Hugh de Quehen (ed.), Samuel Butler: Prose Observations

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p. 1, l. 1. Travellers are allow'd to Lye. Cf. the proverb 'A traveller may lie with authority' (ODEP 836; Tilley, T476).

p. 1, ll. 14–16. Christians that travel, etc. Sir Henry Blount reports the Turks' 'confidence, to catch or buy up for Slave, any Christian they finde in the Countrey; nor can hee escape unlesse where he bee a setled knowne Merchant, or goe with some Protector' (Voyage into the Levant, 1636, p. 102).

p. 1, ll. 17–18. The Mahometan Religion, etc. 'They abhorre bloud, and things strangled, and care little for fish, or fonde, but often buy them alive, to let them goe; whereto they pretend no Metempsuchosis, or any other reason, but that of naturall compassion; wherein they are so good, as to let fowle feede of their Granaries' (idem).

p. 2, ll. 10–18. It was Queen Mary, etc. Cf. p. 276, ll. 26–31.

p. 2, ll. 32–3. Wine had no Share, etc. Cf. p. 231, ll. 29–31, and note.

p. 3, l. 11. Tu es Petrus. Matt. xvi. 18.

p. 3, l. 17. cry down Morality for Dirt. Cf. Ralpho's antinomian arguments in Hudibras, 11. ii. 233–50. Wilders cites Clement Walker, Compleat History of Independency, 1661, iii. 29: 'Their [the Independents'] fourth Principle is, That they may commit any sin, and retain their Sanctity in the very Act of sinning: For what is sinfull in other men, is not so in the Saints; who may commit any crime against the Law of God, and yet it cannot be imputed to them for sin.' Cf. p. 44, ll. 10–14.

p. 3, ll. 21–2. commit Iniquity upon the Tops of Houses. See 2 Sam. xvi. 22.

p. 3, l. 25. a Painted Sepulchre. Cf. Matt, xxiii. 27 ('whited sepulchres').

p. 3, l. 31. O. C.: Oliver Cromwell. He intended a thorough reformation of the law, and his Chancery Ordinance (21 August 1654) 'beat' the most notorious of the courts (D. Veall, The Popular Movement for Law Reform 1640–1660, Oxford, 1970, pp. 225, 180–3). But Cromwell's supervision of the courts is more probably in Butler's mind: the trial of Charles I or the administration of justice in the eleven districts of the major-generals.

p. 4, l. 1. Charity does not, etc. An allusion to the proverb 'Charity begins at home' (ODEP 115; Tilley, C251).

p. 4, l. 6. a wise Child, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 899; Tilley, C309).

p. 4, ll. 13–14. They who study Mathematicks, etc. 'So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be pg 305called away never so little, he must begin again' (Bacon, 'Of Studies', in Works, vi. 498).

p. 4, l. 27 n. as the Jewes did, etc. See Exod. xxxii.

p. 5, 1. 1 n. Not only over all this World, etc. Ovid, Metamorphoses, xv. 840–50, describes the ascent of Julius Caesar's soul ('luna volat altius ilia / flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem / stella micat'). For such flattery of later Caesars see: Suetonius, Augustus, c. 4; Lucan, Pharsalia, i. 45–7; Statius, Thebaid, i. 24–31.

p. 5, l. 3 n. as monkies are, etc. 'The CEPUS, or Martine Munkey' is described by Edward Topsell as having 'a long tail, the which such of them as have tasted flesh wil eat from their own bodies' (History of Four-footed Beasts and Serpents, 1658, p. 6).

p. 5, ll. 8–9. So Thousands dye, etc. See note to p. 168, ll. 1–2.

p. 6, ll. 7–12. No man can possibly, etc. Cf. p. 236, ll. 11–19.

p. 6, 1. 24. the Modern Way of Test. The Test Act of 1673 required that all office-holders under the Crown take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance, 'receive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the usage of the Church of England', and declare disbelief in transubstantiation (25 Car. II, C. 2).

p. 6, l. 25 n. that of lead and Bone Ashes. 'Let Knuckle-Bones, or other Bones be burnt very white … stamp them fine, and grind them upon a Grind stone fine as flower, then mosten such subtile bone-ashes … with strong Beer, and of this make Copels' (Assays of Lazarus Ercken, trans. Sir John Pettus, in Fleta Minor, 1683, I. 1, vi. 21–2). These cupels hold the precious metal and the lead with which it is 'proved' (ibid. I. 1. xxi. 57).

p. 7, l. 18. by the eares: 'a proverbial phrase, originally used of animals fighting' (Wilders, note to Hudibras, 1. i. 4). See ODEP 716; Tilley, E23.

p. 7, l. 27. collection: 'the act of deducing consequences; ratiocination; discourse' (Johnson, Dictionary).

Consequence: 'proposition collected from the agreement of other propositions; deduction; conclusion' (ibid.).

p. 8, l. 19. discourse. 'A judgement takes in two severall simple terms, and upon them passeth the sentence of their agreement or disagreement. A discourse takes into consideration two of the judgements already past … and from those two draws forth a third' ([Seth Ward,] Philosophicall Essay, 1652, ii. 58–9).

p. 8, ll. 29–31. who say the Ancients, etc. 'But there remaineth yet another use of Poesy Parabolical, opposite to that which we last mentioned: for that tendeth to demonstrate and illustrate that which is taught or delivered, and this pg 306other to retire and obscure it: that is when the secrets and mysteries or religion, policy, or philosophy are involved in fables or parables' (Bacon, Advancement of Learning, 11. iv. 4, in Works, iii. 344). See also Sprat, History of the Royal Society, 1667, p. 5.

p. 8, ll. 33–5. For as (Seneca say's), etc. 'I know that all those men, who will admonish any man, beginne with precepts and end in examples; yet must I alter this course. For some are to be handled in one sort, some other in an other. Some there are that will be perswaded by reason, to some we must oppose the names and authoritie of great persons to stay their mindes, that are astonished at the lustre of things' (Dialogues vi. ii. 1, in Works, trans. Thomas Lodge, 1614, p. 712). See also Epistolae Morales, xciv–xcv.

p. 9, l. 4. neare kin to a Ly. Cf. p. 65, ll. 8–21.

p. 9, ll. 14–24. It is very probable, etc. Cf. Rom. ix. 20–1.

p. 10, l. 5. streining of Knats, etc. Matt, xxiii. 24.

p. 10, l. 7. penny-wise, and Pound-foolish. Proverbial (ODEP 620; Tilley, P218).

p. 10, l. 15. De Coercendis Imperii Terminis. In Augustus' breviarum totius imperii: 'addideratque consilium coercendi intra terminos imperii' (Tacitus, Annales, 1. xi).

p. 11, l. 7. Sale-work: work of inferior quality, ready-made for sale. See p. 59, ll. 1–2.

p. 12, l. 9. Occasion of: need, or opportunity, for.

p. 12, l. 28. Present: attentive.

agreable: 'answering to the circumstances' (OED).

p. 13, ll. 13–17. Wit is like Science, etc. The emphasis on poetic universality, as opposed to the particularity of history, is ultimately Aristotelian (Poetics, ix. 1451b 5–7), but a more immediate concern is with the currently unfashionable particularity of early seventeenth-century writers. Cf. Sprat, History, p. 413:

It is requir'd in the best, and most delightful Wit; that it be founded on such images which are generally known, and are able to bring a strong, and sensible impression on the mind. The several subjects from which it has bin rays'd in all Times, are the Fables, and Religions of the Antients, the Civil Histories of all Countries, the Customs of Nations, the Bible, the Sciences, and Manners of Men, the several Arts of their hands, and the works of Nature. In all these, where there may be a resemblance of one thing to another, as there may be in all, there is a sufficient Foundation for Wit.

p. 13, ll. 13–15. as Arguments … Science. Locke refers to 'the improvement of Knowledge: which though founded in particular Things, enlarges it self by general Views; to which, Things reduced into sorts under general Names, are properly subservient' (Essay concerning Human Understanding, 1690, III. iii. 4).

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p. 13, ll. 21–2. to instruct, etc. Horace, De Arte Poetica, ll. 333–4 (discussing poetry in general):

  • aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae
  • aut simul et iucunda et idonea dicere vitae.

Among the Renaissance theorists, Guarini had had reservations about tragedy's 'delight' and preferred tragicomic release from melancholy to tragic purgation through terror, 'percioche gli effetti del purgare son veramente oppositi infra di loro, l'un rallegra, & l'altro contrista, l'un rilascia & l'altro ristinge' (Compendio della Poesia Tragicomica, p. 22, app. to Il Pastor Fido, Venice, 1602).

p. 13, ll. 23–5. the Ancient Romans cald, etc. Latin: ludus. Greek: παίδιά (amusement) and παιδϵία (education); see Plato's quibbling in Laws 656c.

p. 13, ll. 25–7. if any man should, etc. The standard defence of the heroic was to assert its exemplary value, as Spenser had done in his letter to Raleigh. Thus Davenant believes 'I have usefully taken from Courts and Camps, the patterns of such as will be fit to be imitated by the most necessary Men' (Gondibert, ed. D. F. Gladish, Oxford, 1971, Preface, p. 13).

p. 13, ll. 29–30. Images … Virtues. Hobbes uses these terms in his Answer to Davenant, ibid., pp. 49–50: Where the precepts of true philosophy fail, 'as they have hetherto fayled in the doctrine of Morall vertue', the philosopher's part devolves upon him 'that undertakes an Heroique Poeme (which is to exhibite a venerable and amiable Image of Heroique vertue)'.

p. 13, ll. 32–3. the best end of Tragedy, etc. This psychological argument, familiar from Lucretius, ii. 1–6, had not yet entered written discussions of tragedy, except that of Lorenzo Giacomini Tebalducci Malespini, 'Dela Purgatione dela Tragedia' (1586), in Orationi e Discorsi, Firenze, 1597, p. 30. Hobbes, to whom it would be congenial, comes closest to applying it to theatre in Human Nature, ix. 19. See Baxter Hathaway, 'The Lucretian "Return upon Ourselves" in Eighteenth-Century Theories of Tragedy', PMLA xlii (1947), 672–89.

p. 14, l. 10. The Stoicall Necessity.

The Destinies mainetaine their right precisely, there is neyther prayer that moveth them, nor misery or favour that altereth them. They observe their irrevocable course, they passe onward in an assured and unaltered order. Even as the water of violent streames neither turneth backe, nor stayeth, but every wave is forcibly driven one by an other that beateth at his backe: so the order of Destiny is governed by an eternall succession, the decree whereof is, not to change that which hath beene ordained and destinated.

But what meanest thou by this word Destiny, I thinke it to be an invincible and immutable necessity of all things and actions (Seneca, Quaestiones Naturales, xxxv–xxxvi, in Works, trans. Lodge, p. 793).

p. 14, ll. 24–5. That which the wise man, etc. The words of Agur in Prov. xxx. 8 (but compatible with Eccles. iv. 1, 6; vii. 7, 11–12; ix. 16; and passim).

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p. 15, ll. 5–6. being … discontinu'd : having ceased to be frequented or occupied.

p. 15, l. 16. if his eies had been open. Gen. iii. 7.

p. 15, ll. 18–19. the Devil and his wife, etc. Woman's complicity with the devil was proverbial in such sayings as 'the devil and his dam' (ODEP 179; Tilley, D225).

p. 16, l. 8. standing Measure: standard of measurement.

p. 17, l. 4. Declinations: declensions.

p. 17, ll. 4–5. Anomula's: anomalies; deviations from its grammatical rules.

p. 17, ll. 14–15. what the Levellers, and Quakers, etc. Typically, the Leveller William Walwyn, The Power of Love, 1643, p. 44, asks, 'as learning goes now adaies, what can any judicious man make of it, but as an Art to deceive and abuse the understandings of men, and to mislead them to their ruine?' The most forceful Quaker critic of learning was the Oxford M. A. Samuel Fisher, author of Rusticus ad Academicos, 1660.

p. 17, l. 33. Dispensations, and Gifts, and Lights: divine interventions, and inspirations, and revelations. Cf. Hudibras, 1. i. 473–6, where the fanatic Ralpho is said to have acquired his knowledge by 'Gifts' and 'New light', and see ibid. 1. iii. 1337–58 for his attack on Hudibras's scholarship.

p. 18, l. 14. make a virtue of Necessity. Proverbial (ODEP 861; Tilley, V73).

p. 18, l. 34. Conversation: acquaintance, society.

p. 19, l. 4. desigr'd; as. In C Longueville interlines 'Eccles. c. 8'.

p. 19, ll. 18–19. as the earth, etc. Gen. iii. 18.

p. 21, ll. 15–19. that shield that fell, etc. See Plutarch, Numa, xiii. The story goes that in time of plague this heaven-sent shield came into the hands of Numa for the salvation of Rome. The original shield, and the copies which the king had been told to have made, were kept in the Curia Saliorum.

p. 21, ll. 22–4. the Devil of Error, etc. 2 Cor. xi. 14.

p. 21, ll. 25–7. that Mistake, etc. Alexander, 'with Hephestion, one of the trustiest of his Friends', visited the mother of Darius. 'When they entred, in regard they were both habited alike, Sisygambres taking Hephestion for the King (because he was the more comely and taller Man) fell prostrate at his Feet' (Diodorus, XVII. xxxvii. 5, trans. G. Booth, 1700, p. 537). Cf. Arrian, Anabasis, II. xii. 3–8.

p. 21, l. 26. braver: more splendid in appearance.

p. 21, ll. 28–30. Truth is, etc. Cf. Hudibras, 1. i. 147, Butler's note, and p. 65 below, ll. 1–8, and note.

