 18, l. 23: Tabula—this also appears in HDR (A4v–A5v (SEH, II, pp. 245–6)), and stands at the very beginning of HDR(M) (fo. 7r). In these two texts the items listed are not numbered; in PhU the first 64 items are numbered, the rest not. The wording of the titles of three versions of the table differ in the following respects: HDR(M) reverses coïtionis and expansionis; after Tangibilibus HDR and HDR(M) add the parenthetical remark quæ, scilicet, dotantur pondere; and where PhU and HDR have rationum, HDR(M) has rerum. In the phrase Idem spatium … PhU and HDR have sive where HDR(M) has seu. The versions of the table differ as follows (i) Plumbi cinerei: HDR and HDR(M) give den. 10. gr. 12. not Den. 10. Gran. 13.; (ii) Marmoris: HDR(M) has den. 2. gr. 22. d. but PhU and HDR give Den. 2. Gran. 22. D.qu.; (iii) Cineris communis: PhU and HDR have the same result whereas HDR(M) gives it an extra half-grain; (iv) after Balsami Indi HDR (A5r) and HDR(M) have two extra items—Cerebri vitulini crudi and Sanguinis ovilli; (v) after Cæpæ recentis HDR and HDR(M) have an extra item—Lactis vaccini; (vi) Radicis Caricæ is unique to PhU but instead the other versions have three extra items not found in PhU, namely Succi menthæ expressi, Succi boraginis expressi, and Cervisiæ lupulatæ fortisr; (vii) from the point of view of weight Succini lucidi is out of order; it appears two items later in HDR and HDR(M); viii) also out of order by weight are Aquæ communis and Vrinæ, they appear in the correct order in HDR and HDR(M); (ix) the Beniovis and Myrrhæ of PhU appear in reverse order in the other versions.

ll. 24–5: Plumbi cinerei—bismuth.

l. 27: Aurichalchi—aurichalcite, a mineral containing copper and zinc which, when reduced, yields brass.

l. 33: Lapidis Lydii—basanite, a black variety of quartz, used as a touchstone for precious metals.

Page 16, l. 4: Salis Gemmæ—probably natural rock-salt, see OED, Sal-gem.

l. 12: Vitrioli Albi—natural zinc sulphate; alternatively, green vitriol (iron sulphate) dehydrated and powdered.

l. 15: Olei Vitrioli—concentrated sulphuric acid.

l. 18: Olei Sulphuris—sulphuric acid, cf. HDR, B1r (SEH, II, p. 250); OED, Sulphur, sb. 1. d.

pg 367

l. 22: Aquœ fortis—nitric acid (HNO2).

l. 32: Succini lucidi—Dr Michael Edwards has pointed out that this could mean clear amber (succinus) or clear souse (succinum). SEH (V, p. 341) prefers the first translation; we prefer the second. It would be quite difficult to cut amber to the shape required by the experiment; souse (a liquid used for pickling) stands before vinegar in the table; Bacon would probably have used the word electrum had he meant amber, see for instance HVM, D5r (SEH, II, p. 117).

Page 18. l. 10: Beniovis—benzoin or benjamin, a resinous substance obtained, apparently, from the Indonesian tree styrax benzoin (OED, Benzoin, 1).

P1r

Page 18, 25–7: Intelligantur pondera—this sentence appears almost verbatim in HDR(A5v (SEH, II, p. 246)) and HDR(M), (fo. 7v). PhU says more than these texts about the reasons for choosing gold as a standard. The weights are Troy weights (24 grains = 1 pennyweight = 1.56 grams. 20 dwt = 1 oz. 12 oz. = 1 lb. = 5760 grains). These were traditionally used by gold and silversmiths; see R. D. Connor, The weights and measures of England, HMSO: London, 1987, pp. 120, 123; R. E. Zupko, British weights and measures: a history from antiquity to the seventeenth century, Madison, 1977, pp. 77–8. For brief remarks on the historical context of this experiment see Rees, 'Quantitative reasoning', pp. 42–3.

l. 28: exporrectionis—for this important technical term see ANN (fo. 24r) where Bacon speaks of the five Exporrectrices magnæ or major conditions governing the space-filling aspect of matter. The five are dense and rare; heavy and light; hot and cold; tangible and pneumatic; and volatile and fixed. The justification for creating this group is given (fo. 24r–v) thus: 'Cum omnis omnium corporum diuersitas referatur vere, vel ad copiam et paucitatem materiaæ in ijsdem contentæ (id quod in rationes illas densi et rari, si recte accipiantur, incidit) vel ad partium aut disparitatem inter se, aut posituram et collocationem; cumque omnis motus corporum et partium ipsorum sit vel sphærius, id est vndequaque corpus aut contrahens aut expandens, vel orbicularis siue rotans, vel in linea recta, vel etiam ex his tribus compositus et complicatus, manifestissimum est inquisitionem de exporrectione materiæ per spatia, quæ fit ex eiusdem copia et inopia, et de motu coitionis et dilatationis, qui est sphærius, esse omnium in natura simplicem et vniuersalem.'

P1r–v

Page 18, l. 32–P. 20, l. 21: Experimentum vero—the experiment is described in much the same way in HDR (A5v–A6r (SEH, II, pp. 246–7)) and HDR(M) (fo. 7v) save that these two texts tell us that the cubes were made of silver. In the example, HDR and HDR(M) have myrrh not fat.

P1v–P2r

Page 20, ll. 21–7: Mensuræ autem—this statement down to the end of the paragraph does not appear in HDR or HDR(M). The unit of measure is the pg 368vintner's or wine pint (approx. 0.473 litres), see R. E. Zupko, A dictionary of English weights and measures from Anglo-Saxon times to the nineteenth century, Madison, Milwaukee and London, 1968, p. 127. This unit is also used in NO, 2N1v (SEH, I, p. 324).

P2r–v

Page 20, l. 28–p. 22, l. 21: MONITA—these four monita appear with slightly different wording in HDR (A6r–Ayr. (SEH, II, p. 247) but the first of PhU stands last in HDR. HDR(M) (fo. 8r) has an abbreviated version of the first and last monita only.

P3r

Page 22, l. 23–p. 24, l. 4: Coacervatio materiæ—this paragraph is quite different from the corresponding materials in HDR (A7r–A8r (SEH, II, p. 248)) and HDR(M) (fo. 8r–v) where the standard of comparison is 32 parts (obtained by dividing the weight of gold by that of fir wood). In PhU the standard is obtained by dividing the result for gold by that for spirit of wine; the answer is the same as that given in NO (2K4v–2L1r (SEH, I, p. 312)) namely 21 (although 22 would be a better approximation). In the phrase ad nostram notitiam Bacon is implicitly excluding the pure, super-dense tangible matter in the depths of the Earth, cf. HDR, A8r (SEH, II, p. 249); DVM, fos. 17r, 18r; also see cmt on DGI, E12r–v (p. 395 below).

P3v

Page 24, ll. 5–14: Videtur saltus—cf. HDR, A7v–A8v (SEH, II, pp. 248–9).

l. 14: fossilia—see cmt on PhU, O9v (p. 365 above).

P3v–P4r

Page 24, ll. 16–26: In vegetabilibus—material in this paragraph recurs with different wording in HDR (A8v (SEH, II, p. 249)).

P4r–v

Page 24, l. 27–p. 26, l. 2: Reperimus plerumque—this paragraph was rewritten in a much abbreviated form (with material on plants and animals omitted) in HDR (A8v (SEH, II, p. 250)).

P4v

Page 26, ll. 9–16: In Inquisitione—cf. HDR, A8r–v (SEH, II, pp. 249–50). This paragraph was perhaps suggested by materials in G. Agricola, De re metallica libri XII, Basle, 1561, lib. 3, pp. 29–54. For the places where metals, crystals and gems are generated see NO, 2T2v–2T3r (SEH, I, p. 360).

P5r

Page 26, ll. 17–24: Sulphur, quem patrem—this is further evidence of Bacon's willingness to use quantitative argument to attack a theory; for other evidence see cmt on PhU, Q2v–Q3r (p. 372 below). The theory in question, the sulphur-pg 369mercury theory of metals, is not alluded to in HDR or HDR(M). For the origins of the theory see A. G. Debus, The chemical philosophy, I, pp. 8–9. For the phrase naturalem non communem see tn to this passage.

ll. 25–30: Efficiens coitionis—cf. HDR, A8v–B1r (SEH, II, p. 250); HDR(M), fo. 8r–v.

P5r–v

Page 26, l. 31–p. 28, l. 17: Mixtura liquorum—this paragraph appears in a shorter form in HDR, B1r (SEH, II, p. 250) and HDR(M), fo. 8v.

P5v–P6r

Page 28, ll. 20–26: Rationes pulverum—this brief introduction to the results is not present in HDR or HDR(M).

P6r

Page 28, l. 26–p. 30, l. 1: Mercurius in corpore—in HDR(B2v (SEH, II, p. 252)) and HDR(M) (fo. 8v) all the results are given in tabular form. PhU and HDR give the 'correct' weight for lead (i.e. the one given in the earlier table); HDR(M) gives 4 dwt. too little. HDR and HDR(M) agree that the weight of powdered crystal is 2 dwt. 20 grains not 1 dwt. 20 grains. On cerussa or white lead, see Pliny, Historia naturalis, XXXV. 18.

P6r–v

Page 30, ll. 2–18: Ut autem—the material on powders compressed and uncompressed does not appear in HDR and HDR(M).

P6v–P7r

Page 30, ll. 18–23: Conspicere autem—these data are given in tabular form in HDR(B2v (SEH, II, p. 252)) and HDR(M) (fo. 8v–9r). HDR(M)and PHU agree on the weight of undistilled vinegar; HDR makes it 1 gr. heavier—a result which agrees with that given in all three versions of the Tabula Coitionis (cf. HDR, A4v–A5v (SEH, II, pp. 245–6); HDR(M), fo.7v)). Vinegar distillate is given an extra gr. in HDR(M) but not in HDR, this gr. does not feature in any version of the Tabula Coïtionis.

P7r–v

Page 30, l. 24–p. 32, l. 19: MONITA—from here onwards the contents of PhU and HDR begin to diverge sharply. Of the four monita, HDR (B3r (SEH, II, pp. 252–3)) has matter corresponding only to the second. HDR(M) has no monita here.

Page 30, l. 26: de eodem individuo—for the individual/species distinction see DGI, D4r, D7v; HDR, A6v (SEH, II, p. 247); NO, 2E3r (SEH, I, p. 282); PAH, b1v (SEH, I, p. 396).

P7v

Page 32, l. 19: historiam propriam—cf. PhU, P2r (p. 20 above).

pg 370 P7v–P8r

Page 32, l. 20–p. 34, l. 12: OBSERVATIONES—much of the substance of the first three appears as a single paragraph in HDR; the fifth observatio appears as a second paragraph in HDR while the fourth and sixth do not appear at all (cf. HDR, B3v (SEH, II, pp. 253–4)); HDR(M) does not have these observationes.

P8v–P9r

Page 34, ll. 15–27: Animalia natando—see NO, 2O2r (SEH, I, pp. 330–1); for the flight of birds see HVM, F3v (SEH, II, p. 124⊢5).

P9v

Page 36, ll. 14–16: & pressura liberetur—cf. HDR, G5v (SEH, II, p. 304).

l. 20: motus gravitatis—see NO, 2N3v, 2O4v (SEH, I, pp. 328, 334); ANN, fo. 30r.

l. 20: motu liberationis—cf. PhU, Q2r; also see NO, 2O2r (SEH, I, pp. 330–1), and ANN, fo. 29r, where this motion is called motus libertatis.

P10r

Page 38, ll. 5–9: Pueri ad imitationem—cf. NO, 2O2r (SEH, I, pp. 330–1).

P10r–v

Page 38, ll. 10–14: Aër impulsu—cf. NO, X3r (SEH, p. I, 245); HSA, H2r–v (SEH, III, pp. 661⊢2).

P10v

Page 38, ll. 15–26: In sonorum—cf. HSA, H2r–v (SEH, III, pp. 661–2). Also cf. SS, G1v–G2r (SEH, II, pp. 397–8).

P11r

Page 38, ll. 29: ventus per angustias—HV, I2r–v (SEH, II, p. 44).

Page 38, l. 33–p. 40, l. 2: Aqua ex angustiis—cf. NO, 2C4v 2O3v (SEH, I, pp. 273, 333).

Page 40, ll. 3–8: Est genus turbinis—HV, I4v–I5r (SEH, II, p. 45): 'Fit in pratis, vt cumuli fœni, quandoquè in altum ferantur, & turn instar Conopæi spargantur; etiam in agris, vt caules pisarum … attollantur à Turbinibus, vsque ad altitudinem Arborum, aut supra fastigia Ædium; haecque fiunt, abṣque aliquo maiore Venti impetu, aut vehementiâ.'

P11r–v

Page 40, ll. 9–20: Catinum ligneum—for the same experiment but written up differently see HDR, G1r–v (SEH, II, p. 299). In HDR(M) (fo. 21v) this experiment is mentioned but in note form; see cmt on PhU, P11v–P12r below. The paragraph beginning 'In cubiculo …' does not appear in HDR or HDR(M).

P11v–P12r

Page 40, ll. 21–34: Ad commodiorem—For Drebbel's diving bell see Introduction, 1 (e). Also see cmt on PhU, Q9v (pp. 374–5 below). The substance pg 371of most of this paragraph appeared with different wording in HDR immediately after the experiment of the inverted wooden bowl (G1v (SEH, II, p. 299)). It also appeared in the same place in HDR(M) (fo. 21v) but as nothing more than a three-word note. HDR and HDR(M) do not refer to the experience of Bacon's servant.

P12r–v

Page 42, l. 6–p. 44, l. 15: Sed ut de proportione—material from this and the next three paragraphs (P12v–Q1v), also appears in NO in the accounts of instantias virgæ (2N1r–v (SEH, I, pp. 323–5)), and Polychrest Instances (2S1v (SEH, I, p. 352)). Of these four paragraphs the material of the first two appears in the same order in HDR (G1v–G2r (SEH, II, pp. 299–300)). These first two, on the compression of air and water, are represented in HDR(M) (fo. 21v) in the form of a very brief note accompanied by a reference to 'lib. ii. in organo nouo'.

Pl2 v

Page 42, ll. 14–21: Atque fieri fecimus—see previous cmt.

l. 21: sed alio spectat—Bacon may have been wondering whether air left compressed for a time would remain compressed when released from the lead vessel, cf. NO, 2S1v (SEH, I, p. 352).

Page 42, ll. 27–34: Modus autem est —cf. NO, 2N1r (SEH, I, p. 323); HDR, E4v (SEH, II, pp. 283–4); HDR(M), fo. 17r.

Q1r–v

Page 44, ll. 1–15: Nos idem cum ovo—cf. NO, 2N1r, 2S1v (SEH, I, pp. 323, 352–3); HDR, E4v (SEH, II, pp. 283–4). Instead of an eighth part, HDR says a tenth.

Q1v

Page 44, ll. 16–20: In follibus—cf. DPAO, M7v–M8r, where this observation is intimately associated with discussions of the vacuum and the possibility of producing one artificially. Also see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 556–61.

Q1v–Q2r

Page 44, ll. 22–34: Si aqua accipiatur—this is dealt with very briefly in HDR, G3r (SEH, II, p. 301).

Q2r

Page 46, ll. 2–5: Motum successionis—the two motions mentioned in this monitum are called motus nexus and motus libertatis in NO (2O1v–2O2v (SEH, I, pp. 330–2)) and ANN (fo. 29r); also see HDR, E5r–v (SEH, II, p. 284), and NO, 2O2v (SEH, I, p. 331) which says: 'Quidam enim valdè negligentèr confundunt hunc Motum, cum gemino illo Motu Antitypiæ & Nexûs; Liberationem scilicèt à Pressurâ, cum Motu Antitypiœ; à Tensurâ, cum Motu Nexus: ac si ideò cederent aut se dilatarent corpora compressa, ne sequeretur pg 372Penetratio dimensionum; ideò resilirent & contraherent se Corpora tensa, nè sequeretur Vacuum.'

Q2r–v

Page 46, ll. 7–11: Aër per respirationem—cf. HDR, F4r (SEH, II, pp. 292–3); HDR(M), fo. 19v.

Q2v–Q3r

Page 46, ll. 12–34: Modus processus—cf. PhU, Q5v–Q6r; cf. HDR, C7r–v (SEH, II, p. 268); HDR(M), fo. 12r–v; DVM, fo. 10r; NO, 2N4v (SEH, I, p. 329).

ll. 32–4: Ex æstimatione—cf. HDR, A2v–A3r, G4v (SEH, II, pp. 244, 303); HDR(M), fos. 10v, 22v. The idea that a given quantity of earth could be turned into ten times as much water, water into ten times as much air, and air into ten times as much fire is being implicitly undermined here as it is elsewhere in PhU (Q3r–Q4v, Q5r–v and cmts thereon (below)). The idea originated in a misunderstanding by his commentators of remarks by Aristotle, see De generatione et corruptione, II. 6. 333a. Also see Michel-Pierre Lerner, 'Le "parménidisme" de Telesio: origine et limites d'une hypothèse', in Bernardino Telesio e la cultura napoletana, ed. Raffaele Sirri and Maurizio Torrini, Guida Editore: Naples, 1992, pp. 79–105, p. 100, n. 54. Bacon also attacked the theory in NO (F4r–v (SEH, I, p. 165)), and HDR (B8r (SEH, II, p. 259)). Telesio criticised it (DRN, I, pp. 482–8, 512), as did Gilbert (De mundo, pp. 43–5). Bacon would have known these criticisms but did not draw on them. Isaac Beeckman remarks a propos of Bacon's criticisms of the proportionality, 'Quo modo meliùs Antiqui proportionem inter locum terræ, aquæ, aeris, ignis determinassent quàm conjecturâ, nescio, quâ dixissent esse 1:10:100:1000'; see Journal, II, p. 252.

Q3r–Q4v

Page 48, l. 2–p. 50, l. 13: Phialam vitream—this experiment is repeated later (PhU, Q8r–v) but with spirits of wine not water. Comparing the results derived from the two experiments, Bacon argued that flame might be five times rarer than air—a conclusion at variance with Peripatetic element theory (q.v. cmt on PhU, Q2v–Q3r (above)). The experiment with spirits of wine recurs in NO (2L1r–v (SEH, I, pp. 312–13)) and HDR (B6v–B7r (SEH, II, p. 257)), but not in HDR(M). These later versions of the experiment, though based on the account in PhU, lack the circumstantial detail of the earlier text. In all cases the experiment exemplifies Bacon's readiness to use quantitative data derived from highly artificial theory-testing experiments to encompass the ruin of rival doctrines in the realm of matter theory. For the function and history of this experiment see Rees, 'Quantitative reasoning', pp. 43–6.

Q4v

Page 50, l. 19: balneo Mariæ—a vessel containing water which was kept simmering to warm the alchemical or culinary vessels placed in it. For the humid heat of a bain-marie see NO, 2S4v–2T1r (SEH, I, p. 357).

pg 373 Q5r

Page 50, ll. 30–3: Itaque amplificatur—for other allusions to the power of small volumes of material to colour or scent large volumes of water see HDR, E6r (SEH, II, p. 285), and CDNR, R3r–R6r (SEH, III, pp. 15–17).

Q5r–v

Page 50, l. 32–p. 52, l. 13: Rationes exactæ—Bacon is concerned only with approximations here, approximations sufficient to falsify the decuple proportion theory (q.v. cmt on Q3r–Q4v (p. 372 above)). Termini enim Naturarum constituted a topic of abiding interest for Bacon; one of the underlying issues here is the question of the extreme limits of density and rarity. These bounds are also a matter for concern in HDR (G4v (SEH, II, p. 302)) and ANN (fo. 24v). For other instances of Bacon's interest in this see ANN, fo. 33r (the boundaries of generation and corruption), ANN, fo. 36r–v and NO, 2F4r (SEH, I, pp. 288–9): 'Inter Prœrogatiuas Instantiarum, ponemus loco Duodecimo ipsas illas Instantias Subiunctiuas … quas etiam Instantias Vltimitatis siue Termini, appellare consueuimus. Neque enim huiusmodi Instantiæ vtiles sunt tantùm, quatenùs subiunguntur Propositionibus Fixis; verùm etiam per se, & in proprietate suâ. Indicant enim non obscurè veras Sectiones Naturæ, & Mensuras rerum, & illud Quousque Natura quid faciat & ferat, & deinde Transitus Naturæ ad aliud. Talia sunt; Aurum, in Pondere; Ferrum, in Duritie; Cete, in Quantitate Animalium … & alia id genus. Nec minùs exhibenda sunt ea, quæ sunt Vltima gradu infimo, quàm quæ supremo: vt Spiritus vini, in Pondere; Sericum, in Mollitie; Vermiculi cutis, in Quantitate Animalium; & cætera.'

Q5v

Page 52, ll. 13–15: Metalla ipsa—for extended series of quantitative experiments on effects of acids on metals see HDR, D7v–E1v (SEH, II, pp. 278–80); HDR(M), fos. 15v–16v

Q5v–Q6r

Page 52, ll. 17–31: Modus processus olei—cf. HDR, C7v (SEH, II, p. 268). HDR(M) lacks the more detailed observations on the lighting of the vapour. In HDR(M) (fo. 12r), the way various liquids boil and 'open' is merely noted as a subject for investigation. Otherwise HDR(M) has none of the detailed observations relating to water, oil, spirits of wine, etc.

Q6v–Q7r

Page 54, ll. 5–27: Modus processus spiritus—cf. HDR, C7v (SEH, II, p. 268) for a much shorter treatment which lacks the material in PhU on the burning of spirits and vapour.

Q7r–v

Page 54, l. 28–p. 56, l. 7: Habent autem Acetum—the material in this paragraph is written up in two short paragraphs in HDR (C7v–C8r (SEH, II, pp. 268–9)).

pg 374 Q7v

Page 56, ll. 8–11: Omnes autem—cf. HDR, C8r (SEH, II, p. 269); HDR(M), fo. 12r.

Q8r–v

Page 56, l. 19–p. 58, l. 11: Spiritus vini—see cmt on PhU, Q3r–Q4v (p. 372 above). Once again the Peripatetic theory of the decuple proportionality of the elements is implicitly under quantitative attack. It is worth comparing these findings with those in HDR, B6r–v (SEH, II, p. 256). HDR does not offer the 1 to 1.5 ratio but makes the following observation: 'rationes Pneumaticorum minime differe à rationibus Fomitum suorum; ideoque, quemadmodum Oleum est rarius Aqua, similiter Flammam rariorem esse Aere & Spiritu. Etiam videtur Flamma Corpus tenuius, & mollius, & magis cedens, quam Aer. Nam levissima quæpiam Aura, commota juxta flammam lychni, eam reddit tremulam.' The distinction between perfect and other kinds of spirits is developed further in HDR, B4r–B5r (SEH, II, pp. 254–5).

Q8v–Q9r

Page 58, ll. 12–23: Neque hæc—on the expansion of fumes in relation to the flame from which they come, the same measure is given in HDR, B7v (SEH, II, p. 258) and HDR(M), fo. 10v. On the nature of fumes in general and in relation to other tenuous bodies see HDR, B4r–B4v (SEH, II, pp. 254–5). ll. 13–18: Nam si candelam—cf. NO, 2B1r–v (SEH, I, pp. 262–3).

Q9r

Page 58, ll. 18–23: Quod si pulveris—cf. HDR, B7v (SEH, II, p. 258); HDR(M), fo. 10v. In HDR and HDR(M), this and the previous example prepare the way for the attack on the theory of decuple proportionality (q.v. cmt on PhU, Q2v–Q3r (p. 372 above)).

ll. 27–33: Aërem ipsum expandi—cf. HDR, C6v (SEH, II, p. 267). In HDR(M) (fo. 12r) this material appears as a mere note. Also cf. DVM, fo. 25r; NO, 2R4v–2S1r (SEH, I, pp. 351–2); CDNR, R11r–S1v (SEH, III, pp. 22–5).

Q9v

Page 58, l. 34–p. 60, l. 4: Salinum Argenteum—cf. HDR, C6v (SEH, II, p. 267) and (in note form) HDR(M), fo. 12r. The experiment is different in HDR, where Bacon estimates the extent to which air expands on warming.

Page 60, ll. 5–10: Hero describit—cf. HDR, C7r (SEH, II, pp. 267–8) and HDR(M), fo. 12r, both of which have slightly fuller accounts of this device, a device described in Heronis Alexandrini spiritalivm liber. A Federico Commandino Vrbinate, ex Graeco, nvper in Latinvm conversvs, Urbino, 1575, fos. 20r–22r. Also see cmt on DGI, E6v–E7r (p. 392 below).

ll. 10–15: Erant etiam Batavi—this is a reference to Drebbel's solar organ, q.v. Introduction 1 (e). In HDR, G6r (SEH, II, p. 304), and HDR(M), fo. 23v, the device is mentioned in passing and without elaboration. For another of pg 375Drebbel's devices—the diving bell—see PhU, P11v–P12r, and ants thereon (pp. 370–1 above).

Q10r

Page 60, ll. 16–25: Verum ad magis—see PhU, Q8r (p. 56 above).

pg 376COMMENTARY ON DE FLUXU ET REFLUXU MARIS

H5v

Page 64, ll. 4–11: Contemplatio de causis—for a summary of ancient and modern opinions, and of theories associating the tides with the Moon's influence see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 138v, 139v–140r, 141r–142r. Among others he mentions the views of Aristotle, Posidonius, Pliny, Telesio, Federicus Chrysogonus, J. C. Scaliger, J. M. Benedictus, and Annibal Raimundus.

ll. 11–21: inveniuntur revera tantum quinque—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 136v–137r: having dealt with currents first (see cmt on DFRM, H6r–H7r immediately below), Patrizi notes that 'sunt quatuor aut etiam quinque alij, naturales itidem maris motus. Quorum prior diurnus est, alter hebdomadarius, tertius est menstruus. Quartus semestris. Quintus annuus.' Patrizi's first four seem to correspond to Bacon's second, fourth, third, and fifth respectively. Bacon does not mention an annual motion. For Patrizi as for Bacon the diurnal (sexhorary) motion is the main object of inquiry (ibid., fos. 137v–144v).

H6r–H7r

Page 64, ll. 24 ff: Primo igitur quod ad motum Currentium—Patrizi (Pancosmia, fos. 134v–135v) also deals with currents first; these are violent as distinct from natural motions of the sea, i.e. they are generated by causes extrinsic to it such as winds and irregularities of the sea-bed and coasts; also see ibid., fo. 145v. Bacon was probably thinking of the natural-violent polarity when he distinguished currents from 'motibus Oceani naturalibus & catholicis' (DFRM, H6v). The language here already indicates his drift; the sea's 'natural' motions are also 'catholic', i.e. the sea in implicated in universal passions of matter which also drive the diurnal motion of the heavens; see cmts on DGI, F5v and TC, G6r–v (pp. 399 and 407 below).

ll. 30–1: ventis … Anniversariis —in HV (E7v (SEH, II, p. 28)) these are classified as periodic winds and identified with the Etesian. Patrizi remarked, 'Alij vero stati, vel certis anni temporibus, vel certis annorum interuallis. Priores dicti sunt Etesiœ, quoniam quotannis, certo anni tempore, flant uenti quidam, qui mare commouent' (Pancosmia, fo. 135r). Also see Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 47.

Page 66, ll. 13–14: compressiones Aquarum—cf. DVM, fo. 19r; NO, 2O2r (SEH, I, pp. 330–1) (Motus Libertatis), and 2M4v–2N2r (SEH, I, pp. 323–5).

H7v

Page 66, l. 35–p. 68, l. 3:Atque primo illud—for the distinction between progression and uplifting as possible causes of tides see NO, 2G4r (SEH, I, p. 294). Also see E. G. R. Taylor, Late Tudor and early Stuart geography 1583–1650, London, 1934, p. 90.

pg 377 H8r

Page 68, ll. 15–17: Fluxus enim sub æquinoctiis—this is the half-yearly motion; cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 137r: 'Duo autem esse æquinotia [sic] nemo non nouit, sexque menses alterum ab altero distare. Quam rem a Nautis Oceani obseruatam, confirmauit Ludouicus Guicciardinus. Alius ergo hic a præcedentibus omnibus est maris Semestris motus.'

ll. 16–17: similis est ratio motus Semimenstrui—one of the many kinds of 'weekly' motion distinguished by Patrizi, see Pancosmia, fo. 136v. For Gilbert on tides at new and full Moon see De mundo, pp. 312–13.

ll. 19–20: pati apogæum—cf. DGI, G2r; NO, Y3v (SEH, I, pp. 250–1).

ll. 22–30: Præterea si fluxus Aquarum—in NO (2H1r–v (SEH, I, pp. 296–7)) the same three possibilities are given in the same order; the first two, discussed in DFRM, are not considered at all in NO. The third possibility, dismissed in DFRM, is given extended treatment in NO. According to DFRM the third, 'per sublationem simplicem', cannot work because it would leave a vacuum between the waters and the sea-bed. NO, unlike DFRM, specifies a magnetic power as the lifting agent. This power might act (a) on the whole body of the ocean (but cannot do so for the reason given in DFRM) or (b) mainly on the middle of the ocean to cause low tides at the edges. Note the assumption in both works that no vacuum can be created. For the vacuum hypothesis see cmts on DGI, E5v–E6v, E6v–E7r (pp. 391–2 below); DPAO, M7v. Also see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 556–61. For tidal motion in Gilbert's magnetic philosophy see De mundo, pp. 306–11 where the tides are attributed to the magnetic action of the Moon and the diurnal rotation of the Earth.

