Main Text

Editor’s Notepg 1693.4

Enter Olivia and Maria
Editor’s Note1

olivia (aside) I have sent after him, he says he'll come.

Editor’s Note Link 2How shall I feast him? What bestow of him?

Editor’s Note3For youth is bought more oft than begged or borrowed.

Critical Apparatus4I speak too loud.

Editor’s Note5 (To Maria) Where's Malvolio? He is sad and civil,

6And suits well for a servant with my fortunes.

7Where is Malvolio?

Critical Apparatus8

maria He's coming, madam, but in very strange manner.

Editor’s Note9He is sure possessed, madam.

10

olivia Why, what's the matter, does he rave?

11

maria No, madam, he does nothing but smile. Your 12ladyship were best to have some guard about you if he Editor’s Note Link 13come, for sure the man is tainted in's wits.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus14

olivia Go call him hither.

As Maria goes to call him, enter Malvolio, cross-gartered and wearing yellow stockings

I am as mad as he,

pg 170

15If sad and merry madness equal be.

16How now, Malvolio!

Editor’s Note17

malvolio Sweet lady, ho, ho!

Editor’s Note18

olivia Smil'st thou? I sent for thee upon a sad occasion.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus19

malvolio Sad, lady? I could be sad. This does make some Link 20obstruction in the blood, this cross-gartering, but what Editor’s Note21of that? If it please the eye of one, it is with me as the Editor’s Note22very true sonnet is, 'Please one, and please all'.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus23

oliviaWhy, how dost thou, man? What is the matter with thee?

Editor’s Note24

malvolio Not black in my mind, though yellow in my pg 171Editor’s Note25legs. It did come to his hands, and commands shall be Editor’s Note Link 26executed. I think we do know the sweet roman hand.

Editor’s Note27

olivia Wilt thou go to bed, Malvolio?

Editor’s Note28

malvolio 'To bed? Ay, sweetheart, and I'll come to 29thee.'

Critical ApparatusHe kisses his hand
30

olivia God comfort thee. Why dost thou smile so, and Editor’s Note31kiss thy hand so oft?

32

maria How do you, Malvolio?

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus33

malvolio At your request? Yes, nightingales answer 34daws.

35

maria Why appear you with this ridiculous boldness 36before my lady?

37

malvolio 'Be not afraid of greatness'—'twas well writ.

38

olivia What mean'st thou by that, Malvolio?

39

malvolio 'Some are born great'—

40

olivia Ha?

41

malvolio 'Some achieve greatness'—

42

olivia What sayst thou?

43

malvolio 'And some have greatness thrust upon them.'

44

olivia Heaven restore thee.

45

malvolio 'Remember who commended thy yellow 46stockings'—

pg 17247

olivia 'Thy yellow stockings'?

48

malvolio 'And wished to see thee cross-gartered.'

49

olivia 'Cross-gartered'?

50

malvolio 'Go to, thou art made, if thou desir'st to be so.'

51

olivia Am I made?

52

malvolio 'If not, let me see thee a servant still.'

Editor’s Note Link 53

olivia Why, this is very midsummer madness.

Critical ApparatusEnter a Servant
54

servant Madam, the young gentleman of the Count Editor’s Note55Orsino's is returned. I could hardly entreat him back. 56He attends your ladyship's pleasure.

Critical Apparatus57

olivia I'll come to him. Exit Servant 58Good Maria, let this fellow be looked to. Where's my Link 59cousin Toby? Let some of my people have a special care Editor’s Note60of him, I would not have him miscarry for the half of my Critical Apparatus61dowry. Exeunt Olivia and Maria, severally

Editor’s Note Link 62

malvolio O ho, do you come near me now? No worse Link 63man than Sir Toby to look to me. This concurs directly 64with the letter, she sends him on purpose, that I may Editor’s Note65appear stubborn to him, for she incites me to that in the 66letter. 'Cast thy humble slough', says she, 'be opposite 67with a kinsman, surly with servants, let thy tongue Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus68tang arguments of state, put thyself into the trick of sin Editor’s Note69gularity', and consequently sets down the manner how, pg 173Editor’s Note70as a sad face, a reverend carriage, a slow tongue, in the Editor’s Note Link 71habit of some sir of note, and so forth. I have limed her, Editor’s Note72but it is Jove's doing, and Jove make me thankful. And Editor’s Note73when she went away now, 'let this Fellow be looked to'. Editor’s Note74Fellow!—not 'Malvolio', nor after my degree, but 'fel-Editor’s Note75low'. Why, everything adheres together that no dram of Editor’s Note Link 76a scruple, no scruple of a scruple, no obstacle, no incre- Link 77dulous or unsafe circumstance—what can be said?— Link 78nothing that can be can come between me and the full 79prospect of my hopes. Well, Jove, not I, is the doer of 80this, and he is to be thanked.

Critical ApparatusEnter Sir Toby, Fabian, and Maria
81

sir toby Which way is he, in the name of sanctity? If all Editor’s Note Link 82the devils of hell be drawn in little, and Legion himself Link 83possessed him, yet I'll speak to him.

pg 17484

fabian Here he is, here he is. (To Malvolio) How is't with Critical Apparatus85you, sir? How is't with you, man?

Editor’s Note Link 86

malvolio Go off, I discard you. Let me enjoy my private. 87Go off.

Editor’s Note Link 88

maria Lo, how hollow the fiend speaks within him. Did 89not I tell you? Sir Toby, my lady prays you to have a 90care of him.

91

malvolio Aha, does she so?

92

sir toby Go to, go to. Peace, peace, we must deal gently Editor’s Note93with him. Let me alone. How do you, Malvolio? How is't 94with you? What, man, defy the devil. Consider, he's an 95enemy to mankind.

Editor’s Note96

malvolio Do you know what you say?

Editor’s Note Link 97

maria La you, an you speak ill of the devil, how he takes 98it at heart. Pray God he be not bewitched.

Editor’s Note99

fabian Carry his water to th' wise woman.

Editor’s Note100

maria Marry, and it shall be done tomorrow morning, if 101I live. My lady would not lose him for more than I'll say.

102

malvolio How now, mistress?

103

maria O Lord!

104

sir toby Prithee hold thy peace, this is not the way. Do Editor’s Note105you not see you move him? Let me alone with him.

106

fabian No way but gentleness, gently, gently. The fiend Editor’s Note Link 107is rough, and will not be roughly used.

Editor’s Note Link 108

sir toby Why how now, my bawcock? How dost thou, 109chuck?

110

malvolio Sir!