p. 22, l. 14. the Legend: the Golden Legend or Lombardica Historia, compiled by pg 309Jacobus a Voragine between 1255 and 1266, and consisting mainly of saints' lives and commentaries on Church festivals.

p. 24, ll. 8–10. Can any thing, etc. 'Avaritia vero senilis quid sibi velit non intellego: potest enim quicquam esse absurdius quam quo viae minus restet eo plus viatici quaerere' (De Senectute, xviii. 66).

p. 24, ll. 28–9. the Ægyptian Conjurers. '[The Egyptians'] Priests were their Judges, the eldest of which was chiefe in pronouncing sentence. He wore about his necke a Saphire Jewell, with the Image of Truth therein engraven' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, 1626, VI. IV. ii. 642). See also Exod. vii. 11–12. Conjurers: sorcerers, mystics.

p. 25, l. 2. to the third or fourth Generation. Exod. xx. 5; xxxiv. 7; Num. xiv. 18; Deut. v. 9.

p. 25, l. 3. the other unto thousands. Deut. vii. 9.

p. 25, l. 5. God see's no Sin in the Saints. 1 John iii. 9–10.

p. 25, ll. 7–8. When the Devil tempted Christ, etc. Matt. iv. 5; Luke iv. 9.

p. 25, ll. 13–14. clean and unclean Beasts. Gen. vii. 2, 8–9. Cf. Lev. xi.

p. 25, l. 14. Sacrifices of Cain, and Abel. Gen. iv. 3–5. Cf. Exod. xiii. 12; xxxiv. 19; Lev. xxvii. 26.

p. 25, ll. 14–16. Josephs refusing, etc. Gen. xxxix. 7–9. Cf. Lev. vi. 2 ff.

p. 25, l. 21. and not be Ignorant. In B Longueville interlines 'Vide Chillingw. c. 6. p. 290. aut', which would make a significant parallel in The Religion of Protestants, '3rd Impression', 1664; on p. 290 Chillingworth argues that 'faith is not knowledge, no more then three is foure, but eminently contained in it, so that he that knowes, believes, and something more, but he that believes many times does not know, nay if he doth barely and meerely believe, he doth never know' (edn. Oxford, 1638, p. 325).

p. 26, l. 6. The Turkes accompt mad men Saints. '[The Turks] have such as have lost their wits, and naturall Idiots, in high veneration, as men ravished in spirit, and taken from themselves, as it were to the fellowship of Angels. These they honour with the Title of Saints, lodge them in their Temples, some of them going almost Starke naked; others clothed in shreds of severall colours, whose necessities are supplyed by the peoples devotions, who kisse their Garments as they passe through the streets, and bow to their benedictions' (Purchas, Pilgrimes, 1625, II. VII. viii. ii. 1292).

p. 26, l. 9. David complaine's, etc. Ps. lxix. 9.

p. 26, ll. 12–13. Repentant Teares are, etc. 'God in some sort complaines against Samuel, when hee saith, How long wilt thou mourn for Saul? God could not (if one may say so) endure his lamenting, and not hearken to his suit. These are pg 310those waters which in a manner offer violence to heaven: The spirit of God moveth upon such waters, and they make a river of oblivion in Paradise' (Virgilio Malvezzi, Il Davide Perseguitato: David Persecuted, trans. Robert Ashley, 1647, p. 15).

p. 26, l. 14. States: republics, commonwealths.

p. 26, ll. 14–16. as the King of France, etc.

This Gabell is, indeed, a Monopoly, and that one of the unjustest and unreasonablest in the World. For no man in the Kingdom … can eat any Salt, but he must buy of the King and at his price, which is most unconscionable; that being sold at Paris and elsewhere for five Livres, which in the exempted places is sold for one. … This Salt is … imposed on the Subjects by the Kings Officers with great rigour, for though they have some of their last provision in the house, or perchance would be content (through poverty) to eat meat without it, yet will these cruell villaines enforce them to take such a quantity of them; or howsoever they will have of them so much money (P[eter] H[eylin], A Full Relation of Two Journeys, 1656, v. v. 265).

p. 26, l. 21. obedience is better then Sacrifice. 1 Sam. xv. 22.

p. 26, l. 24. Ostentation of Gifts: the display of personal inspiration which set prayers in the Anglican liturgy precluded (cf. 1 Cor. xii. 1, 4).

p. 27, ll. 4–5. as the Bishops did King James, etc. At the Hampton Court Conference, 1603, 'Wbitgift Arch-Bishop of Canterbury … with a sugred bait (which Princes are apt enough to swallow) said, He was verily perswaded, that the King spake by the Spirit of God' (Arthur Wilson, History of Great Britain, Being the Life and Reign of King James the First, 1653, p. 8). The Canons of 1604 assert 'that the Kings Majestie hath … the same authority in causes Ecclesiasticall that the godly Kings had amongst the Jews, & Christian Emperors in the Primitive Church' (Canon II). Persona mixta is a concept in patristic discussion of the Incarnation. 'Ergo persona hominis, mixtura est animæ et corporis: persona autem Christi, mixtura est Dei et hominis' (Augustine, Epistolae, cxxxvii. 11). For a concise historical account, see C. Dodgson, ed., in Library of the Fathers, x (Tertullian, i), Oxford, 1842, p. 48, note h. The Definition of Chalcedon (451) finally rejected the mixture of human and divine natures in the Person of Christ and affirmed One Person in Two Natures.

p. 27, ll. 20–1. those things: i.e. which pertain to the Church.

p. 27, ll. 29–31. It is no lesse Idolatry, etc. Cf. p. 174, ll. 10–13.

p. 27, l. 32–p. 28, l. 2. Æquivocation, etc. Cf. p. 234, ll. 24–30.

p. 28, ll. 6–8. Christ himself, etc. John xiii. 27.

p. 28, ll. 10–11. our Richard the third, etc. 'King Richard now by his wives death, having made himselfe way to marry another; useth all the alluring means he can devise, to win the love of the Lady Elizabeth his Neece [and sister of Edward V]' (Sir Richard Baker, Chronicle, 1653, p. 333).

p. 29, ll. 4–6. Livy Dec. 3. L 4. Prodigia, etc. Livy, XXIV. x. 6.

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p. 29, ll. 10–12. when our Savior, etc. Matt. iv. 2.

p. 29, ll. 12–13. St Peter denyd, etc. Matt. xxvi. 69–74; Mark xiv. 66–72; Luke xxii. 54–60; John xviii. 15–27.

p. 29, ll. 23–4. The Judaicall and Levitical Law, etc. The Law's delivery to Moses, Exod. xii, xx, etc.; Lev. i, etc.; Moses' civil magistracy, Exod. xviii. 13–16, etc.; delivery to Aaron, Exod. iv. 28, etc.; Aaron's priesthood, Exod. xxviii. 1–3.

p. 30, l. 14. Mythologies: interpretations.

p. 30, ll. 18–19. If any man, etc. Matt. v. 40.

p. 30, ll. 22–6. The one of things, etc. For a more detailed account see Cicero, De Natura Deorum, II. xxv. 65–xxvii. 68.

p. 30, ll. 24–5. when Ixion made love, etc. See Pindar, Pythian Odes, ii. 21–40.

p. 30, ll. 26–7. The other of Notions, etc. See Cicero, De Natura Deorum, II. xxiii. 61, III. xxiv. 61.

p. 30, l. 32. Porrum et cæpe, etc. Juvenal, Satires, xv. 9.

p. 31, ll. 4–11. It was the Profuseness, etc. 'Pope Julius was now dead, and succeeded by Leo the Tenth [1513–21], of the House of Medici. This Pope being over-munificent, endeavour'd to recover his Exchequer by a plenary Indulgence. These Favours of the Court of Rome used to be publish'd by the Hermites; but the Dominicans being look'd on as the best Managers, the Matter was put into their hands. These Men, it seems, flourish'd extravagantly upon the Virtue of Indulgences, and told the People they wou'd wipe out the Blemish of any Crime whatever' (Jeremy Collier, Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain, 1708–14, 11. ii. 7b). Cf. p. 41 below, l. 31–p. 42, l. 10.

p. 31, ll. 23–4. He that give's to the Poore, etc. Cf. Sir Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, ii. 13: 'He that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord: there is more rhetoric in that one sentence than in a library of sermons.'

p. 31, ll. 29–32. such a Stile as the great Turke, etc. '[While lists of his dominions are not favoured by the Sophy,] the prolixity of Titles and Epithites is no less redundant in another kind, adorning his Letters and Dispatches with hyperboles of his resemblance to the Sun; his affinity to the Stars; and agreement with the sweetest and rarest sorts of fruits, flowers, gems, &c. As also with the Epithites of wise, famous, sweet, victorious, mercifull, just, beautifull, couragious, &c.' (Sir Thomas Herbert, Some Tears Travels into Divers Parts, 1665, p. 226). For Turkish examples see Purchas, Pilgrimes, I. IV. i. ii. 344–5, II. IX. xv. xii. 1612; Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, 1598–1600, 11. i. 137–8, 192–3.

p. 32, l. 14. Originall: 'the fact of arising or being derived from something' (OED).

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p. 32, ll. 18–19. Cattle (of which the first Money, etc. 'Moreover Theseus coyned money, which he marked with the stampe of an oxe, in memorye of the bulle of Marathon, or of Taurus the captarne of Minos, or els to provoke his citizens to geve them selves to labour. They saye also that of this money they were since Hecatombœon, and Decabœon, which signifieth worth a hundred oxen, and worth tenne oxen' (Plutarch, Theseus, xxv. 3, trans. North, 1895–6, i. 54).

p. 32, ll. 20–1. Keepers of Parkes, etc. ' … as the keeper of a park claims the skins of all bucks he kills as his fee' ('A Broker', T 86r).

p. 32, l. 29. Circumstance: 'That which is not of the essence or substance: … what is adventitious or casual'; or perhaps simply 'a detail' (OED).

p. 33, l. 1. faith and hope, etc. See p. 149, ll. 8–10, and note.

p. 33, l. 2. the Devils believe and tremble. Jas. ii. 19.

p. 33, ll. 13–14. his mercy is above all his workes. I's. cxlv. 9.

p. 33, ll. 25–33. They that believe God dos not foresee, etc. Cf. Robert South, on Prov. xvi. 33: 'Things are not left to an æequilibrium, to hover under an indifference whether they shall come to pass or not come to pass; but the whole train of events is laid beforehand, and all proceed by the rule and limit of an antecedent decree … The reason why men are so short and weak in governing is, because most things fall out to them accidentally, and come not into any compliance with their preconceived ends … But now there is not the least thing that falls within the cognizance of man, but is directed by the counsel of God … whose influence in every motion must set the first wheel a going. He must still be the first agent' (Sermons Preached upon Several Occasions, 7 vols., Oxford, 1823, i. 205–7).

p. 34, ll. 9–10. Error as wel as Devotion, etc. Alluding to the proverbs 'Ignorance is the mother of devotion' (ODEP 396; Tilley, I17) and 'Ignorance the Mother of presumption, and of errors' (Giovanni Tornano, Piazza universale di proverbi italiani: or A Common Place of Italian Proverbs, 1666, i. 116, no. 14). Cf. 'Impudence is the Bastard of Ignorance' ('An Impudent Man', GR ii. 213).

p. 34, ll. 22–4. When Absolom, etc. 2 Sam. xv. 7.

p. 35, l. 4. Hoc est Corpus meum. Matt. xxvi. 26; Mark xiv. 22; Luke xxii. 19.

p. 35, ll. 5–6. to whom all times are present. Cf. South, Sermons, i. 204: 'God, by reason of his eternal, infinite, and indivisible nature, is, by one single act of duration, present to all the successive portions of time; and consequently to all things successively existing in them: which eternal, indivisible act of his existence, makes all futures actually present to him; and is the presentiality of the object which founds the unerring certainty of his knowledge.'

p. 35, ll. 7–8. Joseph is say'd, etc. Matt. i. 19.

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p. 35, ll. 8–9. Justice only, etc. Perhaps Heb. xii. 23.

p. 35, l. 15. occasions: personal needs.

p. 35, l. 32. Rebellion is sayd to be, etc. 1 Sam. xv. 23.

p. 36, ll. 7–9. St Paul was glad to appeale, etc. Acts xxv. 11.

p. 36, ll. 10–11. The Israelites, etc. Exod. i. 6–14.

p. 36, ll. 12–13 for being Poore, etc. Gen. xlvii. 1–6.

p. 36, ll. 15–16. 50000 Bethshemites were destroyd, etc. 1 Sam. vi. 19.

p. 36, ll. 27–8. Charity that can only, etc. See p. 149, ll. 8–10, and note.

p. 37, l. 11. Gathering of Churches: the process of voluntary association by which the Independent congregations came into being.

p. 37, ll. 11–12. Gathering of Grapes, etc. Matt. vii. 16; Luke vi. 44.

p. 37, l. 17. their Deliverance … by the Plagues. Exod. vii. 14–xii. 36.

p. 37, ll. 17–18. their second Captivity in Babilon. 2 Kgs. xxiv–xxv.

p. 37, l. 29. depraving: debasing (coinage).

p. 37, ll. 31–4. as this unnaturall Mixture, etc. Acts xv. 1–31.

p. 38, ll. 18–21. Pharo who was Destroyd, etc. Exod. iv. 21–xiv. 31, esp. xiv. 4.

p. 38, ll. 26–8. They became so unsatisfy'd. Exod. xiv. 11–12; xvi. 3; xvii. 3.

p. 39, ll. 1–2. Christ commanded the Devil, etc. Luke iv. 8.

p. 39, ll. 5–26. The Religion of the Pagans, etc. See p. 30, ll. 22–6, and note.

p. 39, l. 27. David put on Sauls Armour. 1 Sam. xvii. 38–9.

p. 40, ll. 12–17. An Excomunicate Jew, etc.