H8r–v

Page 68, l. 30–p. 70, –. 4: Sin vero sit Extensio—Telesio subscribed to a rarefaction theory—see Patrizi Pancosmia, fo. 140v: 'Fluxus vero & refluxus propriam dicit esse, quia sol in mari ingeneret vapores, qui egressum molientes, a mari superposito prohibiti, ipsum attollunt, & agitant.' For Telesio's theory of the sexhorary motion see Bernardino Telesio, Varii de naturalibus rebus libelli, ed. Luigi De Franco, La Nuova Italia Editrice: Florence, 1981, pp. 139–48 and esp. pp. 140–1.

H8v

Page 70, ll. 7–8: Apollonii—on tides as form of respiration see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 135v–136r (quoting Strabo); also see Philostrati Lemnii senioris historic de vita Apollonij Tyanei libri octo … Lvtetiæ. Apud Egidium Gourbinum, 1555, V, i, pp. 279–80: 'Oceanus à spiritibus sub aqua existentibus impulsus ex multis hiatibus qui partim sub ipso, partim in terra circa ipsum sunt, ad exteriora diffunditur, ac rursus retrocedit: postquam velut anhelans, quem diximus, spiritus resedit …' Cf. SS, 2H4r (SEH, II, p. 640).

H8v–H9r

Page 70, ll. 9–11: quispiam levi experimento—see Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 103: 'Contra Timavum amnem insula parva in mari est cum fontibus calidis, pg 378qui pariter cum æstu maris crescunt, minuunturque.' Also see SS, A4r (SEH, II, p. 339). According to Gilbert (De mundo, p. 313), 'in Parochia de Kilken, fons est, qui distans à mari sex milliaria, singulis diebus bis, quemadmodum mare, impletur & inanitur: impletur cum mare recessit; inanitur cum accessit; quemadmodum in interioribus fluminum fieri solet, propter distantiam à mari.'

H9v

Page 70, ll. 29–32: Europœ & Floridœ—cf. NO, 2G4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 294–5): 'Atqui obseruauit Acosta, cum alijs nonnullis (diligenti factâ Inquisitione) quòd ad litora Floridæ, & ad litora aduersa Hispaniæ & Africæ, fiant Fluxus Maris ad eadem tempora, & Refluxus itidem ad eadem tempora; non contrà, quòd cùm fluxus fit ad littora Floridæ, fiat Refluxus ad littora Hispaniæ & Africæ.' Ellis (SEH, I, p. 295, note 1) said that he had not found this in Acosta. Neither have I.

Page 70, l. 34–p. 72, l. 3: Summa autem rei—cf. NO, 2G4v (SEH, I, p. 295).

H9v–H10r

Page 72, ll. 5–11: si per experientiam—cf. NO, 2G4v–2H1r (SEH, I, pp. 295–6), where Bacon used this argument against progressive motion to illustrate the doctrine of crucial instances; he added that the inhabitants of Panama and Lima should be asked whether the tides on opposite sides of the isthmus took place at the same times. If the tides did so then the progressive motion hypothesis would fall—but only so long as the Earth was stationary. If the Earth moved there might be some progressive heaping up of waters until they could bear it no longer and fell back again. Bacon did not explicitly mention Galileo's tide theory until later in NO (2N3v (SEH, I, p. 327)). The geography of Latin America may not have been one of Bacon's strong suits.

H10r

Page 72, ll. 21–2: ut Astronomorum—cf. NO, 2C1r (SEH, I, p. 268).

H10v

Page 72, ll. 23–5: tam Semimenstruus—see cmt on DFRM, H8r (p. 377 above).

ll. 32 ff: dominium habere—see Patrizi Pancosmia, fos. 139v, 141r–v, 142r: 'Si ita est, & luna in omnes aquas imperium habet, cur non omnes æque commouet?' Bacon wants to establish that correlations between celestial motion and tides indicate not that the former cause the latter but that all share in the operation of the same causal agency, namely 'consent' (see cmt on TC, G10v (p. 410 below)). Compulsion and subordination are not at issue here but agreement and harmony; cf. NO, 2Q2v–2Q3r (SEH, I, p. 343). Compare this with what Bacon says about the 'fiction' of the primum mobile, an idea which seemed to him to imply subordination of the planets to a superior force that was not their own (TC, G10r–v).

H10v–H11r

ut ex materiæ passionibus—see cmts on DGI, F5v, TC, G6r–G7r (pp. 399 and 406–7 below); also see (for contrast) Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 141r: 'Non negamus pg 379… hæ omnes, vniuersales sunt causæ, nos vero, præsenti indagatione affluxus, & refluxus marini propriam, seu proprias si plures sint, quærimus causas.'

H11r

Page 74, l. 7: aliquid Monodicum—see cmt on DGI, D4r (p. 384 below).

ll. 15–18: Sive enim Luna—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 141r: philosophers have ascribed the tides to many different causes, some of which are these—'cœli partes lunæ oppositæ, lunæ cursus, lunæ radii, luminis resilitio, vapores, lunœ aquarum ductio, lunæ tractio, lunae auectio. Lunæ ortus, lunæ per ventos decursus, lunæ ad meridiem ascensus, lunæ descensus ad occasum.'

ll. 29–30: cum ea differentia—i.e. the monthly tidal cycle, see DFRM, H6r.

H12r–I1v

Page 76, l. 3–p. 78, l. 29: Itaque quod ad primam inquisitionem attinet—a classic statement of Bacon's belief that the diurnal motion, whose velocity decreases with proximity to the Earth, is 'cosmic' (cf. TC, G10r; NO, 2H2r–v (SEH, I, p. 297)), i.e. that it is not confined to the heavens but penetrates the sublunar realm (see Introduction, ch. 2 (g), (h)). 'Physical reasons' rule out the possibility that the diurnal motion is the Earth's; Bacon is perhaps implying that those who ascribe axial motion to the Earth do so not because they believe it but because the supposition aids computation. For the axial motion see cmt on DGI, E5r–v (p. 391 below). No primum mobile drives the diurnal motion (see DGI, D10v, E5r–v and cmt thereon (p. 391 below); DPAO, L2r; NO, G4v (SEH, I, p. 171)). That motion is 'natural', and the substances involved in it move by 'consent' or 'agreement' (cf. DFRM, H6r–Hyr; TC, G10r–v, H4v). In the region below the Moon, the 'lower comets' (see cmt on DGI, F2r–v (pp. 396–8 below)) participate in the now-attenuated diurnal motion. Lower still, this motion is further attenuated by 'immissione materiali particularum' and other influences emanating from the Earth, influences strongly reminiscent of Gilbert's notion of effluvia (see cmt on DGI, E5v–E6v (pp. 391–2 below)), but it still manifests itself in a breeze blowing from east to west in the tropics, a breeze even perceptible in the higher latitudes in the right conditions. This putative breeze is also a subject of inquiry in HV (HNE, E3v f. (SEH, II, pp. 26 f.)) and mentioned by Acosta: see The natvrall and morall historie of the East and West Indies … Written in Spanish by Ioseph Acosta, and translated into English by E. G., London, 1604, p. 128: 'in the sea beyond the Tropicke, and within the burning Zone, the Easterly winds raine continually, not suffering their contraries … The other wonder is, that these Easterly windes never cease to blow, and most commonly in places neerest to the line … This is the reason, why the voyage they make from Spaine to the West Indies is shorter, more easie, and more assured, than the return to Spaine.' For Zephyrus and Eurus and their qualities see NO, X2r (SEH, I, p. 244); Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 47.

pg 380 I1v–I2r

Page 78, ll. 31–36: Cum vero Aquas dicimus … portiones Naturæ —cf. NO, 2N4v (SEH, I, p. 329): 'ponemus loco Vicesimo tertio Instantias Quanti … Eæ sunt quæ Mensurant Virtutes per Quanta Corporum, & indicant quid Quantum Corporis faciat ad Modum Virtutis. Ac primò sunt quædam Virtutes quæ non subsistunt nisi in Quanto Cosmico, hoc est, tali Quanto quod habeat consensum cum Configuration & Fabricâ Vniuersi. Terra enim stat; partes eius cadunt. Aquæ in Maribus fluunt & refluunt; in Fluuijs minimè, nisi per ingressum Maris. Deinde etiam omnes ferè Virtutes particulates secundùm Multum aut Parum Corporis operantur. Aquæ largæ non facilè corrumpuntur; exiguæ citò.'

I2r–v

Page 80, ll. 2–17: Primum est—much of the evidence presented here and especially that concerned with the current at the Straits of Magellan is denied by Patrizi in his running critique of J. C. Scaliger's theory of the tides, see Pancosmia, fo. 138r, 139v, 140r, 145v–146r, 147r. See also NO, 2G4r (SEH, I, pp. 294–5). For Scaliger's theory see J. C. Scaliger, Exotericarum exercitationem liber quintus decimus, de subtilitate, ad Hieronymum Cardanum, Paris, 1557, fos. 81r–85r. Like Bacon, Scaliger thought that the seas followed the heavenly bodies from east to west and that in some places sexhorary tides were caused by the land throwing back waters accumulated by the the seas' east-west motion—see ibid, fos. 82v–83r and esp. fo. 83r: 'Sex horas igitur secum ducit aquas Luna: totidem maris ponderi datæ sunt, quo, repulsum à terra, seipsum premendo rursus incumberet in priores sedes.' Bacon no doubt knew Scaliger's views and took them into account when he wrote DFRM.

I2v–I4r

Page 80, ll. 18–26: Supponatur fluxum maris—cf. Patrizi (reporting the findings of Nicolas Sagrus), Pancosmia, fo. 139r: 'In die coniunctionis Lunæ cum Sole, post medinoctium hora vna cum dimidia in freto Herculeo fluxus erit & a Tariffa quæ finis freti est ad dexteram in sinum voluendo vsque ad Ruttam, eadem hora ueniet. A Rutta ad caput S. Mariæ accedet hora secunda cum quarto. A capite hoc, ad caput S. Vincentij, & ad dexteram flectendo toto Lusitano littore ad caput finis terræ, & inde ad Orientem per totam Cantabricam oram, & etiam Gallicam, vsque ad regis insulam, tribus post medinoctium horis mare erit plenum. Ab hac vsque ad insulam Hechas in mari medio ad decimum fere milliarium, quod nautæ uocant derotam, mare erit plenum hora tertia, cum tribus quartis. Sed in littoribus, hora quarta cum dimidia. Ad Hebas [Ab Hechis presumably] usque ad ingressum Canalis Anglici, a qua plena, hora quinta, & quarto vno in derotta. In littoribus hora sexta cum tribus quartis. Toto vero littore Normandico, vsque ad Caletum, & Neuportum aqua plena hora nona. In derota horæ vnius tribus quartis, in Canali vero medio hora duodecima in eadem lunæ coniunctione. Horarum pg 381hæc varietas stuporem nobis incutit, qua ratione, in eodem mari, eodemque canali, eodemque coniunctionis tempore, aliter ad littora, aliter a littoribus miliari decimo, aliter medio in Canali accidat affluxus, Quo fit ut fluxus, qui sex horarum est tantum, vbi nona hora accedit in decern millium distantia, duabus horis cum quarto vno iam defluxerit. A Calete vero ad Grauelingen extra Canalem Anglicum, in derotta plenum sit post mediam noctem, vna hora cum dimidia, qua plenum erat vti vidimus ad Ruttam, hæc in gradu longitudinis est nono, Grauelinge uero in gradu XXIIII. vt distent gradibus XV. Ab hac vero vsque ad Selandiam quæ in XXVI. longitudinis gradu est, mare plenum ad littora hora tertia est. qua eadem vidimus mare plenum fuisse toto Lusitano littore, quod in gradu est VI.'

I4r–v

Page 82, l. 32–p. 84, l. 9: Tertium experimentum—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 137v: 'Secundum marium genus est, quod uel introitum, uel egressum angustum habet unum, ut Mæotis palus, mare Eritheum [sic], uel habet utrumque ut Pontus Euxinus, Propontis, quæ ingressum, & egressum habent angustissimos. Horum nullum, affluxum, & refluxum pati, authores tradunt præter Erythrei partes duas. Tertium genus, duo habet maria, Mediterranean nostrum, & Persicum, ab Oceano per ampliores fauces intra terras incurrentia. Horum Persicum affluit, & refluit, quod & nostrum maiore parte facit: non facit in Tyrrheno, in Ligustico, in Gallico, & parte Hispanici.' For Patrizi's first category see cmt on DFRM, I7v (p. 382 below). For Patrizi's discussion of Mediterranean and Adriatic tides see Pancosmia, fos. 140r, 141v. See also Scaliger, Exotericarum exercitationem liber, fos. 83r–84r; Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 97.

Page 84, ll. 9–13: quod in Mediterraneo refluxus—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 139v: 'Sed quod addit [Sagrus], admirationem magnam pariat, in freto Herculeo, fluxum a mediterraneo incipere, decrementum uero incipere ab Oceano.'

Page 84, l. 20–p. 86, l. 9: Intelligimus enim conversionem—Bacon's attempt to assimilate verticity to the cosmic diurnal motion; cf. TC, H1r, H4v; cmt on DGI, E12r–v (p. 395 below). Rees, 'Francis Bacon on verticity', pp. 202–11; also see Introduction, 2 (h). Gilbert, De mundo, pp. 35–6: 'Globus hic noster, qui ex terra & aqua simul cum effluviis aliis constat, præcipue ex solida & firmiori parte primaria, magneticis imbutus est viribus … At telluris constantioris ampla & profundior moles, quam terram vocitamus, etiamsi dura, renitens, firma, & quasi sicca videatur … Sed quemadmodum superiores ejus partes, ortu rerum & interitu confusæ, humorem tamen ingenitum sensibus nostris præ se ferunt … ita telluris tota interna moles succum habet innatum, insitum ab origine prima, & suum.' Ibid, p. 37: 'Telluris igitur effluvia hæc omnia sunt, mare, fontes, flumina, quemadmodum & aër circumfusus omnis, sicut facies sequentis figuræ ostendit.' [Then follows a diagram of the Earth with its outer pg 382incrustation.] Ibid., p. 46: 'Tellus communis mater est, hæc sola materiam suppeditat, in ea latent seminaria rerum; quæ ut concepta fuerint loco idoneo, ab actu humoris, intra formæ cancellos principium habent motus, augmentum, & statum.' Also see ibid., pp. 111, 135–43 for Gilbert's linking of verticity with the motion of the Earth.

I5v–I7r

Page 86, l. 10–p. 88, l. 22: Superest inquisitio tertia—here Bacon presents his argument squaring the sexhorary and monthly motions with the diurnal motion of the heavens; see Introduction 2 (g); Rees, 'Semi-Paracelsian cosmology', pp. 98–100; Rossi, Aspetti, pp. 153–222. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 138r.

I7r

Page 88, ll. 24–7: Inquiratur utrum hora fluxus circum littora Africœ—the proposals in this paragraph were doubtless aimed at acquiring data relating to areas north and south of the region about which Bacon had supplied data earlier (DFRM, I2v–I3r.)

Page 88, l. 33–p. 90, l. 2: Inquiratur quomodo hora fluxus—this takes up the point developed earlier (DFRM, H9v–H10r).

Page 90, ll. 3–6: Inquiratur de magnitudinibus—for Patrizi's history of these see Pancosmia, fos. 138r f.

ll. 7–12: Inquiratur de mari Caspio—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 137v: 'maris primum genus illud est, quod undequaque terra clauditur, neque ullum habet exitum. Quale est mare Caspium, Palus Mantiana, Lacus Asphaltites, & si quod aliud est tale. An hæc maria tria affluxum sentiant, necne authores, nec ueteres, nec recentes tradidere.'

I7v–I8r

Page 90, ll. 13–17: Inquiratur utrum fluxus augmenta—i.e. the half-monthly and half-yearly tides.

I8r

Page 90, l. 19–p. 92, l. 2: Non producitur—see DFRM, I7r where Bacon clearly implies that the monthly motion is not a consequence of the seas' subordination to the Moon. In NO (2G4r (SEH, I, pp. 294–5)) the monthly motion is mentioned but no explanation attempted.

Page 92, ll. 4–7: Inquisitio præsens—for Bacon's views on the hypothesis of the Earth's diurnal (axial) motion see DGI, E5r–v and cmt thereon (p. 391 below); DFRM, H12r; TC, G9r, G10r, H4v.

pg 383COMMENTARY ON DESCRIPTIO GLOBI INTELLECTUALS

D2r–D3v

Page 96, l. 8–p. 98, l. 18: Partitionem doctrinæ humanæ—cf. AL, 2B3r (SEH, III, p. 329); DAS, L3v (SEH, I, pp. 494–5). The latter adopts formulations of this crucial distinction from DGI. Bacon's association of the three primary branches of human knowledge with the three faculties of the rational soul is novel, as is the placing of history before the other two branches. On this subject see Grazia Tonelli Olivieri, 'Galen and Francis Bacon: faculties of the soul and the classification of knowledge', The shapes of knowledge from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment, ed. D. R. Kelley and R. H. Popkin (Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Idées, 124), Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Boston and London, 1991, pp. 61–81. A fuller account of the distinction and of the relationship between the faculties will be given in due course in the proposed critical edition of DAS.

D3v

Page 98, ll 18–24: Quare & Theologiam—cf. AL, 2B3r (SEH, III, p. 329); DAS, (SEH, I, p. 495).

ll. 19–21: perenni quadam Philosophia—see Charles B. Schmitt, 'Perennial philosophy: from Agostino Steuco to Leibniz', JHI, 27, 1966, pp. 505–32.

l. 24: per parabolas—on parabolic poetry see AL, 2E2r–2E3v (SEH, III, pp. 344–5) and esp. DSV, 2A4r–2A6v (SEH, VI, pp. 625–8); DAS, P3r–P4r (SEH, I, pp. 520–1).

ll. 26–8: Partitio Historiæ—cf. DAS, L3v–L4r (SEH, I, pp. 495–6), and AL, 2B3v (SEH, III, p. 329). When Bacon revised AL to produce DGI and DAS he imposed a Ramist framework on the text, i.e. the argument is made to run from the general to the particular through (in the main) a hierarchy of dichotomies. Bacon may have chosen this structure so that Part I of the IM would stand in sharp formal contrast to the aphoristic Part II. One of the most striking features of Bacon's mapping of learning is the prominent position accorded to natural history. I can think of no pre-Baconian classification that places natural history in first place and, in so far as any classification of learning embodies systems of values, Bacon's marks a profound cultural shift towards the critical-empirical, experimental and technological. All these matters will be considered more fully in the proposed critical edition of DAS.

l. 27: Literaria—nothing more is said about this in DGI, in DAS, L3v (SEH, I, p. 495) Bacon explained why historia literarum deserved to be treated separately and went on to outline his programme for it a few pages later (M4r–N1v (SEH, I, pp. 502–4.)). DGI breaks off well before the point where this topic pg 384would have been considered had Bacon proceeded further with his plans for the text.

D4r

Page 100, ll. 3–10: Naturalis Historia rerum—natural history is concerned with species not individuals—cf. DGI, D7v; HDR, A6v (SEH, II, p. 247); NO, 2E3r (SEH, I, p. 282); PAH, b1v (SEH, I, p. 396).

ll. 10–11: Nam & Solis—for individuals unique in their species, and individ uals which deviate greatly from their species see NO, 2E2v–2E3v (SEH, I, pp. 281–3) (Instantiæ Monodicæ, and Instantiæ Deviantes).

D4r–D5r

Page 100, ll. 16–29: At partitionem Historiæ Naturalis—this threefold distribution was used in AL (2B4r (SEH, III, p. 330)), and later appeared in PhU (O9v); it was also used in the early CDSH (fo. 217r (SEH, III, p. 189)). The CDSH treatment is rather different from Bacon's others. DGI marks Bacon's first use of the terms Generationes, Prætergenerationes, and Artes—terms subsequently deployed in PAH (a4v (SEH, I, p. 395)), and DAS (L4r–v (SEH, I, p 496)), whose discussions of natural history were evidently based on the text of DGI.

D5r

Page 100, l. 34: tamquam Proteum—cf. CDNR, R9r (SEH, III, p. 20); AL, 2C2r (SEH, III, p. 333); DSV, 2C3v–2C4r (SEH, VI, pp. 651–2); PAH, b3v (SEH, I, pp. 398–9).

D5r–v

Page 102, ll. 4–24: quia inveteravit prorsus mos—the obliteration of the art/nature distinction is a fundamental feature of Bacon's philosophy; for a subtle and penetrating investigation of aspects of the relationship between art and nature in the late Renaissance and of the cultural context of Bacon's ideas on this matter see Charles B. Schmitt, 'John Case on art and nature', Annals of science, 33, 1976, pp. 543–59. As for the difference between art and nature being not by 'formâ aut essentiâ, sed efficiente', see DAS, L4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 496–7).

D5v

Page 102, l. 25: simulachrum Iridis—cf. PhU, O10r.

D6r

Page 104, l. 3: Cajus Plinius—see cmts on PhU, O6v⊢O7r and O8v (pp. 363 and 364 above). Also see DGI, D10r; NO, Q2v (SEH, I, pp. 214–15); PAH, b1r (SEH I, p. 396); CDSH, fos. 214v, 226r (SEH, III, pp. 191, 195).

D6v

Page 104, ll. 11 ff: Cæterum Historia—the substance of this chapter was later reworked, expanded and included in PAH, a4v–b2v (SEH, I, pp. 395–7)), and pg 385later still abbreviated and incorporated in DAS, M3r–v (SEH, I, pp. 501–2)). This material is not to be found in AL.

D7r–v

Page 104, l. 33–p. 106, l. 5: ex ea fabulas—see cmt on PhU, O6v–O7r (p. 363 above).

D7v

Page 106, ll. 9–10: quam Naturæ lusus—cf. PhU, O9v; NO, 2E1v (SEH, I, p. 280); PAH, b1v (SEH, I, p. 396); DAS, M4r (SEH, I, p. 502).

D8r

Page 106, l. 29: Historia vero virtutum—see cmt on DGI, D9r–v (p. 386 below) and Introduction, 1 (h). This is an important promise and one presented as if the reader knew what this history might be about.

D8v

Page 108, l. 3: tertiam Instaurationis—this remark implies that a DO-like tract was meant to precede DGI. For the third part of IM see Introduction, 1 (a)–(b); also see cmt on DGI, E1r (p. 388 below).

D8v–D9r

Page 108, ll. 8–23: quinque partes—for what this implies for the projected content and scale of DGI, see Introduction, 1 (b). This is the first appearance of the fivefold distribution; an earlier fourfold distribution, lacking collegia majora, had appeared in CDSH, fo. 226v (SEH, III, pp. 189–90). Other formulations of the fivefolder appeared in PAH, b2v–b3r (SEH, I, pp. 397–8) and DAS, M3r–M4r (SEH, I, pp. 501–2).

ll. 23–26: Majoritas autem illa—the distinction between the fourth and fifth members of the fivefold distribution is justified at greater length than the other distinctions because (no doubt) it was a new one (see previous cmt); cf. PAH, b2v–b3r (SEH, I, pp. 397–8): 'Quarta, Elementorum (quæ vocant) Flammæ, siue Ignis, Aëris, Aquæ, & Terræ. Elementa autem eo sensu accipi volumus, vt intelligantur non pro Primordijs Rerum, sed pro Corporum Naturalium Massis Maioribus. Ita enim Natura Rerum distribuitur, vt sit quorundam Corporum Quantitas siue Massa in Vniuerso per quàm Magna; quia scilicèt ad Schematismum eorum requiritur Textura Materiæ facilis & obuia; qualia sunt Ea quatuor (quæ diximus) Corpora: At quorundam aliorum Corporum sit Quantitas in Vniuerso parua, & parcè suppeditata, propter Texturam Materiæ valde dissimilarem, & subtilem, & in plurimis determinatam, & Organicam; qualia sunt Species Rerum Naturalium, Metalla, Plantæ, Animalia. Quare Prius Genus Corporum, Collegia Maiora; Posterius, Collegia Minora appellare consueuimus … At in Quartâ continetur Historia Substantiæ & Naturæ ipsorum, quæ in singulis eorum partibus similaribus viget, nec ad totum refertur. Quinta denique pars Historiae Collegia Minora, siue Species continet; circa quas Historia Naturalis hactenùs praecipuè occupata est.' For textures simple and pg 386composite see NO, 2C2v (SEH, I, p. 271). Also see ANN, fos. 25v, 27r; 32v has: 'mixtionem autem quatuor elementorum scholæ permittimus, cum sit phantasticum quiddam et verbula; loquimur autem de mixturis magis secundum sensum.' (The semicolon in this quotation is a stop in the original.)

D9r–v

Page 108, ll. 26–35: Virtutum vero illarum—for the implications of this for the plan of DGI see Introduction, 1 (b). These cardinal and catholic virtues, the Naturae primordia (see DO, C1v (SEH, I, p. 142); TC, G6r), were elsewhere called schematisms of matter and, together with the motions listed here, constituted an important part of what DAS (X4r–Y1r (SEH, I, pp. 560–1)) later called abstract physics—hence Bacon's remark here that history of virtues stood between history and philosophy. Nineteen of these motions were treated in NO (2O1r–2R1r (SEH, I, pp. 330–49)); twenty-four schematisms and sixteen motions were summarily discussed in ANN, fos. 24v–32r (see Rees, 'Bacon's philosophy … with special reference to the Abecedarium novum naturae', pp. 235–6). The DAS treatment of schematisms comes after the discussions of astronomy and astrology. Astronomy, astrology and schematisms would have been discussed in the same order in DGI, save that in DGI the discussions of the first two would have been separated from the last by matter on other subjects. See also PAH, C3r–v (SEH, I, p. 403): 'Quòd verò in Distributione Operis nostri mentionem fecimus Cardinalium Virtutum in Naturâ; & quòd etiam harum Historia, antequàm ad Opus Interpretations ventum fuerit, perscribenda esset; Huius rei minimè obliti sumus, sed earn Nobis ipsis reseruauimus: cùm de aliorum Industriâ in hac re, priusquàm homines cum Naturâ paulò arctiùs consuescere incœperint, prolixè spondere non audeamus.' Also see Marta Fattori, '"Nature semplice" in Francesco Bacone', Nouvelles de la rtpublique des lettres, 1983, pp. 21–34. The phrase 'priusquam ad opus Intellectus deveniatur' probably alludes to Part IV or VI of the Instauratio, and suggests that Bacon meant the reader to approach DGI with some knowledge of the plan of IM, cf. DO, C2r (SEH, I, p. 143): 'cùm ad opus Intellectûs deueniatur'.

D9v

Page 110, ll. 9–15: Historiam Cœlestium simplicem—cf. CDSH, fo. 217r (SEH, III, p. 189). Also see Introduction, 2 (b).

D10r

Page 110, l. 17: Cajus Plinius—see cmt on DGI, D6r (p. 384 above).

l. 27: potestate, atque influxu—this hints that DGI would have contained something on astrology after the material on astronomy, in which case DGI would have followed the plan subsequently adopted in the third book of DAS (V4r–X4r (SEH, I, pp. 554–60)). For a further indication that DGI would have dealt with astrology see DGI, E11r.

pg 387 D10r–v

Page 110, l. 30 ff: non quid phænomenis—for Bacon's views on mathematical fictions and the role of geometrical astronomy see DGI, E11r and cmt thereon (p. 394 below).

D10v

Page 110, l. 33: primum mobile—in the Aristotelian system this sphere drives those beneath it, namely the sphere of the fixed stars and the planetary spheres. For Gilbert's criticism of the notion see cmt on DGI, E5r–v (p. 391 below).

Page 112, ll. 1–6: author, qui Solem—Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Danish astronomer and Imperial Mathematician, who had the orbs/orbits of the Sun, Moon and fixed stars centre upon the Earth, and orbs/orbits of the planets centre upon the Sun. Also see DGI, E3v, and cmts on DGI, E9v–E10r (pp. 393–4 below). Bacon was probably, following Patrizi when he called Tycho 'author', see cmt on DGI, E9v (p. 393–4 below).

l. 4: ex Antiquioribus nonnulli—see cmt on DGI, E9v (p. 393 below).

ll. 9–10: sed tantummodo ad Computationes—neither Copernicus nor Tycho offered their planetary models merely as means (actual or potential) of predicting (or retrodicting) apparent celestial coordinates. Both men were making physical claims, claims which therefore involved the invasion by one discipline (mathematical astronomy) of the assumed domain of another (natural philosophy). On this question see Westman, 'The astronomer's role', pp. 105–147; idem, 'Proof, poetics, and patronage: Copernicus's preface to De revolutionibus', Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, pp. 167–205. For Bacon's view of the distinction between astronomy and natural philosophy see Introduction, 2 (b). In DGI Bacon sometimes treats Copernicus' system as a set of fictions, at others as a parcel of physical hypotheses.

D11r

Page 112, ll. 16–17: communium passionum—see DGI, F5v and cmt thereon (p. 399 below). Also cf. TC, H1v–H2r; PhU, O10r.

D11v

Page 112, l. 30: secundum summas rerum—cf. ANN, fo. 36v.

l. 35: ut ad propositum revertamur—Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, 2. 32; cf. DVM, fo. 17r.

D12r

Page 114, ll. 14–17: quod Democrito—Democritus ate some figs which tasted of honey. Wanting to explain the unusual sweetness, he was on the point of setting out to look for the place where they had been picked, when his servant told him that they were sweet because she had stored them in a jar which had previously held honey. Then (as Montaigne tells the story) Democritus 'flew into a rage with her because she had deprived him of the chance of finding things out for himself and had robbed his curiosity of something to work on: "Go pg 388away", he said, "you have offended me. I shall continue to look for the cause as though it were to be found in Nature."' (An apology for Raymond Sebond, in The complete essays, trans. M. A. Screech, Penguin Books: London, 1991, pp. 569–70). For Bacon's caution regarding telescopic observations see NO, 2K1v–2K2r (SEH, I, p. 308).