Editor’s Note111

sir toby Ay, biddy, come with me. What man, 'tis not for pg 175Editor’s Note112gravity to play at cherry-pit with Satan. Hang him, foul 113collier.

114

maria Get him to say his prayers, good Sir Toby, get him to 115pray.

Editor’s Note116

malvolio My prayers, minx?

Editor’s Note117

maria No, I warrant you, he will not hear of godliness.

Editor’s Note118

malvolio Go hang yourselves all. You are idle shallow Editor’s Note119things, I am not of your element. You shall know more 120hereafter. Exit

121

sir toby Is't possible?

Editor’s Note Link 122

fabian If this were played upon a stage now, I could con Link 123demn it as an improbable fiction.

Editor’s Note124

sir toby His very genius hath taken the infection of the 125device, man.

Editor’s Note Link 126

maria Nay, pursue him now, lest the device take air and Link 127taint.

128

fabian Why, we shall make him mad indeed.

129

maria The house will be the quieter.

Editor’s Note130

sir toby Come, we'll have him in a dark room and bound. 131My niece is already in the belief that he's mad. We may Editor’s Note Link 132carry it thus for our pleasure and his penance till our 133very pastime, tired out of breath, prompt us to have Editor’s Note134mercy on him, at which time we will bring the device to pg 176Editor’s Note Link 135the bar and crown thee for a finder of madmen. But see, 136but see.

Critical ApparatusEnter Sir Andrew with a paper
Editor’s Note Link 137

fabian More matter for a May morning.

Link 138

sir andrew Here's the challenge, read it. I warrant Link 139there's vinegar and pepper in't.

Editor’s Note140

fabian Is't so saucy?

Editor’s Note141

sir andrew Ay—is't? I warrant him. Do but read.

142

sir toby Give me.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus143(Reads) 'Youth, whatsoever thou art, thou art but a 144scurvy fellow.'

145

fabian Good, and valiant.

Editor’s Note146

sir toby 'Wonder not, nor admire not in thy mind why I 147do call thee so, for I will show thee no reason for't.'

Editor’s Note Link 148

fabian A good note, that keeps you from the blow of 149the law.

150

sir toby 'Thou com'st to the Lady Olivia, and in my sight Editor’s Note151she uses thee kindly; but thou liest in thy throat, that is 152not the matter I challenge thee for.'

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus153

fabian Very brief, and to exceeding good sense (aside) 154-less.

Link 155

sir toby 'I will waylay thee going home, where if it be thy Critical Apparatus Link 156chance to kill me'—

157

fabian Good.

pg 177158

sir toby 'Thou kill'st me like a rogue and a villain.'

Editor’s Note Link 159

fabian Still you keep o'th' windy side of the law—good.

160

sir toby 'Fare thee well, and God have mercy upon one of Editor’s Note161our souls. He may have mercy upon mine, but my hope 162is better, and so look to thyself.

Editor’s Note163Thy friend as thou usest him, and thy sworn enemy,

164Andrew Aguecheek.'

Critical Apparatus165If this letter move him not, his legs cannot. I'll give't 166him.

Critical Apparatus167

maria You may have very fit occasion for't. He is now Editor’s Note Link 168in some commerce with my lady, and will by and by 169depart.

Editor’s Note Link 170

sir toby Go, Sir Andrew. Scout me for him at the corner Editor’s Note171of the orchard like a bum-baily. So soon as ever thou Editor’s Note172seest him, draw, and as thou draw'st, swear horrible, 173for it comes to pass oft that a terrible oath, with a swagEditor’s Note Link 174gering accent sharply twanged off, gives manhood more Editor’s Note175approbation than ever proof itself would have earned 176him. Away.

Link 177

sir andrew Nay, let me alone for swearing. Exit

Link 178

sir toby Now will not I deliver his letter, for the beha-Editor’s Note179viour of the young gentleman gives him out to be of 180good capacity and breeding. His employment between 181his lord and my niece confirms no less. Therefore this 182letter, being so excellently ignorant, will breed no terror Editor’s Note Link 183in the youth. He will find it comes from a clodpoll. But 184sir, I will deliver his challenge by word of mouth, set 185upon Aguecheek a notable report of valour, and drive pg 178Editor’s Note Link 186the gentleman—as I know his youth will aptly receive 187it—into a most hideous opinion of his rage, skill, fury, 188and impetuosity. This will so fright them both that they Editor’s Note189will kill one another by the look, like cockatrices.

Critical ApparatusEnter Olivia, and Viola as Cesario
Editor’s Note190

fabian Here he comes with your niece. Give them way Editor’s Note191till he take leave, and presently after him.

Editor’s Note Link 192

sir toby I will meditate the while upon some horrid mess193age for a challenge.

Critical ApparatusExeunt Sir Toby, Fabian, and Maria
Editor’s Note194

olivia I have said too much unto a heart of stone,

Editor’s Note195And laid mine honour too unchary out.

196There's something in me that reproves my fault,

197But such a headstrong potent fault it is

198That it but mocks reproof.

Editor’s Note199

viola With the same 'haviour that your passion bears

Critical Apparatus200Goes on my master's griefs.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 201

olivia (giving a jewel) Here, wear this jewel for me, 'tis my picture—

202Refuse it not, it hath no tongue to vex you—

203And I beseech you come again tomorrow.

204What shall you ask of me that I'll deny,

pg 179

Editor’s Note205That honour saved, may upon asking give?

206

viola Nothing but this: your true love for my master.

207

olivia How with mine honour may I give him that

Editor’s Note208Which I have given to you?

viola I will acquit you.

209

olivia Well, come again tomorrow. Fare thee well,

Critical Apparatus210A fiend like thee might bear my soul to hell. Exit

Critical ApparatusEnter Sir Toby and Fabian
Editor’s Note211

sir toby Gentleman, God save thee.

212

viola And you, sir.

Editor’s Note Link 213

sir toby That defence thou hast, betake thee to't. Of what 214nature the wrongs are thou hast done him, I know not, Editor’s Note Link 215but thy intercepter, full of despite, bloody as the hunter, Editor’s Note216attends thee at the orchard end. Dismount thy tuck, be Editor’s Note Link 217yare in thy preparation, for thy assailant is quick, skil-218ful, and deadly.

pg 180Critical Apparatus219

viola You mistake, sir, I am sure no man hath any quar-Editor’s Note220rel to me. My remembrance is very free and clear from any image of offence done to 221any man.

222

sir toby You'll find it otherwise, I assure you. Therefore, Editor’s Note223if you hold your life at any price, betake you to your Editor’s Note224guard, for your opposite hath in him what youth, Editor’s Note Link 225strength, skill, and wrath can furnish man withal.