Ex iam ostensis liquet quid sibi velint Causæ … ob quas apud Judæos Talmudicos quis posset rite Excommunicari, id est eo usque pristina libertate consortii inter suos civilis privari ut nee intra quatuor cubitorum distantiam eorum cuiquam assidere ei fas esset, nee legitimi seu civilis hominum numeri pars aliqua, etiamsi præsens, interdum haberetur (John Seiden, De Anno Civili et Calendario Veteris Ecclesia seu Reipubliæ Judaicæ, 1644, xviii. 82–3).

In locis ab Hierosolymis decern amplius dierum itinere dissitis perpetuo ut ante (quoniam illue Apostoli seu Neomeniæ nuntii, maxime … Apostoli Tisri mensis, cuius dies 10 erat festum Expiationum illud Magnum, tempestive satis pervenire tunc nequibant) festa agunt duplicia (ibid. xvii. 82 ).

p. 40, ll. 18–22. Great Prilates, etc. 'That [formality] of adding DEI GRATIA in stiles, is now more proper to supremacie. … [Yet] heretofore those curious differences of Providentia or dementia Dei, which are now usd by Bishops and inferior Princes, were not so distinguisht from Dei Gratia, as later times (whose beginning I know not) have made them' (John Seiden, Titles of Honor, 1614, 1. vi. 116–17).

pg 314

p. 41, l. 5. Single Money: small change.

p. 41, ll. 9–12. when Adam, etc. Gen. iii. 11–15.

p. 41, ll. 13–17. The Inhabitants of the City, etc. Many believed that the disasters of 1665–6 were God's judgements: 'All the king's enemies and the enemies of monarchy said, here [in the Plague] was a manifest character of God's heavy displeasure; as indeed the ill life the king led, and the viciousness of the whole court, gave but a melancholy prospect' (Gilbert Burnet, History of his Own Time, i. 39–10). For further discussion of this attitude, and of the monarchists shifting the blame on to rebellious Londoners, see E. N. Hooker, 'The Purpose of Dryden's Annus Mirabilis', HLQ x (1946), 49–67.

p. 41, ll. 20–3. Vasa πϵριρραντήρια‎, etc. Transcribed from Lipsius' comment on 'aqua perluere' (Tacitus, Historiae, IV. liii, in Opera, Geneva, 1619, ii. 527). For the derivation of 'delubra' Lipsius is deleting as spurious 'mortuorum' in 'Alii delubra dicunt ea templa, in quibus sunt labra corporum abluendorum mortuorum, ut Dodonæi Iovis aut Appolinis Delphici, in quorum delubris lebetes tripodesque visuntur' (which he quotes from pseudo-Asconius, comment on 'delubris' in Cicero, In Caecilium Divinatio, i. 3).

p. 41, ll. 24–6. as the Turkes Janizares, etc. In the time of Amurath, third king of the Turks, 'it was ordained that for the augmentation of this Militia [the Janizaries], every fifth Captive taken from the Christians, above the age of 15 years, should be the dues of the Sultan who at first were to be distributed amongst the Turkish Husbandmen in Asia, to learn and be instructed in the Turkish Language and Religion…. In former times this Militia consisted only of the Sons of Christians, educated in the Mahometan Rights; but of late that politick Custom hath been disused' (Sir Paul Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, 1668, III. vii. 190–1).

p. 41, ll. 31–2. our King Harry's Codpiece. The writer of 'Tie Court Burlesqu'd' observes of 'Old Harry's C - - piece in the Tower':

  • Besides, it brought into this Nation,
  • So Great a thing as Reformation;
  • And therefore, to our Lady's Eyes,
  • Can be of no disdainful Size.
  • (Posthumous Works … by Mr Samuel Butler, 1715, p. 23.)

p. 42, l. 1. Pope Leo the tenth. See p. 31, ll. 4–11, and note.

p. 42, ll. 5–6. his Mistrises and Favorites. 'Non caruit etiam infamia, quod parum honeste non nullos e cubiculariis (erant enim e tota Italia nobilissimi) adamare, & cum his tenerius atque libere iocari videretur. Sed quis vel optimus atque sanctissimus princeps in hac maledicentissima aula lividotum aculeos vitavit? & quis ex adverso tam maligne improbus ac invidiæ tabe consumptus, ut vera demum posset obiectare, noctium secreta scrutatus est?' (Paulus Jovius, De Vita Leonis Decimi, Florence, 1549, iv. 98–[99].)

pg 315

p. 42, ll. 7–9. untill the oppression grew Intollerable, etc. 'This shame, and dishonor was increased in the Country of Saxony, and other parts of Germany, when it was known, that the proceed, and benefit of those Indulgences, extorted with great rigor and avarice by the Bishop of Arembauld, … was not to be paid in to the Apostolical Chamber at Rome, but given to Magdalen, Sister to the Pope, and devoted to the avarice of a Woman; for then the matter became detestable, and the cries and exclamations lowed in all parts of Germany' (Sir Paul Rycaut, Pt. ii to Platina, Lives of the Popes, p. 36).

p. 42, l. 8. improve: enhance in monetary value (OED).

p. 42, ll. 12–14. writing (or owning) of Polemique Bookes, etc. 'On the second of February [1522], king Henry … received a Bull from the Pope, whereby he had the Title given him to be defender of the Christian Faith, for him and his successors for ever; which Title was ascribed to him, for writing a Book [Assertio Septem Sacramentum] against Luther as it was given out: but thought to be written, by Sir Thomas Moor, or by Fysher Bishop of Rochester' (Baker, Chronicle, p. 384).

p. 42, l. 23. The Councell of Trent. This Council (1545–63) held meetings during the pontificates of Paul III, Julius III, and Pius IV.

p. 42, l. 33. Gibellins: an Imperial, opposed to the Papal, faction in the Italian states.

p. 43, ll. 27–8. Preaching masters perpetually Cry down Nature. For instance, John Webster, The Saints Guide, 1654, p. 2: 'The Natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them because they are spiritually discerned. A natural man cannot know them by any natural power or acquisition. But the man of the most and greatest acquired knowledg in the World is no more then a natural man: For that which is born of the flesh is but flesh, not spirit. Therefore can he not understand the things of the Spirit of God; they are otherwise discovered, that is, spiritually, not carnally.'

p. 43, l. 31. holding forth: sermonizing. See Wilders, note to Hudibras, 11. iii. 353.

p. 44, ll. 4–5. brand's with the Names of Hypocrites. Matt, xxiii. 13, 14, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29.

p. 44, ll. 10–14. The Godly, etc. Cf. p. 3, l. 17. and note.

p. 44, ll. 16–17. Mandates to inable them, etc. Royal dispensation, in letters mandate, could relieve a candidate of the exercises required for a degree.

p. 44, l. 20. Chapmen: men whose business is to buy and sell.

p. 45, ll. 3–7. The First Quarrell, etc. Gen. iv. 3–8. Cf. Dryden, Hind and the Panther, i. 279–81.

p. 45, ll. 12–13. Jewes that sacrific'd their Children. 2 Kgs. xvii. 17; Ps. evi. 37–8.

pg 316

p. 45, ll. 31–2. as St Peter, etc. Matt. iv. 18–22; Mark i. 16–20; Luke v. 2–11.

p. 45, ll. 33–4. as St Mathew, etc. Matt. ix. 9.

p. 45, l. 35.–p. 46, l. 1. Our Savior commanded, etc. Matt. xix. 21; Mark x. 21; Luke xviii. 22.

p. 46, l. 3. St Paul was stricken Blinde. Acts ix. 3–9.

p. 46, ll. 7–14. The originall of worshipping Images, etc. Cf. Browne, Pseudodoxia, 1. v, ix.

p. 46, ll. 12–14. their Adoration of Crocodiles, etc. 'Even the so much undervalu'd Ægyptians themselves never yet decreed divine Honours to any Creature from which they received not some considerable Benefit. Their Ibes destroy multitudes of Serpents…. I could shew the advantages they reap by Ichneumons, Cats, and Crocodiles' (Cicero, Nature of the Gods, I. xxxvi. 101, trans. 1683, P. 57).

p. 46, l. 17. the smaller Numbers are always prefer'd. Cf. Matt. xx. 16: 'many be called, but few chosen.'

p. 46, l. 19. universality, and Generall Consent. '[Catholics believe] That the true notes of the Church are, Universality, Antiquity, Continuance, Multitude, succession of Bishops, from the Apostles Ordination, Unity in Doctrine, Unity among the members themselves, and with their head' (Alexander Ross, πανσϵβϵια:‎ Or, a View of All Religions, 1653, xiii. 464).

p. 46, l. 21. Roman Immolation. 'The Priest having brought the sacrifice to the Altar, used to pray, laying his hand on the Altar; Musick in the mean time sounding. Then he layeth on the head of the beast, Corn or a Cake, with Salt and Frankincense, this was called Immolatio from mola the Cake' (ibid, iv. 104).

p. 46, l. 24. Without a Parable be spoke nothing. Matt. xiii. 34; Mark iv. 34.

iv. 46, ll. 26–7. killing a Slave, etc. See Jonson, Catiline, i. 483–6:

  •                    I'have kill'd a slave,
  • And of his bloud caus'd to be mixt with wine.
  • Fill every man his bowl. There cannot be
  • A fitter drinke, to make this sanction in.

Sallust's sceptical report (which omits mention of a slave) continues, 'post exsecrationem' all tasted it, 'sicuti in sollemnibus sacris fieri consuevit' (Catiline, xx. 2), which could be mistaken to include the blood as customary. Cf. Dio Cassius, XXXVII. xxx. 4, and (for a similar incident) Diodorus, XXII. v. 1. Oldham, Satires upon the Jesuits, i. 8–15, uses the same allusion.

p. 46, ll. 27–9. both the old Law, etc. Gen. ix. 4; Acts xv. 29.

p. 46, l. 30. Christ (who cald himself life). John xi. 25; xiv. 6.

pg 317

p. 46, l. 34.–p. 47, l. 2.. So the Jewes, etc. John ii. 19–21; Matt. xxvi. 61; Mark xiv. 58.

p. 47, l. 13. Officer. Judas was the Apostles' treasurer (John xiii. 29).

p. 47, l. 17. believd in him, etc. Jas. ii. 19.

p. 47, ll. 18–22. the Devill tempted him, etc. Matt. iv. 5–11; Luke iv. 5–13.

p. 48, ll. 1–2. they Bent the knee. 1 Kgs. xix. 18.

p. 48, l. 8. divided the Empire. Presumably the (re)division of the Imperial administration on the death of Constantine in 337.

p. 48, ll. 22–3. by their Assistance, etc. While the Eastern emperors retained land in Italy (up to 1071), it was Charlemagne who crushed, but never drove out, the Lombards. 'Charles receiving from Adrian Intelligence of the injury which had been done him, sends Ambassadours to Desiderius to persuade him to restore what he had wrongfully taken from the Pope … [The Lombard king refuses, so Charles invades] Itely, where encountring Desiderius, he vanquishes and puts him to flight, and then takes and spoils his whole Countrey…. Thus ended the Kingdom of the Lombards, in the two hundred and fourth year after their coming into Italy, and in the year of our Lord seven hundred seventy six' (Platina, Lives of the Popes, pp. 146–7).

p. 48, ll. 37–8. as they did to our Will: 2, etc. William II and Henry I both succeeded despite the claim of their elder brother, Duke Robert of Normandy; Stephen despite Henry I's daughter Maude; John despite his brother Geoffrey's son Arthur (Baker, Chronicle, pp. 46–7, 55–6, 66 ff., 99 ff.).

p. 49, ll. 17–18. who in Charity, etc. An allusion to the proverb 'Charity begins at home' (ODEP 115; Tilley, C251).

p. 49, l. 19. this Treasury of the Church. See p. 49, l. 29.p. 50, l. 3. and note.

p. 49, ll. 23–6. The Church of Rome, etc. '[Catholics] say Christ is the meritorious cause of our justification, but the formal cause is either intrinsecal, & that is the habit of infused grace; or extrinsecal, to wit, the righteousness of Christ; or actual, which are our good workes; so that heer is a threefold formal cause: they teach that justification consisteth not in the bare remission of sins, but also in the inward renovation of the mind. That we are not onely justified, but also saved by good works, as efficient causes' (Alexander Ross, πανσϵβϵια‎, xiii. 457).

p. 49, l. 29.–p. 50, l. 3. they found out another expedient, etc.