D12v

Page 114, ll. 33–4: Topica quædam inductiva—see HNE, C3r–v (SEH, II, p. 17); DAS, 2K3r (SEH, I, p. 639); PAH, c3v (SEH, I, p. 403); TDL, X3r–X8r (SEH, II, pp. 317–22).

Page 116, ll. 1–2: atque in literas referri—Bacon did not get round to this, but see Introduction, 1 (b).

E1r

Page 116, l. 17: legitimæ Inductionis judicio—this is yet another indication that Bacon had planned to supply the DGI with prefatory matter which would have given the reader an overview of the author's plans for the instauration of the sciences. For other indications see cmts on DGI, D8r–D9r (p. 385 above). Also see Introduction, 1 (b).

E1 v –E2r

Page 116, ll. 28–9: Schola Democriti—for the boast that the atomists overthrew the walls of the world see Lucretius, De rerum natura, I. 72–9:

  • ergo vivida vis animi pervicit, et extra
  • processit longe flammantia moenia mundi
  • atque omne immensum peragravit mente animoque,
  • unde refert nobis victor quid possit oriri,
  • quid nequeat, finita potestas denique cuique
  • quanam sit ratione atque alte terminus haerens.

Compare this with ibid., II, 1144–5. For other aspects of atomist cosmology mentioned by Bacon at this point see ibid, II. 522–31, 1048–76, V. 416 ff. On infinity or finitude of the world see Patrizi, lib. 6.

Page 118, ll. 8–9: Democritus sector mundi—Bacon often asserted that Democritus was a good dissector of nature, see for example NO, G3v (SEH, I, p. 170): 'Contemplationes Naturæ, & corporum in simplicitate suâ, intellectum frangunt & comminuunt: Contemplationes verò Naturæ, & corporum in compositione & configuration suâ, intellectum stupefaciunt & soluunt. Id optime cernitur in scholâ Leucippi & Democriti, collatâ cum reliquis Philosophijs. Ilia enim itâ versatur in particulis Rerum, vt fabricas ferè negligat: reliquae autem itâ fabricas intuentur attonitæ, vt ad simplicitatem naturæ non penetrent. Itaque alternandæ sunt contemplationes istæ, & vicissìm sumendæ; vt Intellectus reddatur simùl penetrans, & capax; & euitentur ea quæ diximus incommoda, atque Idola ex ijs prouenientia.' Bacon himself thought that 'dissection' of nature was preferable to 'abstraction' from it, see NO, G2v, 2M1v (SEH, I, pp. 169, 319). Also see DPAO, K3r; Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 567–9. pg 389Bacon's belief that Democritus was inferior to mediocre philosophers when it came to the structure of the universe was echoed in the NO (2O2v (SEH, I, pp. 331–2)) where he made the same criticism of the Democritean account of motion.

ll. 9–13: At opinio illa—almost certainly derived from Gilbert, De magnete, p. 214: 'Apud veteres Heraclides Ponticus, & Ecphantus, Pythagorici turn Nicetas Syracusanus, & Aristarchus Samius, alijque (vt videtur) nonnulli, existimabant terram mouere, Stellas obiectu terræ occidere, easdemque cessione illius oriri. Cient quidem terram, & rotæ instar cardine suo nixam, ab occasu ad exortum, circa eum volui. Philolaus Pythagoricus voluit vnam esse ex astris, & circa ignem verti in obliquo circulo, sicut sol & luna cursus habent suos.' Heraclides of Pontus (c.388–c.315 bc) seems to have supposed that the Earth rotated on its axis and that the inner planets revolved about the Sun. The Syracusans Ecphantus (fifth century bc) and Nicetas (c. 400 bc) both seem to have held that the Earth rotated on its axis. Philolaus (fifth century bc) held that the heavenly bodies, Sun and Earth included, orbited a central fire which was always hidden from the Earth by a 'counter-Earth' which also orbited the central fire. Bacon did not mention Aristarchus of Samos, miscalled the 'Copernicus of antiquity' (third century bc), but see cmt on DGI, E3v–E4r (p. 390 below). On Gilbert see cmts on DGI, E5r–E6v, F8v–F9r (pp. 391–2 and 401 below).

E2r–v

Page 118, ll. 14–33: opinio hanc vim—Bacon stressed that for the sciences it was important to know the 'conjugationes quæstionum' (DGI, E3r, and, from this point, he assumed implicitly and explicitly that certain questions (as to whether a system existed at all, whether the Earth moved or stood still, whether the stars were solid or pneumatic, and whether the interstellar spaces were corporeal or void) were inextricably linked. The reasoning (for the most part 'metaphysical' in that it involves propositions about the nature of nature) is as follows: solid matter is either concentrated in the globe of the Earth or dispersed through the universe in the globes of other heavenly bodies as well as the Earth; if the former, it would in some sense be natural to suppose that the planets, stars and interstellar spaces were entirely filled with tenuous matter; if the latter, that the interstellar spaces were void (see cmt on DGI, E5v–E6v (p. 391–2 below)). Bacon did not care for the notion that the heavenly bodies might be solid, opaque or dense, for if such bodies moved, why should the Earth (also solid and dense) not move too? Bacon preferred to connect solidity and density with immobility; the universe would then have system or structure based on contrareity: solid, immobile Earth at the centre of an otherwise mobile, tenuous universe. Without such contrariety, without such immobility, 'dissolvitur & spargitur Systema' (TC, G9r). For antithesis and contrareity see Rees, 'Matter theory', pp. 114–15. Bacon evidently felt that the question of the stability of the universe arose in some sense from the way in which matter was distributed in it, see DPAO, M4r.

pg 390 E2v

Page 118, ll. 21–2: cum motu nonnullo centri progressive—i.e. motion of a body along a path as distinct from mere axial motion.

ll. 26–9: interponitur media natura—on rectilinear motion (motion towards connatural bodies) as an intermediate state between circular motion and stasis see DGI, E12v; NO, 2G1v–2G2r, 2O4v, 2Q3v–2Q4r (SEH, I, pp. 291, 334, 344–5); ANN, fo. 30r: 'Corpora … feruntur recte ad illas massas … ut exules repatriari gaudent.'

E2 v –E3r

Page 118, ll. 35 ff: quod si terra—see cmt on DGI, E2r–v (p. 389 above).

E3v

Page 120, l. 26: ex sententiâ Tychonis—see cmt on DGI, D10v (p. 387 above). Also see DGI, E10r.

E3 v –E4r

Page 120, l. 29–p. 122, l. 10: in systemate Copernici—the attribution of three motions to the Earth exasperated Bacon, see DGI, E5r–v. His objection to the Copernican exclusion of the Sun from the company of the planets rested on the argument that these heavenly bodies shared 'passiones communes'; for these passions see cmt on DGI, F5v (p. 399 below). His objection to the Copernican stationary Sun and fixed stars was that it introduced too much immobility into nature—an argument perhaps suggesting that Bacon shared with Telesio the assumption that great radiance and mobility were inextricably linked. For Telesio's assumption see DPAO, L11r. For Bacon's view that Copernicus and the astronomers had imported fictions into nature for the sake of computation see Introduction, 2 (b). For Bacon's reasons for thinking that the theory of the Earth's motion was old see DGI, E2r. He did not think that the idea of a central Sun was old too; I assume that although he had heard of Aristarchus (see cmt on DGI, E2r (p. 389 above)) he knew nothing of his doctrines. The reference to the badly translated verse is glossed at length in SEH (III, p. 741): (i) Bacon alludes to Job, 9: 6 ('Qui commovet terram de loco suo et columnae ejus concutiuntur')—a verse which Didacus à Stunica's 1584 commentary on Job cited in support of the Copernican hypothesis; alternatively (ii) Bacon refers to Copernicus' mistranslation or misunderstanding of (pseudo)-Plutarch's remarks about Philolaus (Copernicus apparently confused the Philolaic central fire with the Sun). Neither of these alternatives seems plausible. The parenthetical remark is too vague to bear ready interpretation.

E4 r –E5r

Page 122, ll. 11–18: An cœlum stellatum—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 103r: 'Non esse sidera, omnia in conuexa cœli superficie seu vti nos docuimus, in nulla ibi superficie sunt, cum nulla ibi sit, sed neque omnia tam longe a nobis sunt col-pg 391locata. Sed tota coeli crassitudine sunt sparsa, hæc vicinius ad nos, illa longinquius. Crassitudo aut coeli huius, ex eorum computis millia est passuum 80942471. & amplius. In tanta igitur crassitudine, quæ sidera sunt sparsa, necesse est, non eadem velocitate moueri omnia, sed varia prout, vel summis, vel infimis sunt proximiora. Quœ non eodem tempore minora spacia obeunt, tardius mouentur; quæ vero maiora, velocius. Quod & Physici, & Astronomi, & fatentur & asserunt.' Also see SSWN, fo. 33r–v; Graham Rees, 'An unpublished manuscript by Francis Bacon: Sylva sylvarum drafts and other working notes', Annals of science, 38, 1981, pp. 377–412, pp. 383–5. For Gilbert's remarks on this question see cmt on DGI, E5r–v immediately below.

E5r–v

Page 124, ll. 5–13: Quod si terra moveatur—cf. DGI, E2r, and cmt on DGI, E3v–E4r (p. 390 above). The axial rotation of the Earth in the Copernican system meant that the fixed stars had to be stationary. Gilbert supposed that the Earth and stars rotated on their axes and that the stars had no diurnal motion—see De magnete, p. 215: 'Vetus est igitur opinio, & ab antiquis vsque deducta temporibus, nunc verò magnis cogitationibus aucta, terram diurnâ reuolutione 24 horarum spatio totam circumferri … Atque primùm quidem cœlum supremum, & stellarum fixarum visibiles illos omnes splendores, incitari rapidissimo illo, & insanissimo cursu, verisimile non est.' Gilbert adds that some of the fixed stars are much further away than others and goes on to say (p. 216), 'Quòd si motum habent, erit ille potiùs circa proprium cuiusque centrum, vt terræ motus; aut centri progressione in orbem, vt Lunæ: non erit in tam numerosa soluta grege circularis motus.' He ridicules the fiction of the primum mobile: 'Superstitio quidem, & in philosophia fabula, nunc ab idiotis tantùm credenda, à viris quidem doctis, plusquàm deridenda …' He (p. 217) counters the view that a spinning Earth would fly apart by arguing that the planets would be much more likely to do so if hurled about the Earth every 24 hours. This is followed by arguments (pp. 220 ff.) for the Earth's axial motion, arguments based on the analogy between the Earth and the magnet. The two extra motions of the Copernican system are the annual and precessional. Bacon did not believe that the Earth had any rotary motion, see TC, H4v. He generally felt that Copernicus was not making physical claims but providing a mathematical model for facilitating predictions, see for example NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8). For Bacon's view of the physical implications of Copernicanism see DGI, E3v–E4r. Gilbert too rejected the precessional motion but seems to have reserved his position regarding the annual–see De mundo, pp. 196–202, 219–20; also see Kelly, pp. 39–42.

E5 v –E6v

Page 124, l. 17–p. 126, l. 9: An sit vacuum—The ancients in question are the atomists (see cmt on DGI, E6v–E7r (p. 392 below)). Gilbert thought that the Earth, Moon and other heavenly bodies were solid, and that while some pg 392heavenly bodies were luminous, others existed which were not. These globes were all surrounded (like the Earth) by effluvia, i.e. imperfect material emanations originating from their cores (see De mundo, pp. 51–3, 151, 213–14). At a certain distance from each globe ('5, 6 aut decem milliaria' in the case of the Earth) the effluvia gave way to a 'vacuum separatum' (ibid., pp. 48, 52, 214). To Bacon's mind if the planets and stars were not solid then matter could be spread more thinly through the universe and so there would be no need for a vacuum (see cmt on DGI, E2r–v (p. 389 above) and cf. TC, G8r–v).

E6 v –E7r

Page 126, ll. 10–31: An detur vacuum—Hero of Alexandria drew a clear distinction between a continuous or separate vacuum and one interspersed among the particles of bodies; he believed that the former could be created artificially but that the latter existed in nature: see Spiritalivm liber. A Federico Commandino … nvper in Latinvm conversvs, fos. 1v–9v. Elsewhere Bacon commended Hero's seriousness and diligence but ranked him, a 'homo mechanicus', beneath Democritus for denying the possibility of a natural separate vacuum (CDNR, R3r–R6r (SEH, III, pp. 15–17)). When speaking of Aristotle's criticisms of the vacuum hypothesis Bacon probably had in mind Physica, IV. 8–9 (214b–217b). That Democritus' 'true' opinion was that the vacuum was confined within 'certain limits' may have been suggested to Bacon by Lucretius, De rerum natura, I. 503–19. For the notion of 'termini' in nature see cmt on PhU, Q5r–v (p. 373 above). Gilbert accepted the notion of a separate but not of an interspersed vacuum, see De mundo, pp. 64–5. For Patrizi on various vacuum hypotheses see Pancosmia, fo. 63r. For Telesio and the vacuum see DPAO, M7v and cmt thereon (pp. 433–4 below). Bacon was usually very cautious about the vacuum hypothesis but seems never to have subscribed to it even as an explanation of expansion and contraction—see NO, 2R1v (SEH, I, p. 347): 'Neque enim pro certo affirmauerimus, vtrùm detur Vacuum, siue Coaceruatum, siue Permistum. At de illo nobis constat; Rationem illam, propter quam introductum est Vacuum a Leucippo, & Democrito (videlicèt quòd absque eo non possent eadem Corpora complecti & implere maiora & minora spatia) falsam esse. Est enim planè Plica Materiæ complicantis & replicantis se per spatia, inter certos fines, absque interpositione Vacui.' For the vacuum hypothesis in Bacon's philosophy see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 556–61.

E7r–v

Page 126, l. 35–p. 128, l. 5: an æther purus—for the continuous/contiguous distinction cf. TC, G7v; DGI, E5v. The distinction stems from Aristotle, Physica, V. 3. 227a. Also see LL, III, p. 98. For whether, in effect, the ether is continuous or divided into regions (like oil floating on water) see SSWN, fos. 33r–34r. Also see Rees, 'Sylva sylvarum drafts', pp. 384–5. The distinction is also used in HDR (C1v–C2r (SEH, II, p. 261)), and, as it pertains to air and ether, by Patrizi (Pancosmia, fo. 96r–v)

E7v

pg 393Page 128 ,l. 7: differentiæ quoad raritatem—see DGI, F5v and cmt thereon (p. 399 below).

E8r

Page 128, ll 22–6: consuesse Naturam ad spatia—for almost identical wording see TC, G7v–G8r. For the 'metaphysical' assumptions associated with this passage see Rees, 'Matter theory', pp. 114–15.

E8r–v

Page 128,l. 28–p. 130,l. 3: Itaque terram & aquas—here Bacon is more reserved than in TC, where instead of 'natura stellaris', he uses the phrase 'flammea natura' (G7r), a phrase altogether more expressive of his theoretical stance.

E8v

Page 130, ll. 9–10: in Cometis—see cmt on DGI, F2r–v (p. 396–7 below).

ll. 11–14: cœlum circa Solem—sunspots as rudiments: here as elsewhere (see TC, G8v and cmts thereon (p. 408 below)) Bacon uses the term rudimentum to suggest a state of arrested development or matter on its way to being something more perfect but not quite making it. Certain salts, for instance, are a 'Rudiment of Life' (SS, X4r–v (SEH, II, pp. 539–40)); and rudiments of celestial fire constitute the little stars in the region of Jupiter. For sunspots see cmt on DGI, F10v (p. 402 below); for Jupiter's stellulæ see cmt on DGI, F10r–v (p. 402 below).

E8 v –E9r

Page 130, ll.16–19: in summitatibus cœli—see DGI, E2r, F10r–v, G3v–G4r.

E9r

Page 130,l. 26 ff: quis Planeta—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 106r–107r. Also cf. DGI, G5r–v.

E9v

Page 130, l. 34–p. 132,l. 6: Verum de Sole—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 106r: 'Non defuerunt enim inter philosophos atque Astronomos, qui, sub Marte Venerem locarent, sub hac Mercurium. In quo quidem situ, atque ordine eorum, non minor fuit inter siderum contemplatores discordia, quam fuerit in reliquis, quæ iam commemorauimus inter Astronomos. Nam Crates Philosophus, & Metrodorus putarunt, Solem ac Lunam, omnium supremos. Democritus, Sole superiorem Mercurium locabat. Maxima vero Astronomorum pars, sub firmamento collocarunt, primo Saturnum, deinde Iouem, Martem postea. Sub quo Alpetragius Venerem locauit, Solem deinde, sub quo Mercurium, postremam Lunam. Plato vero, postremos omnium Solem ac Lunam, quem Aristoteles est secutus. Sed hic Mercurium sub Marte, & supra Venerem. Martianus autem Capella, supra Solem primo Mercurium, Venerem supra hunc, & infra Martem. Quem secutus est, recens author Tychon Brae Danus. Omnium vero pg 394diuersissime eos collocauit Nicolaus Copernicus. Nam solem in centro locauit vniuersi, supra quem Mercurium, & proxime Venerem. Et supra hos lunam, & tellurem in orbe eodem.' Also see TC, G7r and cmt thereon (p. 407 below); PAH, C2v (SEH, I, p. 402).

E10r

Page 132, l. 16: ex sententia Tychonis—see cmt on DGI, D10v (p. 387 above).

ll. 17–18: ex Galilœo—this does not imply that Bacon thought that these objects actually revolved round Jupiter. For Jupiter's companions see DGI, E8r–v, F10r–v.

ll. 21–7: Cœlo aliquo empyreo—cf. TC, G8v. In traditional Christian belief, the empyrean heaven, the abode of God and the angels, was the highest heaven, and one that lay beyond the visible, natural universe, see G. Maurach, Coelum empyreum. Versuch einer Begriffsgeschichte, Wiesbaden, 1968; B. Nardi, 'La dottrina dell'Empireo nella sua genesi storica e nel pensiero dantesco', Saggi di filosofia dantesca, Florence, 1967, pp. 167–214. Bacon's adoption of the distinction between the visible and empyrean heaven indicates that he believed that the former was finite.

ll. 27–31: Quæ enim à Platonicis—the Platonists are no doubt those mentioned by Patrizi (inter alia Proclus, Simplicius, and Iamblichus), see Pancosmia, fos. 8or–82r.

l. 30: Valentini iconibus—Bacon no doubt had in mind symbolic figures of the kind that appeared in works by or attributed to Basilius Valentinus, for instance Azoth, siue Aureliœ occultœ philosophorum, materiam primam, et decantatum illum lapidem philosophorum, Frankfurt, 1613, pp. 49, 52, 54–6, 60–4, 66.

E10v

Page 132,l. 32: tamquam Divi Claudii—see Seneca's De morte Claudii Cœsaris.

E11r

Page 134,l.13: de influxu—see cmt on DGI, D10r (p. 386 above).

ll. 13–28: Debuerat autem esse—Bacon opposed the mathematical astronomers' incursions into physics (philosophy), and reasserted the traditional line of demarcation between astronomy (the province of fictions whose sole justification was accurate prediction) and physics (whose job it was to resolve questions concerning the the true natures and motions of celestial objects). On this question see Rees, 'Mathematics and Francis Bacon's natural philosophy', pp. 413–25; also see Introduction, 2 (b). For a discussion of the increasingly permeable barrier between astronomy and cosmology see R. S. Westman, 'The astronomer's role', pp. 105–47. Also see Michel-Pierre Lerner, Tre saggi sulla cosmologia alla fine del Cinquecento (Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici: Lezioni della Scuola di Studi Superiori in Napoli, 14), Bibliopolis: Naples, 1992, pp. 11–43.

pg 395 E11v

Page 134, ll. 29–30: An substantia cœlestium—much of the lengthy answer (E11v–F6v) to this question incorporates material plundered (often verbatim) from CDNR, S9v–S11v (SEH, III, pp. 32–5); the points at which Bacon drew on CDNR are noted below.

Page 134, ll. 30–3: Nam Aristotelis temeritas—the Aristotelian distinction between the sublunar realm of the elements and the superlunar realm of the quintessence is a natural starting point for Bacon since the distinction violated his deeply held belief in the unity of nature. For this belief see cmt on DGI, F5v (p. 399 below); cmt on PhU, O10r (p. 365 above); also see Introduction, 2 (g). For the quintessence see Aristotle, De coelo, II. 6–7, 288a–289a. For Bacon on the Aristotelian elements see NO, F4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 165–6), and cmt on PhU, Q2v–Q3r (p. 372 above).

Page 136, ll. 3–5 aër videlicet & ignis—for their respective relationships with ether and the stars see TC, G6r–v and cmt thereon (p. 407 below); and Introduction, 2 (c).

ll. 5–13: Neque tamen dubium est quin—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR, S9v (SEH, III, p. 33); also see DGI, D11r; PhU, O10r and cmt thereon (p. 365 above).

E11 v –E12r

Page 136, ll. 13–14: quod nec cœlo—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR, S10r (SEH, III, p. 33).

E12r–v

Page 136, ll. 14–32: Siquidem de terra—see Introduction, 2 (h). Also see Rees, 'Bacon on verticity', pp. 204–5; Gilbert, De magnete, p. 42: 'Sed terram veram volumus esse substantiam solidam, telluri homogeneam, firmiter cohærentem, primariâ, & (vt in globis alijs mundi) validâ formâ præditam; qua positione, certâ verticitate constat, & insitâ volubilitate motu necessario voluitur, qualem suprà omnia apud nos corpora apparentia magnes veram, & genuinam, minùs externis malis læsam, & deformatam continet, de tellure tanquàm partem homogeneam veriorem detractam.' Also see cmt on DFRM, I4v–l5v (pp. 381–2 above); PhU, P3r and cmt thereon (p. 368 above); DPAO, L2v–L3r and cmt thereon (p. 425 below). Telesio, DRN, I, pp. 40–2: 'Planum est quoque, frigus immobile sui natura esse, proptereaque quod perpetuo agere videtur, molem, quam subit, constringere, densare et gravitatem ei indere, talem denique facere, qualem aliena vis nulla dimoveat, et qualem in sublimi ipsum immobilem retinere et veluti coërcere queat. Neque ambiguendum, quin propterea, contra corpulentorum entium omnium et molis etiam ipsius morem ingeniumque, in sublimi terra permaneat nullamque umquam inclinetur in partem, quod frigus, a quo constituta est et quod se ipsum ei ut propriae indit sedi, cujus vi operetur oportet, motus exhorret omnes.' Also see ibid., I, pp. 32–4.

ll. 20–3: Enimvero si terra—cf. corresponding passage in CDNR, S10v (SEH, III, P. 34).

pg 396 E12v–F1r

Page 136, l. 34–p. 138, l. 14: eruptiones aquarum … ferantur recta —cf. corresponding passage in CDNR, S10v–S11r (SEH, III, p. 34).

Page 138, ll. 6–9: Cometis sublimioribus—see DGI, F2r–v and cmt thereon (below).

ll. 10–14: ex rationibus motus—in Aristotelian natural philosophy, the natural motion of the heavens is circular for that is the only motion which may go on invariably and forever. In the sublunar realm natural motion is rectilinear for that carries an elementary body displaced from its proper sphere back to its proper place by the shortest route. Bacon's point is that while rectilinear motion is transient, the rest that a body enjoys when it returns to the sphere of its connaturals may be no less enduring than the motion of the heavens; see cmts on DGI, E2v and F4r (p. 390 above and p. 398 below).

F1r–v

Page 138, ll. 20–26: Postremo, mutabilitas—the corresponding passage in CDNR is at S10v (SEH, III, p. 34); also see below DGI, F6r–v; cf. DVM, fos. 23r, 26r; DPAO, L2v–L3r.

F1v

Page 138, ll. 26–30: Quod si quis existimet—given Bacon's ideas about the interior of the Earth (see Introduction, 2 (b), (g)), his dismissal of this view is unsurprising.

Page 138, 1. 31–p. 140, l. 1: Primo igitur—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR, S10r (SEH, III, p. 33).

Page 140, ll. 4–7: Neque ex eo—see cmts on DGI, F10v and G4r (pp. 402 and 404 below).

F1v–F2r

Page 140, ll. 7–9: Nam & aër—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR, S10r (SEH, III, p. 33).

F2r–v

Page 140, ll. 21–27: Id enim perspicitur—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR (S10r–v (SEH, III, pp. 33–4)) which says nothing of the new star in Ophiuchus (visible 1604–5). This suggests that CDNR was written before 1604. According to CDNR, changes in the heavens are evident 'ex cometis quibusdam' such as that which appeared in Cassiopeia (visible 1572–4) 'nostra ætate'. Here and elsewhere Bacon seems to be thinking of new stars as a species of fixed, tailless comet. Such higher 'comets' were more durable than 'Cometis humilioribus' which, according to DFRM (H12v), and in line with Aristotle's view, belonged to the sublunary realm and, according to TC (G6v) and DGI (E8v), were made of flamy matter intermediate between the permanent nature of sidereal flame and the temporary nature of terrestrial. According to the early CDSH, fo. 226v (SEH, III, p. 190), the History of Meteors dealt with bodies 'ex pg 397imperfecté mistis', a category which included comets. This suggests that Bacon regarded comets primarily as sublunar phenomena at that stage, although he must have known from his reading of Patrizi (Pancosmia, fo. 98v) that the comet of 1577 had been located above the Moon. The distinction between higher and lower comets recurs in NO (2H3r, b2v (SEH, I, pp. 298, 397)) but without elaboration. In NO comets in general (2E4r, d1r (SEH, I, pp. 283, 405)) are treated as objects of a nature intermediate between stars and fiery meteors. New stars were to have been considered further in the discussion of comets which Bacon promised (G3r) to present later in DGI. This discussion is not extant nor is the piece on comets that Bacon sent to Baranzani (LL, VII, pp. 375–7). The Aristotelian views criticized by Bacon appear in Meteorologica, I. 7–8 (342b–345b). In NO (2G2r (SEH, I, p. 291)), Bacon attacked the Aristotelian notion that comets followed or were associated with a particular star; Gilbert had also been critical of this idea, see De mundo, p. 244. For cometology in the period see P. Barker and B. R. Goldstein, 'The role of comets in the Copernican revolution', Studies in history and philosophy of science, 19, 1988, pp. 299–319; Michel-Pierre Lerner, Tre saggi, pp. 73–104.

F2v

Page 140, ll. 35–6: Nam & in stella—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 104v: 'Et quod de Hipparcho scribit Plinius, Nouam stellam, & aliam in æuo suo genitam depræhendit, eiusque motu, qua die fulsit ad dubitationem est adductus, an ne hoc sæpius fieret.' Cf. Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 26: 'Hipparchus … novam stellam & aliam in ævo suo genitam deprehendit: ejusque motu, qua die fulsit, ad dubitationem est adductus anne hoc sæpius fieret. … ' Also see cmt on DGI, G3v (p. 404 below).

F3r

Page 142, l.7: Missa enim Arcadum—Ovid, Fastorvm libri diligenti emendatione. Typis impresse aptissimisqve figuris ornate commentatori Antonio Constantio, 1527, fo. 34v: 'Orta prior Luna (de se si creditur illi) | A magno tellus Arcade nomen habet.' Also see below DGI, G2v.

ll. 9–14: cum Sol per tres vices—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 111r: 'In nostris historiis habemus, vt Petrus Messias refert. Iustiniani Cæsaris tempore, maiore anni parte, aere sereno, nulla velato nune [sic] solem tam exiliter luxisse, vt uix lunæ splendorem, lux eius superaret … Sed & Paulus Diaconus refert anno 790. obtenebratum esse solem, & radios suos diebus XVII. non dedisse.'

ll. 16–18: Ille etiam exstincto—Virgil, Georgics, I. 466–8: the quotation is accurate. See also Pliny, Historia naturalis, II. 30: 'Circulus rubri coloris L. Iulio, P. Rutilo Coss. Fiunt prodigiosi, & longiores Solis defectus, qualis occiso Dictatore Cæsare, & Antoniano bello, totius pene anni pallore continuo'

F3r–v

Page 142, ll. 19–27: Varronis vero—see below DGI, G2v. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 111r, and esp. fos. 106v–107r: 'D. namque Augustinus, ex M. pg 398Varrone refert Ogygij Regis tempore, Venerem stellam, mutasse colorem, & magnitudinem, & figuram, & cursum. Quæ res æuo etiam nostro accidit anno m.d.lxxviii. Romæque visum id est die xvi. Nouembris. In Germania vero die Decembris xxvi. Perque totum eum annum, sub vesperam, Sole nondum merso, visa est magnitudine insolita, figura vero, modo triangula modo quadrangula, modo rotunda: & splendore maximo, & rubedine maiore, quam sit Martis rubedo. Cursum tamen non mutauit.' Also see St. Augustine, De civitate Dei libri XXII … Basilae, per Ambrosium et Aurelium Frobenios, fratres, Basle, 1570: 21. 8.1284.

F3v

Page 142, ll. 27–31: Quin etiam stella—see Aristotle, Meteorologica, I. 6. 343b.

ll 33–4: At promptum erit—Aristotle, Meteorologica, I. 7–8, (344b). Also see cmt on DGI, G3r–v (pp. 403–4 below).