226

viola I pray you, sir, what is he?

Editor’s Note Link 227

sir toby He is knight, dubbed with unhatched rapier and Editor’s Note Link 228on carpet consideration, but he is a devil in private 229brawl. Souls and bodies hath he divorced three, and Editor’s Note Link 230his incensement at this moment is so implacable that 231satisfaction can be none but by pangs of death and Editor’s Note Link 232sepulchre. 'Hob nob' is his word, give't or take't.

Editor’s Note233

viola I will return again into the house and desire some 234conduct of the lady. I am no fighter. I have heard of 235some kind of men that put quarrels purposely on others, Editor’s Note Link 236to taste their valour. Belike this is a man of that quirk.

pg 181 Link 237

sir toby Sir, no. His indignation derives itself out of a very Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus238competent injury, therefore get you on, and give him 239his desire. Back you shall not to the house, unless you Editor’s Note240undertake that with me which with as much safety you Link 241might answer him. Therefore on, or strip your sword Editor’s Note Link 242stark naked, for meddle you must, that's certain, or for- Link 243swear to wear iron about you.

244

viola This is as uncivil as strange. I beseech you do me Editor’s Note245this courteous office, as to know of the knight what my 246offence to him is. It is something of my negligence, 247nothing of my purpose.

248

sir toby I will do so. Signor Fabian, stay you by this Critical Apparatus249gentleman till my return.

Exit
250

viola Pray you, sir, do you know of this matter?

251

fabian I know the knight is incensed against you even to Editor’s Note252a mortal arbitrement, but nothing of the circumstance 253more.

254

viola I beseech you, what manner of man is he?

Editor’s Note255

fabian Nothing of that wonderful promise to read him by 256his form as you are like to find him in the proof of his 257valour. He is indeed, sir, the most skilful, bloody, and 258fatal opposite that you could possibly have found in any Editor’s Note Link 259part of Illyria. Will you walk towards him, I will make 260your peace with him if I can.

pg 182 261

viola I shall be much bound to you for't. I am one that Editor’s Note Link 262had rather go with Sir Priest than Sir Knight—I care Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 263not who knows so much of my mettle. Exeunt

Critical ApparatusEnter Sir Toby and Sir Andrew
Link 264

sir toby Why, man, he's a very devil, I have not seen Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 265such a virago. I had a pass with him, rapier, scabbard, Editor’s Note Link 266and all, and he gives me the stuck-in with such a mortal Editor’s Note Link 267motion that it is inevitable; and on the answer, he pays Link 268you as surely as your feet hits the ground they step on. Editor’s Note Link 269They say he has been fencer to the Sophy.

270

sir andrew Pox on't, I'll not meddle with him.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 271

sir toby Ay, but he will not now be pacified, Fabian can 272scarce hold him yonder.

273

sir andrew Plague on't, an I thought he had been va-Editor’s Note274liant and so cunning in fence I'd have seen him damned pg 183275ere I'd have challenged him. Let him let the matter slip Editor’s Note Link 276and I'll give him my horse, grey Capilet.

Editor’s Note277

sir toby I'll make the motion. Stand here, make a good Editor’s Note278show on't, this shall end without the perdition of souls. Editor’s Note279(Aside) Marry, I'll ride your horse as well as I ride you.

Critical ApparatusEnter Fabian, and Viola as Cesario

Editor’s Note280Aside to Fabian I have his horse to take up the quarrel, 281I have persuaded him the youth's a devil.

Editor’s Note282

fabian (aside to Sir Toby) He is as horribly conceited of 283him, and pants and looks pale as if a bear were at his 284heels.

285

sir toby (to Viola) There's no remedy, sir, he will fight Editor’s Note286with you for's oath' sake. Marry, he hath better be-Editor’s Note287thought him of his quarrel, and he finds that now scarce Link 288to be worth talking of. Therefore draw for the support-289ance of his vow, he protests he will not hurt you.

Editor’s Note290

viola (aside) Pray God defend me. A little thing would 291make me tell them how much I lack of a man.

Editor’s Note292

fabian (to Sir Andrew) Give ground if you see him furi-293ous.

294

sir toby Come Sir Andrew, there's no remedy, the gentle-295man will for his honour's sake have one bout with you, Editor’s Note296he cannot by the duello avoid it, but he has promised pg 184 Link 297me, as he is a gentleman and a soldier, he will not hurt 298you. Come on, to't.

299

sir andrew Pray God he keep his oath.

Enter Antonio
Editor’s Note300

viola (aside to Sir Andrew) I do assure you 'tis against my will.

Critical ApparatusSir Andrew and Viola draw their swords
Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus301

antonio (drawing his sword, to Sir Andrew) Put up your sword. If this young gentleman

Link 302Have done offence, I take the fault on me.

303If you offend him, I for him defy you.

304

sir toby You, sir? Why, what are you?

Editor’s Note305

antonio One, sir, that for his love dares yet do more

306Than you have heard him brag to you he will.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 307

sir toby (drawing his sword) Nay, if you be an under-308taker, I am for you.

Editor’s NoteEnter Officers
Editor’s Note309

fabian O good Sir Toby, hold. Here come the officers.

310

sir toby (to Antonio) I'll be with you anon.

Link 311

viola (to Sir Andrew) Pray, sir, put your sword up if you 312please.

Editor’s Note Link 313

sir andrew Marry will I, sir, and for that I promised you 314I'll be as good as my word. He will bear you easily, and Editor’s Note Link 315reins well.

pg 185 Critical ApparatusSir Andrew and Viola sheathe their swords
316

first officer This is the man, do thy office.

317

second officer Antonio, I arrest thee at the suit of 318Count Orsino.

319

antonio You do mistake me, sir.

Editor’s Note320

first officer No sir, no jot. I know your favour well,

Link 321Though now you have no seacap on your head.

322 (To Second Officer) Take him away, he knows I know him well.

Link 323

antonio I must obey. (To Viola) This comes with seeking you.

Editor’s Note324But there's no remedy, I shall answer it.

325What will you do now my necessity

326Makes me to ask you for my purse? It grieves me

327Much more for what I cannot do for you

Editor’s Note328Than what befalls myself. You stand amazed,

Link 329But be of comfort.

second officer Come, sir, away.

330

antonio (to Viola) I must entreat of you some of that money.

331

viola What money, sir?

332For the fair kindness you have showed me here,

Editor’s Note333And part being prompted by your present trouble,

Link 334Out of my lean and low ability

335I'll lend you something. My having is not much.