But after the Tenth Century … the Popes … called it [indulgence] a plenary Remission, and the pardon of all Sins: which the World was taught to look on as a thing of a much higher nature, than the bare excusing of Men from Discipline and Penance. Purgatory was then got to be firmly believed, and all Men were strangely possessed with the terror of it: So a deliverance from Purgatory, and by consequence an immediate admission into Heaven, was believed to be the certain effect of it. And pg 318to support all this, the Doctrine of Counsels of Perfection, of Works of Supererogation, and of the Communication of those Merits, was set up; and to that, this was added, That a Treasure made up of these, was at the Pope's disposal, and in his keeping' (Gilbert Burnet, Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles, 1699, Art. xiv, p. 137).

p. 50, ll. 2–3. as the Spanish Friers, etc. 'Barbarie and chiefly therein Algier ' holdeth captive in miserable servitude, one hundred and twentie thousand Christians, almost all subjects of the King of Spaine … To the Redemption of Captives by the Orders of the Trinitie, and of Saint Marie de Mercede in Spaine and Italy, are yeerly gathered about one hundred and fiftie thousand Duckets' (Purchas, Pilgrimes, II IX. xii. vi. 1565).

p. 50, l. 19. Actions: supplies relative to demand.

p. 50, l. 25. at so little in the Hundred: at so low a percentage premium.

p. 50, l. 31. lick up it's old vomit. Proverbial (ODEP 196; Tilley, D455).

p. 50, l. 32. eversince the Church-lands were Sold. On 19 October 1646 'An Ordinance for appointing the Sale of the Bishops Lands, for the Use of the Commonwealth, was this day read the First and Second time' (Commons Journals, iv. 699). 'By the State of the Accompt of the late Bishops Lands, bearing the Date the Fourth of March 1650, delivered into the Parliament, it appears, that … there was then discharged, and to be discharged, by Purchases made before that Time, to be paid for in ready Money and Goldsmiths-Hall Bills, the Sum of 371, 669l. 8s. 7d.' (ibid. vii. 22).

p. 51, ll. 3–7. in the late Contest, etc. The contest in 1673 lasted from 5 February to 7 March, when Charles cancelled his Declaration of Indulgence. A part of the episcopate was often credited with Catholic sympathies, notably Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely (Burnet, History of His Own Time, i. 321), but the bishops worked to arouse antipapal feeling against the Declaration: 'The bishops, he of London [Henchman] in particular, charged the clergy to preach against popery, and to inform the people aright in the controversies between us and the church of Rome' (ibid. i. 555). See also Marvell, Rehearsal Transpros'd, ed. D. I. B. Smith, Oxford, 1971, p. 119. The truth is that assemblies of Protestant dissenters threatened conformist congregations, and it was hardly the bishops' 'certaine Interest' to have them freed by the same Indulgence. On 27 February the Commons resolved upon a bill for the relief of Protestant dissenters alone, which in the words of George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, 'would have bin an establishment of Schisme by a Law' (Bodl. MS. Tanner 42, fo. 7). In manœuvring against this bill the bishops might have looked pro-catholic, for the Lords amendments not only acknowledged the king's dispensing power, but omitted doctrinal tests, whereby, the Commons objected, 'Liberty might be given to Popery, and all Heresies and Sects whatsoever' (Lords Journals, xii. 580). The bill was abandoned. See Frank Bate, The Declaration of Indulgence, 1908, pp. 125–7.

pg 319

p. 51, l. 6. Stales: decoy birds, persons 'made use of … as a cover for sinister designs' (OED).

p. 51, ll. 11–16. the generall Il will, etc. 'The truth is our Bishops slipt the occasion; since had they held a steady hand upon his Majesties restauration, as easily they might have don, The Church of England had emerg'd & flourish'd without interruption; but they were then remisse, & covetous after advantages of another kind, whilst his Majestie suffer'd them to come into an harvest, which without any injustice he might have remunerated innumerable gallant Gentlemen with for their services, who had ruin'd themselves for him in the late rebellion' (Evelyn, Diary, 12 Mar. 1672; ed. de Beer, 6 vols., Oxford, 1955, iii. 609). Cf Clarendon, Continuation, pars. 189–90.

p. 51, ll. 29–30. a Ballance, etc. Cf. p. 159, ll. 23–4, and note.

p. 51, ll. 30–1. Fishers of Men. Matt. iv. 19; Mark i. 17.

p. 51, ll. 33–4. the Fox in the Fable, etc. 'I will conclude with a famous tale of one of these crafty animals [foxes]; that having killed a goose on the other side of the river, and being desirous to swimme over with it, to carry it to his denne … (least his prey might prove too heavy for him to swimme withall, and so he might loose it) he first weighed the goose with a piece of wood, and then tryed to carry that over the river, whiles he left his goose behind in a safe place' (Sir Kenelm Digby, Treatise of Bodies, xxxvi. 3, in Two Treatises, Paris, 1644, p. 308). Cited by Wilders, comment on Hudibras, III. i. 672, where the same allusion occurs.

p. 52, ll. 7–8. as a Thief is, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 810; Tilley, Tuo).

p. 52, ll. 13–14. as the best saints, etc. Cf. Sir Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, ii. 10: 'Magne virtutes nee minora vitia, it is the posie of the best natures, and may bee inverted on the worst; there are in the most depraved and venemous dispositions, certaine pieces that remaine untoucht; which by an Antiperistasis become more excellent … For it is also thus in nature. The greatest Balsames doe lie enveloped in the bodies of most powerfull Corrosives.'

p. 52, ll. 15–16. of their Conversations: for dealings with them.

p. 52, l. 21. Conversations: conduct in society.

p. 52, l. 22. discerning of Spirits. 1 Cor. xii. 10.

p. 52, l. 27. Purchaces: (irregular) profits.

p. 52, ll. 31–2. Compassing of widdows Houses. Matt, xxiii. 14 ('devour widows' houses'), if ('compass sea and land'). The sense 'grasp physically' could attach to 'compass'.

p. 52, l. 32. tithing of Mint. Luke xi. 42.

p. 53, l. 4. turne: convert.

p. 53, ll. 6–7.. the virtuoso's Trick, etc. See illustration 320

The Virtuoso's Trick.' From John Wilkins, Mathematicall Magick 1648 p.98 (Reproduced by permission of the Bodleian Library, FINCH.Z.10)

The Virtuoso's Trick.' From John Wilkins, Mathematicall Magick 1648 p.98 (Reproduced by permission of the Bodleian Library, FINCH.Z.10)

The whole force of this engine doth consist in two double Pulleys, twelve wheels, and a sail. One of these Pulleys at the bottome will diminish half of the weight [of 4,000,000,000 lb., supposed equivalent to uprooting an oak], so that it shall be but as 2000000000, and the other Pulley will abate ¾ three quarters of it: so that it shall be but as 1000000000. And because the beginning of the string being fastned unto the lower Pulley, makes the power to be in a subquintuple proportion unto the weight, therefore a power that shall be as 1000000000, that is, a subquadruple, will be so much stronger then the weight, and consequently able to move it. Now suppose the breadth of all the axes and nuts, to be unto the Diameters of the wheel as ten to one; and it will then be evident, that to a power at the first wheel, the weight is but as 100000000. To the second as 10000000…. To the twelfth as 1 1000 . And to the sails yet lesse. So that if the strength of the straw, or hair, or breath, be but equall to the weight of one thousandth part of a pound, it may be of sufficient force to pull up the Oak (John Wilkins, Mathematicall Magick, 1648, 1, xiv. 99–100; plate, p. 98).

pg 321

p. 53, ll. 19–21. Our Savior calls, etc. Matt. xxi. 13; Mark xi. 17.

p. 54, l. 5. as the Devill, etc. Matt. xiii. 25.

p. 54, ll. 16–17. The Day that thou eatest, etc. Gen. ii. 17.

p. 54, l. 17. he liv'd some Hundreds, etc. Gen. v. 5.

p. 54, ll. 19–21. But the Serpent, etc. Gen. iii. 14–15.

p. 54, ll. 24–5. when their very prayers, etc. Matt. vi. 6.

p. 55, l. 1. docible: tractable.

p. 55, ll. 4–5. the bloud of the Martyrs, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 69; Tilley, B457).

p. 55, l. 8. impost: ?compost. Not in OED.

p. 56, l. 1. chargeable: burdensome (financially).

p. 57, l. 19. Island Shocks: shag-haired lap-dogs, said to have come from Iceland. See OED, s.v. 'Shough'.

p. 57, l. 22. Caprich: 'an humor, a fancy, a toy in ones head, a giddy thought' (Blount, Glossographia).

p. 58, l. 13. Jump: act in concord; respond to one another. Cf. Hudibras, I. iii. 1239–40. 'Good wits jump' is proverbial (ODEP 326; Tilley, W578).

p. 58, ll. 20–1. wit and Fancy are, etc. 'Time and education begets experience; Experience begets memory; Memory begets Judgement, and Fancy; Judgement begets the strength and structure; and Fancy begets the ornaments of a Poeme' (Hobbes, 'Answer to the Preface', in Davenant, Gondibert, p. 49).

p. 58, ll. 25–7. those silly Indians, etc. The Indians of Virginia who captured Capt. John Smith in 1607 'brought him a b[a]gge of Powder, which they carefully preserved till the next spring, to plant as they did their Corne, because they would be acquainted with the nature of that seede' (Purchas, Pilgrimes, IV. IX. iv. ii. 1709).

p. 59, l. 4. a Cheat is worse, etc. Cf. the proverbs 'A liar is worse than a thief' (ODEP 457; Tilley, L218) and 'A tale-bearer is worse than a thief' (ODEP 803; Tilley, T55).

p. 59, l. 9. Tuition: custody of a ward. In law the victim, being 'out of his Reason, and Senses', is a ward of the king, from whom his guardianship should be begged. See Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 1765–9, III. xvii. 258, xxvii. 427; Joel Hurstfield, The Queen's Wards, 1958, pp. 72–6.

p. 59, l. 18. Humorists: persons 'subject to "humours" or fancies' (OED).

p. 59, l. 26. taken by violence, etc. On heaven taken by violence see Matt, xi. 12.

pg 322

p. 59, l. 29. who was truth it self. John xiv. 6.

p. 60, l. 1. si Natura, etc. Juvenal, Satires, i. 79 (… indignatio versum).

p. 60, ll. 6–10. He who first, etc. The Greek poet Archilochus (probably eighth century B.C.) developed in its early form the iambic metre, especially suited to satire. Tradition has it that both the father Lycambes and his daughter Neobule hanged themselves as a consequence of Archilochus' verses. See Horace, Epistles, I. xix. 23–31, and cf. De Arte Poetica, l. 79: 'Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo.'

p. 60, ll. 36–7. though a Copy, etc. Gen. i. 26–7.

p. 61, ll. 2–3. forty Days, etc. Gen. vii. 12.

p. 61, ll. 4–5. whose Punishments, etc. Exod. xx. 5–6.

p. 61, l. 9. Statute of Stabbing. This statute 1 Jac. l. c. 8 enacted that 'every person and persons which … shall stab or thrust any person or persons, that hath not then any weapon drawn, or that hath not then first stricken the party which shall so stab or thrust, so as the person or persons so stabbed or thrust, shall thereof die within the space of six moneths then next following, although it cannot be proved that the same was done of malice forethought, yet the party so offending … shall be excluded from the benefit of his or their Clergy, and suffer death as in case of wilful murder' (Joseph Keble, Statutes at Large, 1676, p. 964). Hence stabbing weapons were in effect more 'illegal' than shooting or cudgelling weapons. See Blackstone, Commentaries, iv. xiv. 193–4.

p. 61, ll. 18–22. He who in a Rage, etc. Protogenes (late fourth century B.C.) in painting Ialysus' dog 'could not satisfie and please himselfe in expressing the froth which fell from his mouth as hee panted and blowed almost windlesse with running … At the last, falling cleane out with his own workmanship, because the art might be perceived in it, in a pelting chafe he flings me the spunge-full of colors that he had wiped out, full against that unhappie place of the table which had put him to all this trouble: But see what came of it! The spunge left the colours behind, in better order than hee could have laid them, and in truth, as well as his heart could wish. Thus was the froth made to his full mind, and naturally indeed by meere chaunce, which all the wit and cunning in his head could not reach unto' (Pliny, Nat. Hist. XXXV. xxxvi. 102–3, trans. Holland, 1601, ii. 542).

p. 61, l. 25. Spirits: 'The faculties of perception or reflection; the senses or intellect; mental powers' (OED).

p. 61, l. 32. Temper: elemental balance (of heat, coldness, and other physical qualities).

p. 62, l. 7. height: full growth.

pg 323

p. 63, ll. 34–5. In all Mutations, etc. As Cardan explains, 'cum necesse sit materiam primam semper sub aliqua iacere forma, … in transmutationibus par materiae quantitas requirenda fuit, cum maior aut minor opportuna esse non possit. Atque ea ratione ex consimilibus consimilia magis fiunt, quam ex dissimilibus' (De Subtilitate, i, in Opera, iii. 359b).

p. 64, l. 4. Prepossession is more, etc. An adaption of the proverb 'Possession is nine …' (ODEP 640; Tilley, P487).

p. 64, l. 12. prevayl'd: prevailed upon.

p. 64, ll. 18–19. the madman in the Acts, etc. Acts xix. 13–16.

p. 65, ll. 1–8. Reason / Is, etc. Cf. Locke, Human Understanding, IV. v. 2: 'Truth then seems to me, in the proper import of the Word, to signifie nothing but the joining or separating of Signs, as the Things signified by them, do agree or disagree one with another'. For general discussion of Butler's epistemology see pp. xxix–xxxiv above.

p. 65, ll. 6–8. she sometime miscarry, etc. Locke gives five instances of reason's failure in Human Understanding, IV. xvii. 9–13.

p. 65, l. 7. Subtlety: inherent impediment to perception or ordering. Cf. subtlety of mind: 'Est au tern subtilitas ratio quædam, qua sensibilia a sensibus, intelligibilia ab intellectu, difficile compræhenduntur' (Cardan, De Subtilitate, i, in Opera, iii. 357a).

p. 65, l. 8. Betweene this, and Truth. Butler may derive the concept of a middle ground between truth and falsehood from Aristotle, Metaphysica, Γ. vii. 1012a4–9.

p. 65, l. 10. Intelligence: intelligibility.

p. 65, l. 12. deliver's: expresses.

p. 65, ll. 13–17. by rendring them, etc. Complex ideas of substances lacking equivalents in Nature are discussed by Locke in Human Understanding, II. xxxi. 18–26.