F4r

Page 144, ll.12–15: hic infra apud nos—Bacon no doubt has in mind not only the tides but also the diurnal wind and terrestrial verticity; see Introduction, 2 (g)–(h), and cmt on TC, H1r (p. 411 below).

ll. 15–18: Neque magis motus—see Aristotle, De coelo, I. 9.277b–279b.

F4r–v

Page 144, ll. 18–20: Nam etiam Cometæ—see cmt on DGI, F2r–v (pp. 396–7 above).

F4v

Page 144, ll. 24–6: ille ipse motus—for these motions see TC, G11v–G12r, H1r.

ll. 33–5: qui Thaletis simplicitatem—cf. DPAO, K5r–v and cmt thereon (p. 421 below). See also DGI, G1r, and (pseudo)-Plutarch, De placitis decretisqve philosophorvm natvralibvs in Gvilielmi Bvdaei … lucubrationes uariæ, Basle, 1557, p. 512: 'Thales ille Milesius principium rerum aquam existimauit esse. Is autem uidetur philosophiæ princeps fuisse, à quo quidem Ionica secta appellata est. Fuerunt enim plurimæ deinceps philosophiæ successiones. Hic diu in Ægypto philosophatus, iam senior Miletum se contulit. Is´ue ex aqua omnia sensit esse, & in aquam uicissim redire. Adducitur autem huiusmodi coniectura: primo, quòd animantium omnium principium genitura sit, eadem humida, ex quo simile esse ueri, ex humore omnia principium ducere. Deinde, quòd stirpes omnes humido alantur, & ad frugem euadant, humoris autem expertia actutum arescant. Postremo, quòd ipse solis ignis syderum´ue aquarum expiramentis alatur, quinimo & mundus ipse.'

F5r

Page 146, ll. 3–7: ex sententia Parmenidis—see cmt on DPAO, K11v (pp. 422–3 below). See also DPAO, I2v. In DPAO (M4v) Bacon denied that Telesio's terrestrial principle penetrated far into the heavens.

pg 399 F5r–v

Page 146, ll. 15–16: Itaque corpora astrorum—cf. TC, H2v–H3r; DAS, V3v (SEH, I, p. 552): 'stellis in Orbibus suis tanquam Clauis in Laquearibus infixis'; also see DGI, F8r, and Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 88r–89r, 91v.

F5v

Page 146, ll. 24–32: Nam certe si corpora—on heavenly bodies cutting the ether and so giving rise to reciprocations, condensations, impressions, etc. see TC, H1v–H2r, H4v: 'Affirmant ex ea inæqualitate fluctus & undas & reciprocationes Ætheris Planetarum, atque ex iis varios motus educi.' Also see DGI, E7v. This notion fits in with Bacon's ideas about the universal and catholic passions of matter, i.e. that certain kinds of change belong as much to the super- as to the sublunar realm, see DGI, D11r, E3v–E4r; DFRM, H10v–H11r; and esp. TC, H1v–H2r. Also see NO, T1v (SEH, I, p. 231), and T2v (SEH, I, p. 232): 'cognitio Causarum & consensuum, ad primaria illa & Catholica Axiomata de Naturis simplicibus (velutì de Naturâ Rotationis spontaneæ, Attractionis siue virtutis Magneticæ, & aliorum complurimum quæ magis communia sunt, quàm ipsa Cœlestia) refertur. Neque enim speret aliquis terminare quæstionem, vtrùm in Motu diurno reuerà Terra aut Cœlum rotet, nisi Naturam Rotationis spontanæ priùs comprehenderit.'

F6r

Page 148, ll. 2–9: Quod si quis—cf. the corresponding passage in CDNR, S11v (SEH, III, pp. 34–5).

ll. 5–6: Solem & Lunam—Vulgate: Psalms 88: 38: 'et thronos eius sicut sol in conspectu meo | et sicut luna perfecta in æternum | et testis in cœlo fidelis.'

ll. 6–7: Generationes advenire—Vulgate: Ecclesiastes 1: 4: 'Generatio præterit et generatio advenit, terra autem in æternum stat.'

ll. 8–9: Cœlum & terram—Vulgate: Matthew 24: 35: 'Cælum et terra transibunt, verba autem mea non præteribunt.'

F6r–v

Page 148, ll. 9–22: Deinde, si quis—cf. corresponding passage in CDNR, S11r–v (SEH, III, p. 34).

ll. 14–17: spatium istud apud nos—cf. DVM, fos. 23r, 26r. Also cf. DPAO, L3r, where the same image is used for this frontier zone. For this zone see Introduction, 2 (c), (h), (i). For the extent of the zone see DGI, F1r.

F6v

Page 148, ll. 23–27: asseritur ab Aristotele—De coelo, II. 7. 289a–although here Aristotle does not mention the 'conflagratio Heracliti. For Heraclitus and the 'conflagratio Heracliti see DGI, G1r; DPAO, K7r and cmt thereon (p. 421 below), M5r; NO, H2v (SEH, I, p. 174). Also see (pseudo)-Plutarch, De placitis decretisqve philosophorvm natvralibvs, p. 513: 'Heraclitus atque Hippasus Metapontinus uniuersæ naturæ principium ignem dixerunt. Ex igne enim pg 400omnia nasci, & in ignem omnia desinere, quo extincto, in hanc mundi formam omnia digesta esse. Nam primum crassissimum quodque compactili in se nixu in terræ formam coactum, qua deinde ab igne soluta naturæ ui aquam confectam, denique aquæ suffitu aerem procreatum, rursus´ue mundum atque omnia corpora in uniuersi olim conflagratione solutum iri. Principium igitur ignis, quandoquidem ex hoc omnia. Finis etiamnum ignis, quoniam in ipsum intereunt omnia.'

F7r

Page 148, ll. 30–1: circa Historiam virtutum—see DGI, D8r, D9r–v and cmts thereon (pp. 385, 386 above). The material on the cradles of hot and cold is not extant but see Introduction, 1 (b).

Page 150, l. 2: Illa enim aut vacua—see cmts on DGI, F8v and TC, G8r (pp. 400–1 and 408 below).

ll. 3–6: ad astra instar aëris—for this, Bacon's own firmly held view, see TC, G6r–v; NO, 2T2v (SEH, I, p. 359).

ll. 6–7: videtur recepta opinio—Aristotle, De coelo, II. 7. 289a: the stars are of the same substance as their spheres. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 97v; and cf. TC, H3r. Gilbert also rejected this idea, see cmt on DGI, F8v ad fin (p. 401 below).

F7r–v

Page 150, ll. 9–12: notavit TelesiusDRN, I, p. 48; and cf. DPAO, L10v; NO, 2L3r (SEH, I, p. 315).

F7v

Page 150, ll. 14–16: ad transmittendam speciem—for Bacon on light see TDL, X3r–X8r (SEH, II, pp. 317–22); NO, 2N3r–v (SEH, I, p. 327); SS, 2l4v (SEH, II, pp. 651–2).

ll. 21–8: experimentum fecimus—for conclusions relating to this experiment see DGI, F12v. The experiment is used for another purpose, see NO, 2I3r (SEH, I, p. 304); SS, B4v–C1r (SEH, II, pp. 352–3). On the experiment and its reception see Rees, 'Semi-Paracelsian cosmology', p. 96; idem, 'The fate of Bacon's cosmology in the seventeenth century', Ambix, 24, 1977, pp. 27–38, pp. 28–9.

F8r

Page 150, ll. 32–5: Nam generaliter—for greater rarity of flame than air see PhU, Q8r–v; HDR, B6r, B8r, G4v–G5r (SEH, II, pp. 256, 259, 302–3); DVM, fo. 25r. The conclusion regarding the heavens obviously accords with Bacon's view that ether and celestial flame were relatives of terrestrial air and flame.

ll. 35–8: Durior vero—see cmt on DGI, F5r–v (p. 399 above).

F8v

Page 152, ll. 13–20: in libro de facie—for almost identical wording see DPAO, M4r. For the (pseudo)-Plutarch's tract see Libellvs de facie, qvae in orbe lvnae apparet in Ioh. Kepplerisomnivm, Frankfurt, 1634, pp. 97 ff. For another Baconian critique of the solidity and opacity of Moon see NO, 2H4r–v (SEH, I, pg 401pp. 300–1). For Bacon's views on the nature of the Moon see TC, G6v–G7r. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 112v. Gilbert cited Thales, some of the Pythagoreans, Anaxagoras and Democritus as the ancients who believed that the Moon was like the Earth. Gilbert's own arguments for the solidity and opacity of the Moon are accompanied by a sketch map of the Moon's face, see De mundo, pp. 171–18, and esp. p. 173: 'Luna, diversâ naturâ à Sole, est solida absque lumine substantia, diversa in eminentiis, non provenit unquam ab inspissatione imaginatæ quintæ essentiæ, adeo ut densior pars sit sphaeræ nugatoriae; sed astrum est, sicut tellus, suis spatiis motum habens.' For Bacon on light see cmt on DGI, F7v (p. 400 above).

F8v–F9r

Page 152, ll. 20–8: Neque opinio ejus—for Gilbert's idea of globes surrounded by their defections (effluvia) and then pure vacuum see cmt on DGI, E5v–E6v (pp. 391–2 above). Bacon denied the existence of an interstellar vacuum, see TC, G8r. For thought experiments relating to the existence of a vacuum see DPAO, M7v and cmt thereon (pp. 433–4 below).

F9r–v

Page 154, ll. 4–6: Porro, flammæ impuræ—for Empedocles and his view of this see Stobaeus, Eclogarvm libri dvo … Interprete Gulielmo Cantero … Antverpiæ, ex officina Christophori Plantini, Architypographi regij, 1575: I. p. 59. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 112r, and cmt on DPAO, L12r–v (p. 430 below).

F9v

Page 154, ll.10–13: Selenographia—cf. NO, 2K2r (SEH, I, p. 308). Also see cmt on DGI, F8v (pp. 400–1 above). For Galileo's observations of the Moon's surface and the sketches that Bacon no doubt had in mind see Sidereus Nuncius, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, ed. Antonio Favaro, 20 vols., G. Barbèra: Florence, 1890–1909, repr. 1929–39,1964–66: III, Parte Prima, pp. 66–67. For the impact of Galileo's sketches see Mary G. Winkler and Albert Van Helden, 'Representing the heavens: Galileo and visual astronomy', Isis, 83, 1992, pp. 195–217.

l. 13: fæx cœli—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 148v, 149v–150r. Also see Gilbert, De mundo, p. 111.

ll. 14–16: Nam & Mercurius—sightings of sunspots had sometimes been interpreted as transits of the planet Mercury. Kepler mistakenly believed that he had witnessed such a transit in May 1607, see Phænomena singulare seu Mercurius in sole, Leipzig, 1609. Also see J. D. North, The universal frame: historical essays in astronomy, natural philosophy and scientific method, Hambledon Press: London, 1989, p. 111.

F9v–F10r

Page 154, ll. 16–33: At maculae illæ—for these dark areas of the sky in the southern hemisphere, the Milky Way in relation to them, and generally the pg 402distribution of stars visible in the northern as against the southern hemisphere see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 90v (misnum. 91v), fos. 99v–1oor, 113v, 150r.

F10r–v

Page 156, ll. 2–4: stellulæ illæ—for other references to Jupiter' 'stars', and Bacon's cautious interpretation of findings concerning them see TC, G7v; NO, 2K1v–2K2r (SEH, I, pp. 307–8). For Galileo's observations of Jupiter's moons see Sidereus Nuncius, Le Opere, III, Parte Prima, pp. 79–96; for the Milky Way see ibid., III, Parte Prima, pp. 78–9: 'Amplius (quod magis miraberis), Stellæ ab Astronomis singulis in hanc usque diem NEBULOSAE appellatæ, Stellularum mirum in modum consitarum greges sunt.' For Bacon's views on the Milky Way see cmt on DGI, G3r–v (pp. 403–4 below). Also see Paolo Rossi, 'Galileo e Bacone', in Saggi su Galileo Galilei, ed. Carlo Maccagni, G. Barbèra Editore: Florence, 1972, II, pp. 248–96.

F1ov

Page 156, ll. 6–8: prorsus conspectum—see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 103r: 'Nam & alias apparentias adducunt astronomi, in quibus sensum nostrum falli autumant; vt in innumero illo stellarum, quæ hyeme cœlo sereno apparent numero.' Also see DPAO, L1r.

ll. 8–11: illæ stellæ—see G. Galilei, Sidereus Nuncius, in Le Opere, III, Parte Prima, p. 79: 'Secundum nebulosam praesepe nuncupatum continet; quæ non una tantum Stella est, sed congeries Stellularum plurium quam quadraginta … ' For sunspots as underdeveloped equivalents of Jupiter's moons see DGI, E8v and cmt thereon (p. 393 above); also see NO, 2K2r (SEH, I, p. 308). Galileo did not publish his observations on sunspots until 1613, see Le Opere, V, pp. 71 ff. P. Scheiner published his Tres epistolæ de maculis solaribus in the previous year (ibid, V, pp. 23–70). J. Fabricius anticipated both with his De macu personality, tradition and revolution, University of Michigan Press: Anne Arbor, 1970, pp. 177–99.

F11r

Page 156, ll. 24–9: notavit Gilbertus—for the idea of the orb of virtue see De mundo, pp. 47–8, pp. 56–7, 61. This idea was very favourably received by Bacon, see DAS, Q3r, 2K3r (SEH, pp. 526, 639); NO, 2G2v–2G3r, 2H3r–v (SEH, I, pp. 292–3, pp. 298–9).

ll. 29–31: Nam quod de motu—cf. NO, 2G2v (SEH, I, p. 292).

F11v–F12r

Page 158, ll. 4–13: An astra sint veri ignes—a particularly important passage on differences between common or terrestrial fire and sidereal fire; cf. DPAO, K11v. Also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 97r–101v and esp. fo. 98r: 'Neutrum vero, quia cœlestis ille, purus est ignis, & sincerus … Nostri vero, materiales sunt ignes, & impuri, & corruptibiles … Astra igitur ignes sunt, verè, sed inter diuinum pg 403& nostrum, medii.' For Patrizi's view of sublunary fire see ibid., fos. 117r–120v.

ll. 13–18: Etenim massæ majores—cf. NO, 2N4v–2O1r (SEH, I, p. 329); ANN, fos. 29v–30r. Also see cmt on DGI, D8v–D9r (p. 385–6 above).

F12r

Page 158, ll. 24–5: qui tamquam Vulcanus—cf. DPAO, K11v and cmt thereon (p. 423 below).

F12r–v

Page 158, ll. 30–7: nihil opus fuit Patritio—see Pancosmia, fo. 98v.

G1r

Page 160, ll. 13–16: Nam flamma cœlestis—according to TC (G6r–v), weak terrestrial flame was oppressed by the surrounding ether; the more powerful sidereal flame was less troubled by its ethereal medium.

ll. 18–20: Aristoteles conflagrationem Heracliti—see cmt on DGI, F6v (p. 399 above).

G1r–v

Page 160, ll. 23–33: observatione quadam plebeia–see cmt on DGI, F4v (p. 398 above).

G1v

Page 162, ll. 1–2: secundum identitatem—for this distinction see cmt on TC, G6v (p. 407 below)).

G2r–v

Page 162, ll. 21–8: species exhibet majores—the word species here and below cannot be translated as form or appearance; it is a technical term associated with theories of light; see cmt on DGI, F7v (p. 400 above).

G2v

Page 162, ll. 30–1: in stella Veneris—see cmt on DGI, F3r–v (p. 397 above).

Page 164, ll. 4–5: Arcades de Lunâ—see DGI, F3r.

G3r

Page 164, ll.12–13: de stellis novis—see cmt on DGI, F2r–v (pp. 396–7 above).

G3r–v

Page 164, ll. 14–33: An Galaxia—Bacon cites Patrizi's opinion that the Milky Way was in the celestial heavens and 'mediæ naturæ inter ætheream & sideream', cf. Pancosmia, fo. 101r: 'Media ergo inter ætheream, & sideream, tum raritate, tum densitate.' Patrizi himself cites ancient and modern opinions (ibid., fo. 100v) including Aristotle's exhalation theory and Telesio's belief that the Milky Way belonged to the highest heavens. For Telesio's view see DRN, I, p. 46 and cmt on DPAO, L1r–v (p. 424 below). Bacon dismissed Aristotle's theory in words very like those he had used to reject the Stagirite's views on comets, see pg 404DGI, F2r. For Aristotle's theory see Meteorologica, I. 8. 345a–346b—a theory of which Gilbert (De mundo, p. 248) said, 'hæc opinio à doctis omnibus, tum quibusdam etiam Aristotelis interpretibus, absurdior notatur.' Gilbert himself placed the Milky Way in the highest heavens and used that as an argument for the claim that the stellar heavens were very deep (ibid, p. 250). For Galileo's findings see cmt on DGI, F10r–v (p. 402 above). Also see NO, 2K1v (SEH, I, p. 307).

G3v

Page 164, ll. 34–6: præter phænomena ipsa—Bacon here distinguishes between 'phenomena' (mere appearances) and what may be philosophically (i.e. physically) true.

Page 164, l. 37–p. 166, l. 1: quique Hipparchi—Hipparchus of Nicaea (second century BC), the first Greek astronomer to prepare a catalogue of star positions. Also see DGI, F2v and cmt thereon (p. 397 above).

G4r

Page 166, ll. 3–4: quæ noctibus serenis—cf. DGI, F1v, F10v and cmt thereon (p. 402 above).

ll. 6–7: nova jam censa—the 'stars' among the planets are Jupiter's moons, see cmt on DGI, F10r–v (p. 402 above).

l. 17: duodecimo—Ellis (SEH, III, p. 767 n. 1) rejected the idea that the twelfth question should have been the previous one (about the number of the stars (G3v)). Certainly eleven questions seem to have been posed: the five questions enumerated at the beginning of the previous chapter (E1r), and the six listed on G3v. With Ellis I am inclined to think that the question about the number of the stars does not belong to the main series of questions put in DGI.

G4v

Page 166, ll. 22–3: Capiuntur autem—cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 106–7.

l. 26: per symmetriam Universi—the word symmetria is rare in Bacon's work, so rare that I find it in only one other text, namely NO (2T2r (SEH, I, p. 359)): 'Neque de Consensibus rerum inueniendis multum sperandum est ante Inuentionem Formarum, & Schematismorum simplicium. Consensus enim nil aliud est quam Symmetria Formarum & Schematismorum ad inuicem'; i.e. symmetria seems to refer to situations that obtain when bodies are somehow adapted to each other. It is not clear how Bacon thought that symmetria would help determine stellar magnitudes. Perhaps the implicit reasoning was this: that there were limits (upper and lower) to the amount of any given substance that could be concentrated in a body if that body were to stay in being; consequently if one were to calculate those limits for celestial fire, one would know how large the largest and how small the smallest star might be. Bacon was very interested in determining such natural boundaries; see cmt on PhU, Q5r–v (p. 373 above). Alternatively, and perhaps more simply, he may have been thinking of symmetria in its specialist astronomical usages; for a recent controversy on these see the letters of E. Hilfstein and W. H. Donahue in Isis, 85, 1994, pp. 479–81.

pg 405ll. 34–5: An astra sint globi—a question perhaps provoked by Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 98v; see DGI, F3v and cmt thereon (p. 398 above).

G5r–v

Page 168, ll. 13–18: ordo Planetarum—cf. DGI, E9r–v. For the methods discussed by Bacon, see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 106r–v.

pg 406COMMENTARY ON THEMA CŒLI

G5v.

Page 172, ll. 2–6: Cum vero tanta—cf. TC, H5r; Bacon writes as if the speculations to follow had sprung from a natural-historical exploration of astronomical and cosmological issues. The incommoda are doubtless those encountered in DGI

l. 9: nunc præcipue agitur—TC is concerned with the substance and structure of the universe primarily in so far as it sheds light on celestial motion.

G6r

Page 172, ll. 10–18: dispertitione materiæ—cf. DGI, E8r–v. The distinction between tangible and pneumatic is primordial, i.e. fundamental to the nature of things; cf. PAH, b2v (SEH, I, p. 397): 'Elementa autem eo sensu accipi volumus, vt intelligantur non pro Primordijs Rerum, sed pro Corporum Naturalium Massis Maioribus.' Also see cmt on DGI, D8v–D9r (pp. 385–6 above). On the things deemed primordial by Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 78v. Bacon probably borrowed the term from Lucretius, for whom the primordia were the fundamental particles of things, see for instance De rerum natura, I. 483–6:

  • Corpora sunt porro partim primordia rerum,
  • partim concilio quæ constant principiorum.
  • sed quæ sunt rerum primordia, nulla potest vis
  • stinguere; nam solido vincunt ea corpore demum.

For the implications of the primordial distinction between tangible and pneumatic and its hidden theological roots see Introduction, 2 (c)–(e).

ll.13–14: non æquis—Bacon may have been implicitly suggesting that his system was, in respect of the tangible-pneumatic distinction, better than Telesio's, which relied on the improbable hot and cold principles, see DPAO, M3v–M4r.

ll.18–19: Sumpta autem est ex rerum—cf. ANN, fo. 24r–v; DGI, D9r and cmt thereon (p. 385 above); NO, 2K4r (SEH, I, p. 311): 'At differentia Schematismorum maximè radicalis & primaria sumitur ex copiâ vel paucitate Materiæ, quæ subit idem spatium siue dimensum. Reliqui enim Schematismi (qui referuntur ad dissimilaritates partium, quæ in eodem corpore continentur, & collocationes ac posituras earundem) præ illo altero sunt secundarij.' Also see PhU, O10r; HDR, A1v–A2r (SEH, II, p. 243).

l. 21: composita & imperfecte mista—pneumatica composita are the animate and inanimate spirits inside tangible bodies, see DVM, fos. 17v, fo. 18v; the pneumatica imperfecte mista are fumes and vapours. Flame and air are contrasted with imperfect spirits in PhU, Q8v and HDR, B4r–B5r (SEH, II, pp. 254–5). Also see LL, III, pp. 94 ff.

pg 407

l. 23: non ut vulgo putatur—cf. NO, 2I2v (SEH, I, p. 304).

G6r–v

Page 172, ll. 24–8: His vero respondent—see Introduction, 2 (c)–(e). Also see NO, 2T2v (SEH, I, p. 359): 'Nam non malè notatum est à Chymicis, in principiorum suorum Triade, Sulphur & Mercurium, quasi per Vniuersitatem rerum permeare. (Nam de Sale inepta ratio est, sed introducta, vt possit comprehendere Corpora terrea, sicca, & fixa.) At certè in illis duobus videtur Consensus quidam Naturæ ex maximè Catholicis conspici. Etenim Consentiunt Sulphur; Oleum, & Exhalatio pinguis; Flamma; & fortassè Corpus Stellæ. Ex alterâ parte Consentiunt Mercurius; Aqua & Vapores Aquei; Aer; & fortassè Æther purus & interstellaris. Attamen istæ Quaterniones geminæ, siue Magnæ rerum Tribus, (vtraque intra Ordines suos) Copiâ Materiæ atque Densitate immensum differunt, sed Schematismo valdè conueniunt: vt in plurimis se produnt.' For sulphur and mercury as primordial principles see ANN, fo. 28r–v; also see DVM, fo. 18r–v; SS, N3r (SEH, II, p. 459); HNE, S5r–S8r (SEH, II, p. 33); LL, III, p. 94.

G6v

Page 174, ll. 1–12: ab effluviis terræ—cf. DGI, E8v. For the term effluvium in Gilbert's philosophy see cmt on DGI, E5v–E6v (pp. 391–2 above). For the temporary nature of terrestrial fire and the distinction between succession and identity see Rees, 'Bacon's … cosmology and the Great Instauration', p. 170; NO, 2I2v–2I3r (SEH, I, p. 304); DGI, G1v; also see Patrizi, Pancosmia, fos. 99v, 102v. For lower comets see cmt on DGI, F2r–v (pp. 396–7 above). Eo loco flamma— for the substance of the Moon see DGI, E3r, F8v–F9r; NO, 2H4r–v, 2K2r (SEH, I, pp. 300–1, 308).

G7r

Page 174, ll. 12–20: in regione Mercurii—Bacon recorded ancient and modern doubts about the order of Mercury and Venus in DGI (D10v, E3v, E9r–v) and PAH(c2v (SEH, I, p. 402)). But here he seems to have assumed that Mercury was further from the Sun than Venus, even though he knew that Venus moved more slowly and had a greater maximum elongation than Mercury—see DGI, E9v and cmt thereon (pp. 393–4 above); cf. TC, H5r.

l. 22: antiperistasin—cf. NO, X3v, 2E2r, 2P3v (SEH, I, pp. 245–6, 281, 338). Antiperistasis is an exceptionally violent reaction of one nature against a surrounding and contrary one. Aristode used the notion to explain certain meteorological phenomena, see S. K. Henninger Jr., A handbook of Renaissance meteorology, Duke University Press: Durham, NC, 1960, pp. 39 f.

G7v

Page 174, ll. 29–30: quod reperit Galilœus—cf. DGI, E10r, and cmt on DGI, F10r–v (p. 402 above).

Page 176, l. 2: assimilatâ substantiâ æthereâ—see TC, G9r; Introduction, 2 (i).

pg 408

ll. 3–6: Itaque tres reperiuntur—cf. DGI, E8r–v, where instead of natura flammea Bacon speaks more obliquely of natura stellaris; nowhere can the theoretical underpinnings of the supposedly natural-historical DGI be seen more clearly.

ll. 6–7: contiguo & continuo—for the nature of this distinction see cmt on DGI, E7r–v (p. 392 above).

G7v–G8r

Page 176, ll. 8–11: consuesse naturam—for almost identical wording see DGI, E8r and cmt thereon (p. 393 above).

G8r

Page 176, ll. 22–4: flammam essesee cmt on TC, G6r (p. 406 above).

ll. 24–5: vacuum illud coacervatum Gilberti—this conclusion arises from the text by implication since neither Gilbert nor a collected vacuum has been mentioned hitherto. The conclusion is based on the idea that solid planets imply an interstellar vacuum whereas planets of pneumatic matter imply a pneumatic interstellar medium. This idea, merely alluded to here, is fully explicated in DGI (see E5v–E6v, F7r, F9r and cmts thereon (pp. 391–2, 400–1 above)). This suggests that TC was indeed meant to be read in the context of DGI, or that Bacon was working with the DGI in mind or in front of him. For the collected as opposed to the interspersed vacuum see NO, 2R1v (SEH, I, p. 347); cmts on DGI, E5v–E7r (pp. 391–2 above). For Telesio and the collected vacuum see cmt on DPAO, M7v (pp. 433–4 below).

G8r–v

Page 176, ll. 25–6: Lunam esse corpus—see previous cmt, and cmt on TC, G6v (p. 407 above).

G8v

Page 176,l. 27: rudimentum & sedimentum—Bacon often used the word rudiment as a synonym for tentamentum (see e.g. NO, T4r (SEH, I, p. 234)), an essay or imperfect realization of something; alternatively, it meant something 'in infimâ virtute' (ibid, (SEH, I, pp. 272–3)). For other uses of rudimentum see cmt on DGI, E8r (p. 393 above). Lunar flame as sediment: this not only recalls the ancient view of the Moon as a feculent flame (see DGI, F9r)but suggests that the flame is a heavy fraction or residue produced by an alchemical separative process; thus lunar flame is at one end of a spectrum whose other extreme is marked by the flames of the fixed stars which the separative process has made sublimatas & rectificatas (TC, G9r).

ll. 30–1: rem momentaneam—see cmt on TC, G6v (p. 407 above); DPAO likens terrestrial fire to Vulcan lamed by his fall (K11v).

l. 33: congregativam in globos—for Bacon's belief that the 'natural' form of flame was orbicular see NO, 2I3r (SEH, I, p. 304), and cmt on TC, G6v (p. 407 above).

pg 409

Page 178, ll. 2–3: gbmerationibus infinitis—this is further evidence that Bacon was working with DGI in front of him; cf. DGI, F10r–v, G3r–v.

l. 2: Empyreum integrum—see DGI, E8v, E10r and cmt thereon (p. 394 above).

G8v–G9r

Page 178, ll. 6–7: œtherem interstellarem—see Introduction, 2 (i); also see cmt on TC, G8v (p. 408 above).

G9r–v

Page 178, ll.12 ff: missis argutiis—cf. NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8). From here onwards Bacon develops some of his most important physical and metaphysical arguments for stasis of Earth; see cmts on DGI, E2r–v, E3v–E4r, and E5r–v (pp. 389–90, 391 above).

ll. 20–5: introducta est à Telesio—for Telesio, Parmenides and 'de primo frigido 'see DGI, F5r and cmt on DPAO, K11v (pp. 422–3 below). For Telesio's four pairs of qualities and their respective seats see DPAO, K12v and cmt thereon (pp. 423–4 below).

G9v

Page 178, ll. 32–7: latio in recta—for rectilinear motion contrasted with spontaneous rotation see NO, 2Q3v–2Q4r (SEH, I, p. 344); also see ANN, fo. 31v: 'Horum [i.e. bodies happy with their situation] nimirum duplex est genus: alterum eorum quae motu gaudent, alterum eorum quae amant quietem et motum exhorrent; quare sequitur inquisitio de rotatione spontanea qualis est coelestium. Is enim motus sine termino est; neque itinerarius videtur vt quiescat, sed se exercet libenter et perpetuo.' (The punctuation and capitals here are editorial.)

G9v–G10r

Page 180, ll. 1–2: formositatem illam Mathematicam—cf. DPAO, L2r: 'formositas illa Mathematica (ut motus reducantur ad circulos perfectos) contemnatur, & recipiantur lineæ spirales, & contrarietates illæ motuum in consecutione, ab Oriente in Occidentem (quem vocant primi Mobilis) & rursus ab Occidente in Orientem (quem vocant motum proprium planetarum) redigantur in unum …' Also see DGI, E11r; NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8).