Editor’s Note Link 336I'll make division of my present with you.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus337Hold, (offering money) there's half my coffer.

antonio Will you deny me now?

pg 186

Editor’s Note338Is't possible that my deserts to you

Editor’s Note Link 339Can lack persuasion? Do not tempt my misery,

Editor’s Note340Lest that it make me so unsound a man

341As to upbraid you with those kindnesses

342That I have done for you.

viola I know of none,

343Nor know I you by voice, or any feature.

344I hate ingratitude more in a man

345Than lying, vainness, babbling drunkenness,

Link 346Or any taint of vice whose strong corruption

347Inhabits our frail blood.

348

antonio O heavens themselves!

349

second officer Come sir, I pray you go.

350

antonio Let me speak a little. This youth that you see here

Editor’s Note Link 351I snatched one half out of the jaws of death,

Editor’s Note Link 352Relieved him with such sanctity of love,

Editor’s Note353And to his image, which methought did promise

Editor’s Note354Most venerable worth, did I devotion.

Link 355

first officer What's that to us? The time goes by, away.

356

antonio But O, how vile an idol proves this god!

Editor’s Note357Thou hast, Sebastian, done good feature shame.

Editor’s Note358In nature there's no blemish but the mind.

Editor’s Note359None can be called deformed but the unkind.

Editor’s Note Link 360Virtue is beauty, but the beauteous evil

pg 187

Editor’s Note361Are empty trunks o'er-flourished by the devil.

Critical Apparatus362

first officer The man grows mad, away with him. Come, come, sir.

Critical Apparatus363

antonio Lead me on.

Exit with Officers
364

viola (aside) Methinks his words do from such passion fly

Editor’s Note365That he believes himself. So do not I.

366Prove true, imagination, O prove true,

367That I, dear brother, be now ta'en for you!

368

sir toby Come hither knight, come hither Fabian. We'll Editor’s Note Link 369whisper o'er a couplet or two of most sage saws.

Critical ApparatusThey stand aside
Editor’s Note370

viola He named Sebastian. I my brother know

371Yet living in my glass. Even such and so

Editor’s Note372In favour was my brother, and he went

373Still in this fashion, colour, ornament,

Link 374For him I imitate. O if it prove,

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 375Tempests are kind, and salt waves fresh in love!

Exit
Editor’s Note376

sir toby (to Sir Andrew) A very dishonest, paltry boy, and Editor’s Note377more a coward than a hare. His dishonesty appears in 378leaving his friend here in necessity, and denying him; Link 379and for his cowardship, ask Fabian.

Link 380

fabian A coward, a most devout coward, religious in it.

Editor’s Note381

sir andrew 'Slid, I'll after him again, and beat him.

pg 188 382

sir toby Do, cuff him soundly, but never draw thy 383sword.

Critical Apparatus384

sir andrew An I do not— Exit

Editor’s Note385

fabian Come, let's see the event.

Editor’s Note386

sir toby I dare lay any money 'twill be nothing yet.