p. 65, ll. 15–17. some other Condition, etc. Cowley, 'The Muse', note to ll. 30–3, explains that 'Poetry treats not onely of all things that are, or can be, but makes Creatures of her own, as Centaures, Satyrs, Fairies, &c. makes persons and actions of her own, as in Fables and Romances, makes Beasts, Trees, Waters, and other irrational and insensible things to act above the possibility of their natures, as to understand and speak …'

p. 66, ll. 13–20. The Original of Reason, etc. According to Bacon, Advancement of Learning, 1. vi. 2, in Works, iii. 295, 'in the work of the creation we see a double emanation of virtue from God; the one referring more properly to power, the other to wisdom; the one expressed in making the subsistence of the matter, and the other in disposing the beauty of the form.' Glanvill, pg 324Vanity of Dogmatizing, 1661, p. 104, defines reason as 'the Image of the Creators Wisdom copyed out in the Creature'. Sprat, History, p. 82, explains that 'they [the Royal Society] meddle no otherwise with Divine things, than onely as the Power, and Wisdom, and Goodness of the Creator, is display'd in the admirable order, and workman-ship of the Creatures'.

p. 66, l. 13. Original. See note to p. 32, l. 14.

p. 66, l. 24. Religion: devotion to some principle (in this case the laws governing the several causes independently).

p. 67, ll. 20–4. The very being of fayth, etc. Two points are maintained by Butler in this sentence: (i) a man must have enough reason to understand what an unverifiable message is about before he can have faith in that message specifically; (ii) if he can go further and verify the message, then his faith in it is superseded by knowledge of it. So some reason is a prerequisite for faith, and some ignorance a co-requisite. The construction of the sentence is confusing because with the words 'for no man' Butler shifts his ground from (i) to (ii). Cf. William Chillingworth's insistence that 'as Opinion so Faith, is alwaies built upon lesse evidence then that of sense or science' (Religion of Protestants, p. 35). Cf. also p. 25 above, ll. 19–23, and note.

p. 68, l. 18. beside: 'beyond the range or compass of (L. præter); utterly apart from; hence sometimes approaching the sense of "contrary to" ' (OED).

p. 69, l. 2. Discretion: separation or distinction (from the original Latin meaning of discretie), as well as discernment or judgement (in a late Latin sense).

p. 69, l. 22. sequitur Corvos testaque lutoque. Persius, Satires, iii. 61 ('an passim sequeris …').

p. 70, ll. 14–15. 30 of the Best Popes, etc. Platina, Lives of the Popes, describes twenty-three pontiffs as martyred under the pagan emperors, but the figure has varied. Butler perhaps concludes from the canonization of all early popes that they had all been put to death.

p. 71, l. 12. dislike: 'disapproval, displeasure' (OED).

p. 71, ll. 14–15. Men in the upper Region, etc. Cf. Boyle, Touching the Spring of the Air (1660), in Works, ed. Thomas Birch, 5 vols., 1744, i. 68: 'And it may not irrationally be doubted, whether or no, if a man were raised to the very top of the atmosphere, he would be able to live many minutes, and would not quickly die for want of such air as we are wont to breathe here below.'

p. 72, ll. 4–5. Conscience.

But there is one species of courts, constituted by act of parliament, in the city of London and other trading and populous districts, which in it's proceedings so varies from the course of the common law, that it may deserve a more particular consideration. I mean the courts of requests, or courts of conscience, for the recovery of small debts… . The constitution is this: two aldermen, and four commoners, sit pg 325twice a week to hear all causes of debt not exceeding the value of forty shillings; which they examine in a summary way, by the oath of the parties or other witnesses, and make such order therein as is consonant to equity and good conscience (Blackstone, Commentaries, III. vi. 81).

p. 72, ll. 24–5. the Curse of the earth. Gen. iii. 17–18.

p. 73, ll. 19–20. as Men of Politiques affirme. The most famous statements of this theory were published (1705–29) by Bernard Mandeville; for the seventeenth-century background see F. B. Kaye, Introduction to The Fable of the Bees, by B. Mandeville, 1924, I. xxxviii ff.

p. 74, l. 25. humorous: peevish, capricious.

p. 75, ll. 10–11. the Curse of God is, etc. Jer. xxv. 15–16, 27–8; Isa. li. 17, 22.

p. 76, ll. 25–6. Conversation: company, society.

p. 76, ll. 28–9. In the Scripture, etc. Isa. v. 20.

p. 77, l. 17. mysteries of Iniquity. From 2 Thess. ii. 7: 'For the mystery of iniquity doth already work.' The phrase was variously applied (e.g. Edward Bowles, The Mysterie of Iniquitie, Yet Workingfor the Destruction of Religion Truly Protestant, 1643). Butler puns on 'mystery' in another sense: 'a trade guild or company' (OED).

p. 78, ll. 15–18. like flat Noses, etc. 'They of Guinea, their Noses are flat, which they make so when they are young; for they esteem a flat Nose a great ornament unto them … Flat Noses seem also most comely unto the Moores' (John Bulwer, Anthropometamorphosis, 1650, vii. 81–2). 'In Casena a Region of Afrique neer Ethiopia, there are men who have Lips of a monstrous shape and thicknesse… . [And] the Egyptian Moores, and those of Afrique have all thick lips' (ibid. xi. 107).

p. 80, ll. 10–17. They who suppose, etc. Cf. Swift, Tale of a Tub, ix, in Works, ed. Herbert Davis, 14 vols., Oxford, 1939–68, i. 105: 'Epicurus modestly hoped, that one Time or other, a certain Fortuitous Concourse of all Mens Opinions, after perpetual Justlings, the Sharp with the Smooth, the Light and the Heavy, the Round and the Square, would by certain Clinamina, unite in the Notions of Atoms and Void, as these did in the Originals of all Things.' Cf. also Dryden, 'To My Honored Friend, Sir Robert Howard', ll. 25–34.

p. 80, ll. 12–14. all things to fall, etc. See Lucretius, v. 187–94:

  • Namque ita multa modis multis primordia rerum
  • Ex infinito iam tempore percita plagis,
  • Ponderibusque suis consuerunt concita ferri,
  • Omni' modisque coire, atque omnia pertentare,
  • Quæcunque inter se possint congressa creare,
  • Ut non sit mirum si in taleis disposituras
  • pg 326Deciderunt quoque, & in taleis venere meatus,
  • Qualibus hæc rerum genitur nunc summa novando.

(Ed. cit. by Butler below, Leyden 'ex Officina Plantiniana', 1611, p. 117.)

p. 81, ll. 4–5. Conversations: conduct in society.

p. 81, l. 13. in Order to: in regard to.

p. 82, l. 2. Breed: offspring. Cf. 'brood'.

p. 82, ll. 11–14. as in the Mathematiques, etc. Cf. Locke, Human Understanding, iv. xi. 6: 'And though mathematical demonstrations depend not upon sense, yet the examining them by Diagrams, gives great credit to the Evidence of our Sight, and seems to give it a Certainty approaching to that of the Demonstration it self.'

p. 82, ll. 14–17. And in cases, etc. Cf. Bacon's contention that 'the Senses … are very sufficient to certify and report truth, though not always immediately, yet by comparison, by help of instrument, and by producing and urging such things as are too subtile for the sense to some effect comprehensible by the sense' (Advancement of Learning, II. xiii. 4, in Works, iii. 388–9).

p. 82, ll. 19–22. for there is nothing, etc. 'Concerning the Thoughts of man, … The Originall of them all, is that which we call SENSE; (For there is no conception in a mans mind, which hath not at first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense.) The rest are derived from that originall' (Hobbes, Leviathan, 1651, i. 3).

p. 82, ll. 21–2. collection and Consequence. See note to p. 7, l. 27.

p. 82, l. 26. That is made by the Sun. See note to p. 98, l. 1.

p. 83, ll. 20–4. Nature ha's planted, etc. 'Man is a political creature and one whose nature it is to live with others' (Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, 1169b18–19).

p. 83, ll. 25–33. It is not improbable, etc. Cf. p. 93, l. 21–p. 94, l. 1.

p. 83, ll. 27–8. those Parts of the Sun, etc. Cf. Aristotle, De Plantis, 817b40–818a3: 'In every kind of plant there is natural heat and moisture, and, when these are consumed, the plant will become weak and grow old and decay and dry up.' Similarly flesh is a compound of fire and water (De Generatione et Corruptione, II. vii). The idea of a mutable sun emitting particles that are incorporated in living organisms is at variance with Aristotelian theory, where the sun operates through the medium of air as efficient cause, water being the responsive element; see note to p. 84, ll. 28–9.

p. 83, l. 29. forc'd: 'artificially made or prepared; as opposed to natural. Chiefly of soils' (OED).

p. 83, l. 34.–p. 84, l. 4. The Virtuosi affirme, etc. Sprat, History, p. 127, commends Hugenius for 'applying the Motion of Pendulums to Clocks, and Watches … For thereby there may be a means found out, of bringing the pg 327measures of Time, to an exact Regulation: of which the benefits are infinite.' At a Royal Society meeting on 14 March 1667 'Mr. HOOKE produced … a contrivance to make a motion of a clock to go along with the shadow on a wall, for which he offered a demonstration; affirming withal, that … upon the same principle he would make an instrument to solve the inequality of days both from the sun's excentricity and his right ascension upon the elliptical as well as circular hypothesis' (Thomas Birch, History of the Royal Society, ii. 156). See also Philosophical Transactions, IV. xlvii. 937–53 (in which pp. 940–1 contain a table of solar variations from 'the Equal or Mean day'). Cf. Locke, Human Understanding, II. xiv. 21.

p. 84, ll. 5–6. The Ignorance of Naturall Causes, etc. 'How manie things doe we name miraculous and against Nature? Each man and every Nation doth it according to the measure of his ignorance' (Montaigne, Essayes, trans. Florio, 1603, II. xii. 304). 'It is certain that many things, which now seem miraculous, would not be so, if we come to be fully acquainted with their compositions, and operations' (Sprat, History, p. 214). Cf. p. 84, l. 30–p. 85, l. 6.

p. 84, l. 15. wider: i.e. per day; see p. 92, ll. 1–5.

p. 84, ll. 18–19. The Braine is sayd, etc. 'For the brain, or in creatures without a brain that which corresponds to it, is of all parts of the body the coolest' (Aristotle, De Somno et Vigilia, 457b29–31).

p. 84, l. 20. Sagacity: keen discernment, here (in the original Latin sense) of scent.

p. 84, l. 21. A Fig-tree, etc. The early spring fruit of fig trees is described in Pliny, Nat. Hist. xvi. xl. 95, trans. Holland, i. 471–2: 'The Figge trees … both tame and wild, make no shew of flowers: for they are not to soone bloomed (if they bloome at all) but they bring forth their fruit.'

p. 84, ll. 22–4. A whale, etc. Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. lxxxviii. 186, trans. Holland, i. 270, reports 'examples of freindship among fishes,… and namely, betweene the great Whale Balæna, and the little Musculus. For whereas the Whale aforesaid hath no use of his eies (by reason of the heavie weight of his eiebrowes that cover them) the other swimmeth before him, serveth him in steed of eies and lights, to shew when hee is neere the shelves and shallowes, wherein he may be soone grounded, so big and huge he is.' Cf. Browne, Pseudodoxia, II. iii.

p. 84, ll. 25–6. A Load-stone, etc. According to Pliny, Nat. Hist, XXXVII. xv. 61, trans. Holland, ii. 610, 'there is such a naturall enmitie between Diamants and Loadstones, that if it be laid near to a peece of yron, it will not suffer it to be drawn away by the loadstone: nay, if the said loadstone be brought so near a peece of yron, that it have caught hold therof, the Diamant, if it come in place, will cause it to leave the hold & let it go.'

pg 328

p. 84, ll. 27–8. some Philosophers have believd otherwise. See Plato, Republic, 546a–c; Jean Bodin, Methodus, ad Facilem Historiarum Cognitionem, Paris, 1566, vi. 262–80.

p. 84, ll. 28–9. heat and moysture govern most. Cf. Aristotle, Meteorologica, 346b21–3: 'For the sun as it approaches or recedes, obviously causes dissipation and condensation and so gives rise to generation and corruption.' See also De Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae, 465a14–18.

p. 85, ll. 23–4. which Pidgeons in the East, etc. 'They which dwell heere [Bagdad], and travell from hence to Balsara, carrie with them Pigeons, whom they make their Letter-posts to Bagdad, as they doe likewise betweene Ormuz and Balsara' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, V. XIV. ii. 580). See also Peter Heylin, Cosmography, 1670, iii. 786.

p. 85, l. 32.–p. 86, l. 2. Phancy and Memory, etc. Cf. the proverb 'great wits have short memories' (ODEP 335; Tilley, W577) and Halifax, 'Miscellaneous Thoughts and Reflections', in Complete Works, ed. J. P. Kenyon, Harmondsworth, Middx., 1969, p. 237: 'Though memory and invention are not upon good terms, yet when the first is loaded, the other is stifled.'

p. 86, ll. 11–13. Snayles and Fleas, etc. 'Of the great Black Snail. In this slimy Animal … are very many rare and excellent Observables. The first is his Eyes, which are four in number, (like black atramentous Spots) fixed to the end of their horns; or rather to the ends of those black filaments or optick nerves, which are sheathed in her horns which she can retract or protrude, through the hollow trunck of her horns, as she pleaseth' (Henry Power, Experimental Philosophy, 1664, p. 36). According to Robert Hooke, fleas have two 'feelers, or rather smellers' and 'a small proboscis, or probe', but there are no eyes there (Micrographia, 1665, liii. 210–11).