1. 3: quod terra sit—cf. NO, 2G2v (SEH, I, p. 292).

G10r

Page 180, ll. 5–6: Alii Cosmici sunt, alii ad invicem—this distinction seems to be implicit in NO, (T2v (SEH, I, p. 232)) in what Bacon says 'de Naturâ Rotationis spontaneæ,' and 'Attractionis siue virtutis Magneticæ'. But see below, cmts on TC, H1r–v (pp. 411–13 below); see also TC, H4r.

l.14: super polos mobiles—see TC, G12v; also see NO, 2Q4r (SEH, I, p. 344): 'Variationis ipsorum Polorum, si sint mobiles: quæ ipsa ad Rotationem non pertinet, nisi fiat circulariter. Atque iste Motus communi & inueteratâ opinione habetur pro proprio Cœlestium.'

G10r–v

pg 410

Page 180,l.15 ff: motus vere videtur Cosmicus—from here down to G12v Bacon advances his Alpetragian account of cosmic motion; cf. NO, 2H2r–v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8); DPAO, L1v–L2v. Also see Introduction, 2 (b), and Campanella, Philosophia, sensibus demonstrata, p. 303: 'Dicit quidem Alpe[tragius] stellam inferiorem omnem moueri ab ortu ad occasum, sicut prima sphaera, & omnes ab vnica ferri virtute motoris primi, sed hanc virtutem fortiorem esse in ea, quæ coniungitur vicinius primæ, & debiliorem in sphæra, quæ longinquius se habet ad ipsam, & ideo cùm prima perficit circulum, tunc sphæra inferior aliquantulum retardatur à perfectione tota circuli, & huius retardationis causa videtur Stella, quòd moueatur ab occasu in ortum'.

G10v

Page 180, ll.19–20: sed consensu perpetuo—i.e. none of the bodies participating in the cosmic motion does so by compulsion; their essence is such that they participate 'naturally' and by agreement. For the notion of consent see Introduction, 2 (c), (h). Also see NO, 2Q27v, 2T2v (SEH, I, pp. 343, 360). Bacon, like Fracastoro, often used the term consensus as a synonym for sympathia: see, for instance, NO, 2D4r, 2G2v (SEH, I, p. 278, p. 292); cf. J. Fracastoro, De sympathia et antipathia rervm, Venice, 1546, A1v. For other kinds of sympathetic or consensual effects see ANN, fos. 29v, 30r (descent of heavy and ascent of light bodies); NO, T4r (SEH, I, p. 234) (consent between spirits in tangible bodies and external substances); NO, 2L2r (SEH, I, p. 314) (as another name for occult virtues); NO, 2T2r (SEH, I, p. 359) (the same): 'Operationes verò per Consensus aut Fugas latent sæpenumerò in profundo. Istæ enim (quas vocant) Proprietates Occultæ, & Specificæ, & Sympathiæ, & Antipathiæ, sunt magnâ ex parte Corruptelæ Philosophiæ.'

G10v–G11r

Page 180, ll. 33–6: Itaque motus decantatus—cf. NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, p. 297–8): 'Similitèr, sit Natura Inquisita, Motus Rotationis ille alter apud Astronomos decantatus, renitens & contrarius Motui Diurno, videlicèt ab Occidente in Orientem, quem veteres Astronomi attribuunt Planetis, etiam Cœlo Stellato; at Copernicus, & eius Sectatores Terrae quoque; & quæratur vtrum inueniatur in rerum Naturâ aliquis talis Motus, an potiùs res conficta sit & supposita, ad Compendia & Commoditates Calculationum, & ad pulchrum illud, scilic`t de Expediendis Motibus Cœlestibus per Circulos perfectos. Neutiquàm enim euincitur iste Motus esse in Supernis verus & realis, nec per Defectum Restitutionis Planetæ in Motu Diurno ad idem punctum Cœli stellati; nec per diuersam Politatem Zodiaci, habito respectu ad Polos Mundi; quæ duo nobis hunc Motum pepererunt. Primum enim Phænomenon per Anteuersionem & Derelictionem optimè saluatur; Secundum per Lineas Spirales; adeò vt Inæqualitas Restitutionis, & Declinatio ad Tropicos, possint esse potiùs Modificationes Motûs vnici illius Diurni, quàm Motus renitentes, aut circa diuersos Polos.'

pg 411

Page 182, l. 7: per remissionem violentiæ primi mobilis—see cmt on TC, H2r–v (p. 413 below), and cmt on DGI, D10v (p. 387 above).

G11v

Page 182, ll. 21–2: Circulum Obliquum, & Diversam Politatem—cf. TC, G10r and DPAO, L2r–v; also see NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8) quoted above in cmt on TC, G10v–G11r.

ll. 31–2: sublimiores planetae propiores conficiant spiras—possibly an echo of Campanella, Philosophia, sensibus demonstrate, p. 306: 'ab oriente omnino ad occidentem ipsarum etiam orbes mouentur, at non eadem, qua illæ, velocitate, non sub vigintiquatuor horarum spatio, sed longiore tempore proprios conficiunt gyros'.

G12r

Page 184, ll.1–5: sed universi planetæ—the nature of the fixed stars is such that they do not mind daily circuits which are very large (stars near the celestial equator) or very small (stars near the poles). But the planets cannot apparently endure for long very large or very small circuits and so will not stray too far towards the poles or stay too long near the equator. At this point Bacon's distinction between the stellar and planetary natures is obscure: on his own reasoning (see Introduction, 2 (i)) the stars rather than the planets should be considered as mixtæ naturæ. Perhaps Bacon uses mixtæ here simply to mean something like 'impure' and so to allude to the distinction between the purity of the stellar substance and the degeneracy of the planetary (see TC, G11v–G12r), and suggest that impurity may be the cause of the planets' failure to emulate the 'summa & æquabili constantia' which the stars maintain regardless of latitude. Alternatively planets may be mixtæ naturæ because their spiral motions are a compound of circular and rectilinear motions—see cmt on DPAO, L1v–L2r (p. 424 below).

H1r

Page 184, ll. 28–32: Primò itaque plane … de fluxu—Bacon here alludes to his 'anticipation' (DFRM), and belief that diurnal motion of the heavens also manifested itself in wind, tide, and verticity (see Introduction, 2 (g)–(h), and cmts on DFRM, I4v–I5v (pp. 381–2 above)). Towards the end of TC (H4v) he affirmed that these sublunar phenomena were expressions of the diurnal motion; he had perhaps forgotten that they had never been explicitly mentioned earlier in the text.

Page 186, l. 1 ff: ad invicem esse diximus—Bacon had enunciated the distinction between cosmic or diurnal motion and motions ad invicem earlier (TC, G10r). Much of the rest of TC is concerned directly or indirectly with the latter. Motions ad invicem embrace phenomena which Bacon seems to have been reluctant to tackle head on, phenomena for which his general theory of celestial motion offered no ready or coherent explanation. He did little more than list them here and again on H4r. Between the two lists he attacked six false pg 412doctrines or principles governing conventional thinking about the nature of the heavens (H1v–H3r), and then attacked mathematical fictions (H3r–v). His criticisms imply or perhaps merely circle round solutions to questions raised by the problematic phenomena. The doctrines criticized (see cmts below) embodied (in his view) an attachment to aesthetic and metaphysical simplicities that led to the adoption of arbitrary physical and mathematical principles, principles which, besides trampling on nature, sometimes turned out to be over-complicated in practice. The distinction between motions ad invicem and diurnal occurs nowhere else in Bacon's writings, but cf. NO, 2Q4r (SEH, I, pp. 344–5): 'Recipit autem Motus iste Rotationis Differentias nouem. Primam, Centri sui, circa quod Corpora mouent: Secundam, Polorum suorum, supra quos mouent: Tertiam, Circumferentiæ siue Ambitûs sui, prout distant à Centro: Quartam, Incitationis suæ, prout celeriù aut tardiùs rotant: Quintam, Consequutionis Motûs sui, veluti ab Oriente in Occidentem, aut ab Occidente in Orientem: Sextam, Declinationis à Circulo perfecto per Spiras longiùs aut propiùs distantes à Centro suo: Septimam, Declinationis à Circulo perfecto per Spiras longiùs aut propiùs distantes à Polis suis: Octauam, Distantiæ propioris aut longioris Spirarum suarum ad inuicèm: Nonam & vltimam, Variationis ipsorum Polorum, si sint mobiles: quæ ipsa ad Rotationem non pertinet, nisi fiat circulariter.' The four motions ad invicem are listed summarily (though not under any generic head) in DAS (V3v (SEH, I, p. 552)). Motions ad invicem of TC are as follows:

  1. 1. The celestial bodies move closer to and further from the Earth. In NO (2M3v, 2P3r (SEH, I, pp. 321–2, 337)) this is attributed to the magnetic vis which pulls planets to their apogees. This same vis also lies at the heart of William Gilbert's idea of the orb of virtue (q.v. cmt on DGI, F11r (p. 402 above)). Also see ANN, fo. 30r.

  2. 2. The planets also move to the north and south within the zodiac and so form Dracones. Bacon uses the term in an idiosyncratic way; in astronomical language 'dragon' usually means the part of the Moon's path that lies south of the ecliptic. For dracones see NO, F4r (SEH, I, p. 165): 'Hinc Commenta illa, In cœlestibus omnia moueri per circulos perfectos, lineis spiralibus & draconibus (nisi nomine tenus) prorsùs reiectis.' TC (H4r) later explains that this motion is not to be confused with the third motion ad invicem.

  3. 3. The celestial bodies vary in velocity and direction of motion. Bacon seems to be thinking of the speeding up, slowing down, stations and retrogressions which the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic traditions had ascribed to the periodic motions of the planets. Bacon did not believe that any planet had a separate periodic motion but still had to account for stations, retrogressions and the other periodic phenomena none of which sat well with his unidirectional theory of planetary motion. It looks as if he was thinking of overcoming these difficulties ad hoc, namely by referring these and the second group of motions ad invicem to inequalities in the ethereal interplanetary medium, see TC H1v–H2r and cmt thereon (p. 413 below).

  4. pg 4134. The motion of each planet never carries it beyond a certain fixed distance from the Sun. Here Bacon is no doubt thinking of the maximum elongations of the planets, and in particular the maximum elongations of Mercury and Venus (q.v. cmt on TC, G7r (p. 407 above)). Like the first of the motions ad invicem, this is also referred to the motus magneticus in NO (2M3v, 2P3r (SEH, I, pp. 321–2, 337)). Also see ANN, fo. 30r.

H1v

Page 186, ll.13 ff: Verum ad hoc ut viam—Bacon now embarks on his six-point critique of features of received astronomical doctrine, a critique meant to clear the ground for and imply solutions to problems raised by the four kinds of motion ad invicem.

ll. 21–7: Horum primum est—the first of the six doctrines rejected is that of the incorruptibility of heavens, a doctrine denied in DGI (D11r), a place to which TC's 'De quo alibi dictum est' may allude. The falsity of the doctrine was one of Bacon's favourite themes (see CDNR, S9v–S11v (SEH, III, pp. 32–5); NO, 2F3v (SEH, I, p. 288); DAS, V3r–V4r (SEH, I, p. 553)) and one which was related to his criticism of the Aristotelian doctrine (see TC, H1v–H2r) which assigned one physics to the terrestrial realm and another to the celestial. For Bacon's evidence that the heavens were not unchangeable see DGI, E11v, F2r–F4v and cmts thereon (pp. 395 and 396–8 above).

H1v–H2r

Page 186,l. 27 ff: Secundum est—this argument may have been conceived as a starting-point for an explanation of the second and third motions ad invicem; cf. DGI, D11r, and esp. F5v–F6r. Also see cmt on DGI, F5v (p. 399 above).

l. 28: essentia quinta—see DGI, E11v.

l. 34: Antitypia—see NO, 2O1v (SEH, I, p. 330); ANN, fos. 28v–29r.

H2r–v

Page 188, l. 4 ff.: Tertium est—Bacon attacks the notion that all bodies have their own proper motions, a notion which, he believes, leads to the fiction of celestial spheres and to a failure to observe that celestial motion may be consensual. For similar criticisms see DGI, D10v and cmt thereon (p. 387 above), and cmt on DGI, E5r–v (p. 391 above); NO, G4v (SEH, I, p. 171). For consent see cmt on TC, G10v (p. 410 above).

ll. 8–10: aliis dominantibus, aliis succumbentibus—see NO, 2R1v f. (SEH, I, pp. 347 f).

ll. 10–11: mensurœ exactæ, & modi motuum communium—see NO, 2M4v (SEH, I, p. 323); ANN, fos. 34r f

l.12: primum mobile separatum—see DGI, D10v; NO, G4v (SEH, I, p. 171).

l.14 ff: Quartum est—a favourite object of Bacon's scorn; cf. DGI, F1r.

ll. 19–22: Gibertus hæc deridet—see De mundo, pp. 147–58 and esp. p. 154: 'Annon ridiculum esset comparare totum illud corporis spatiosissimi systema, ad Saturni sideris corpus? annon multis millium millibus ipsum superaret? ac si pg 414quis rotam fingeret, cujus diameter esset unius milliaris, crassities vero compaginis triens ejusdem? rotam vero hanc factam, ut pilam palmariam volutaret.'

H2v–H3r

Page 188, ll. 23–30: Quintum est—cf. DGI, F5r–v and cmt thereon (p. 399 above).

ll. 30–5: Sextum est—cf. DGI, F7r.

H3r–v

Page 188, l. 37–p. 190, l. 8: Quod vero ad hypotheses—for Bacon's desire to restrict mathematical astronomy to the business of prediction, and to leave cosmological questions to the province of physics see Introduction, 2 (b) and cmt on DGI, E11r (p. 394 above).

H3v

Page 190, ll.11–12: fingitur de Musca—I have not seen a version of Æsop which gives this commonplace.

H4r

Page 190, ll. 20–5: Quatuor autem genera—see TC, H1r–v and cmts thereon (pp. 411–13 above).

H4v

Page 190,l. 36: Negant terram rotare—see TC, G6r, G9r, G10r.

Page 192, ll. 3–4: Negant obliquum—see TC, G11v; NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, pp. 297–8).

ll. 4–5: Negant primum Mobile—see TC, H2v.

ll. 6–9: Affirmant motum diurnum—this and the next conclusion were not prepared for earlier in the text—except by way of a reference to DFRM (see cmt on H1r (p. 411 above)). On wind, tide and verticity see cmt on DFRM, I4v–I5v (pp. 381–2 below). For verticity as transition between circular motion and pure immobility see Rees, 'Francis Bacon on verticity', pp. 207–8.

ll. 11–12: Affirmant motum magneticum—cf. NO, 2M3v (SEH, I, pp. 321–2): 'si sit aliqua Vis Magnetica, quæ operetur per Consensum, inter globum Terræ & Ponderosa, aut inter globum Lunæ & Aquas Maris … aut inter Cœlum Stellatum & Planetas, per quam euocentur & attollantur ad sua Apogæa; Hæc omnia operantur ad Distantias admodùm longinquas.' This makes it clear that Bacon was thinking of the first motion ad invicem mentioned in TC (H1r). When Bacon speaks of fire drawing fire he means that the stars and planets (composed of celestial fire) attract each other.

ll. 13–14: Affirmant in cœlis—celestial ether moves more slowly than planets and the result of this is, one supposes, the third motion ad invicem, for which see cmt on TC, H1r–v (p. 412 above), and esp. cmt on TC, H1v–H2r (p. 413 above).

H5r

pg 415

Page 192, ll.18–19: affirmant tœdium—see TC, G11v–G12r.

ll. 20–3: Affirmant solisequium—cf. NO, 2P3r, C2v (SEH, I, pp. 337, 402). Bacon meant that the bodies in question did not stray far from the Sun and Jupiter respectively. He meant neither that Mercury and Venus went round the Sun nor that the Galileian satellites orbited Jupiter; see cmts on DGI, E10r, F10r–v (pp. 394 and 402 above).

ll. 22–4: in limine historiæ—see Introduction, 1 (c).

pg 416COMMENTARY ON DE PRINCIPIIS ATQUE ORIGINIBUS

18 v –19r

Page 196, ll.10–24: Quæ de Cupidine—this paragraph closely follows the first paragraph of the exposition of 'Cupido, sive atomus' as it appears in DSV (2C5r–2C5v(SEH, VI, pp. 654–5)). But where DPAO has 'quin etiam … est.' DSV(2C5r (SEH, VI, p. 654)) has only 'Ita tamen discrepant, ut confusio personarum rejiciatur, similitudo recipiatur.' Also cf. Natalis Comes, Mythologiae, sive explicationvm fabvlarvm libri decem, Venice, 1567, fos. 125v–127r: 'De Cupidine uerò, quibus ortus sit parentibus, non parua dubitatio est apud scriptores: quoniam alii unum esse Cupidinem, alii plures senserunt … Cupidinis autem parentes neque sunt, neque ab ullo uel priuatorum, uel poetarum fuisse dicuntur. Hesiodus in sua Theogonia uidetur Amorem siue Cupidinem ante omnia ex illa informi materia, quæ chaos dicta est, in lucem eduxisse … Nam statim post terram natum esse Cupidinem inquit, eumq́ue eduxit ex illa informi materia. At Aristophanes in Auibus Noctem Zephyrium ouum peperisse scribit, è quo natus sit Cupido, qui cum chao mistus omne Deorum genus ex illo excitauerit … [fo. 126r] … At idem Plato qui nullos parentes Cupidinis superius esse dixit, mox fabulam quandam huiusmodi in Symposio de Cupidinis ortu memorauit; fama est Deos aliquando natalitia Veneris celebrantes in cœlo mensis accubuisse: tum Porus consilii & abundantiæ Deus fertur nectare paulo copiosius hausto ebrius fuisse, ac Peniam Deam paupertatis in horto Iouis inuenisse, quam etiam compressit. Ex eo congressu Penia Cupidinem postea peperit, quem Veneri famulum tradiderunt, cuius nutum mandataq́ue obseruaret, quare postea creditus est Veneris filius … Cicero lib. 3. de nat. Deorum plures Cupidines è diuersis parentibus facit … [fo. 126v] … Horum quæ uires sint, aut quæ facultates, & qui habitus illi tribuerentur, ita patafecit Orpheus in hymnis …

  • Iucundum, magnum, gratum cantamus Amorem,
  • Arciferum, alatum, celerem, flammisq́ue potentem.
  • Ludentem pariter cum diisq́ue, virisq́ue gemellum.
  • Tu maris, & terræ claues, tuq́ue ætheris alti Sceptra tenes …

… Deinde addita sunt non solum nomina, sed insignia cupidini, illius Dei potentiam, & animorum motus significantia, qualia Palladas descripsit in his carminibus …

  • Nudus Amor ridet, lætatur & ille; nec arcus,
  • Nec flammata gerit spicula, vel pharetram.
  • pg 417Iure quidem recto florem, delphinaq́ue gestat.
  • Continet hac terras, hac maris alta manu.

[fo. 127r] … Addita fuerunt & alia insignia præter superiora, siquidem hunc puerum finxerunt, & cæcum …' Comes then goes on to moralize the fable as (among other things) a warning against lust. He also reads a little natural philosophy (Thales and Empedocles) into the fable, see ibid., fo. 128r and cmt on DPAO, K5r–v (p. 421 below). On Bacon and Comes see Barbara Carman Garner, 'Francis Bacon, Natalis Comes', pp. 264–91; also see Charles W. Lemmi, The classic deities in Bacon: a study in mythological symbolism, Johns Hopkins Press: Baltimore, 1933, pp. 49–61; Rossi, Francesco Bacone, pp. 165–18, 193–201.

I9r

Page 196, ll. 25–6: Fabula ista cum sequenti de Cœlo—cf. DSV, 2C5v (SEH, VI, p. 655). The interpretation of the fable of Cœlum is not extant in DPAO, but there is a short interpretation in DSV(2C3r–v (SEH, VI, pp. 649–50)), where it precedes the interpretation of Cupid.

ll. 27–8: Democritus exhibuit—for Bacon's views on the intellectual strengths and weaknesses of Democritus and the atomists see cmts on DGI, E1v–E2r (pp. 388–9 above); DPAO, K3r, M2r, M9r–v. In DSV(2C5v(SEH, VI, p. 655)) there is no mention of Democritus at this point.

I9r–v

Page 198,l. 4 ff: qualia esse possunt—NO, E4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 159–60): 'Dvæ viæ sunt, atque esse possunt ad inquirendam & inueniendam veritatem. Altera à sensu & particularibus aduolat ad Axiomata maximè generalia, atque ex ijs principijs eorumque immotâ veritate, iudicat & inuenit Axiomata media: atque hæc via in vsu est; Altera à sensu & particularibus excitat Axiomata … Eandem ingreditur viam (priorem scilicèt) Intellectus sibi permissus, quam facit ex ordine Dialecticæ. Gestit enim Mens exilire ad magis generalia, vt acquiescat: & post paruam moram fastidit experientiam: Sed hæc mala demùm aucta sunt a Dialecticâ ob pompas disputationum.'

I9 v –I10r

Page 198, ll.15–19: Causa enim effectus—cf. 'Cupido, sive atomus', DSV, 2C5v (SEH, VI, p. 655). There is no reference to the tropis familiare in what Comes says about Cupid, although Comes does mention Cupid in relation to Chaos (Mythologiae, fos. 125v–128v).

I10r

Page 198, ll. 21–9: res positiva est—cf. NO, G1v, 2A3r, 2Q2v (SEH, I, pp. 167, 260, 343).

pg 418 I10v

Page 200, ll.1–5: ne forte intellectus—cf. NO, G1r–v (SEH, I, pp. 166–7).

ll.15–16: fingitur Cupido—see cmt on DPAO, I8v–I9r (p. 416 above).

I10 v –I11r

Page 200, l.15ff: ovum nocte incubante … vix potest —cf. 'Cupido, sive atomus', DSV, 2C5r–v, (SEH, VI, p. 655).

ll.16–19: Cuncta fecit Deus—Vulgate: Ecclesiastes 3:11: 'Cuncta fecit bona in tempore suo, et mundum tradidit disputationi eorum, ut non inveniat homo opus quod operatus est ab initio usque ad finem.'

I11r

Page 200, ll. 19–25: Lex enim summa—see AL, 2G4r (SEH, III, p. 356): 'For knowledges are as pyramides, whereof history is the basis: So of natvral philosophy the basis is natvral history: The stage next the basis is phisicke: The stage next the vertical point is metaphisicke: As for the vertical point, Opus quod operatur deus a principio vsque ad finem, the Summary law of Nature, wee knowe not whether Mans enquirie can attaine vnto it.'

ll. 26–31: Quæ enim per Affirmativas—Bacon plays on exclusio, a word which means (a) a procedure in inductive logic or (b) the hatching of an egg. In relation to the former cf. NO, Z4v (SEH, I, pp. 256–7): 'At omninò Deo (Formarum Inditori & opifici) aut fortassè Angelis & Intelligentijs competit, Formas per Aiffrmationem immediatè nosse, atque ab initio Contemplationis. Sed certè supra hominem est; Cui tantùm conceditur, procedere primò per Negatiuas, & postremò loco desinere in Affirmatiuas, post omnimodam exclusionem.' Also see NO, 2A3v (SEH, I, p. 260): 'Atque in Exclusiuâ iacta sunt fundamenta Inductionis veræ; quæ tamen non perficitur donee sistatur in Affirmatiuâ.

I11v

Page 202, ll.1–3: Neque sunt—Lucretius, De rerum natura, I: 687–89. The quotation is accurate.

ll. 5–13: At primordia—Lucretius, De rerum natura, I:778–80. The quotation is accurate. For Bacon the true primordia were the 'virtues', heavy, light, etc. mentioned after this quotation: see TC, G6r and cmt thereon (p. 406 above); DGI, D9r–v and cmt thereon (p. 386 above). Also cf. DVM, fo. 23r where Bacon began to say what spirit was by saying what it was not.

ll.13–17: Neque similiter motus—Lucretius, De rerum natura, II: 62–332.

I12r

Page 202, ll. 24–9: Debuit enim—Lucretius, De rerum natura, II: 83–5:

  • cuncta necessest
  • aut gravitate sua ferri primordia rerum
  • aut ictu forte alterius.

But see Stobaeus, Eclogarvm libri dvo, I.17. 33.

pg 419 K1r

Page 204, ll. 15–18: Et tamen etiam—Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the eminent philosophers, 2 vols. (Loeb Classical Library) London and Cambridge, Mass., 1925, II, pp. 446–7 (IX. 37): ' "If the Rivals be the work of Plato," says Thrasylus, "Democritus will be the unnamed character, different from Oenopides and Anaxagoras, who makes his appearance when conversation is going on with Socrates about philosophy, and to whom Socrates says that the philosopher is like an all-round athlete [πεντάθλῳ‎]." And truly Democritus was versed in every department of philosophy … ' Diogenes (II, pp. 442–3 (IX. 34)) does not say that Democritus was regarded as a magician but that he was a pupil of 'certain Magians and Chaldeans'.

ll. 18–21: Neque Aristotelis—for other references to Aristotle as Ottoman assassin and enemy of antiquity see AL, 2F4v–2G1r (SEH, III, p. 352); RPh, fo. 9r (SEH, III, p. 565). Also see NO, K3r (SEH, I, p. 185): 'Primò, quod de cessatione Antiquarum Philosophiarum post Aristotelis Opera edita homines cogitant, id falsum est; diù enim posteà, vsquè ad tempora Ciceronis, & sæcula sequentia, manserunt opera veterum Philosophorum. Sed temporibus insequentibus, ex inundatione Barbarorum in Imperium Romanum, postquàm Doctrina humana velut naufragium perpessa esset; tum demùm Philosophiæ Aristotelis & Platonis tanquam tabulæ ex materiâ leuiore & minùs solidâ per fluctus temporum seruatæ sunt.' For instances of Cicero's regard for Democritus see Cicero, Quœstiones Tusculana, per D. Erasmum Roterodamum acri iudicio restitutœ, London, 1574, pp. 13, 46, 255.

K1v

Page 204, ll. 32–4: Cujus prudentia—Juvenal, Satire, X. 48–50: in his second line Bacon has 'Magnos' instead of Juvenal's 'Summos'. Also cf. RPh, fo. 11v (SEH, III, p. 567).

Page 206, ll.1–2: Gensericus & Attila—cf. RPh, fo. 12r (SEH, III, p. 567); VT, p. 40 (SEH, III, pp. 227–8); NO, A3r (SEH, I, p. 127).

K1 v –K2r

Page 206, ll.11–16: materiam primam—cf. DSV, 2C5r (SEH, VI, p. 730); NO, H2v (SEH, I, pp. 173–4); Bacon of course believed that matter had its own principles of activity—as is evident in the behaviour of pneumatic matter.

K2r

Page 206, l. 26: Ideæ abstractæ … I do not know what Bacon had in mind here.

K2v

Page 208, l. 6: ex Categoriis—cf. NO, H2v (SEH, I, pp. 173–4). For the categories among the Aristotelian commentators on the Physica see John E. Murdoch, 'From the medieval to the Renaissance Aristotle', New perspectives on Renaissance thought: essays in the history of science, education and philosophy in pg 420memory of Charles B. Schmitt, ed. John Henry and Sarah Hutton, Duckworth: London, 1990, pp. 163–76, pp. 171–5.

K2 v –K3r

Page 208, ll. 9–13: Sed omnes fere Antiqui—see cmts on DGI, F6v, F9r–v (pp. 399–400 and 401 above); DPAO, K5v–K6r, K7r.

K3r

Page 208, ll. 22–5: dissectio non abstractio—for this contrast see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 567–9. Also see DGI, E1v–E2r and cmt thereon (p. 388 above).

K3r K3r

Page 208,l. 33–p. 210,l.4: Atque quod Materia prima forma—here as elsewhere (cf. DPAO, I9v) Bacon intimates that, far from being pure (Aristotelian) potentiality or primitive stuff deprived of all quality, matter was created with definite attributes from which flowed the properties of all natural objects. Cupid was therefore not some abstract stuff but a person, i.e. individualized. This view was also taken by the atomists (DGI, E1v–E2r; DPAO, K4r–v), who attributed specific properties to the eternal fundamental particles which had existed before the temporary arrangement which was this universe. Bacon did not of course follow the atomists; instead he argued from Holy Writ that matter was created, and created with specific properties and powers. Consequently 'Chaos' did not denote unformed matter but rather a confused mixture of distinct kinds of created matter. The existence of these distinct kinds seems to have been hinted at in Holy Writ, which spoke of heaven and earth (or earth and water) as entities which pre-existed God's hexameral labours and which Bacon took to be names of categories of informed matter. For Bacon 'Chaos' meant the confused soup of bits of such kinds of informed matter, a soup from which God would later educe the cosmic structure; Bacon twice remarked that Chaos was only unformed 'ex toto' or 'secundum totum', i.e. that it lacked cosmic order. TC (G6r and cmt thereon (p. 406 above)) seems to hint at the kinds of matter that were educed from Chaos in the Beginning. Also see Introduction, 2 (e) and cmts on DPAO, I8v–I9r (p. 416 above) and M2r–M3v (p. 432 below).

K4r

Page 210, ll. 15–17: formam materiæ tribuerint nativam & nudam—for the meaning of Cupid clothed see DPAO, K8v–K9r below.

K4v

Page 210, ll. 33–4: Obstabat scilicet—this view of the Earth's torpor and passivity coincides with Bacon's own positive views—see Introduction, 2 (h).