Critical ApparatusExeunt

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
3.4 This huge scene (only the final scene is as long) covers a great deal of ground. For a discussion of some problems in sustaining it during performance, see Introduction, pp. 52–5.
Editor’s Note
1 him i.e. Cesario
he says he'll come (theatrical sleight-of-hand, since Olivia is not actually told of this till ll. 54–6)
Editor’s Note
2 of on. See note to 2.5.26.
Editor’s Note
3 youth … borrowed The usual proverb was 'Better to buy than borrow (or beg, or beg or borrow)' (Tilley B783). Olivia is trying to be worldly-wise in order to bolster her confidence, or, as John Russell Brown suggests, 'repeating old saws with a new understanding of their truth' (Shakespeare's Plays in Performance (1966), p. 209).
Critical Apparatus
3.4.4–5 I speak … civil] as pope; one line in f
Editor’s Note
5 sad … civil serious … respectful
Critical Apparatus
8–9 He's coming … possessed, madam] as pope; verse in f, divided after 'coming, madam'
Editor’s Note
9 possessed (by devils, mad)
Editor’s Note
13 tainted diseased
Critical Apparatus
14 As Maria goes … stockings] This edition; Enter Maluolio. f
Editor’s Note
14 As Maria goes … Stockings Some editors, including Wells in Oxford, give Maria an exit after call him hither, and delay Malvolio's entry, accompanied by Maria, until after Olivia's equal be (l. 15), so that Olivia speaks her couplet alone on a bare stage. Warren argues that the positioning of F's direction may imply that as Maria moves upstage to obey Olivia's order, Malvolio appears and thus makes an exit for her superfluous. This version has the advantage that Olivia and Malvolio vividly illustrate her point about sad and merry madness, the disadvantage that laughter at his appearance might drown her line.
Editor’s Note
17 ho, ho This presumably indicates that Malvolio laughs as well as smiles (see next line). John Russell Brown suggests that Laurence Olivier's Malvolio, a 'petty, ambitious vulgarian', focused an aspect of the character which comes to the fore in this scene as he 'addresses his mistress with "Sweet lady, ho, ho!" and with tags from popular ballads' (Shakespeare's Plays in Performance (1966), p. 208). See notes to ll. 22, 24, and 28–9.
Editor’s Note
18 upon a sad occasion about a serious matter
Critical Apparatus
19–22 Sad, lady … all'] as pope; verse in f, divided after 'sad', 'blood', 'that', 'true'
Editor’s Note
19 Sad The joke depends upon the two meanings of sad: Olivia means 'serious', Malvolio 'melancholy', thought to be caused by sluggish circulation, which leads naturally into his reference to obstruction in the blood in the next line.
Editor’s Note
21 the eye of one i.e. of Olivia—but by using an allusive rather than a direct style, Malvolio increases Olivia's bewilderment.
Editor’s Note
22 sonnet Not restricted, as now, to a fourteen-line poem but used of any lyric poem, as in Slender's 'book of songs and sonnets' (Merry Wives 1.1.181–2).
'Please one, and please all' A bawdy ballad, published in 1592, implying that all women want their own will, in the sense of sexual desire. Malvolio uses this bawdy familiarity in response to what he thinks is Olivia's will, as expressed in the letter, thus offending and alarming her the more.
Critical Apparatus
23 olivia] f2; Mal. f1; Mar. collier 1858 conj.
Why, how … with thee?] as pope; two verse lines in f, divided after 'man'
Editor’s Note
23 olivia This is F2's correction of f's Mal. It is surely correct (and not an error for Mar.) since Malvolio's familiarity in the previous speech must draw some reaction from Olivia herself; moreover, it is Olivia who uses the 'thou' form, from a lady to a servant (though Malvolio presumably takes it as affectionate familiarity), whereas Maria always addresses him as 'you'. f's Mal. could as easily be a misreading of Ol. as of Mar.
Editor’s Note
24 black in my mind i.e. melancholy (thought to be caused by black bile)
black … yellow The association of the two colours probably alludes to a popular song. 'In 1567 (?) appeared "A Doleful Ditty or Sorrowful sonet of the Lord Darnley … to be sung to the tune of Black and Yellow" ' (M. C. Linthicum, Costume in the Drama of Shakespeare and his Contemporaries (Oxford, 1936), p. 50).
Editor’s Note
25 It i.e. the letter—another knowing allusion from Malvolio, more bewilderment for Olivia.
Editor’s Note
26 roman hand fashionable Italian style, rather than the native English 'secretary' hand
Editor’s Note
27 to bed i.e. to cure his madness with sleep. Malvolio mistakes her solicitous concern for an amorous invitation.
Editor’s Note
28–9 'To bed … to thee' Morton Luce in the original Arden edition (1906) shows that this is another quotation from a bawdy ballad, of which slightly more is quoted in Richard Brome's The English Moor (1659) 1.3.68–9: 'Go to bed, sweetheart, I'll come to thee, | Make thy bed fine and soft, I'll lie with thee.'
Critical Apparatus
29.1 He kisses his hand] oxford (subs., after speech prefix); not in f
Editor’s Note
31 kiss thy hand i.e. blowing a kiss with his fingers, which Malvolio takes to be the courtly manners of a sir of note (l. 71). Compare Othello 2.1.175–7: 'it had been better you had not kissed your three fingers so oft, which now again you are most apt to play the sir in'.
Critical Apparatus
33–4 At your … daws] as capell; two lines in f, divided after 'request'
Editor’s Note
33–4 At your request … daws i.e. 'Shall I deign to reply to you? Yes, since even the nightingale sings in response to the crowing of a jackdaw' (thought to be both noisy and stupid, and so an apt way for Malvolio to describe Maria; compare 1 Henry VI 2.4.17–18: 'in these nice sharp quillets of the law, | Good faith, I am no wiser than a daw')
Editor’s Note
53 midsummer madness the height of insanity. A proverbial remark—'It is midsummer moon with you' (Tilley M1117)—rather than an indication of the season in which the play is taking place: compare 'More matter for a May morning' (l. 137).
Critical Apparatus
53.1 a] not in f
Editor’s Note
55 hardly with difficulty
Critical Apparatus
57 Exit Servant] capell; not in f
Editor’s Note
60–1 I would not … my dowry Beneath all the extravagant humour of the scene, this statement (though of course Malvolio mistakes its import) reminds us that Olivia does value Malvolio, and that he is reliable and dependable as a steward when not side-tracked into playing the lover.
Editor’s Note
60 miscarry come to harm
Critical Apparatus
61 Exeunt … severally] capell (subs.); exit f
Editor’s Note
62 come near me begin to understand me, i.e. to value me properly. Dent (N56.1) dates the expression from c. 1585.
Editor’s Note
65 stubborn harsh, rude
Critical Apparatus
68 tang] capell; langer with f; tang with f2
Editor’s Note
68 tang F reads 'langer with'; F2 corrects this to 'tang with'; Capell in turn emends to tang, omitting 'with' to bring it in line with the original letter (2.5.141). This is not absolutely essential, since not all quotations from the letter in the play are accurate. Tang is a rare word, apparently first used in this sense by Shakespeare (OED v.2 2), who himself uses it nowhere else as a verb.
Editor’s Note
69 consequently subsequently (the older use of the word (OED adv. 1))
Editor’s Note