p. 86, ll. 16–19. The Specificall Principles, etc. Cf. Aristotle's view of matter as the principle of individuation only within the formally differentiated species: 'And when we have the whole, such and such a form in this flesh and in these bones, this is Callias or Socrates; and they are different in virtue of their matter (for that is different), but the same in form; for their form is indivisible' (Metaphysica, Z. viii. 1034a5–8). See also ibid. COMMENTARY. vii. 1016b31–5. If the 'infinite varietyrsquo; of matter is a considered philosophical assertion, Butler follows Anaxagoras, Leucippus, and Democritus (Aristotle, De Generatione et Corruptione, I. i); but cf. the objections of Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, ii. 478–521.

p. 86, ll. 19–21. For wee see the same clod, etc. According to Aristotle, the seasons impart that heat and movement which causes the spontaneous generation of animals and plants from decomposing earth or organic tissue. See De Generatione Animalium, 715b25–8, 743a35–6.

p. 86, l. 29. For the English most comonly. Butler does not complete this sentence.

pg 329

p. 87, ll. 1–2. all the Light wee see is by Reflection. Cf. Sir Kenelm Digby, Treatise of Bodies, viii. 7, in Two Treatises, p. 61: '[It is objected against his theory of light's corporeity] that the light which goeth from the fire to an opacous body farre distant without interruption of its continuity, should seeme to be jogged or putt out of its way, by the wind that crosseth it. Wherein the first fayling is, that the objectour conceiveth light to send species unto our eye from the middest of its line: whereas with a litle consideration he may perceive, that no light is seene by us but that which is reflected from an opacous body to our eye: so that the light he meaneth in his objection, is never seene att all.' Alexander Ross, Philosophicall Touch-Stone, 1645, p. 12, asks Digby, 'I pray, from what opacous bodie is the light of the Sun, Moon and Stars reflected, when we look upon these luminaries?'

p. 87, l. 6. not heat, etc. Cf. Bacon, De Calore et Frigore, in Works, iii. 646.

p. 87, ll. 7–8. the Coldnes of the upper Regions, etc. Cf. Bacon, op. cit. iii. 645: –The middle region of the air hath manifest effects of cold, notwithstanding locally it be nearer the sun; commonly imputed to antiperistasis, assuming that the beams of the sun are hot either by approach or by reflexion, and that falleth in the middle term between both; or if, as some conceive, it be only by reflexion, then the cold of that region resteth chiefly upon distance. The instances shewing the cold of that region are, the snows which descend, the hails which descend, and the snows and extreme colds which are upon high mountains.' See also French Virtuosi I, vi. i. 35; II, clxxxiv. 301.

p. 87, ll. 10–12. The Intelligible world, etc. 'There is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestiall, and Intellectuall, and every inferior is governed by its superior, and receiveth the influence of the vertues thereof, so that the very original, and chief Worker of all doth by Angels, the Heavens, Stars, Elements, Animals, Plants, Metals, and Stones convey from himself the vertues of his Omnipotency upon us, for whose service he made, and created all these things' (Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy, trans. J[ohn] F[rench], 1651, I. i. 1; cited by Wilders, note to Hudibras, I. i. 530). See also Hudibras, II. iii. 225–34, and 'An Hermetic Philosopher', par. 5; GR ii. 234 ff.

p. 87, ll. 13–14. The most probable way, etc. Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, ii. 1048–89, is a likely influence here. The atomists believed in a plurality of worlds, unlike Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. See also Bacon, Description of the Intellectual Globe, trans. in Works, v. 519, 534–7. Cf. p. 188, ll. 17–19.

p. 87, ll. 14–15. the reason of the Peripatetiques, etc. According to the Aristotelian Alexander Ross, Philosophicall Touch-Stone, pp. 24–5, 'we deny that the matter of the celestiall bodies is univocall to that of elementary, for then … It should be the subject of corruption, and of transmutation into sublunary bodies'. Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysica, H. v. 1044b27–9.

pg 330

p. 87, ll. 16–18. where there is no corruption, etc. Bacon, History of Dense and Rare, trans. in Works, v. 399–400, explains that 'in no transmutation of bodies is there any reduction either from nothing or to nothing … Therefore the sum total of matter remains always the same without addition or diminution; but that the sum of matter is variously distributed among different bodies cannot be doubted.'

p. 87, l. 29. she: the mind of man (more explicitly in . 182r version).

p. 87, ll. 30–1. All things were hidden, etc. William Harvey, Anatomical Exercitations concerning the Generation of Living Creatures, 1653, lxxii. 462–3, calls 'the Radical and Primigenial moisture … evident in an Egge, … the most simple, pure, and sincere body imaginable: wherein all the parts of the Chicken do abide in potentia, but none, actu: nature seeming to have afforded to it the same priviledge which men commonly ascribe to the materia prima, or first Matter, [from] which all things spring; namely, to be capable of all formes, potentially, but to possess none, actually.'

p. 88, ll. 1–2. The Beames of the Sun, etc. Cf. Digby, Treatise of Bodies, x. 2, in Two Treatises, pp. 76–7.

p. 88, l. 2. exhalations. 'When the sun warms the earth the evaporation which takes place is necessarily of two kinds, not of one only as some think. One kind is rather of the nature of vapour, the other of the nature of a windy exhalation. That which rises from the moisture contained in the earth and on its surface is vapour, while that rising from the earth itself which is dry, is like smoke' (Aristotle, Meteorologica, 341b7–10).

p. 88, ll. 2–5. as water in the Inside, etc. According to Julius Caesar Scaliger, De Subtilitate ad Cardanum, Paris, 1557, xlvi, 'cum pars aquæ plurima sit extra locum suum [the sphere of water], … & terra multis pervia specubus eo in loco, qui & aquæ debebatur, & a terra occupatus est: [this water] in terne cava loca sese induit. Quæ cum sint angusta, neque tantam maris molem capere queant: compressa ea aquæ portio ab extrinsecus incumbente mari, suasque, iure loci, repetente sedes, egredi quaqua via possit, quærit: quemadmodum aqua illa per tubulos faciebat. Qua impressione fiunt aquarum exitus, atque exilitiones, quæ Græca origine Scatebræ appellantur. Atque hæ in suo loco quia non sunt, deorsum evoluuntur.' Butler may be influenced by reports of mountain-top streams on Tenerife in Sprat, History, p. 203.

p. 88, l. 8. Functions: i.e. of the soul. 'The Animal faculty is that which sends feeling and motion to all the body, from the brain by sinews; and nourisheth Understanding; The Vital faculty gives life from the heart by Arteries to all the body' (Blount, Glossographia, s.v. 'Faculty'). Cf. Walter Charleton, Immortality of the Human Soul, 1657, pp. 171–2); Harvey, Generation of Living Creatures, lxxi. 448.

pg 331

p. 89, l. 14. a double Penis. Possibly a misreading of Pliny, Nat. Hist. XI. ex. 263, trans. Holland, i. 352: 'Fishes and Serpents have none [testicles] at all; but in stead therof there be two strings or veines reach from their kidnies to their genitall member.'

p. 89, ll. 14–16. The Femall is sayd, etc. 'That the young Vipers force their way through the bowels of their Dam, or that the female Viper in the act of generation bites off the head of the male, in revenge whereof the young ones eat through the womb and belly of the female, is a very ancient tradition. In this sense entertained in the Hieroglyphics of the Egyptians; affirmed by Herodotus, Nicander, Pliny, Plutarch, Ælian, Jerome, Basil, Isidore, seems countenanced by Aristotle, and his Scholar Theophrastus …' (Browne, Pseudodoxia, III. xvi).

p. 89, ll. 28–9. The smallest Sands, etc. I have found no other mention of this phenomenon.

p. 90, ll. 1–2. So in the Bloud, etc. At a Royal Society meeting on 6 July 1664 'Mr. Hoskyns desired, that some physicians, upon occasion, might be appointed to examine the truth of what Kircher affirmed, that little worms were found in the blood of pestiferous persons. Dr. Merret related, that Dr. Harvey had sometimes found the blood full of worms in malignant fevers' (Birch, History, i. 449). On 8 April 1663 'Mr. Hooke … was desired … to have ready, the microscopical appearance of the little fishes in vinegar' (ibid. i. 216). For description of 'the Eels in Vinegar' see Hooke, Micrographia, lvii. 216–17.

p. 90, l. 8. Cold Iron, etc. 'Take a wedge of Iron … and heating it red-hot, you shall, according to the Laws of its refrigeration, endue it with a polary verticity … [But] though it hath but acquired a feeble virtue by its refrigeration, yet if you take it up cold, and with a few smart strokes of a great Mall, or Hammer, you beat the one end of it, setting the other against some hard resisting matter, … you shall thereby give it a most powerful Magnetisme … [Moreover,] you may by inverting and repercussing the Extremes, alter the polarity of the Iron at your pleasure …' (Henry Power, Experimental Philosophy, pp. 160–1).

p. 90, ll. 11–15. There is in Oxfordshire, etc. Robert Plot, Natural History of Oxford-Shire, Oxford, 1677, iv. 75, describes 'Lapis arenarius, commonly called Free-stone, and used in Building; of which we have as great plenty and variety in Oxford-shire, peradventure as in any other part of England. The Quarry at Heddington … supplies us continually with a good sort of stone, and fit for all uses but that of fire; in which, that of Teynton and Hornton excel it. In the Quarry it cuts very soft and easie, and is worked accordingly for all sorts of Building; very porous, and fit to imbibe lime and sand, but hardening continually as it lies to the weather.' The stone of Burford will pg 332not endure fire like Teynton stone, though even that should be surbedded, 'i.e. set it edg-ways, contrary to the posture it had in the bed' (ibid., p. 76). Plot, Enquiries to be Propounded to the Most Ingenious of Each County, [1679], iv. 7, asks 'What Quarries of Free-stone are there in this County, … in what order do the beds lye? do they dip, or lye in plano Horizontis? whether better surbedded in work, or laid as they grew in the bed?'See also John Morton, Natural History of Northampton-Shire, 1712, II. i. 45. 116, and Gilbert White, Natural History of Selborne, 1789, iv. 9.

p. 90, ll. 16–17. the Lord Cravans house at Causham, etc. William, Earl of Craven (1606–97), son of Sir William Craven, Lord Mayor of London. Causham is Caversham; see Margaret Gelling, The Place-Names of Berkshire, Pt. i (English Place-Name Soc. xlix), Cambridge, 1973, p. 175. The house is described by Thomas Campion in 1613, 'fairely built of bricke, mounted on the hill-side of a Parke within view of Redding' (Works, ed. Walter R. Davis, Garden City, N. Y., 1967, p. 235). I have found no evidence of Lord Craven's building at Caversham Lodge during the Restoration; indeed it was occupied between 1665 and 1672 by a relative, Sir Anthony Craven, Bt. See Complete Baronetage, ed. G. E. C, 5 vols., Exeter, 1900–6, ii. 204. Lord Craven did build a large house at Hampstead Marshall, Berks. See VCH Berkshire, 4 vols., 1906–24, iv. 179.

p. 90, ll. 17–19. And the New Theater, etc. The accounts for the building of the Sheldonian Theatre, 1664–7, show what stone was purchased (MS. Bodl. 898, fos. 15v, 20v, 25v, 26v, 36r, 37r, 40r, etc.). 'The external walls were … principally Headington freestone; but some "Burford" stone was used' (Oxford Stone Restored, ed. W. F. Oakeshott, Oxford, 1975, p. 41). See also VCH Oxfordshire, 1907-, iii. 51.

p. 90. ll. 26–8. Those Sparkes of Fire, etc. 'It is a very common Experiment, by striking with a Flint against a Steel, to make certain fiery and shining Sparks to fly out from between those two compressing Bodies … . I spread a sheet of white Paper, and on it, observing the place where several of these Sparks seemed to vanish, I found certain very small, black, but glistering Spots of a movable Substance, each of which examining with my Microscope, I found to be a small round Globule; some of which, as they looked prety small, so did they from their Surface yield a very bright and strong reflection on that side which was next the Light …' (Robert Hooke, Micrographia, viii. 44).

p. 90, l. 29.–p. 91, l. 1. If pease, etc. Transcribed from Sir Christopher Heydon, Defence of judiciall Astrologie, Cambridge, 1603, p. 43.

p. 91, ll. 1–6. The Reason is, etc. 'Whether the sap of Trees runs down to the roots in Winter, whereby they become naked and grow not; or whether they do not cease to draw any more, and reserve so much as sufficeth for conservation, is not a point indubitable… . But that the sap doth powerfully rise in the Spring, … he that hath beheld how many gallons of water may in a pg 333small time be drawn from a Birch-tree in the Spring, hath slender reason to doubt' (Browne, Pseudodoxia, II. vii). Cf. John Evelyn, Sylva, 1664, p. 91.

p. 91, l. 4. mortifyd: 'transf. Of plants: Decayed' (OED).

p. 91, ll. 7–8. Chronical Diseases, etc. Heydon, Defence of Judiciall Astrologie, 'Table of the Principall Matters', characterizes 'Diseases, sharp' as 'governed by the moone', and 'Diseases, chronical' as 'first governed by the sunne for a yeare, ever after by Saturne'. See further ibid., pp. 472–3.

p. 91, ll. 12–15. Some men Suppose, etc. Thomas Vaughan observes from the ashes of vegetables that

although their weaker, exterior elements expire by violence of the fire yet their earth cannot be destroyed but vitrified. The fusion and transparency of this substance is occasioned by the radical moisture or seminal water of the compound. This water resists the fury of the fire and cannot possibly be vanquished… . These two principles [of earth and water] are never separated, for Nature proceeds not so far in her dissolutions. When death hath done her worst there is an union between these two and out of them shall God raise us at the last day and restore us to a spiritual constitution (Anthroposophia Theomagica, 1650, in Works, ed. A. E. Waite, 1919, pp. 30–1).