Page 212, ll.1–5: Attamen prisca sapientia—cf. Comes, Mythologiae, fo. 40v: 'Scriptum reliquit tamen Hesiodus Cœlum è terra natum fuisse … Quæ mox Cœlo nupsisset coniunctaq́ue fuisset insignem filiorum multitudinem illi procreauit … ' That the Earth is a principle of 'schematismi sive systematis' makes sense in terms of the view expressed in TC (G9r) that if the Earth were not pg 421immobile 'dissolvitur & spargitur systema'. Here the term schematismus is used in one of its three senses, namely to refer to the structure of the universe (cf. DPAO, K7v). For the other two senses see cmts on DGI, D8v–D9r and D9r–v (pp. 385–6 above); Rees, 'Bacon's philosophy: some new sources', FBTF, pp. 238–40.

K5r–v

Page 212, l. 8 ff: At Thales Aquam—see (pseudo)-Plutarch, De placitis decretisqve philosophorvm, p. 512; Laertius, Lives, I, pp. 26–7 (I. 27); Comes, Mythologiae, fo. 128r: 'Nam tametsi Thales aquam rerum omnium principium posuit, aptissimam sanè gignendis rebus & accommodatam materiam, tamen nihil ex illa simpliciter gignitur sine hoc artifice, siue amicitiam siue marem, aut maris vice fungentem, siue calorem quis appellauerit, vim diuinam scilicet res ad ortum euocantem, neque illud sanè verum est, quod dicitur ab eo poeta …

  • Vos aqua, vos tellus fiatis protinus omnes.'

ll. 17–18: fæces & sedimenta—see cmt on DGI, F9v (p. 401 above); cmt on TC, G8v (p. 408 above).

ll. 29–30: ignes cœlestes existimabat—for the notion that the celestial bodies grazed on vapours see DGI, F4v–F5r.

K5 v –K6r

Page 212, l.35ff: Sed Anaximenes—(pseudo)-Plutarch, De placitis decretisqve philosophorvm, p. 512; Laertius, Lives, I, pp. 132–3 (II. 32).

Page 214, l. 3: vacuum separatum—see cmts on DPAO, M7v (pp. 433–4 below); DGI, E5v–E7r; TC, G8r (pp. 391–2 and 408 above).

l. 4: superstitio illa—for Bacon's rejection of the Aristotelian separation of sublunary and superlunary regions see cmt on DGI, E11v (p. 395 above), and Introduction, 2 (g). Here Bacon seems to be interpolating his own views into the summary of Anaximenes' philosophy.

l.11: vastissimo aëris pelago—cf. DGI, E2v, E7v, F10r.

K6 v –K7r

Page 214, l. 33–p. 216,l. 4: si vim genialem—on spirit and vivification see DVM, fos. 15v–16r; NO, 2K3v–2K4r (SEH, I, pp. 310–11); HVM, 2D2r–v (SEH, II, p. 214). Respiration: DVM, fo. 30v; NO, V3v (SEH, I, pp. 239–40); HVM, P5r–v, 2A7v–2A8v (SEH, II, pp. 165–6, 204–5). Rudiments: cmt on TC, G8v (p. 408 above). Embryos and the generation of living things: NO, 2L4v–2L4r (SEH, I, p. 316); HIDA, fos. 3r–5v.

Page 216, l. 6: aër attritus—Bacon denies this strongly elsewhere, see NO, X3r, 2I2v (SEH, I, pp. 245, 304).

K7r

Page 216, l. 9ff: Heraclitus vero—Laertius, Lives, II, pp. 414–19 (IX. 7–13). For Bacon on Heraclitus see also NO, F3v, H2v (SEH, I, pp. 164, 174). For the conflagration of Heraclitus see cmt on DGI, F6v (p. 399 above).

pg 422 K7r–v

Page 216, l. 14 ff: Talia enim corpora Organica—cf. DVM, fo. 18v; HVM, A8v (SEH, II, p. 106).

ll.17–19: Etiam in his ipsis—see cmt on DVM, fo. 18v (p. 446 below).

Page 216, ll. 24–6: At fossilia—see cmt on PhU, O9v (p. 365 above).

ll. 29–31: Corpora vero liquorum—see HIDA, fo. 3r. For schematismus see cmt on DPAO, K4v (p. 421 above).

K7 v –K8r

Page 216, ll. 34–6: At in aëriis—on the variety of aerial and pneumatic bodies see HDR, B4r–v (SEH, II, pp. 254–5).

K8r–v

Page 218, ll. 7–20: Itaque incensionem—see Laertius, Lives, II, pp. 414–15 (IX. 8): 'Of the opposites that which tends to birth or creation is called war and strife, and that which tends to destruction by fire is called concord and peace.' Also see (pseudo)-Plutarch, De placitis decretisqve philosophorvm, p. 516.

Page 218, ll. 32–5: Vestem autem—see cmt on DPAO, K3v–K4r (p. 420 above).

K10r

Page 220, ll. 30–2: Prœdicamenta—see Aristotle, Metaphysica, I. 3. 983a–984b.

Page 222, ll. 5–7: contrariorum exercitus—in Bacon's philosophy, such binary oppositions constituted the schematismi materiæ or simple letters of Nature's alphabet, twenty-four of which were listed in ANN (fos. 24r–28v). Also see cmt on DGI, D9r–v (p. 386 above).

K11r

Page 224, ll. 4–5: Nam quodcunque—Lucretius, De rerum natura, III. 519–20. The quotation is accurate.

K11v

Page 224, ll. 13–24: Verum ex Antiquis Parmenides—cf. DPAO, M6r; DGI, F4v–F5r. In response to Patrizi, the Telesian Antonio Persio agreed that Parmenides had proposed heat and cold as the two principles of things but added that that was the only point on which Telesio and Parmenides agreed. Later Patrizi himself was at pains to point out the differences between the philosophies of Telesio and Parmenides, see Discussionum peripateticarum tomi IV, quibus aristotelicœ philosophiœdeclarantur, Basle, 1581, pp. 299–300. Campanella also associated Telesio with Parmenides, see Philosophia, sensibus demonstrata pp. 15–16. For a scholarly study of this question, comments on this very passage, and Plutarch in relation to Bacon and Telesio see Lerner, 'Le "parménidisme" de Telesio', pp. 89–90. For Patrizi's linking of Parmenides and Telesio see A. L. Puliafito, Metafisica e scienza nella Nova de Universis pg 423Philosophia di Francesco Patrizi da Cherso, unpub. diss. Università degli Studi di Firenze, 1986, p. 407; idem, 'La fisica telesiana attraverso gli occhi di un contemporaneo: Francesco Patrizi da Cherso', in Bernardino Telesio e la cultura napoletana, ed. Raffaele Sirri and Maurizio Torrini, Guida Editore: Naples, 1992, pp. 257–70, pp. 262–5. For sixteenth-century criticism of Telesio in relation to Parmenides see Garin, 'Telesiani minori', pp. 202–4. For Plutarch on cold see Moralia, 15 vols. (Loeb Classical Library) London and Cambridge, Mass., 1927–69, XII, pp. 225–85; also see Francesco Bacone: dai naturalisti Greci a Telesio, ed. Enrico De Mas, Laboratorio Edizioni: Cosenza, 1988, pp. 119–21 (the bulk of this book is the Latin text of DPAO with facing-page Italian translation). The comparison of terrestrial fire to the lamed Vulcan recurs in DGI (F12r). Bacon would have found information on Parmenides in Laertius, Lives, II, pp. 430–1 (IX. 22): 'He held that there were two elements, fire and earth, and that the former discharged the function of a craftsman, the latter of his material. The generation of man proceeded from the Sun as first cause; heat and cold, of which all things consist, surpass the Sun itself.'

K12r

Page 224, ll. 27–8: de Natura Rerum commentariis—Bacon seems to have used the 1586 edition of De rerum natura, evidence for this is presented in the cmts on DPAO, L3r–v and L11v–L12r (pp. 425–6, 429–30 below). The 1586 edition was that used by De Franco as ct for DRN. That Bacon used a particular edition at this point does not mean that he used that edition alone.

ll. 28–33: Primas formas—DRN, I, pp. 50–2: 'Quoniam vero et calor et frigus incorporeum est, siquidem, qui a sole nostroque etiam ab igne, calor, et, quod e terra emanat, frigus, nulla umquam corporea cum re emanare videtur … tria omnino illorum principia ponenda sunt: agentes naturae duae, calor frigusque, et corporea moles una; et aeque ea illorum utrique propria congruensque, aeque nimirum expandi amplificarique et densari constringique, aeque nimirum, qua calor et qua frigus gaudet dispositione, donari apta.' That Telesio added hyle or materiam passivam to the two principles of Parmenides see DPAO, M1v and cmt thereon (p. 431 below); also see M3v.

ll. 33–5: Lucem pullulationem—Telesio did not put it quite like that, but see DRN, I, p. 32, II, pp. 44 ff. Telesio discusses the relations of heat and light in DRN, II, pp. 82 f. Also see Luigi De Franco, 'La teoria della luce di Bernardino Telesio', in Bernardino Telesio e la cultura napoletana, pp. 53–77.

Page 224,l. 35–p. 226,l.4: Rarum & Densum—for Telesio on dense and rare see cmt on K12v immediately below. Texturas and telas: the language is Bacon's not Telesio's—see ANN, fos. 25r, 27r; NO, T3v–T4r (textura as synonym for schematismus), 2A2v, 2C1v, 2C2v (SEH, I, p. 234, pp. 259, 271).

K12 v –L1r

Page 226, ll. 9–23: eas esse—see DRN, I, p. 32: 'Quoniam omnino calidus, tenuis, candidus mobilisque est sol; terra contra, frigida, crassa, immobilis pg 424tenebricosaque … '; ibid., I, pp. 40–2: 'Planum est quoque, frigus immobile sui natura esse … Neque ambigendum, quin propterea, contra corpulentorum entium omnium et molis etiam ipsius morem ingeniumque, in sublimi terra permaneat nullamque umquam inclinetur in partem, quod frigus, a quo constituta est et quod se ipsum ei ut propriæ indidit sedi, cujus vi operetur oportet, motus exhorret omnes … sol caelumque universum … propterea perpetuo circumvolvitur, quod ipsius opifex, calor, circulari assidue commotus motu, molem, cui penitus infixus est et a qua separari nec vult nec potest, secum agit; sic itidem et terra immobilis in sublimi permanet et nullam umquam vergit in partem, quod frigus, a quo constituta est et quod ipsius moli penitus infixum est, quin cui unum prorsus factum est et cui reniti ea repugnareque nec vult (nec potest), nullo moveri sustinet motu.' Also cf. NO, 2I3v (SEH, I, p. 305): 'Sint Naturæ Inquisitæ, quatuor Naturæ illæ; quas Contubernales vult esse Telesius, & tanquàm ex eâdem Camerâ: viz. Calidum, Lucidum, Tenue, Mobile siue promptum ad Motum. At plurimæ inueniuntur Instantiœ Diuortij inter ipsas. Aër enim Tenuis est & habilis ad Motum, non Calidus aut Lucidus: Luna Lucida, absque Calore: Aqua feruens, Calida absque Lumine: Motus Acûs ferreæ super Versorium, pernix & agilis; & tamen in Corpore Frigido, Denso, Opaco: & complura id genus.'

L1r

Page 226, l. 31–p. 228,l.1: Ignem enim—cf. DRN, I, pp. 76, 30. This contrast between common fire and fire of the heavens was accepted by Bacon into his own philosophy, see for example TC, G6v; DGI, E8v, F12r–v; NO, 2I2r–2I3r (SEH, I, pp. 303–4).

L1r–v

Page 228, ll. 2–9: Cum enim sint—cf. DGI, F10r–v, G3r–v and cmts thereon (pp. 402 and 403 above). Telesio did not of course suggest that the Milky Way consisted of stars but only that it had stars located in it, see DRN, I, p. 46: 'Et supremam caeli portionem cum stellis circumvolvi lactea manifestat via: quae scilicet, quin caeli portio sit paululo quid, quam reliquum est, magis conspissata, et propterea splendidior facta, nulli dubium esse potest; et cum stellis iis, quae in ipsa locatae sunt, assidue circumvolvi apparet.' Patrizi (see cmt on DGI, F10v (p. 402 above)) said that stars existed which were invisible to us or visible only on clear nights. While summarizing Telesio's doctrines Bacon evidently had Patrizi, Gilbert and Galileo in mind. It sometimes appears that Bacon said what he thought Telesio would have wished to say had he been Bacon's contemporary.

L1 v –L2r

Page 228, ll. 12–15: Postremo, motum cœli—for the distinction between rectilinear and circular motion see NO, 2Q3v–2Q4r and cmts on DGI, E2v, E12v–F1r (pp. 390 and 396 above); TC, G9v.

l. 28: propiorem spiram—a slip of the pen perhaps; Bacon thought that the lower the planet the more spiral its path.

pg 425 L2 r v

Page 228, 1. 30–p. 230, 1. 3: formositas illa Mathematica—cf. TC, G9v. Also see DGI, E11r; NO, 2H2v (SEH, I, p. 297). The Alpetragian material is not in Telesio's text, although he does seem to have denied the existence of a separate periodic motion (DRN, I, pp. 90–2: 'Nam qui, inferiores orbes a supremo distincti et proprium sortiti motum cum sint, ab illo rapiantur, et qui duplici motu et alteri contrario altero simul moveantur, nos cogitatione quidem assequi non possumus … '). This passage is quoted by Campanella in his discussion of Telesio's views (Philosophia, sensibus demonstrata, p. 306). No account of Alpetragian kinematics is to be found in the writings of Telesio's 'disciples' (Quattromani, Doni, Persio, Patrizi, and others), but see Introduction, 2 (b), and cmt on TC, G10r–v (p. 410 above). For other statements concerning the motion of the heavens see TC, G10r–G12v; NO, 2H2r–v. Bacon's account of Telesio's philosophy was not a summary in the strictest sense: in some places it is a well-nigh verbatim account of Telesio's words, in others Bacon elaborated on Telesio's philosophy quite freely, wrote what he thought Telesio ought to have said, silently interpolated his own materials into the account, or interpreted his source with philosophers other than Telesio in mind (see, for instance, cmt on DPAO, L1r–v (p. 424 above)).

L2 v –L3r

Page 230, ll. 6–25: Utrum vero veteres terminos—for the frontier zone between the depths of the Earth and the region of the Moon see DGI, E12r, F1r–v; DVM, fo. 18r; Introduction, 2 (b), (g), (h). Bacon is using the language of William Gilbert ('corticem, aut incrustationem') to denote Telesio's realm of mutability. He perhaps made the contrast between that realm and the depths of the Earth more explicit than Telesio did: see DRN, I, pp. 32, 139, 146, 560, II, pp. 198–202.

L3r

Page 230, l. 27: ut fit in Imperiis—for the same simile see DGI, F6v, and CDNR, S11r–v (SEH, I, p. 34). For the region of mutability see cmt on DPAO, L2v–L3r (immediately above).

L3r–v

Page 230, l. 29–p. 232, l. 4: Has itaque Naturas—cf. DRN, I, p. 64: 'At contrariae agendi operandique vires calori frigorique tributae cum sint, sese tamen assidue generandi multiplicandique et amplificandi et quaque versus [1586 ct. quaqueversus] effundendi molemque omnem occupandi, proptereaque et sese mutuo oppugnandi et e propriis sedibus expellendi seseque in iis constituendi, praeterea et alterius actiones et proprias passiones sentiendi communis utrique facultas tributa est appetitusque.' De Franco reproduces the 1565 version of this passage but does not give the first two sentences for the rather surprising reason 'che non hanno attinenza al tema' (ibid., I, p. 693). I have found nothing resembling the 1586 version in the 1565 or 1570 editions, so it seems that Bacon used pg 426the 1586 edition when he prepared DPAO. For more on this question see cmts on DPAO, K12r (p. 423 above) and L11v–L12r (pp. 429–30 below).

Page 232, ll. 5–7: ut non augeatur—see PhU, O10v–O11r and cmt thereon (p. 365 above); see also DPAO, M6r.

ll. 7–8: motus gravitatis—cf. DRN, I, pp. 54–6, and p. 266 passim. On the blackness of matter, ibid., I, pp. 32, 58–60.

L3 v –14r

Page 232, ll. 15–34: Caput huic rei—see DRN, I, pp. 98–102 for four of the five reasons why the Earth has not long ago been destroyed by the Sun. Telesio did not in fact offer anything corresponding to the fifth reason attributed to him by Bacon.

L4v–r

Page 232, l. 34–p. 234, l. 4: Processum vero—DRN, I, pp. 32–4: 'Quoniam igitur, unum calorem in terram sol emittens, non frigus modo sed crassitiem itidem tenebramque et immobilitatem ex ea deturbat, et non propriam modo naturam sed tenuitatem candoremque et mobilitatem ei indit … [p. 38] si integrum robustumque et diuturnum adsit frigus, quae corripit, caloris viribus condicionibusque spoliaturum omnibus et ipsam in terram ea acturum sit omnia.'

L4v

Page 234, ll.11–13: ex tribus istis—the first of these is dealt with on L4v–L8v; the second, L8v–L12r; the third, L12r–M1v.

L4 v –L5r

Page 234, ll. 15–17: Suc|cessionem—cf. DRN, II, pp. 2–22: Telesio attacks the Aristotelian theory that the Sun generates bodies when it approaches the Earth but corrupts them when it retreats; he argues instead (pp. 16–22) that the variables affecting the way in which heat exerts its influence are manifold.

L5r

Page 234, ll. 17–28: Calores itaque prorsus vi—see DRN, I, pp. 118–20: 'Quis enim calidorum entium longe diversissimas esse vires, et calida quae sunt, sese mutuo aversari aufugereque, et mutuo sese oppugnare interimereque; calores sic, diversis donatos viribus, sese mutuo oppugnare corrumpereque non percipit?' The remark that the preternatural heat of putrid humours destroys the natural heat of the body is not to be found in DRN.

L5 r –L5v

Page 234, l. 28–p. 236, l. 2: Copiam vero caloris—for the multiplication of the heat of the Sun by reflection and union of heats see DRN, II, pp. 44 ff. Also see cmt on DPAO, L9r–v (p. 428 below). The observation that the Sun's heat is more powerful when the Sun is in Regulus etc. appears to be Bacon's own (cf. NO, Y3v–Y4r (SEH, I, pp. 250–1)).

pg 427 L5v–L6r

Page 236, ll. 2–13: Moram vero caloris—DRN, I, p. 84, II, pp. 46–50, 82.

L6r

Page 236, ll. 16–17: Etiam segetes—these examples appear to be Bacon's not Telesio's.

L6r–v

Page 236, ll. 22–33: Successionis vero—DRN, I, pp. 116, 121, II, p. 46.

L6v–L7r

Page 236, l. 36–p. 238, l. 8: Itaque AristotelemDRN, II, pp. 8–10, 16–22. Also see Aristotle, De generatione et corruptione, II. 10. 336b; NO, 2G1r (SEH, I, p. 290).

L7r–v

Page 238, ll. 11–27: illud de Heterogenia—DRN, II, pp. 570–572: 'Non igitur ad animalium plantarumque generationem ineptus est ignis, quod ejus calor ab animalium et a caelesti calore diversus sit; sed quod nimis est vehemens … Quoniam igitur igneus etiam, ubi moderatus est, animalia et ipse, veluti solis animaliumque calor, generat, et quae ab hoc constituta sunt servat ille fovetque ac vivificat; et immoderatus animalium solisque calor ad animalium generationem nihilo minus quam igneus ineptus apparet … ' Also see ibid, I, pp. 312–41, 541. The proposition that heavenly and earthly fire are homogeneous is rather more explicit in Bacon's summary than it is in Telesio's text, cf. NO, 2F4v–2G1v (SEH, I, pp. 289–91). Bacon's examples are not Telesio's, cf. DVM, fo. 15r; NO, 2F4v–2G2v (SEH, I, pp. 290–1); HDR, C7r (SEH, II, p. 268).

L7v

Page 238, l. 30 ff: Frigidi autem—see DRN, I, pp. 136–8: 'Propterea, quae caloris, quae frigoris consistentia dispositioque opus, et quae illius, quae etiam materiae species est (nam nostrorum entium nullum prorsus a frigore, sed eorum quodvis a calore constitutum est, et vel suprema terrae portio in calidum acta est ens; frigoris species nusquam nobis conspicua est, itaque nec inquirenda est) …' Also see ibid., I, pp. 336–42. Bacon went astray in thinking that Telesio believed that cold was as active a principle as heat. For Telesio heat constituted everything, and cold merely qualified its actions (ibid., I, p. 85). For the function of cold in Telesio's system see Luigi De Franco, 'Alcune considerazioni sulla funzione del freddo nella fisica telesiana', Atti del convegno internazionale di studi su Bernardino Telesio, pp. 69–82.

ll. 31–3: secundo loco—see DPAO, L4v.

L8r

Page 240, ll. 8–11: cum non spatia, sed copia Materiæ—see DRN, I, pp. 304–6; also see cmt on DPAO, M4r (pp. 432–3 below).

pg 428 L8v

Page 240, ll. 23–8: circa dispositionem materiæ—see DRN, I, pp. 154 ff.

L8v–L9r

Page 240, l. 28–p. 242, l. 4: Quod ad primam attinet—DRN, I, p. 116: 'Siquidem robustior factus, solis calor strenue supremam terrae portionem emollit laxatque et strenue praeinexistentem ei calorem fovet; itaque et viribus is auctus et materiam nactus longe minus repugnantem et quae tenuitati cuivis patentem praebeat egressum, molliores illius partes, in quibus praecipue strenue supremam terrae portionem emollit laxatque et in qua elabi queat et elabatur.'

Page 242, ll. 4–10: Etiam Aquam citius—these examples appear to be Bacon's not Telesio's; cf. NO, Z3v–Z4r, 2Q1v (SEH, I, pp. 255–6, 341).

L9r–v

Page 242, ll. 10–20: Secunda differentia—this material seems to be based rather loosely on DRN, I, p. 126: 'Etenim [calor] qui illi inest, non modo, veluti ampliores quae sunt flammae, pluribus agit viribus, sed bene iis sibi ipsis unitis et quae sese mutuo fovent augentque et mutuo robur sibi ipsis indunt … Integer nimirum calor, quod magnis agit viribus, penitus, in quae agit, nulloque subit temporis momento; at exilis qui est, exiliter calefacit; imminutus contra, sed multus in unum coactus, non adeo strenue subit, at multus quod est copiosusque, quod multis scilicet agit viribus, copiosius calefacit. Eoque, ut videtur, a flammis prunarum differt calor; ab illo vehementius subiri nos molestiaque affici, at exilius certe calefieri; ab hoc contra minus nos subiri at copiosius calefieri, itaque nihil oblidi sed foveri nos sentimus.' Note that Bacon introduces extra examples, in relation to which see NO, Y4r–Z1r (SEH, I, pp. 251–2).

L9v

Page 242, l. 20 ff: Tertia differentia—this is not to be confused with the third topic listed on L4v; properly speaking, that topic is not considered before L12r.

L9v–L10r

Page 242, l. 21–p. 244, l. 1: Gradus enim subactionis—cf. DRN, I, pp. 168–70: 'gradus, quibus a crassitie ad tenuitatem itur, innumeros et longe illos minutissimos intueri explicareque impotentibus, lentor omnis omnisque flexibilitas, vel valde a se ipsa differens, una poni potest … Jure igitur a lentore diversa mollities et quae in secundo spatio poni possit; in tertio viscositas glischrotesque, quae nimirum, vel nulla ab externa vi, sed a se ipsa tantum et a proprio pressa onere, diffunditur ac diffluit. Viscositati fluor succedit, qui cum multo, quam viscositas, contingenti promptius cedat lucique sit pervius, a viscositate sejungendus et in alio ordine ponendus et in quarto limite constituendus est. Quintum spatium vapores occupant … Sextum vero atque extremum tenuitas, quae scilicet non tactum modo, sed, quantumvis in se ipsam coacta, visum pg 429etiam (quod vapores non faciunt) penitus lateat, et quantavis facta, lucem nihil imminuit foedatque usquam; ut a vaporibus sejungenda ideo sit et caelo ea universo inesse videtur.' Bacon splits Telesio's sixth grade in two (halitus and aër)—neither of which Telesio explicitly mentioned at this point. This is an instance of Bacon's recasting Telesian doctrine in line with his own views: the sixth and seventh grades were probably meant to stand for fiery and airy pneumatic bodies respectively; elsewhere he used the term halitus in a more restricted sense to signify fumes (much denser than air) given off by oily bodies—see HDR, B4r (SEH, II, p. 254); PhU, Q6r; NO, 2P4r–v (SEH, I, p. 339). As for the fourth grade, Bacon mentions spiritus but Telesio does not. For internal spirits and liquids see CDNR, S1v–S4v (SEH, III, pp. 25–8).

L10r–v

Page 244, ll. 1–13: aërem autem contendit Telesius—cf. DRN, I, p. 48: 'Nullum porro nec infima nec suprema caeli portio ad nos calorem nullamque emittere videtur lucem; quod, in longe utraque tenuissima, perexilis inest calor et qui nec proprias vires nec propriam speciem valenter manifestare queat. At ab ipsis lucem quandam emanare et quae, si non nobis, quibusdam certe animalium generibus percipiatur, quae longissima noctu conficiunt itinera, declarant.' Also cf. DGI, F7r–v; NO, 2L3r (SEH, I, p. 315).

L10v–L11r

Page 244, ll. 21–9: Itaque quartam illam differentiam—there is nothing quite like this in DRN, but cf. PhU, O11v: 'Hic cursus primo atque differentias & rationes corporis alicujus naturalis (quoad extentum) collati cum aperturis aut clausuris suis memorabimus, videlicet cum pulveribus suis, cum calcibus suis, cum vitrificationibus suis, cum dissolutionibus suis, cum distillatis suis, cum vaporibus & auris, exhalationibus, & inflammationibus suis memorabimus …' Also see DPAO, M1v.

L11v–L12r

Page 246, ll. 19–30: Qui porro—cf. DRN, I, p. 152: 'Qui porro calor vel quantus, quod nimirum caloris robur et quae ejus copia, quam terram et quae entia in qualia invertat, minime inquirendum videtur, ut quod homini nulla, ut nobis videtur, innotescere queat ratione. Qui enim vel caloris vires et calorem ipsum veluti in gradus partiri, vel materiae, cui inditus est, copiam quantitatemque distincte percipere, et certis determinatisque caloris viribus copiaeque, in certam materiae quantitatem dispositionemque, certas actiones, et certae materiae quantitati certam determinatamque caloris copiam assignare liceat? Utinam id alii, et perspicaciore praediti ingenio et quibus in summa tranquillitate rerum naturam perscrutari licuerit, assequantur, ut homines non omnium modo scientes, sed omnium fere potentes fiant.' Instead of certasque and contra the c–t for DPAO has certosque and centra (see tns to DPAO, L12r). This passage has an important bearing on the question of which edition of Telesio's work Bacon used in writing DPAO. According to De Franco (DRN, pg 430I, p. 752), the passage above has nothing corresponding to it in the 1565 edition but it appears verbatim in the 1570 edition (for latter see ibid., I, p. 751). The 1570 version is not, however, quite verbatim and not as close to the DPAO rendering as is the 1586 edition; cf. bernardini | telesii | consentini | De Rerum Natura iuxta propria prin | cipia, Liber Primus, & Secun- | dus, denuò editi. | [Device] | Cum Licentia Superiorum | neapoli, | Apud Ioſephum Cacchium. | Anno md lxx. fo. 13v: 'Qvi porrò calor, quantusve, quod nimirùm caloris robur, & quæ eius copia, quam Terram, & quæ entia in qualia inuertat minimè inquirendum videri potest; vt quod homini nullo, vt videtur, innotescere queat pacto: qui enim vel caloris vires, & calorem ipsum veluti in gradus partiri, aut eius vel materiæ copiam, quantitatemve; & certis determinatisq́ue caloris viribus, certæq́ue, & determinatœ caloris quantitati certas in certam materiæ quantitatem dispositionemq́ue, actiones, & certæ materiæ quantitati certam determinatamq́ue caloris copiam assignare liceat? Vtinam id alii, & perspicaciore præditi natura, & quibus diù in summa tranquillitate rerum naturam perscrutari licuerit, assequantur; vt homines non omnium modò scientes; sed omnium penè etiam potentes fiant'. A comparison of this passage with its equivalents in the 1586/7 edition and DPAO was first attempted by Assenza, see 'Bernardino Telesio', p. 52. The 1587 printing seems to have been a second impression of the 1586; De Franco collated the 1587 impression with his 1586 copy-text in preparation of his 'critical' edition but gave no clue as to the precise bibliographical relations between the two versions (see DRN, I, pp. 667–8). For the editions of DRN also see Garin, La cultura filosofica, pp. 442–50. Other evidence also points to the fact that Bacon used the 1586 and not the 1570 edition of DRN, see cmts on DPAO, K12r, L3r–v (pp. 423 and 425–6 above).

L12r

Page 246, ll. 31–3: Artes quas ipsi—cf. NO, A3r (SEH, I, p. 127): 'Quin illis hoc ferè solenne est, vt quicquid Ars aliqua non attingat, id ipsum ex eâdem arte impossibile esse statuant. Neque verò damnari potest Ars, quùm ipsa disceptet, & iudicet. Itaque id agitur, vt ignorantia etiam ab ignominiâ liberetur.'