70 slow deliberate (appropriate to one delivering arguments of state)
Editor’s Note
71 habit If each of the items in this list refers to a different aspect of Malvolio's appearance and behaviour, this may mean 'way of dressing', as at Hamlet 3.4.126: 'My father, in his habit as he lived.' Otherwise, it may refer to the preceding slow tongue, i.e. the manner appropriate to a sir of note, as at As You Like It 3.2.289–90: 'I will speak to him like a saucy lackey, and under that habit play the knave with him.'
sir of note distinguished gentleman
limed Birds were caught by smearing birdlime (a white sticky paste that dries very slowly) on branches. Shakespeare frequently uses this metaphorically, as at Hamlet 3.3.68–9: 'O limed soul that, struggling to be free, | Art more engaged!'
Editor’s Note
72 Jove See note to 2.5.162.
Editor’s Note
73 fellow The word originally meant 'companion' but became a condescending usage to inferiors (compare 5.1.9). Malvolio assumes that Olivia uses it affectionately.
Editor’s Note
74 after my degree according to my rank (as a steward)
Editor’s Note
75 adheres together that conspires to ensure that
Editor’s Note
75–6 dram of a scruple … scruple of a
scruple Both phrases mean 'scrap of doubt', 'minute obstacle'. A dram is a tiny weight. Scruple also means a tiny weight and, figuratively, a doubt or obstacle. This speech brilliantly brings out the logic of Malvolio's thinking, his steward's precision underpinning his fantasies—and perhaps, too, his puritan precision, for another contemporary name for puritan was 'precisian', 'one who is rigidly precise or punctilious in the observance of rules or forms' (OED, precisian).
Editor’s Note
76–7 incredulous or unsafe incredible or untrustworthy
Critical Apparatus
80.1 Sir] capell; not in f
Editor’s Note
82 drawn in little contracted into a small space (punning on 'painted in miniature')
Legion Sir Toby wrongly supposes this to be a devil's name, misinterpreting Mark 5:9, where the unclean spirit says 'my name is legion [= innumerable], for we are many'. As there seems to be no evidence that this was a common error, it is presumably Shakespeare's joke.
Critical Apparatus
85 How is't with you, man?] f; spoken by Sir Toby wilson
Editor’s Note
86 private privacy (OED's earliest citation in this sense (sb. B. 6))
Editor’s Note
88 hollow reverberantly (adverbial use, presumably commenting on a loud delivery of Go off in the previous line)
Editor’s Note
93 Let me alone leave him to me
Editor’s Note
96 Do you … say A puritan's indignation at being told to defy the devil by a drunk.
Editor’s Note
97 La you look you
Editor’s Note
99 water urine (to be analysed for signs of disease)
Editor’s Note
100 tomorrow morning (because the chamber-pot will have been filled during the night)
Editor’s Note
105 move anger
Editor’s Note
107 rough violent
Editor’s Note
108–9 bawcock … chuck terms of endearment: 'fine bird' (i.e. good fellow) … 'chicken' (also found together at Henry V 3.2.25–6)
Editor’s Note
111 biddy hen (perhaps Sir Toby imitates the clucking noise used to call in chickens)
Editor’s Note
112 gravity a man of dignity. Compare 1 Henry IV 2.5.297: 'What doth gravity out of his bed at midnight?'
cherry-pit a children's game in which cherry stones are thrown into a hole
Editor’s Note
112–13 foul collier dirty coalman (because of the Devil's blackness)
Editor’s Note
116 minx impertinent girl
Editor’s Note
117 he will … godliness (the ultimate insult to a puritan)
Editor’s Note
118 idle worthless
Editor’s Note
119 of your element at your (low, earthy) level. For the fashionable phrase, see note to 3.1.58.
Editor’s Note
122 now either (a) at this moment, or (b) the phrase 'used to introduce an important or noteworthy point' (OED adv. 10)
Editor’s Note
124 genius soul (literally 'attendant spirit')
Editor’s Note
126–7 take air and taint spoil (like leftover food) by exposure to air. This and the next three lines mark a major turning-point in the action. Malvolio's exit marks the end of the first section of the scene, and the success of the plot against him; but now it is given a darker twist as they resolve to make him mad indeed.
Editor’s Note
130 in … bound The customary treatment of madness, as in Dr Pinch's 'exorcism' of Antipholus and Dromio of Ephesus at Errors 4.4.95.
Editor’s Note
132 carry it thus continue the pretence
Editor’s Note
134–5 to the bar into the open (literally, open court)
Editor’s Note
135 finder of madmen one of a jury declaring a man to be mad
Critical Apparatus
136.1 with a paper] oxford; not in f
Editor’s Note
137 matter i.e. sport fit
May morning The reference is to May Day festivals, not necessarily to the time of year in which the action is taking place.
Editor’s Note
140 saucy (a) spicy (b) insolent
Editor’s Note
141 I warrant him I guarantee it. In Old English, him was the dative of the neuter 'hit', 'it', as well as of 'he', and was used as an alternative to 'it' into the seventeenth century (OED 2a). The usage recurs at ll. 178–9.
Critical Apparatus
143 Reads] rowe; not in f, which however prints the text of Sir Andrew's challenge in italic
Editor’s Note
143 thou … thou Sir Andrew has taken
Sir Toby's advice (3.2.41–2) to heart.
Editor’s Note
146 admire marvel
Editor’s Note
148 note remark
Editor’s Note
148–9 keeps you … the law i.e. protects you from a charge of breach of the peace
Editor’s Note
151 thou liest in thy throat you lie deeply, utterly. Sir Andrew thus gives Cesario the lie, the deadliest insult, only to withdraw it instantly—that is not the matter I challenge thee for—provoking fabian's comment in the next line.
Critical Apparatus
153–4 sense (aside) -less] wilson (subs.) sence-lesse f
Editor’s Note
153–4 sense (aside) -less F's 'sence-lesse' appears to use the hyphen to signal the aside.
Critical Apparatus
156 me'—] f (me.)
Editor’s Note
159 o'th' windy side to windward (a nautical phrase: something to windward would have difficulty approaching; also proverbial (Dent WW20))
Editor’s Note
161–2 my hope is better Andrew means that he expects to survive.
Editor’s Note
163 as thou usest him in so far as you treat me like one
Critical Apparatus
165 If] Toby⟩. If f
Critical Apparatus
167 You] f2; Yon f1
Editor’s Note
168 commerce transaction, conversation
Editor’s Note
170 Scout me for him look out for him
Editor’s Note
171 bum-baily A contemptuous colloquialism for a bailiff who crept up from behind to arrest a debtor. This line is OED's earliest citation under bum-bailiff. According to Onions, the -baily form was still found in Midlands usage in the twentieth century.
Editor’s Note
172 horrible horribly
Editor’s Note
174 twanged (suggesting nasal accent)
Editor’s Note
175 approbation credit
proof trial
Editor’s Note
179–80 of good capacity and breeding intelligent and well-bred
Editor’s Note
183 clodpoll blockhead
Editor’s Note
186 youth will aptly receive it inexperience will readily believe the report
Editor’s Note
189 cockatrices mythical monsters which killed with a glance (also called basilisks). 'The cockatrice slays by sight only' was proverbial (Tilley C495). The joke here is that these cockatrices kill one another.
Critical Apparatus
189.1 as Cesario] oxford; not in f
Editor’s Note
190 Give them way stand aside
Editor’s Note
191 presently immediately
Editor’s Note