Blount, Glossographia, defines radical moisture as 'the natural moysture spread like a dew in all parts of the body, wherewith the parts are nourished'. Sir George Ent, Apologia pro Circulatione Sanguinis, 1641, pp. 81–3, identifies this with the spirit exhaled in chemical distillations (which is, for the greatest part, 'sal volatilis, in quo virtus rei præcipua continetur') and with the natural saline exhalations that condense and fall as life-giving dew. There are those, says Ent, who affirm, 'ab ipsis plantarum salibus terre cornmissis, easdem denuo plantas repullulare. Et hinc forte orta est fabula de phœnice: Aiunt namque e cineribus combustæ: palmæ … novam arborem exurgere.'

p. 92, ll. 1–5. Those Philosophers, etc. Butler rightly detects an optical illusion— lunar parallax—but this cannot affect observation by more than one degree. Astronomers explained that the moon will either go beyond or fail to reach the tropics (by up to five degrees) according as the nodes (the points at which her apparent orbit intersects the ecliptic) move around the ecliptic. According to Thomas Blunderville, Theoriques of the Seven Planets, 1602, pp. 59–60, 'The latitude of the Moone is none other thing but her distance from the Eclipticke line, which distance is never above five degrees. And her latitude is twofold, that is, Northerne and Southerne. For the deferent of the Moone [the circle that carries her] in the space of one moneth cutteth the Eclipticke in two places right opposit one to another, and thereby the one halfe of her deferent enclineth towards the North, and the other halfe thereof enclineth towards the South.' But their positions on the ecliptic, and hence the relative angle to the earth of the moon's circle, are not constant. 'This circle is equally moved, contrary to the succession of the signs, about the centre and poles of the Eclipticke, making his revolution almost in 19 yeares: and by the moving of this circle, the poles of the deferents of the pg 334Auge [or apogee] are carried about the poles of the eclipticke' (ibid., p. 35).

p. 92, l. 12. the first being turnd into witches. G. L. Kittredge, Witchcraft in Old and New England, 1929, p. 177, gives instances of 'the cat-witch, injured in that shape and suffering the same wounds in propria persona'. Cf. note to p. 131, ll. 25–6.

p. 92, l. 13. Possest by the Devil. Matt. viii. 28–32; Mark v. 1–13.

p. 92, l. 14. Iron is an extraction of Clay. 'Succus igitur est ex quo formatur metallum: quern pariunt varii motus. quorum proximi sunt aquæ fluxus terram molliens aut secum rapiens: terræ cum aqua permistio: vis caloris agens in misturas ut gignat id genus suecos' (Georgius Agricola, De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum, Basle, 1558, v. 71–2). 'Iron because the earthy part is gross and impure, and exceeds the humid … burns and consumes as often as it is heat[ed] in the fire, and will not melt of it self without extraordinary great violence' (Albaro Alonso Barba, First Book of the Art of Mettais, trans. [Edward Mountagu], 1670, p. 85. Cf. John Webster, Metallograph[i]a, 1671, pp. 62–3, 66; Birch, History, i. 247.

p. 92, ll. 17–18. whether Timber do shrink, etc. Robert Hooke, An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth, 1674, p. 8, observes of a wooden instrument 'that moyst weather will make the frame stretch, and dry weather will make it shrink'.

p. 92, ll. 21–3. the Antients usd to cullour, etc. I have found no other mention of this practice.

p. 92, ll. 29–32. The Sun drawing neare, etc. Cf. Walter Charleton, Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana, 1654, III. xv. ii. 351, for the hypothesis that, 'when the Sun hath made some sensible advance in the lower world, beyond the Nadir point or midnight circle, and hasteneth toward our East; He moves and drives along before him into our horizon, the (formerly) quiet and cold Aer of the Night'. See also French Virtuosi II, cliii. 204–5.

p. 93, ll. 10–11. The Tradition, etc. 2 Pet. iii. 10. For other sources see Thomas Burnet, Theory of the Earth, 2 vols., 1684–90, III. iii.

p. 93, l. 12. Decay'd: decreased in volume.

p. 93, l. 21.p. 94, l. 1. Nor is it improbable, etc. Cf. p. 83, l. 25–33.

p. 93, ll. 23–5. as the greatest Part, etc. See notes to p. 83, l. 27–8, and p. 84, ll. 28–9.

p. 93, l. 29. resolv'd into earth: i.e. by elemental transmutation. 'Fire, air, water, earth, we assert, originate from one another, and each of them exists potentially in each, as all things do that can be resolved into a common and ultimate substrate' (Aristotle, Meteorologica, 339a36–339b2). Birch, History, ii. 68, records an experimental conversion of water into earth.

pg 335

p. 94, l. 6. the Spirits of the world. Cf. note to p. 224, l. 2.

p. 94, ll. 11–16. causd by the Motion of the Earth, etc. Cf. John Wallis, 'Hypothesis about the Flux and Reflux of the Sea', 1666, Philosophical Transactions, 1. xvi. 268–9:

… supposing the Sea to be but as a loose Body, carried about with the Earth, but not so united to it, as necessarily to receive the same degree of Impetus with it, as its fixed parts do; The acceleration or retardation in the motion of this or that part of the Earth, will cause (more or less, according to the proportion of it) such a dashing of the Water, or rising at one part, with a Falling at another, as is that, which we call the Flux and Reflux of the Sea: Now this premised, … suppose the Earth carried about with a double motion … [so that] the Diurnal motion, in that part of the Earth, which is next the Sun, … doth abate the progress of the Annual, … and in the other part, which is from the Sun, … it doth increase it, … that is, in the day time there is abated, in the night time is added to the Annual motion, about as much as is … the Earths Diameter. Which would afford us a Cause of two Tides in twenty four hours; the One upon the greatest Acceleration of motion, the Other upon its greatest Retardation.

To explain why 'the Time of Tides, moves in a moneths space through all the 24. hours', Wallis hypothesizes that 'the Line of the Annual motion … will be described, not by the Center of the Earth, … But by the Common Center of Gravity of the Bodies, Earth and Moon, as one Aggregate' (ibid. 1. xvi. 270–3). See also French Virtuosi II, cxlvii. 188–9.

p. 94, l. 17. collected: inferred, deduced.

p. 94, ll. 31–2. that appeare's at any Distance, etc. Cf. p. 131, ll. 1–4, and notes.

p. 95, ll. 12–14. though our Fire, etc. Cf. Digby, Treatise of Bodies, vi. 6, in Two Treatises, p. 44, arguing for atomism that 'flame is a much grosser substance then pure fire, (by reason of the mixture with it, of that viscous oyly matter, which being drawne out of the wood and candle, serveth for fewell to the fire, and is by litle and litle converted into it)'.

p. 95, l. 36.–p. 96, l. 1. the Rootes of the Nerves, etc. Cf. Aristotle, De Partibus Animalium, 686a33–686b2: 'Thus [moving down the scale of nature] the animal becomes a plant, that has its upper parts downwards and its lower parts above. For in plants the roots are the equivalents of mouth and head, while the seed has an opposite significance, for it is produced at the extremities of the twigs.' See also Plato, Timaeus, 90a.

p. 96, ll. 24–9. So the Antients were of opinion, etc. For a collection of such opinions see Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, I. II. iii. 12.

p. 96, l. 30. the Mines of Potosy. 'At the foot [of the Cerro Rico] is the Citie Potosi, inhabited by twentie thousand Spanish men, and ten thousand women, as many Negroes, and foure thousand Indians. … The entrance and Myneworkes are so dangerous, that they which goe in, use to take the Sacrament of the Altar, as if they went to their death, because few returne. The Earle of Villar made a proclamation that all the Indians should have leave and pg 336libertie to labour in this Myne, and to have foure Rialls a day for each mans worke, which they were before forced to doe for nothing' (Purchas, Pilgrimes, IV. VII. ix. 1420–1). For a description of mining the silver see ibid. III. v. ii. iv. 946–7.

p. 97, ll. 4–7. And when the Jewes, etc. Judg. iii. 5–8, 12–14; iv. 1–3; vi. 1; x. 6–8; Ezek. xxxix. 23–4.

p. 97, ll. 7–9. It was the worst part, etc. Gen. iii. 17–19.

p. 97, ll. 19–20. That Cyprus, etc. 'In the time of Constantine it was forsaken of the Inhabitants, as before forsaken of the Elements, which refused to water with any drops of raine that Hand (sometime called Macaria or happy) the space of seventeene yeeres together, or as others have it, sixe and thirtie' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, V. XIV. iii. 585).

p. 97, ll. 21–2. And in Ægypt, etc. 'It is affirmed by many, and received by most, that it never raineth in Egypt, … but this must also be received in a qualified sense, that is, that it rains but seldom at any time in the Summer, and very rarely in the Winter' (Browne, Pseudodoxia, VI. viii). See also Purchas, Pilgrimes, II. VII. iv. i. 988.

p. 97, ll. 22–3. nor were there ever, etc. 'Numquam ita caelum nubilum est ut in sole Rhodos non sit' (Solinus, Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium, xi. 32). Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. II. lxii. 153.

p. 97, ll. 24–5. in the Ilands of the west Indies, etc. According to a report of 1668, 'the Sea-brise comes not into Jamaica till 8 or 9 of the clock in the morning, and ordinarily ceaseth about 4 or 5 at night. … The Clouds (he saith) begin to gather about 2 or 3 of the clock in the afternoon at the Mountains, and do not embody first in the Air, and after settle there, but settle first, and embody there; the rest of the Skie being clear till Sun-set; so that they do not pass near the Earth in a body, and only stop where they meet with parts of the Earth elevated above the rest; but precipitate from a very great height, and in particles of an exceeding rarified nature, so as not to obscure the Air or Sky at all' (Philosophical Transactions, III. xxxvii. 718).

p. 98, l. 1. the Sun makes all things in Nature: i.e. as efficient cause, so that 'coming-to-be occurs as the sun approaches and decay as it retreats' (Aristotle, De Generatione et Corruptione, 336b17–18).

p. 98, l. 12. like Balaams Ass. Num. xxii. 22–7.

p. 98, l. 16. ridden by Hags in the Stable. John Aubrey, Miscellanies, 1696, xiii. 111–12, describes 'a Flint with a hole in it (naturally)' hung as a charm 'to prevent the Night-mare (viz.) the Hag from riding their Horses, who will sometimes sweat all Night.' See also G. L. Kittredge, Witchcraft in Old and New England, pp. 219–20.

pg 337

p. 98, l. 17. Poster. Lib. Ius: Analytica Posteriora, 78a38.

p. 99. ll. 1–3. Pope Paul the 2d, etc. 'Paul II. natif de Venise auparavant nommé Pierre Barbo, Cardinal du titre de S. Marc, fut subrogé. Sa premiere vocation fut le trafic … Grossier & de lourd esprit, n'aimant ni les lettres ni les lettrez, si qu'il declaira heretiques ceux qui par jeu ou serieusement profereroyent ce mot d'Academie ou d'Un[iv]ersité' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 920).

p. 99, ll. 8–10. Guicciardine write's, etc. 'At last the mine was accomplished, & the [papal] army standing in order of battell to go forthwith to thassalt, … Peter of Navarre caused fire to be put to the mine, which with so great noyse & fury blew up so high the wall and chappell [in the wall], that in that space and division was made open to those without, the intralls of the Citie within together with the maner of the souldiors prepared to defende it: But falling eftsones downe agayne, the whole wall tooke the same place … as if there had not bene any separation or removing at all' (Francesco Guicciardini, HistorieConteining the Warres of Italie and Other Parts, trans. Sir Geffray Fenton, 1579, x. 569).

p. 99, ll. 22–5. In Persia, etc. Transcribed from Sir Paul Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, 1668, 1. xi. 46.

p. 99, ll. 26–7. Quere whether, etc. Perhaps a camletted paper with wavy veins like marble. Herbert, Travels, p. 224, describes a Turkish firman 'upon paper very sleek and chamletted with red and blew, agreeable to the mode of Persia'. Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum, par. 741, in Works, ii. 578, explains camletting.

p. 100, ll. 1–2. As in Constantinople, etc. The relevant periods of French rule would presumably be 1204–61 in Constantinople (the Latin empire), 1266–82 in Sicily, 1501–4 in Naples, 1499–1525 in Milan, and 1659 onwards in Flanders.

p. 100, ll. 3–6. The Spaniards overcame, etc. I have not found this detail in accounts of the conquest. The familiar facts are collected in Montaigne's reference to 'the just astonishment which those [Indian] nations might justlie conceive, by seeing so unexpected an arrivall of bearded men; divers in language, in habite, in religion, in behaviour, in forme, in countenance; … mounted upon great and unknowne monsters; against those, who had never so much as seene any horse, or lesse any beast whatsoever apte to beare, or taught to carry eyther man or burthen; covered with a shining and hard skinne, and armed with slicing-keene weapons and glittering armor' (Essayes, III. vi. 545). Cf. Purchas, Pilgrimes, III. v. viii. 1118; Joseph Acosta, Naturall and Morall Historie of the East and West Indies, trans. E. G., 1604, p. 69.

p. 100, ll. 7–9. Childeric, etc. 'Ainsi mourut Childeric [d. 673], n'ayant regné que deux ans, & laisant une detestable memoire à la posterité, d'avoir bien pg 338commencé & mal fini tout au contraire de son predecesseur Chilperic premier [d. 481], qui commença mal & finit bien' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 88).