L12r–v

Page 246, l. 33–p. 248, l. 8: Restat Tertium—cf. DRN, I, p. 457. This is the last of the topics listed on L4v, where Bacon had already remarked that Telesio's philosophy depended not on co-operation but hostility between principles. Bacon himself thought that nature was governed by agreement and consent rather than by opposition (see cmts on DFRM, H1ov, H12r–I1v (pp. 378 and 379 above); TC, G1ov (p. 410 above); DPAO, M2r–M3v (p. 432 below)). For Aristotle's criticism of Empedocles see Metaphysica, II. 4. 1000b. Also see DGI, F9r–v.

L12v–M1r

Page 248, ll. 8–28: Secundum est, calorem—see DRN, I, pp. 460–8: 'Naturae itidem sensuique et sibi etiam ipsi discors, Aristoteles calori siccitatem et frigori pg 431humorem copulat … Propria igitur caloris et caloris opus humiditas, quae, ubicumque calor adest agens vertensque, vel integra ipsa adest puraque, vel imminuta saltem atque impura. Frigoris opus siccitas et propria frigoris, quae, ubicumque exsuperans adest frigus, adest et ipsa et humidissimis inditur rebus … Quas ob res calori siccitatem et frigori humiditatem jungens Aristoteles, non tantum cum sensu et natura sed secum etiam pugnare videtur.' Aristotle discussed this topic in Meteorologica IV. 6, (383a–383b). The criticism (ll. 17–19) is Bacon's (cf. DGI, E11v), as is the example (ll. 25–6) of the effects of heat on clay (cf. DVM, fo. 12r).

M1r–v

Page 248, l. 28–p. 250, 1. 8: Tertium plane affirmat—Telesio says nothing quite like this, but cf. DRN, I, pp. 38, 116, II, pp. 82–4.

M1v

Page 250, ll. 8–12: Hoc autem insigniter—cf. DPAO, L10v–L11r. The notion of close distillation seems not to be Telesio's, cf. HDR, D3r–D4v (SEH, II, pp. 273–4), esp. D4v (SEH, II, p. 274): 'Circa Distillationem clausam, (ita enim eam appellare licet, ubi non datur spatium ad Evaporationem,) quivis multa alia poterit comminisci. Pro certo enim habemus, Calorem analogum, operantem in corpus absque separatione aut consumptione partium, mirabiles Metaschematisos effingere & producere posse.'

ll. 12–15: Atque hæc sunt—cf. DPAO, M3v, also see cmt on DPAO, K12r (p. 423 above). For a comparison of the Aristotelian and Telesian concepts of matter see Karl Schuhmann, 'Telesio's concept of matter', Atti del convegno internazionale di studi su Bernardino Telesio, pp. 115—34, pp. 116–18 passim. Also see Lerner, 'Le "parménidisme" de Telesio', p. 96, n. 44: 'il faudrait surtout remarquer que la matière de Telesio est par essence corporelle, tandis que la matière des aristotéliciens est une pure puissance, comme telle incorporelle.'

M2r

Page 250, ll. 18–20: Nam pastoralis quædam videtur ista Philosophia—cf. AL, 2I3v (SEH, III, p. 366): 'Neither doe I exclude opinions of latter times to bee likewise represented, in this Kalender of Sects of Philosophie, as that … of Tylesius, and his Scholler Donius, beeing as a Pastorall Philosophy, full of sense, but of no great depth'; ibid., H1v (SEH, III, p. 297): 'wee see … an Image of the two Estates, the Contemplatiue state, and the actiue state, figured in the two persons of Abell and Cain, and in the two simplest and most primitiue Trades of life: that of the Shepheard (who by reason of his leasure, rest in a place, and liuing in view of heauen, is a liuely Image of a contemplatiue life) and that of the husbandman; where we see againe, the fauour and election of God went to the Shepheard, and not to the tiller of the ground.' Also see Francesco Bacone: dai naturalisti Greci a Telesio, ed. Enrico De Mas, pp. xxvii–xxviii; Assenza, 'Bernardino Telesio', pp. 45–6; Lerner, 'Le "parmenidisme" de Telesio', p. 103, n. 59. As Bacon implies, his own philosophy is pg 432interventionist: nature is to be vexed and interrogated, and the mechanical arts (metaphorically the implements of the husbandman?) are to be brought to bear for this purpose: see, for instance, DO, C1r–v (SEH, I, p. 141): 'Quoad Congeriem verò, conficimus Historiam non solùm Naturæ liberæ … sed multò magis Naturæ constrictæ & vexatæ; nempè, cùm per Artem & ministerium humanum de statu suo detruditur, atque premitur & fingitur … quandoquidem Natura rerum magis se prodit per vexationes Artis, quàm in libertate propriâ.'

ll. 20–1: Siquidem de Systemate—Bacon's judgement on Telesio is the opposite of the one he that he delivered on the atomists; see, for instance, DGI, E1v–E2r; NO, G3v (SEH, I, p. 170).

M2r–M3v

Page 250, l. 22–p. 252, l. 17: quod videri possit æternum, nec supponat Chaos— this material is, I believe, unique to DPAO, but cf. DAS, Q1v (SEH, I, pp. 523–4); ibid., Q4r–R1r (SEH, I, pp. 528–9)—where Bacon explained that matter tended to fall back into Chaos but was restrained by Cupid, the concord of things. In DPAO he implied that Telesio's system was open to criticism because it did not make concord a governing principle (L4v, L12r–v). Bacon promised to deal with these matters in the interpretation of the Coelum fable (K4v, M3r); the promises were never fulfilled. However, since he believed that concord prevented matter relapsing into Chaos, perhaps he believed that any system apparently dispensing with concord would necessarily fail to imply that the cosmos had been educed from Chaos—an implication denied by Holy Writ. We know from Holy Writ that God created matter (M2r) or being (M2v)from nothing; that He called the present schematism or cosmic structure into existence directly; and that this schematism was the best (at any rate before the Fall) that matter could attain to. Certainly Bacon could (and did) draw attention to the atomists'ce of these propositions, but Telesio presented a more problematic target. Telesio denied that the universe could have come into being by chance (see esp. DRN, II, pp. 196–8). This and the historical setting of Bacon's beliefs regarding the Creation would be a fruitful topic for further study. Other critics of Telesio (notably Giulio Cortese) thought that the apparent autonomy of Telesio's universe made it theologically suspect, see Lerner, 'Le "parménidisme" de Telesio', p. 104.

M3v

Page 254, ll. 6–8: Telesio tamen Hyle—cf. DPAO, M1v and cmt thereon (p. 431 above); also see cmt on DPAO, K12v (pp. 423–4 above).

M4r

Page 254, ll. 10–22: Nam quod ad copias—Telesio claimed that it was right that heat, the nobler principle, should occupy a greater portion of the universe than cold, the less noble. He argued that heat would never entirely defeat cold because matter was more concentrated in the Earth than in the heavens (DRN, pg 433I, pp. 304–6). Bacon viewed this doctrine as a recipe for cosmic disequilibrium; and that was perhaps why his cosmology was based on a conflict that raged not just at the centre of the universe but from the surface of the Earth to the fixed stars. On the question of the distribution of matter in the universe see cmts on DGI, E2r–v, E5v–E6v (pp. 389 and 391–2 above).

ll. 22–8: Itaque in Dialogo—these remarks on Plutarch and Gilbert also appear almost verbatim in DGI (F8v and cmt thereon (p. 400–1 above)). Bacon did not agree with Plutarch and Gilbert on this matter; see TC, G5v.

M4r–v

Page 254, ll. 28–33: Quin & ipsi Peripatetici—see cmts on PhU, Q2v–Q4v (p. 372 above).

M5r

Page 256, l. 20: Heracliti conflagratio—see DGI, F6v and cmt thereon (pp. 399–400 above).

M6r

Page 258, ll. 11–12: tamquam instauratore—see cmt on DPAO, K11v (pp. 422–3 above).

ll. 21–2: materiæ summam æternum—see DRN, I, pp. 60–4. Also see DPAO, L3v and cmt thereon (p. 426 above).

M6r–M7r

Page 258, l. 29–p. 260, l. 6: Nil enim simile—that matter has certain virtues (for instance, the capacity for resisting annihilation) see NO, 2O1v (SEH, I, p. 330): 'Motus primus sit Motus Antitypiæ Materiæ, quæ inest in singulis portionibus eius; per quem plane Annihilari non vult: ita vt nullum incendium, nullum pondus, aut depressio, nulla violentia, nulla denique ætas aut diuturnitas temporis possit redigere aliquam vel minimam portionem Materiæ in Nihilum; quin illa & sit Aliquid, & Loci aliquid occupet; & se (in qualicunque necessitate ponatur) vel Formam mutando vel Locum, liberet; vel (si non detur copia) vt est, subsistat; neque vnquam res eò deueniat, vt aut Nihil sit, aut Nullibi. Quem Motum Schola (quæ semper ferè & denominat & definit Res, potiùs per Effectus & Incommoda, quam per Causas Interiores) vel denotat per illud Axioma, quòd Duo corpora non possint esse in vno loco; vel vocat Motum, Ne fiat penetratio dimensionum. Neque huius Motûs exempla proponi consentaneum est: Inest enim omni Corpori.' Also see NO, 2Q4v (SEH, I, p. 346).

ll. 11–12: decreta & possibilis—see ANN, fos. 35v, 36r.

M7v–M8r

Page 260, l. 22–p. 262, l. 6: Telesio enim—DRN, I, 190–2: 'Spatium porro, quod corpore nullo prorsus repletum ac propterea inane vacuumque sit, dari posse vel ipsis in clepsydris videre licet; quae, quod si earum orificium ita occludatur, ut aër nullus in eas subire queat, itaque si ex infernis foraminibus inexsistens aqua delabatur, superioris aquae locus vacuus fiat, haudquaquam pg 434delabitur, sed vel quae foraminibus ipsis superstat, sustinet sese, vacuum dari non posse Peripateticis declarant. In vasis praeterea omnibus, quae ita eaque e re constructa et undique occlusa sunt, ut nullus in ea ingressus aëri detur, hoc spectatur. Verum si unum tantum clepsydrarum foramen paulo amplius effecris et infernam horum partem quidvis aperias, et ex illo et ex hac inexsistentem fluorem statim decidere videas. E clepsydrarum praeterea foraminibus, e quibus aqua non defluit, mel fluoresque alii quivis paulo graviores et pulvis amplius, vel minutissimus at densus gravisque, decidit. Insuper ceream in molem ferreum stilum si immittas, eamque et prius et postea ita comprimas, ut si aër inerat ullus, exprimatur omnis nullusque eam subeundi relictus sit aditus, aegrius forte, at abstrahas illum tamen. Quin si ens quippiam crassioribus vaporibus crassioreve fumo aut aqua repleas ac undique occludas, ut aër nullus prorsus subire id queat, tum vehementi id exponas frigori, manifeste spatium vacuum in eo fieri intuebere; nam aquam in glaciem et minorem contractam in molem, vapores fumumque in aquam conspissatum experieris. Ad haec, si vasis, quod e pelle aliave at laxa cedenteque re confectum sit, orificium ori indas et ore inexsistentem aërem in pulmones attrahas, non aërem modo vasi inexsistentem, sed ipsum vas in os convolare senties; at non certe, si vas e densa renitenteque et inflexili confectum sit re. Follem itidem si comprimas et occludas, ut nullus illabenti aëri aditus pateat, tum eleves expandasque, si pellis laxa gracilisque sit, dirumpi eam videas; minime vero, si pellis crassa, densa et frangi inepta sit. Igitur et in vase et in folle spatium vacuum fieri fatendum est.' Cf. Patrizi, Pancosmia, fo. 63r–v. These thought experiments were commonly adduced in discussions of the vacuum hypothesis; see C. B. Schmitt, 'Experimental evidence for and against a void: the sixteenth-century arguments', Isis, 58, 1967, pp. 352–66; also see CHRP, pp. 223–4, and Edward Grant, 'Medieval explanations and interpretations of the dictum that "nature abhors a vacuum"', Traditio, 29, 1973, pp. 327–55. For further notes on Bacon and the vacuum see cmts on DGI, E5r–E7r (pp. 391–2 above); cmt on TC, G8r (p. 408 above). For the bellows experiment see PhU, Q1v.

M8r

Page 262, ll. 7–10: instar noctuarum—cf. HVM, D8r–v (SEH, II, p. 119).

l. 12: ubi de vacuo—perhaps Bacon intended to deal with this question in his cosmogonical interpretation of the fable of Cœlum.

ll. 14–15: putat TelesiusDRN, I, p. 66: 'Et entia prorsus omnia mutuum contactum sentire et summopere eo oblectari, et seorsum a se ipsis fieri, a nulloque contingi sustinere non posse apparent. Siquidem eorum quodvis, ubi contiguum quod est, recedit, neque aliud ens ullum in recedentis succedit locum, hoc illud veluti sectatur, quod nimirum hujus contactu privari et a nullo contingi non sustinet.' For the adoption of Telesian terminology of delight in mutual contact, see NO, 2O1v (SEH, I, p. 330).

pg 435 M8v–M9r

Page 262, ll. 29–31: majorem sphaeram—cf. PhU, O11r–v; NO, 2B1r–v, 2M4v (SEH, I, pp. 262–3, 323).

M9r–v

Page 264, ll. 14–23: cupidissime revertuntur—this is the motus libertatis of NO, 2O2r–v (SEH, I, p. 331): 'Quatenùs verò ad Liberationem à Tensurâ, ostendit se hic Motus in Aëre post exuctionem in Ouis vitreis remanente; in Chordis, in Corio, & Panno; resilientibus post Tensuras suas, nisi Tensuræ illæ per moram inualuerint … At longè magis necessarium est (quia multa secum trahit) vt intimetur hominibus; Motum Violentum (quem nos Mechanicum; Democritus, qui in Motibus suis primis expediendis etiam infrà Mediocres Philosophos ponendus est, Motum Plagæ vocauit) nil aliud esse quàm Motum Libertatis, scilicèt à Compressione ad Relaxationem.'

M1or–v

Page 266, ll. 4–22: Sequuntur duæ virtutes—this is the NO (2O4v (SEH, I, p. 334)): 'Motus (quem appellamus) Congregationis Maioris, per quem Corpora feruntur ad Massas Connaturalium suorum: Grauia, ad globum Terræ; Leuia, ad Ambitum Cœli. Hunc Schola nomine Motûs Naturalis insigniuit; leui contemplatione, quia scilicèt nil spectabile erat ab extra, quod eum Motum cieret: (Itaque Rebus ipsis innatum atque insitum putauit:) Aut fortè quia non cessat. Nec mirum: Semper enim præstò sunt Cœlum & Terra; cùm è contrà causæ & origines plurimorum ex reliquis Motibus interdùm adsint. Itaque hunc, quia non intermittit, sed cæteris intermittentibus statim occurrit, Perpetuum & Proprium; reliquos, Ascititios posuit. Est autem iste Motus reuerà satis infirmus & hebes, tanquam is qui (nisi sit Moles Corporis maior) cæteris Motibus, quandiù operantur, cedat & succumbat. Atque cùm hic Motus hominum cogitationes ita impleuerit, vt ferè reliquos Motus occultauerit; tamen parùm est quod homines de eo sciunt, sed in multis circa illum erroribus versantur.'

M10v–M11r

Page 266, ll. 22–33: Quod vero gravia—NO, 2G2v–2G3r (SEH, I, pp. 292–3): 'Est planè diuisio recepta; vt Densa & Solida ferantur versùs centrum Terræ, Rara autem & Tenuia versùs ambitum Cœli; tanquam ad loca sua propria. Atque loca quod attinet; (licèt in Scholis huiusmodi res valeant) planè inepta & puerilis cogitatio est, Locum aliquid posse. Itaque nugantur Philosophi, cùm dicant quòd, si perforata esset Terra, corpora grauia se sisterent quando ventum esset ad Centrum. Esset enim certè virtuosum planè & efficax genus Nihili, aut Puncti Mathematici; quod aut alia afficeret, aut rursùs quod alia appeterent: Corpus enim non nisi à corpore patitur. Verùm iste appetitus Ascendendi & Descendendi, aut est in Schematismo corporis quod mouetur, aut in Sympathiâ siue consensu cum alio corpore. Quòd si inueniatur aliquod corpus Densum & Solidum, quod nihilominùs non feratur ad Terram; confunditur huiusmodi diuisio. At si recipiatur opinio Gilberti, quod Magnetica vis Terræ pg 436ad alliciendum grauia, non extendatur vltrà orbem Virtutis suæ, (quæ operatur semper ad distantiam certam, & non vltrà) hócque per aliquam Instantiam verificetur; ea demùm erit Instantia Fœderis circà hoc subiectum. Neque tamen occurrit impræsentiarùm aliqua Instantia super hoc certa & manifesta. Proximè videntur accedere Cataractæ Cœli, quæ in nauigationibus per Oceanum Atlanticum versùs Indias vtrasque, sæpè conspiciuntur. Tanta enim videtur esse vis & moles aquarum, quæ per huiusmodi Cataractas subitò effunditur; vt videatur Collectio Aquarum fuisse antè facta, atque in his locis hæsisse & mansisse; & posteâ potiùs per causam violentam deiecta & detrusa esse, quàm naturali Motu grauitatis cecidisse: adeò vt conijci possit, corpoream molem densam atque compactam, in magna distantiâ à Terrâ, fore pensilem tanquàm Terram ipsam; nec casuram, nisi deijciatur.'

pg 437COMMENTARY ON DE VIJS MORTIS

fo. 1v

Page 270, ll. 4–10: Quod ali perpetuò—cf. similar wording of the Aditus to HVM, A6r–A7r (SEH, II, p. 106): 'Quod reparari potest sensìm, atque primo Integro non destructo, id potentiâ œternum est, tanquam Ignis vestalis. Cum igitur viderent Medici, & Philosophi, ali prorsùs Animalia, eorúmque Corpora reparari, & refici; neque tamen id diù fieri, sed paulò post senescere ea, & ad Interitum propere deduci; Mortem quœsiuerunt in aliquo, quod propriè reparari non possit; existimantes Humorem aliquem Radicalem, & Primigenium non reparari in solidum, sed fieri iam vsque ab Infantiâ, Appositionem quandam degenerem, non Reparationem iustam; quœ sensìm cum Ætate deprauetur, & demùm Prauum deducat ad Nullum. Hœc cogitârunt imperitè satis, & leuitèr. Omnia enim in Animali, sub Adolescentiâ, & Iuuentute, reparantur integrè; quinetiam ad tempus, Quantitate augentur, Qualitate meliorantur; vt Materia Reparationis, quasi œterna esse posset, si Modus Reparationis non intercideret.' Also cf. HVM, 2C3v (SEH, II, p. 211): 'Ac vniuersa, quæ iam diximus, Medici quasi Feriantes, referent ad Caloris Naturalis, & Humoris Radicalis Diminutionem, quæ Res nihili sunt ad Vsum, Illud certum, Siccitatem in Decursu Ætatis, Frigiditatem præcedere; Atque Corpora cùm sint in Statu, & Acme Caloris, ad Siccitatem declinare, Frigiditatem autem posteà sequi.' Also see Introduction, 2 (m).

ll. 11–15: Com mentum illud Humoris radicalis et primigenij—cf. Jean Fernel, Medicina, Paris, 1554, p. 109: 'Hic idcirco est quem præ cæteris natiuum humorem appellarunt, alij proprio si fortè inepto nomine, humidum radicale: nos id vt primigenium ita dicere possumus vitale et salutare, humidum, quod spiritus & caloris totiúsque vitæ fundamentum est et pabulum.' Bacon generally used the word 'commentum' in a pejorative sense.

fos. 1v–2r

Page 270, ll. 21–8: Telesius mortem quæsiuit—Telesio, DRN, II, pp. 540–2: 'Infantile puerileque jecur, quoniam mollissimum ejusque sapor, dulcis aut subpinguis, parum omnino a carnis sapore differens, et color puniceus quidem, at ad album magis quam ad nigrum vergens, et importatum chilum in sanguinem agit bene liquidum beneque purum … Senile vero crassum est durumque et nigrum salsumque, et chilum in hujusmodi agit sanguinem, quod copiosus vehemensque ipsius calor molliores tenuioresque propriæ molis et importati chili partes in summam agit tenuitatem eamque educit omnem, et qualis quantusque propriæ inest moli, talem tantumque sese sanguini, quem conficit, copiosum scilicet vehementemque, indit.' See also ibid., II, pp. 548–50, pg 438and Luigi De Franco, L'eretico Agostino Doni: pp. 372–4: 'Diutius morans calor magis qualitate augetur qualitate ibidem … magis auctus voracior est; dum magis vorat, maior fit siccitas constrictioque crassorum; quare deinde diutius adhuc ille coërcebitur, unde fiet etiam sub coërcentia maior. Re autem sic procedente, fiet ut demum peracris efficiatur spiritus, qui sub iecore … iam praecipere et torrere sanguinem valeat, ut ex nigrore cognoscere erit. Eoque tempore acciderit … atram bilem quodam modo adaugere caloris animalis edacitatem … Materia autem, ut dico, non evicta atque tenuata, reque sic in dies magis magisque procedente, demum eo deducitur res ut admodum exiguus fiat spiritus et ad extremum nullus, sicque deficit animal senio.' Cf. HVM, 2C2v (SEH, II, p. 210): 'Iuueni Viscera Mollia, & Succulenta; Seni Salsa, & Retorridd'.

fo. 2r

Page 270, l. 30–p. 272, l. 15: Nam quod humor aliquis—the sole allusion to these ideas in Bacon's works. On these ideas see Walter Pagel, William Harvey's biological ideas, pp. 257–8, 294–5. That radical moisture is derived from semen is a common idea in Avicennan tradition, see for instance Peter of Spain, De longitudine et brevitate vitœ, in Pedro Hispano, Obras filoséficas, ed. P. Manuel Alonso, Madrid, 1952, III, p. 429: 'Consumptio autem ista humidi et extinctio calidi ordine irregressibili procedunt. Nam humidum radicale ex primo spermate procedit. Sperma autem primum regenerationem non patitur; ipsum enim ex parentum humiditatibus emanans per virtutes ipsorum et organa determinata productum nequit per virtutes et actiones filiorum regenerari.'

fo. 2v

Page 272, ll. 17–23: maior in Infante—see Introduction, 2 (m).

ll. 23–9: At illa sententia—see cmt on fos. 1v–2r (above).

ll. 34–5: ut ex tarditate—cf. HVM, 2C1v–2C5v (SEH, II, pp. 10–12).

l. 35: morbis pituitosis—the pituitary gland was thought to be the source or seat of the cold, moist primary humour phlegm; excess of phlegm produced apathy and respiratory illnesses, and could be discharged by coughing.

fo. 3r

Page 274, ll.10–28: Animal tanquaḿ inanimatum—see Introduction, 2 (j), and cf. HVM, B1r–B2v (SEH, II, pp. 106–7): 'Itaque duplex debet esse Inquisitio, altera de Consumptione, aut Deprædatione corporis humani; altera de eiusdem Reparatione, aut Refectione: eo intuitu, vt altera, quantum fieri possit, inhibeatur, altera confortetur … Etenim quœ Spiritus innatus (qui omnibus Tangibilibus, siue viuis, siue mortuis inest) & Aer ambiens, operatur super Inanimata, eadem & tentat super Animata; licet super-additus Spiritus vitalis, illas operationes partìm infiringat, & compescat, partìm potentèr admodùm intendat, & augeat. Nam manifestissimum est Inanimata complura, absque Reparatione, ad tempus benè longum durare posse: At Animata absque Alimento, & Reparatione, subitò concidunt, & extinguuntur, vt & Ignis. Itaque Inquisitio duplex esse debet; primò pg 439contemplando Corpus humanum, tanquam Inanimatum, & Inalimentatum; deinde tanquam Animatum, & Alimentatum.' See also DVM, fos. 29r, 30r.

ll. 29–34: Corpora solida—cf. HVM, E2r–E4r (SEH, II, pp. 119–21); NO, 2K3r–v (SEH, I, p. 310).

fo. 3v

Page 274, l. 35–p. 276, l. 7: Actio triplex—cf. DVM, fo. 12r; cf. NO, 2K2v–2K3r (SEH, I, p. 310): 'Sit itaque Natura inquisita, Actio & Motus Spiritûs qui includitur in corporibus Tangibilibus. Omne enim Tangibile apud nos continet Spiritum inuisibilem & intactilem, eique obducitur atque eum quasi vestit. Hinc fons triplex potens ille, & mirabilis Processus Spiritûs in corpore Tangibili. Spiritus enim in re Tangibili, Emissus corpora contrahit & desiccat: Detentus, corpora intenerat & colliquat: nec prorsùs Emissus nec prorsús Detentùs, informal membrificat, assimilat, egerit, organizat, & similia. Atque hæc omnia deducuntur ad Sensibile per effectus conspicuos'. Also see Introduction, 2 (l); HVM, E1r (SEH, II, p. 119).

Page 276, ll. 7–10: Sed spiritus ille innatus—cf. NO, 2K3r–v (SEH, I, pp. 310–11); HVM, E1v–E2r (SEH, II, pp. 119–20).

fos. 3v–4r

Page 276, ll. 13–26: Euolatio autem—cf. HVM, E2r–E3r (SEH, II, p. 120); NO, 2K3r (SEH, I, p. 310).

fo. 4r

Page 276, ll. 26–33: At tertia actio—cf. NO, 2K3r–v (SEH, I, 310–11); HVM, E3r–E4r (SEH, II, pp. 120–1).

ll. 34–5: in nucleis nucum—cf. HVM, E3v (SEH, II, p. 120).

Page 278, ll. 5–7: qualia sunt papyrus—cf. HVM, E4r–v (SEH, II, p. 121).

l. 10: et rubigine—cf. HDR, C4r (SEH, II, p. 264).

fos. 4v–5r

Page 278, ll. 32 ff: generales notiones desiccationis—cf. HVM, D8r–v (SEH, II, p. 119): 'Miris modis Homines, more Noctuarum, in Tenebris Notionum suarum acutè vident, ad Experientiam, tanquam lucem diurnam, nictant, & cœcutiunt. Loquuntur de Elementari Qualitate Siccitatis; & de Desiccantibus; & de naturalibus Periodis Corporum, per quas corrumpuntur, & consumuntur; sed interìm, nec de Initijs, nec de Medijs, nec de Extremis Desiccationis, & Consumptionis, aliquid, quod valeat, obseruant.' Also see HVM, N4r–v (SEH, II, pp. 157–8); HDR, E2v (SEH, II, p. 281).

fo. 5r

Page 278, l. 35: humectationes—cf. HVM, Y2v–Y3r (SEH, II, p. 195): 'Humectatio Succorum Corporis per Prœparationem Alimentorum Humidam, puerilis Res est; Ad Feruores Morborum nonnihil tacit; ad Alimentationem verò roscidam, omninò contraria est; itaque Elixatio Ciborum longè inferior est, ad Intentionem nostram, Assatione, & Coctione in Furno, & similibus.' According pg 440to the radical moisture theory, age desiccates and ageing can be delayed by means that keep the parts moist; see for example, Peter of Spain, De longitudine, in Obras, III, pp. 457, 478–9.

fo. 5r

Page 278, l. 38–p. 280, l. 1: Naturæ viæ … ‵in proprijs vestigijs′ —cf. NO, C3v (SEH, I, p. 145).

Page 280, ll. 1–10: Reperitur et alia actio— see HVM, E6r (SEH, II, p. 121); NO, T3v, 204v–2P1v, 2S4r–v (SEH, I, pp. 233–4, 334–5, 356).

fo. 5v

Page 282, l. 3: Primò itaque de differentijs—this refers not to the pages following but the order adopted in the revised version of this passage (see fos. 17r–19v).

ll. 17–22: Sed nimiruḿ eæ differentiæ—see cmt on DVM, fos. 5v–6r.

ll. 14–17: vitrum, lateres cocti— cf. SS, E1r (SEH, II, p. 376).

fos. 5v–6r

Page 282, ll. 22–6: differunt spiritus fractione—see DVM, fo. 17v; see also HVM, 2E3v–2E4r (SEH, II, pp. 218–19): 'Non solùm Copia Spirituum secundum Totum, Durationi Rerum obest, sed etiàm eadem Copia, minùs refracta, similitèr obest. Itaque quò magis fuerit Spiritus comminutus, & per Minima insinuatus, eò deprœdatur minùs. Dissolutio enim incipit à Parte, vbi Spiritus est laxior; Itaque & Exercitatio, & Fricationes, Longœuitati multùm conferunt: Agitatio enim optimè comminuit, & commiscet Res per Minima.'

fo. 6r

Page 282, ll. 26–30: dispertitio spirituum—see DVM, fo. 10r; HVM, 2E3v–2E4v (SEH, II, pp. 218–19).

l. 32 ff: At partes crassiores—cf. DVM, fo. 18v.

fo. 6v

Page 284, ll. 20–2: quod illæ quandoq́ue—cf. DVM, fos. 14v, 6v–yr.

Page 284, l. 33–p. 286, l. 26: At circunfusa non—cf. DVM, fo. 19r–v; HVM, 2E5v–2E6r (SEH, II, p. 219).

fo. 7v

Page 286, l. 30–p. 288, l. 4: Tres auteḿ videntur—cf. DVM, fo. 18r; HVM, 2D7r–2D8r (SEH, II, pp. 216–17) ; NO, 2K3r–v (SEH, I, pp. 310–11).

Page 288, ll. 4–9: Primus ‵est′ fuga—cf. DVM, fo. 19r; NO, 2K3v (SEH, I, p. 311).

fos. 7v–8r

Page 288, ll. 9–17: At alter—cf. DVM, fo. 19r.

fo. 8r

Page 288, ll. 17–26: At appetitus externorum—cf. DVM, fo. 19v.

pg 441

Page 290, ll. 1–2: ad doctrinam de animatis—Bacon did not get round to this in DVM; also see cmt on DVM, fo. 13v (p. 443 below).

fo. 8v

Page 290, ll. 4–6: {Spiritus in Corpore …} —cf. DVM, fo. 20v.