192 horrid terrifying
Critical Apparatus
193.1 Exeunt … Maria] capell; not in f1] Exeunt f2
Critical Apparatus
195 out] theobald; on't f
Editor’s Note
194 heart of stone Proverbial (Tilley H311).
Editor’s Note
195 laid … unchary out exposed my honour too unwarily. Most editors follow Theobald in emending F's on't to out, citing what is assumed to be an identical error at Winter's Tale 4.4.159–60: 'He tells her something | That makes her blood look out' (for F's 'on't'); and F's Compositor B has a tendency to introduce redundant apostrophes. But F's line makes sense—'I have staked my honour too rashly on what I have said'—so this is a knife-edge choice. Theobald's version perhaps sounds minimally more natural.
Editor’s Note
199 'havlour that your passion bears behaviour that characterizes your love-sickness
Critical Apparatus
200 Goes] f; GO malone
griefs] f; grief rowe
Critical Apparatus
201 (giving a jewel)] oxford; not in f
Editor’s Note
201 jewel a miniature painting set in jewels
Editor’s Note
205 That honour … give that I may grant you, apart from yielding my honour (i.e. my virginity)
Editor’s Note
208 acquit you set you free from your vows of love
Critical Apparatus
210 Exit] f2; not in f1
Critical Apparatus
210.1 Sir] capell; not in f
Editor’s Note
211–12 thee … you Sir Toby uses the disparaging form, Viola the courteous one.
Editor’s Note
213 That defence … to't prepare to use the means of defence in your possession
Editor’s Note
215 intercepter one who lies in wait. This extravagant expression is the first of many used by Sir Toby to inflate Sir Andrew's prowess in order to terrify Viola; many of these are duelling terms drawn from Italian originals and glossed in John Florio's Italian/English dictionary A World of Words (1598), from which OED's earliest example of intercepter comes, glossing Italian intercettore (Florio, p. 187). OED's citation occurs under the variant spelling interceptor, which might give the actor of Sir Toby a hint for (mannered) pronunciation.
despite defiance and contempt
bloody as the hunter Alluding to the custom of smearing the victorious huntsman with the blood of his victim.
Editor’s Note
216 attends awaits
orchard end Probably end means 'boundary' (OED sb. 1c—its last citation is 1570) and orchard 'garden' (see note to 3.2.6)—i.e. Sir Andrew awaits Viola just outside the garden (the corner of the orchard, ll. 170–1) so that, with Viola's exit and Sir Andrew's simultaneous entry at l. 263, the audience may imagine that the scene changes to the street outside, where it is natural for Antonio to come across them. But see note to l. 263.
Editor’s Note
216 Dismount thy tuck draw your rapier. Dismount is another exaggerated term to emphasize the ferocity of the impending duel: it was used of guns and cannon (OED v. 6). Tuck is from Italian stocco, 'rapier' (OED sb.3).
Editor’s Note
217 yare prompt (from Anglo-Saxon gearo, 'ready')
Critical Apparatus
219 Sir, … sure‸] theobald (subs.); Sir‸ … sure, f
Editor’s Note
220 remembrance recollection, memory
Editor’s Note
223 hold your life at any price value your life. Compare Hamlet 1.4.46: 'I do not set my life at a pin's fee'.
Editor’s Note
223–4 betake you to your guard take up a position of defence (a fencing term, used again in Hamlet: see note to l. 267)
Editor’s Note
224 opposite opponent
Editor’s Note
225 withal an emphatic form of 'with', used at the end of a sentence (Abbott 196)
Editor’s Note
227 unhatched unhacked (OED ppl. a.2, from French hacher, to cut), i.e. worn for ornament rather than use
Editor’s Note
228 on carpet consideration for courtly rather than military reasons. OED, carpet, sb. 2c cites a heraldic work of 1586: 'A knight … may be dubbed … in the time of peace upon the carpet … he is called a knight of the carpet'. A possible pun on consideration—'financial reward' as well as 'reason'—may suggest a purchased knighthood.
Editor’s Note
230 incensement wrath
Editor’s Note
232 'Hob nob' have or have not: Shakespeare appears to gloss this in the following phrase give't or take't, i.e. either kill or be killed. OED, Hab, adv. (sb.) says that the phrase hab nab is known from 1550, and probably derives from Middle English habbe he, nabbe he ('have he, or have he not'). In this duelling context, it may have the force of the Italian hai ('you have it', i.e. you are stabbed), a duelling term mocked by Mercutio at Romeo 2.3.24, and even as he dies: 'I have it, and soundly, too' (3.1.108).
word motto
Editor’s Note
233–4 some conduct of an escort from
Editor’s Note
236 taste test
Critical Apparatus
238 competent] f (computent)
Editor’s Note
238 competent sufficient (in law), so requiring to be repaid. Hilda M. Hulme, Explorations in Shakespeare's Language (2nd edn. (1977), p. 165), argues that F's spelling 'computent' represents an independent word, but OED records 'computent' as a spelling of competent, and the sense seems adequate.
Editor’s Note
240 undertake that i.e. fight a duel. (Toby asserts that he is as dangerous as Andrew.)
Editor’s Note
242 meddle engage in a duel
Editor’s Note
242–3 forswear to wear iron about you give up wearing a sword (an admission of cowardice); compare 1.3.58
Editor’s Note
245 as to to (common Elizabethan usage; Abbott 280)
know of learn from
Critical Apparatus
249 Exit] f (Exit Toby.)
Editor’s Note
252 mortal arbitrement trial by combat to the death
Editor’s Note
255–6 Nothing … form from his outward appearance you cannot perceive him to be remarkable
Editor’s Note
259 Will you walk towards him F's punctuation, followed here, implies a conditional clause: 'If you will …' But another possibility is that Fabian builds up a fearsome picture of a skilful, bloody, and fatal opposite, and then asks casually Will you walk towards him? This is often the version adopted in performance.
Editor’s Note
262 Sir Priest Priests were called Sir, translating Latin dominus‎, because they were usually graduates.
Critical Apparatus
263 ⌈Exeunt⌉] f (Exeunt.)
Editor’s Note
263 mettle temperament, quality. Originally the same word as 'metal', the two senses were not entirely separated in Shakespeare's day.
Exeunt The Folio direction clears the stage, but the action is continuous. Fabian and Viola are visible to Sir Toby (ll. 271–2), and directors often make comic capital out of keeping both reluctant duellists on stage.
Critical Apparatus
263.1 Sir Toby and Sir] capell; Toby and f
Critical Apparatus
265 virago] f (firago)
Editor’s Note
265 virago woman warrior (suggesting great ferocity at odds with an unmanly appearance)
pass fencing bout, from Italian passado, thrust. Compare Romeo 2.3.24: 'the immortal passado'.
scabbard (implying a descent from a duel to a brawl)
Editor’s Note
266 stuck-in thrust, from Italian stoccata, which Shakespeare uses at Romeo 3.1.73. But Sir Toby's phrase has the vivid ferocity of stabbing about it as well; compare Hamlet 4.7.133, 'your venomed stuck'; and, for in, 'Tybalt under Romeo's arm thrusts Mercutio in', i.e. kills him (Romeo 3.1.88.2; the direction is from the 'bad' Quarto).
Editor’s Note
266 mortal fatal
Editor’s Note
267 motion 'A practised and regulated movement of the body; a step, gesture, or other movement acquired by drill and training, e.g. in Fencing' (OED sb. 3c). Shakespeare also uses motion in this sense, again in a fencing context, at Hamlet 4.7.129, 'When in your motion you are hot and dry', and Additional Passage L.2–3 (4.7.85 ff.): 'neither motion, guard, nor eye | If you opposed them.'
inevitable unavoidable, not to be parried
the answer your return attack
pays kills (puts paid to). Compare 1 Henry IV 2.5.193: 'Two I am sure I have paid'.
Editor’s Note
269 Sophy Shah of Persia (see note to 2.5.170)
Critical Apparatus
271–2 Ay, but … him yonder ] as capell; two verse lines in f, divided after 'pacified'
Editor’s Note
271–2 Fabian can scarce hold him Sir Toby means 'hold him back from attacking you'; what the audience usually sees is Fabian trying to prevent Viola from escaping.
Editor’s Note
274 cunning skilful
Editor’s Note
276 Capilet F's spelling here and at All's Well 5.3.149; in Romeo, it is 'Capulet'. OED lists both capil and capul as indifferent variants of an obsolete word 'caple', meaning 'horse'.
Editor’s Note
277 motion offer
Editor’s Note
278 perdition of souls loss of life
Editor’s Note
279 ride The second ride means 'make a fool of'.
Critical Apparatus
279.1 as Cesario] oxford; not in f
Editor’s Note
280 take up settle
Editor’s Note
282 is as horribly conceited has as terrifying an idea
Editor’s Note
286 for's oath' for his oath's (colloquial)
Editor’s Note
287 quarrel reason for the challenge
Editor’s Note
287–9 and he finds … vow The rules of the duello (see note to 1. 296) became so codified that duels were often fought for technical rather than substantial reasons. This is mocked by Mercutio at Romeo 3.1.102, 'fights by the book of arithmetic', and by Touchstone at As You Like It 5.4.88: 'we quarrel in print'; and Middleton makes it the turning-point of a play about duelling, A Fair Quarrel (c.1614): 'Oh, heaven has pitied my excessive patience, | And sent me a cause!' (3.1.112–13).
Editor’s Note
290–1 A little thing … of a man it would not take much to tell them how far I am from being a man (with sexual quibble on a little thing)
Editor’s Note
292–3 furious i.e. lose his temper
Editor’s Note
296 duello code of duelling, as set out for instance in the duelling manuals of Sir William Segar (The Book of Honour and Arms, 1590) and Vincentio Saviolo (His Practice … of the Rapier and Dagger, 1595)
Editor’s Note
300–1 Often much elaborate business intervenes in performance between these two lines, as Sir Toby and Fabian try to bring the duellists together.
Critical Apparatus
300.1 Sir Andrew … swords ] They draw rowe (after 'to't'); not in f
Critical Apparatus
301 drawing his sword] rowe (drawing (after 'defy you')); not in f
Editor’s Note
301 Put up sheathe
Editor’s Note
305 his Cesario's (or, as Antonio believes, Sebastian's)
Critical Apparatus
307 drawing his sword] Draws rowe; not in f
Editor’s Note
307–8 undertaker one who takes up, engages himself to, a challenge; compare 1. 240
Editor’s Note
308.1 Officers A distinct hierarchy seems to be operating here. The First Officer instructs the Second to make the arrest (in Errors one Officer has to do all the work himself) and seems the senior (a 'commanding officer'?): he is familiar with Antonio from the sea-fight, and even addresses Orsino as an equal at 5.1.54.
Editor’s Note
309–11 hold … sword up The hasty attempt of all concerned to conceal that a duel is taking place reflects the official disapproval of private duelling at this period.
Editor’s Note
313 that I promised you i.e. his horse, of which Viola has been told nothing: a moment of almost surreal comedy as the two are at complete cross-purposes in the middle of a duel that is becoming increasingly dangerous.
Editor’s Note
315 reins well responds to the rider's control, through the use of the reins
Critical Apparatus
315.1 Sir Andrew … their swords ] oxford (subs.); not in f
Editor’s Note
320 favour face
Editor’s Note
324 answer it i.e. defend myself, face the situation
Editor’s Note
328 amazed shocked. A stronger term in Shakespeare's day than now; compare Benvolio's words when Romeo stands in shock after killing Tybalt: 'Stand not amazed. The Prince will doom thee death | If thou art taken' (Romeo 3.1.134–5).
Editor’s Note
333 part in par
Editor’s Note
336 present ready money
Critical Apparatus
337 offering money] she proffers coin wilson; not in f
Editor’s Note
337 Hold … deny me now F's two short lines make up a hexameter; but the broken lines may be deliberate, with an astounded pause before Antonio asks Will you deny me now?
coffer money-chest (i.e. her purse—ruefully bombastic)
Editor’s Note
338 deserts services that deserve recompense
Editor’s Note
339 persuasion persuasive power
Editor’s Note
340 unsound morally defective (as kindness should expect no recompense)
Editor’s Note
351 one half out of the Jaws i.e. out of the jaws which had half-swallowed him
Editor’s Note
352–6 sanctity … image … venerable … devotion … idol … god Antonio uses the language of religion to express the intensity of his sense of betrayal (and so of his love). Shakespeare also uses such language in the Sonnets (see Introduction, p. 40), and in Helen's speeches in All's Well, for example: 'Indian-like, | Religious in mine error, I adore | The sun that looks upon his worshipper | But knows of him no more' (1.3.200–3).
Editor’s Note
352 sanctity great devotion
Editor’s Note
353 image appearance (with a play on 'religious image')
Editor’s Note
354 venerable worthy of veneration
Editor’s Note
357 Sebastian This must give Viola an intense shock, since it indicates that her brother is alive.
Editor’s Note
358 the mind i.e. in the mind, in character
Editor’s Note
359 unkind (a) cruel (b) unnatural (i.e. those who are deformed by nature)
Editor’s Note
360 beauteous evil Compare 1.2.45–6.
Editor’s Note
361 trunks o'er-flourished (a) chests decorated with visual flourishes (b) bodies prettified. This rather bizarre phrase perhaps suggests that Antonio's emotional shock makes him incoherent, as the First Officer implies in his next phrase, and as Viola too becomes in her next speech.
Critical Apparatus
362 The man … sir ] as dyce; two lines in f, divided after 'him'
Critical Apparatus
363 with Officers] theobald; not in f
Editor’s Note
365 That he … not I He believes what he says; I believe him to be mistaken. But So do not I may also carry the implication 'I hardly dare to believe that my brother is alive'.
Editor’s Note
369 saws sayings (referring to Antonio's couplets rather than to Viola's, which are spoken directly to the audience, out of Toby's hearing)
Critical Apparatus
369.1 They stand aside] oxford; not in f
Editor’s Note
370–1. I my brother … glass I know that my brother is still alive, looking like me (in her disguise, she presents a mirror-image of Sebastian)
Editor’s Note
372 favour appearance
Editor’s Note
372–3 went | Still always went about
Critical Apparatus
375 Exit] f2; not in f1
Editor’s Note
375 fresh i.e. are like fresh, not salt, water
Editor’s Note
376 dishonest dishonourable
Editor’s Note
377 more … hare (even) more cowardly than a hare. Proverbial: 'as fearful as a hare' (Tilley H147).
Editor’s Note
381 'Slid by God's eyelid (a mild oath)
Critical Apparatus
384 Exit] theobald; not in f
Editor’s Note
385 event outcome
Editor’s Note
386 yet after all
Critical Apparatus
386.1 Exeunt] rowe; Exit f
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