Page 292, ll. 1–6: {In Animalibus …} —one of several instances of Bacon's apparent wish while revising the scribal draft to bring out the practical consequences of his doctrines for the preservation of living things; for similar interpolations see fos. 1ov, 11r, 12r–v. For the differences between plants and animals see Introduction, 2 (i)–(j). For the causes and effects of sweat see HVM, R2r–v, 2A2r–v, 2E7r (SEH, II, p. 173, pp. 202–3, p. 220).

ll. 7–9: {Spiritus in perfectione …} —cf. DVM, fo. 20v; HVM, A8v–B1r, Q7r–v (SEH, II, pp. 106–7, 170–1).

fo. 9r

Page 292, ll. 32–4: ut liquet in fructibus—on maturation and arefaction see HVM, 2D1r–2D2r (SEH, II, pp. 213–14); SS, M1v–M2r (SEH, II, pp. 446–7).

fo. 9v

Page 294, ll. 16–27: Quò Spiritus in corpore—cf. DVM, fos. 1ov, 20v, 21r; HVM, 2E3v–2E4r (SEH, II, pp. 218–19).

fos. 9v–10r

Page 294, l. 27–p. 296, l. 9: Dispertiuntur etiaḿ spiritus—cf. DVM, fo. 27v.

fo. 10r

Page 296, ll. 8–13: ‵et eadem ratio … sunt′ —cf. NO, 2D4v–2E1r (SEH, I, p. 279): 'Item Instantiœ Conformes sunt, Gummi arborum, & pleræque Gemmæ rupium. Vtraque enim nil aliud sunt, quàm Exudationes, & percolationes Succorum: In primo genere scilicèt, Succorum ex Arboribus; in secundo, ex saxis; vnde gignitur Claritudo & splendor in vtriusque, per percolationem nimirum tenuem & accuratam. Nam inde fit etiam, quod Pili Animalium non sint tam pulchri, & tam viuidi coloris, quàm Auium Plumæ complures; quia Succi non tam delicatè percolantur per cutem, quàm per calamum.' Also cf. HDR, C3r (SEH, II, p. 263): 'Etiam Gemma complures videntur esse Eruptiones Succorum puriorum ex Rupibus;, cum tam Gummi quam Gemmœ Rupium deprehendantur (ex splendore) esse Succi percolati & depurati; adeo ut etiam saxa & lapides videantur ex Spiritu innato tumescere.'

l. 14 ff: Caua eniḿ—cf. HDR, C7v (SEH, II, p. 268); PhU, Q2v, Q5v–Q6r and cmt thereon (pp. 372, 373 above); HDR(M), fo. 12r.

ll. 17–19: Aqua eniḿ inteŕ bulliendum surgit—see PhU, Q2v.

ll. 25–31: omne corpus calcinatum—cf. NO, 2T4r (SEH, I, p. 234).

fo. 10r–v.

ll. 31–3: Quin etiam Consistentia—see HVM, 2D6v (SEH, II, p. 216).

pg 442 fo. 10v

Page 298, ll. 4–13: {Itaque in partibus … } —another interpolation concerning practical recommendations, see cmt on DVM, fo. 8v (p. 441 above); also see Introduction, 2 (l). Also cf. DVM, fo. 28v; HVM, R6v–S7r (SEH, II, pp. 175–80), M4r (SEH, II, p. 153): 'At Diœtœ Vberiori conuenit contrà Somnus largior, Exercitatio frequentior, Vsus Veneris tempestiuus. Balnea, & Vnguenta (qualia fuerunt in vsu) Delicijs potiùs, quam Vitæ producendæ, accommodata fuerunt'.

ll. 16–17: Spiritus in corpore—cf. DVM, fos. 20v, 21r.

l. 19 ff: Inueniuntur in—see cmt on DVM, fo. 6r (p. 440 above).

fos. 10v–11r

Page 300, ll. 7–9: Calor … rerum texturas —for the effect of heat on 'subtle textures' see NO, T3v–T4r (SEH, I, pp. 233–4).

fo. 11r

Page 300, ll. 13–14: Etiam fructus—cf. SS, E1r–v (SEH, II, pp. 376–7).

ll. 20–25: {At in Animalibus … } —see cmt on DVM, fo. 8v (p. 441 above). Also cf. HVM, Q4r–v (SEH, II, pp. 169–70); SS, L2r (SEH, p. 440).

fo. 11v

fo. 11v—for this fo. and text on fo. 12r, see tns to DVM, fo. 11r–v.

Page 302, l. 15: qualia sunt oleum—see DVM, fos. 9v–10r; cf. HVM, C2r, 2C7v (SEH, II, pp. 111, 212–13).

ll. 28–30: lassat et frangit—cf. NO, 2C3v (SEH, I, p. 272).

Page 304, l. 3 ff: {At in Animalibus …} —see cmt on DVM, fo. 8v (p. 441 above).

l. 8: humido radicali—see cmt on DVM, fo. 1v (p. 437 above); cf. HVM, A5r–v, T6v–T7r, 2C3V (SEH, II, pp. 105, 184–5, 211); Introduction, 2 (m).

ll. 9–13: Neque quis somniet—cf. HVM, T7r (SEH, II, p. 184): 'Neque rursùs existimet quispiam, Oleum, aut Pinguia Ciborum, aut Medullas, similia sibi generare, atque Intentioni nostræ satisfacere; Neque enim quæ perfecta semel sunt, retrò aguntur; sed talia debent esse Alimenta, quæ post Digestionem et Maturationem, tùm demùm Oleositatem, in Succis ingenerent.' Also see HVM, C8v (SEH, II, p. 115). Bacon recommended butter etc. for external use, see HVM, S3r (SEH, II, p. 178).

fo. 12r

Page 304, ll. 17–22: {potus quj … [exteriores]} —cf. SS, L4r, M1r ff. (SEH, II, pp. 442, 445 ff.).

Page 304, l. 29–p. 306, l. 1: Sequitur Canon—see cmt on DVM, fo. 3v (p. 439 above); also see HVM, R7r–v (SEH, II, pp. 175–6).

Page 306, ll. 10–12: ignis contrarias edat operationes—cf. NO, 2K3v (SEH, I, pp. 310–11): 'vbi Spiritus detinetur, & tamen dilatatur & excitatur per calorem aut eius Analoga; (id quod fit in corporibus magis solidis aut tenacibus) tum vero pg 443Corpora emolliuntur, vt Ferrum candens; fluunt, vt Metalla; liquefiunt, vt Gummi, Cera, & similia. Itaque contrariæ illæ operationes Caloris (vt ex eo alia durescant, alia liquescant) facilè reconciliantur; quia in illis, Spiritus emittitur, in his, agitatur & detinetur: quorum posterius, est actio propria Caloris & Spiritûs; prius, actio partium Tangibilium tantum per occasionem Spiritûs emissi.'

fo. 12v

Page 306, ll. 22–5: videmus ligna colorata—cf. HVM, 2C7r–v (SEH, II, pp. 212–13; SS, N1r–N2r (SEH, II, pp. 454–6).

fo. 13r

Page 308, ll.17–18: videmus Mustum—cf. NO, 2N4v (SEH, I, p. 329).

ll. 33–4: Arcta enim—an echo of the Vulgate: Luke 13: 24 perhaps.

fo. 13v

Page 310, l. 7: loco suo demonstrabitur—Bacon is looking forward to the part of DVM concerned with animate beings qua animate, the part which he did not get round to writing. Also see cmt on DVM, fo. 3r (p. 439 above).

l. 16: dictum est—see DVM, fos. 4r, 12r–v.

ll. 17–19: antiquos Britannos—cf. HVM, S1v (SEH, II, p. 177): 'Britones Antiqui, Corpus Glasto pingebant, & fuerunt admodùm longæui; Quemamodum & Picti, qui indè etiam Nomen traxisse à nonnullis putantur. Hodiè se pingunt Bresilienses, & Virginienses, qui sunt (prassertìm illi priores) admodùm longasui; adeò vt quinque abhinc Annis, Patres Galli nonnullos conuenerint, qui Ædificationem Fernamburgi, Annis abhinc centum & viginti, ipsi ad tunc Virilis Ætatis meminissent.'

l. 20: ut suo loco dicetur—this perhaps suggests that DVM was, at one point in Bacon's planning, meant to contain bodies of empirical data.

ll. 29–30: Aphorismo præcedente—not necessarily; this and the preceding aphorism would probably have been conflated in the revised order—see Appendix III.

fos. 13v–14r

Page 310, ll. 30–1: At de separatione—cf. LL, III, pp. 93–4; NO, 2O4v–2P1r (SEH, I, pp. 334–5).

fo. 14r–v

Page 312, ll. 5–31: duplex esse vinculum—see NO, 2P2r, 2Q3v (SEH, I, pp. 336, 344).

fo. 15r

Page 314, ll. 4–9: Atq́ue in lignis—cf. A. G. Debus, The chemical philosophy, I, pp. 81—3. See also LL, III, p. 94: where Bacon speaks of earth, water and oil— 'those three bodies which the alchemists do so much celebrate as the three principles of things' and 'which it pleaseth them to term Salt, Mercury, and Sulphur'. Also see Introduction, 2 (d).

pg 444

ll. 9–15: Itaque manifestum est … separare homogenea —cf. NO, 2P1v (SEH, I, p. 335): 'Atque primò quoad auxilium Caloris; hinc fit, quòd Calor pronuntietur esse illud quod separet Heterogenea, congreget Homogenea. Quam definitionem Peripateticorum meritò derisit Gilbertusr, dicens eam esse perinde ac si quis diceret ac definiret Hominem illud esse quod serat Triticum & plantet Vineas: esse enim definitionem tantúm per Effectus, eosque particulares.' See also Gilbert, De mundo, p. 77: 'nam quid illud ostendit, aut quæ illa differentia ab effectu tantum in quibusdam corporibus, congregans homogenea, & disgregans heterogenic?, ac si diceres, hominem animal esse carduos & sentes evellens, & fruges serens; cum istud sit agricolæ studium. Ita calor in metallis, & quibusdam aliis, congregat homogenea, & disgregat heterogenea; in plurimis hoc nunquam apparet.' Also see DRN, I, pp. 464–6.

ll. 23–5: Illud veró suprá—see DVM, fo. 14r–v.

fo. 15r–v

Page 314, ll. 26–34: Quin etiaḿ spiritus … .subtilizati et commisti —cf. HVM, T8r–v (SEH, II, p. 185): 'Itaque in vsu sint Potus illi, qui absque omni Acrimoniâ, aut Acedine, subtiles tamen sint; quales sunt Vina, (vt ait Anus apud Plautum) Vetustate Edentula, et Ceruisia eiusdem generis.' In HVM, as in DVM, Bacon's recollection of his source (the comedy Poenulus) was inaccurate. Lycus the pimp, not the old woman, had the lines Bacon was thinking of: 'Is, leno, viam. | Vbi tu Leucadio, Lesbio, Thasio, Chio, | vetustate vino edentulo aetatem inriges; | ibi ego te replebo usque unguentum geumatis, | quid multa verba?' see Plautus with an English translation, ed. Paul Nixon, 5 vols., (Loeb Classical Library), London and New York, 1916–38, IV, p. 70.

fo. 15v

Page 316, ll. 1–4: Iste vero—cf. DVM, fo. 30r–v; NO, 2P4r–2Q1r (SEH, I, pp. 339–40); ANN, fos. 30v, 33r.

ll. 8–15: Videtur eniḿ—cf. NO, 2K3v (SEH, I, pp. 310–11); HVM, 2D2v–2D3r, SEH, II, p. 214); SS, 2H2v–2H3r (SEH, II, pp. 638–9); also see Introduction, 2

ll. 16–23: Eteniḿ simplex—cf. SS, S3v, T1v (SEH, II, pp. 507, 512); HIDA, fo. 3v.

ll. 22–4: ‵Putredo′ … absoluta —on the spontaneous generation of worms and other 'imperfect' creatures, see HDR, C4r (SEH, II, p. 264); SS, Z2v f., (SEH, II, pp. 557 f.). Also see NO, Y2v, 2K3r–2K4r, 2P2r–v (SEH, I, pp. 249, 310–11, 336); Rees, 'Francis Bacon's biological ideas', in Occult and scientific mentalities, ed. Vickers, pp. 305–7.

fos. 15v–16r

Page 316, ll. 24–34: Neq́ue contemnendum … fabulosum fuerit. —cf. SS, Z3r–v, (SEH, II, p. 559): 'It is affirmed both by Ancient and Moderne Obseruation, that in Furnaces of Copper, and Brasse where Chalcites, (which is Vitrioll,) is often cast in, to mend the working, there riseth suddenly a Fly, which sometimes pg 445moueth, as if it tooke hold on the walls of the Furnace; Sometimes is seene mouing in the Fire below; And dieth presently, as soone as it is out of the Furnace. Which is a noble Instance, and worthy to be weighed; for it sheweth that as well Violent Heat of Fire as the Gentle Heat of Liuing Creatures, will Viuifie, if it haue Matter Proportionable.' Bacon's modern authority may have been Telesio (DRN, II, pp. 570–2) or Agostino Doni (Luigi De Franco, L'eretico Agostino Doni, p. 376). The ancient authority was Aristotle, see Historia animalium, V. 19. 552b.

fo. 17r

Page 318, ll. 4–8: Omne ens—see Introduction, 2 (h). Also see DFRM, I5r; and cmt on DGI, E12r (p. 395 above); Rees, 'Francis Bacon on verticity', pp. 203–7.

ll. 8–12: Neque verò iste spiritus—cf. DVM, fos. 23r 26r; HVM, 2C8r–v (SEH, II, p. 213): 'Spiritus autem ille (de quo loquimur) non est Virtus aliqua, aut Energia, aut Entelechia, aut Nugæ; sed planè Corpus Tenue, Inuisibile; attamen Locatum, Dimensum, Reale: Neque rursùs Spiritus ille Aer est, (quemadmodùm nec Succus Vuœ est Aqua) sed Corpus Tenue, cognatum Aeri, at multùm ab eo diuersum'.

l. 16: vt dictum ‵est′—see DVM, fo. 5r–v.

ll. 19–21: Differentia autem primaria—for this fundamental trichotomy see Introduction, 2 (j); NO, 2K4r (SEH, I, p. 311): 'Rursus, Differentia illa Spiritûs, maximè nobilis & ad plurima pertinens, (viz. Spiritûs Abscissi; Ramosi simplicitèr; Ramosi simul & Cellulati: ex quibus Prior, est Spiritus omnium corporum Inanimatorum; secundus, Vegetabilium; tertius, Animalium:) per plurimas Instantias Deductorias tanquam sub oculos ponitur.' Also see HVM, 2D3v–D4r (SEH, II, pp. 214–15); SS, V4r–v (SEH, II, 528–9); and cf. DVM, fo. 27v. Also see Telesio, DRN, II, pp. 274 f.: 'Cap. XII.—Principem spiritus portionem ejusque veluti universitatem, quod factum videtur, in cerebri ventriculis locandam fuisse.'

Page 318, l. 32–p. 320, l. 2: {⟨⟨[[Nota de … subtilitatis.⟩⟩]]} —cf. DVM, fo. 30r; NO, G2r (SEH, I, p. 168): 'Itaque contemplatio ferè desinit cum aspectu; adeó vt rerum inuisibilium exigua aut nulla sit obseruatio. Itzq́ue omnis operatio spirituum in corporibus tangibilibus inclusorum latet, & homines fugit. Omnis etiam subtilior meta-schematismus in partibus rerum crassiorum, (quam vulgó alterationem vocant, cúm sit reuerá latio per minima) latet similiter: & tamen nisi duo ista, quae diximus, explorata fuerint & in lucem producta, nihil magni fieri potest in Naturâ quoad opera.' For the importance that Bacon attached to the 'subtleties' of nature see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 567–71.

Page 320, ll. 7–9: virtutes quas vocant—cf. NO, T3v–T4r (SEH, I, p. 234): '& transeundum planè à Vulcano ad Mineruam, si in animo sit veras corporum texturas & Schematismos (vndè omnia occulta, atque (vt vocant) specifica propriety & virtus in rebus pendet; vndè etiam omnis potentis alterationis & transformationis norma educitur) in lucem protrahere.'

l. 9: Verum vt ad propositum revertamur—Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, 2. 32; cf. DGI, D11v.

pg 446 fo. 17v

Page 320, ll. 10–19: duplex subest differentia—cf. HVM, 2D8v, 2E3v–2E4r (SEH, II, pp. 217, 218–19).

ll. 19–24: Sequitur alia differentia—see Introduction, 2 (i)–(k). DAS (2E4r (SEH, I, p. 606)): vital spirit is 'Aura … ex Naturâ Flammeâ & Aereâ conflata, Aeris mollicie ad Impressionem recipiendam, Ignis vigore ad Actionem vibrandam dotata; partìm ex Oleosis, partìm ex Aqueis nutrita … '. Also see DVM, fo. 30v, and cmt on TC, G6r–v (p. 407 above).

ll. 24–33: Omnis enim spiritus—for the conditions which affect the behaviour of spirits see DVM, fos. 11r–v, 20v, 21v, 30r; also see HVM, D1r, E5v, P5v f., R1v, R3r (SEH, II, pp. 115, 121, 166 f., 172, 173).

fo. 18r

Page 322, ll. 10–15: Quod vero ad ⟨⟨desyd⟩⟩ ipsa—cf. DVM, fo. 7v and cmt thereon (p. 440 above). Also see Introduction, 2 (l).

Page 324, ll. 1–8: sustinet spiritus se frangj—cf. NO, 2S1r (SEH, I, pp. 252–3).

ll. 13–14: differentias potissimum quatuor—these are a few of what Bacon elsewhere called the schematisms of matter, see cmt on DGI, D9r–v (p. 386 above).

ll. 14–20: Densum autem propriè—see cmt on PhU, O10r–v (p. 365 above). ll. 20–4: Consistens autem—on the difference between solids and liquids see CDNR, S1v–S4v (SEH, III, pp. 25–8); ANN, fo. 25r.

fo. 18r–v

Pager 324, ll. 24–31: At de crudo—on this fundamental distinction and on the related question of the nature of salt see Introduction, 2 (d), (k) and cmt on TC, G6r–v (p. 407 above); NO, 2I2r 2T2v (SEH, I, pp. 303, 359); HNE, S5r–S8r.

fo. 18v

Page 324, l. 32–p. 326, l. 4: At similaris—cf. DPAO, K7r–v; ANN, fo. 27r–v; DAS, X4v (SEH, I, p. 560); Rees, 'Bacon's philosophy … with special reference to the Abecedarium novum naturae', p. 235. The precise meaning of the distinctions compositæ et decompositæ et multipliciter compositæ is unclear, but see CDNR, R10r (SEH, III, p. 21) (where the expression is used of motions, so this passage in DVM may refer to the motions that make up a dissimilar body); also see NO, 2O1r (SEH, I, p. 330). For gems and gums as exudations see NO, 2D4v (SEH, I, p. 279); cmt on DVM, fo. 10r (p. 441 above).

Page 326, ll. 5–6: ˋet quasi Machina quaedamˊ—for similar language from a non-mechanical tradition see T. Campanella, Epilogo magno (fisiologia italiana), ed. C. Ottaviano, Reale Accademia d'Italia: Rome, 1939, p. 349. CHRP, p. 484.

ll. 10–14. Itaque omne ens—cf. DVM, fos. 7v–8r. This is one of the motions listed in NO (2O4v (SEH, I, p. 334)) and ANN (fos. 29v–30r), where it is called motus congregationis maioris.

pg 447 fos. 18v–19r

Page 326, ll. 15–29: adeo vt licet Ens—cf. DVM, fos. 7v–8r. Bacon is here thinking of the dissolution of composite bodies: dissimilar component parts separate, and then similar ones group together—as happens for example when milk and cream separate. Also see cmt on DVM, fo. 15r (p. 444 above). This motion is another of those listed in NO (2O4v–2P1r (SEH, I, pp. 334–5)) and ANN (fo. 30r), where it is called motus congregationis minoris.

fo. 19r

Page 326, ll. 29–35: Quod verò ad fugam vacuj—see also DVM, fo. 25r. This motion is another of those listed in NO (2O1v–2O2r (SEH, I, p. 330)) and ANN (fo. 29r), where it is called motus nexus. For Bacon and the vacuum hypothesis see cmts on DGI, E5v–E7r (pp. 391–2 above); TC, G8r (p. 408 above); and DPAO, M7v (pp. 433–4 above).

Page 326, l. 35–p. 328, l. 7: At fuga illa Contrary—cf. DVM, fo. 8r. This motion is another of those listed in NO (2P3r–v (SEH, I, p. 338)), where it is called motus fugæ; it is not mentioned in ANN.

Page 328, ll. 8–13: manifestissimum est corp⟨⟨oru⟩⟩‵us′—this motion is another of those listed in NO (2O2r–v (SEH, I, pp. 330–1)) and ANN (fo. 29r, where it is called motus libertatis.

ll. 15–18: Veniendum itaque—cf. DVM, fo. 7r.

fo. 19r–v

Page 328, l. 26–p. 330, l. 14: Operantr autem circunfusa—cf. DVM, fos. 7r, 8r.

fos. 20v–21r

Page 330, l. 15–p. 332, l. 1: fos. 20v–21r—for the significance of these lists of aphorisms see Appendix III and cf. lists on fo. 21v and fo. 30v.

fo. 20v

Page 332, ll. 3–4: Irritatio spiritus—cf. HVM, 2E6r (SEH, II, p. 220): 'Spiritus, si nec à Corporis circundati Antipathiâ irritetur, nec à Corporis nimiâ Similitudine pascatur, nec à Corpore Externo sollicitetur, aut prouocetur, non tumultuatur multùm ad Exeundum: Quœ omnia Oleosis desunt; Nam nec tam Spiritui Infesta sunt, quam Dura; nec tam Propinqua, quam Aquea; nec cum Aere ambiente benè consentiunt.'

fo. 21r

Page 332, ll. 32–3: Spiritus emissus—cf. NO, 2K3r (SEH, I, p. 310); HDR, G5r, para. 17 (SEH, II, p. 303).

ll. 34–5: Abscedente spiritu—see cmts on DVM, fos. 15r and 18v–19r (p. 444 and this page above).

Page 334, ll. 1–2: Spiritus detentus—see DVM, fo. 12r; HVM, 2D2v (SEH, II, p. 214).

ll. 12–18: Omnis assimilatio—on assimilation and alimentation see NO, 2P4v–2Q1v (SEH, I, pp. 339–40); HVM, Y8v–Z1r (SEH, II, pp. 108–9, 197–8).

pg 448 fo. 21v

Page 334, ll. 19–28: Aphoris. de inanimatis—see items on fos. 20v–21r.

fo. 31v

Page 334, l. 30–p. 336, l. 17: Omnis spiritus—for items on this list cf. DVM, fos. 20v and 21v.

fo. 26r

Page 336, ll. 18–20: Omnia ⟨⟨hic apud nos—see cmt on DVM, fo. 23r immediately below.

fo. 23r

Page 338, l. 23–p. 340, l. 36: Aphorismus.j.—for the first draft of this see fo. 26r; also see Appendix III. For the fundamental doctrines given in this aphorism see cmts on DVM, fo. 17r (p. 445 above); TC, G6r–v (p. 407 above).

fo. 27v

Page 342, l. 4–p. 344, l. 2: Spiritus in rebus—see Introduction, 2 (j), and cmt on DVM, fo. 17r (p. 445 above). For assimilation, excretion, and the sensory-motor capacities of vital spirit see NO, T2r, 2D4r–v, 2N3v (SEH, I, pp. 231–2, 278–9); HVM, 2A5v, 2B1r–v, 2D4v–2D5v (SEH, II, pp. 105, 205–6, 214–15); cmt on DVM, fo. 21r (p. 447 above).

Page 344, ll. 2–4: Istj autem duo Aphorismj—this and Aphorismus.j. (fos. 23r, 26r) were to have been the first two in the sequence of aphorisms in DVM, see Appendix III.

fo. 28r

Page 344, ll. 10–24: Non attenditur magis vigor—cf. DVM, fo. 9r.

ll. 24–8: Itaque in Animalibus—cf. HVM, Q2v, Q4r–v, T5r–v (SEH, II, pp. 168–9, 183–4).

Page 346, l. 2: Dictum est in Aphorismis—see DVM, fos. 9v–10v, 11v.

fo. 28v

Page 346, l. 17: vita sub Dio—cf. DVM, fo. 10v.

fo. 24r

Page 346, ll. 27–32; Operationes ⟨⟨spir⟩⟩ et differentiæ—for the analogy between the actions of flame and inanimate spirit cf. HVM, A8v (SEH, II, p. 106).

ll. 32–3: Etiam ventj mordaces—cf. HV, G6v (SEH, II, p. 37).

Page 348, ll. 3–4: Atque inter Animalia—cf. HVM, E8r–F3r (SEH, II, pp. 123–4).

ll. 5–9: plurima ex laudatis—cf. HVM, O2r–v (SEH, II, p. 160): 'illud Homines ritè, & animaduertere, & distinguere volumus; Non eadem semper, quœ, ad Vitam Sanam, ad Vitam Longam conferre. Sunt enim nonnulla, quœ ad Spirituum Alacritatem, & Functionum Robur, & Vigorem, prosunt, quœ tamen, de Summâ Vitæ detrahunt. Sunt & alia, quœ ad Prolongationem Vitæ plurimùm iuuant, sed tamen non sunt absque Periculo valetudinis; nisi per Accommodata quœdam huic pg 449Rei occurratur; de quibus tamen, (prout Res postulat) Cautiones, & Monita exhibere non prœtermittemus …' For the same idea in very similar wording see DAS, 2D3v–1D4r (SEH, I, p. 599).

fo. 25r

Pages 348–50: fo. 25r—much of the material presented here first appeared in CDNR, R11r–S1v (SEH, III, pp. 22–5). For actions of strong waters on metals see NO, X3v (SEH, I, p. 246); HDR, D7v–E2r (SEH, II, pp. 278–80). For the pores in bodies and the action of cupping glasses see PhU, Q9r; NO, 2R4v–2S1r (SEH, I, pp. 351–2); HDR, C6v (SEH, II, p. 267); SS, 2H1v (SEH, II, p. 635). For the greater subtlety of flame than air see DGI, F8r and cmt thereon (p. 400 above). For action of strong heats on metals cf. NO, Z1v (SEH, I, p. 252).

fo. 22r

Page 350, ll. 12–13: Nos enim semina—for variants of this metaphor see ANN, fo. 24r; LL, VII, pp. 531–2. For Bacon's caution about the status of his theories see DO, C3r (SEH, I, pp. 143–4).

ll. 14–19: Neque verò nimium—for the importance of investigating what destroys inanimate substances see Introduction, 2 (j), (l).

ll. 19–30: Spiritus enim animalium—cf. HVM, A7v–B1r, 2F4 f. (SEH, II, pp. 106–7, 223 f.). As to the partes 'præcipue' exangues, Telesio (after Aristotle) distinguished between these and those of the blood, the former deriving from male and female seed, the latter from the female alone (see DRN, II, pp. 456–60, 644). The bloodless parts are those described as drier and more porous in HVM (A7v–A8r (SEH, II, p. 106)): 'Nam etiam post Declinationem, & decursum œtatis, Spiritus, Sanguis, Caro, Adeps, facilè reparantur; at quœ sicciores, aut porosiores sunt partes, Membranæ, & Tunicæ omnes, Nerui, Arteriæ, Venæ, Ossa, Cartilagines, etiam Viscera pleraque, denique Organica ferè omnia, difficiliùs reparantur, & cum iacturâ.'

fo. 29r

Page 350, l. 32–p. 352, l. 30: At animatorum licet—for a later draft of this material see fo. 30r and interpolation on fo. 29v.

fo. 30r

Page 352, l. 33 ff: At animatorum Natura—see Introduction, 2 (j).

Page 352, l. 35–p. 354, l. 3: illæ operationes—mainly those of the inanimate spirits. Also cf. DVM, fos. 2v–3r.

Page 354, ll. 6–7: illud genus Mezentij—Virgil, Aeneid, 8. 483–8: 'quid memorem infandas cædes, quid facta tyranni, | effera? di capiti ipsius generique reservent! | mortua quin etiam iungebat corpora vivis, | componens manibusque manus atque oribus ora, | tormenti genus, et sanie taboque fluentes | complexu in misero longa sic morte necabat.' The same allusion appears in similar contexts in HVM (A7v (SEH, II, p. 106)) and SS (D1r (SEH, II, p. 364)).

ll. 9–19: consueuerunt medicj—see cmt on DVM, fo. 17r (p. 445 above); also pg 450see NO, B5r, T3r–T4r (SEH, I, pp. 138–9, 233–5). For Bacon on 'subtlety' see Rees, 'Atomism', pp. 567–71.

fo. 30v

Page 356, l. 18 ff: Prima ea est—the view that the spirits of living beings are the warmer or cooler according as they occupy a higher or lower position in the chain of being is expressed more explicitly here than elsewhere in Bacon's writings, cf. HVM, G5r, L7r, 2D4V (SEH, II, pp. 130, 150, 215).

Page 358, l. 4: respiratione indigent—for Bacon's view on respiration see HVM, P5r, 2A7v–2A8v (SEH, II, pp. 166, 204–5). His view that respiration refrigerates is thoroughly conventional and ultimately Aristotelian.

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