p. 100, ll. 10–11. Charles Martel, etc. 'Mais … Pepin se mesconneust en sa prosperité. Car ne se contentant pas de Plectrude sa femme legitime, s'amourachea d'une Damoiselle nommee Alpayde, de laquelle it eut un bastard, qui se fera fort renommer en la suite de ceste histoire, sous le nom de Charles Martel Et comme le mal croissoit, il repudia Plectrude, & espousa Alpayde' (ibid. i. 91–2).

p. 100, ll. 12–15. In France those great Lords, etc. A paraphrase of Cotgrave's gloss, which explains that 'the gibbet of the (simple) high Justicier hath but two pillers; the Lord Chattelaines, three; the Barons, foure; the Earls, six; and the Dukes, eight' (Randle Cotgrave, Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, 1611).

p. 100, ll. 25–7. Queene Elizabeth, etc. Transcribed (slightly abridged) from John Stow, Annales, or Generall Chronicle of England, cont. Edmond Howes, 1615, p. 869. The proclamation was made on 12 February 1580.

p. 100, ll. 26–7. a Nayl of a yeard: one-sixteenth of a yard, 2 1 4 inches.

p. 100, ll. 28–9. Buck a Herald, etc. Sir George Bue (d. 1623), Master of the Revels and not a herald. His History of the Life and Reign of Richard III was published in 1646 as the work of 'Geo: Buck Esquire', a nephew of Sir George's, who pretended to have written it. See Mark Eccles, 'Sir George Bue, Master of the Revels', in Thomas Lodge and Other Elizabethans, ed. Charles J. Sisson, Cambridge, Mass., 1933, p. 499. The History makes a spirited defence of Richard's person and conduct; see esp. pp. 78 ff.

p. 100, l. 29. he founded the Heralds Colledg. 'Let us look upon his charitable, religious and magnificent works. … He also first founded the Colledge and Society of Heralds, and made them a Corporation … (A taste of his love to Honour, and his Noble care for the conservation of Nobility, Chevalry and Gentry)' (ibid., p. 138).

p. 100, ll. 30–2. Charles the 5t., etc. 'Voilà quelle fut la desolation de Rome par l'armée de Charles-Quint, … pendant que ce Prince faisoit cesser toutes sortes de réjoûïssances en Espagne, & faire par toutes les Eglises des priéres publiques pour la delivrance de celuy qu'il tenoit prisonnier' (Louis Maimbourg, Histoire du Lutheranisme, Paris, 1680, i. 163–4).

p. 100, l. 32.p. 101, l. 3. So our H: 7th, etc. 'There is a strange tradition, that the King … for the better credit of his espials abroad with the contrary side, did use to have them cursed at Paul's (by name) amongst the bead-roll of the King's enemies, according to the custom of those times' (Bacon, Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh, in Works, vi. 144).

p. 101, ll. 7–9. As the Veneti, etc. 'Venetiæ olim quidem erant locus quispiam desertus, non habitatus, & palustris; qui vero nunc Veneti appellantur pg 339Franci erant ab Aquileia & cæteris Franciæ locis: & inhabitabant terram, quæ e regione Venetiarum [iacet]. Veniente autem Avarum rege Attila, & Franciam universam depopulante ac perdente, Franci Aquileiam cum reliquis Franciæ urbibus deserere cœperunt, & ad Venetiarum insulas habitatoribus vacuas venerunt, & tuguria illic fecerunt, metu Attilæ regis' (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, trans. Joannes Meursius, Leiden, 1611, xxviii. 69–70).

p. 101, ll. 13–14. to send their Children, etc. 'The English Saxons also in that age conflowed & resorted from all parts into Ireland, as it were to the mart of good learning: and hence it is, that we read so often in our writers, concerning Holy men thus; Such a one was sent over into Ireland for to be trained up in learning' (Camden, Britannia, trans. Philemon Holland, 1610, sect. 'Ireland', p. 68).

p. 101, ll. 15–17. The Roman Emperors, etc.

  • Il grande Imperio, ch'era un corpo solo,
  • Havea dui capi, un ne l'antica Roma,
  • Che reggeva i paesi occidentali,
  • E l'altro ne la nuova, che dal volgo
  • S'appella la città di Constantino;
  • Questa era capo a tutto l'oriente;
  • Onde l'aquila d'oro in campo rosso
  • Insegna Imperiai poi si dipinse,
  • E si dipinge con due teste anchora.

(Trissino, Italia Liberata da Gothi, 3 vols., Rome-Venice, 1547–8, 1. ii. 22v.) See also C. F. Menestrier, Origine des Armoiries et du Blason, Paris, 1680, pp. 538–49.

p. 101, ll. 18–20. The Story of Godfry of Bullen, etc. At Ascalon, 12 August 1099. According to Dodechinus, app. to Marianus Scotus, Chronica, Basle, 1559, cols. 459–60, 'miro videlicet modo: quum in exercitu nostro non ultra 5000 militum, & 15000 peditum fuissent: & in exercitu hostium 100000 equitum, & 400000 peditum esse potuissent. Tunc mirabilis in servis suis Dominus apparuit, quum antequam confligeremus, pro solo impetu nostro hane multitudinem in fugam vertit … Ceciderunt ibi Maurorum ultra 100000 gladio.' Such figures indeed exaggerate the Egyptians' strength; W. B. Stevenson, Crusaars in the East, Cambridge, 1907, p. 35 n., reckons 20,000 to have been 'about the maximum possible'.

p. 101, ll. 24–5. those … destroyd by Charles Martel. At Poitiers, 10 October 732. As to Saracen casualties: 'Les histoires asseurent qu'il y demeura sur le champ Trois cens soixante & quinze mille personnes' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 99).

p. 101, l. 28–p. 102, l. 2. When a Turk, etc. Paraphrased from Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, II. vi. 111. The Turks, knowing most emirs' pedigrees to be dubious, are the less inclined to respect the sanctity of their pg 340persons. The 'deep Sea-green' of their turbans is the colour of the Prophet (ibid. II. vi. 110–11).

p. 102, ll. 3–6. William Marise, etc. Transcribed (with slight alterations) from Baker, Chronicle, p. 129.

p. 102, ll. 7–13. Brunhault wife to Sigebert, etc. 'Brunehault trouvee coulpable d'une infinité d'horribles crimes, … fut liée à la queuë d'une jument indontee, & trainee par pays difficile & raboteux. Ainsi deschiree à diverses pieces, mourut à diverses fois … Brunehault, seulement louee par les historiens, d'avoir fait bastir beaucoup de Temples, & fondé de grands revenus pour faire le service, pendant qu'elle servoit à ses passions. S. Gregoire a inseré quelques epistres siennes à Brunehault où il la louë en termes fort avantageux pour sa pieté & prudence singuliere' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 80–1). Brunehaut (543–614) married Sigebert, King of Metz or Austrasia, in 568 (ibid. i. 67).

p. 102, ll. 14–27. The little kingdom, etc. Translated (slightly rearranged and abridged) from de Serres, Histoire, i. 65.

p. 102, ll. 28–31. Although the Tribunes of the People, etc. According to Jean Bodin, Methodus, ad Facilem Historiarum Cognitionem, vi. 215, 'tanta potestas erat Tribuniplebis, ut non modo Senatus, sed etiam magistratuum & collegarum, ipsiusque plebis acta unus sua intercessione impediret: nec ulterius progredi poterant, nisi prius imperium illi a plebe solenni iure sufragiorum abrogaretur. … Postremo creato Dictatore soli Tribuni imperium retinebant, cum cæteri magistratus abdicarent. Igitur si regia potestas in Consulibus; multo certe maior in Tribunis.' Yet this was essentially power to veto and to impeach; in raising levies initiative rested with the consuls, who worked through the military tribunes (Polybius, Histories, VI. xix–xxi). The personal dangers Butler greatly exaggerates, assuming perhaps that the well-known fates of the Gracchi and of Appuleius Saturninus were typical. See Livy, ep. lviii, lxi, lxix.

p. 102, l. 32–p. 103, l. 12. The Popes of Rome, etc.

John [VIII], of English Extraction, but born at Mentz, is said to have arriv'd at the Popedom by evil Arts; for disguising her self like a Man, whereas she was a Woman, … upon the death of Leo [IV], (as Martin says) by common consent she was chosen Pope in his room. But suffering afterward one of her Domesticks to lie with her, she hid her big-belly a while, till as she was going to the Lateran Church between the Colossean Theatre … and S. Clement's, her travail came upon her and she died upon the place … Some say, the Pope for shame of the thing does purposely decline going through that street when he goes to the Lateran, and that to avoid the like Error, when any Pope is first plac'd in the Porphyry Chair, which has a hole made for the purpose, his Genitals are handled by the youngest Deacon (Platina, Lives of the Popes, p. 165).

p. 103, ll. 13–16. The Ægyptian Dervises, etc. Transcribed (slightly abridged) from Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, I. xiii. 139.

pg 341

p. 103, l. 15. the Seaven Sleepers. The koranic account of these youths, who awoke after three hundred years immured in a cave at Ephesus, adds the dog, not mentioned by Gregory of Tours or other Christian hagiographers (The Koran, xviii, trans. George Sale, 1734, pp. 239–40 and note g).

p. 103, l. 25. Metaposcopie: i.e. metoposcopy, 'the art of judging a person's character or of telling his fortune by his forehead or face' (OED).

p. 103, ll. 32–4. The Shepherds of England, etc. The Pastouraux, who swept through France in 1251, vowed to liberate Louis IX after his defeat at Mansourah; they were suppressed for their lawlessness. See Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. H. R. Luard, 7 vols., 1872–83, v. 246–54. One of their preachers came to England, and 'in brevi plus quam quingentos pastores, aratores, porcarios, et bubulcos, et hujusmodi plebem suis nutibus mancipavit' (ibid. v. 253).

p. 104, ll. 1–11. Constantine, etc. Cf. p. 48, ll. 4 ff.

p. 104, ll. 12–16. Osporco, or Hogsface, etc. 'Sergius the second, a Roman, … came to the Popedom at the same time that Michael Empereur of Constantinople died. 'Tis said that this Sergius was surnamed Bocca di Porco or Hogsmouth, which for shame of it he changed for Sergius, and that from thence came the Custom down to our times, that when any one is made Pope he laid by his own name and took one of some of his Predecessours; though all have not observ'd it' (Platina, Lives of the Popes, p. 160). Cf. Browne, Pseudodoxia, VII. xvi.

p. 104, ll. 17–19. Cato uticensts lent his wife, etc. 'Then Hortensius … stucke not to tell him his mind plainly, and to desire his wife of him, which was yet a young woman, and Cato had children enough. … In fine, Cato seeing the earnest desire of Hortensius, he did not deny him her' (Plutarch, Cato Utican, xxv. 4–5, trans. North, v. 132). 'Now, because he was to provide a stay and governor of his house and daughters, he tooke Martia againe, which was left a widowe and verie riche, for that Hortensius dying, made her his heire of all that he had' (ibid. lii. 3, v. 160).

p. 104, ll. 20–4. A Grecian Prince, etc. 'Un tal Principe Greco, chi si vantava della stirpe di Costantino Magno; e mostrava privilegi di carta pecora vecchia, veggendo l'ambizione de gli Italiani, dava loro titoli a decine senza risparmio, per ogni minima mercede; e a Ferrara sè gran profitto dove infeudò le terre del Turco' (Alessandro Tassoni, La Secchia Rapita … Con le Dichiarazioni del Signor Gasparo Salviani, Bologna, 1651, VII. xxi. 8 n., pp. 165–6).

p. 104, ll. 25–30. Diogenes, etc. See Diogenes Laertius, vi. 29, 67, 77. 'Cowsheel' (βοὸϛ πόδα‎) is the old reading (cf. πολύποδα‎), 'bovis pedem' in the translation (Paris 'apud Jacobum Nicole', 1585) suggested by Butler's notes to Hudibras, II. ii. 15, and II. iii. 737.

pg 342

p. 104, ll. 32–3. the Seditions, etc. '[The Popes] were a long time chosen by the People, as we may see by the sedition raised about the Election, between Damasus, and Ursicinus; which Ammianus Marcellinus [XXVII. iii. 12–13] saith was so great, that luventius the Præfect, unable to keep the peace between them, was forced to goe out of the City; and that there were above an hundred men found dead upon that occasion in the Church it self' (Hobbes, Leviathan, III. xlii. 291).

p. 105, ll. 3–8. The Turkes are wont, etc. 'For the Turks are very liberal in giving titles to the new slaves, calling one a Cavalier, another, a Count's Son, and saying the others are very rich, by that means to get the greatest ransom out of them' (Emanuel de Aranda, Historie of Algiers and It's Slavery, trans. John Davies, 1666, p. 165).

p. 105, ll. 9–14. The Tartarian women, etc.

[In the province of Tibet] when the mothers meane to marrie anye of their damsels, the mother dothe carrie them neere the high way side, and with mirth and cheere procureth those that do travell, to sleepe with hir, and sometimes there lyeth with her ten, and with some other twenty. And when the stranger or traveller goeth his wayes from any suche Damsell, hee must leave unto hir some Jewell, the whiche Jewell, the saide damsels or wenches do hang at their neckes, in token and signe that they have lost their virginitie wyth strangers. And she that hathe used hir selfe with moste strangers, it shall be knowen by the most quantifie of jewels that she weareth aboute hir necke, and she most soonest shall finde a mariage, and shall be most praysed and loved of hir husband (Marco Polo, Most Noble and Famous Travels, trans. [J. Frampton], 1579, p. 77).

p. 105, ll. 19–20. Mem: Henry the 4th, etc.

Comme le Roy chassoit en la foreste de Fontainebleau, voici qu'il oit environ á demi lieuë de lui l'aboi de plusieurs chiens, le cor & le cri de gens qui chassent; & tout soudain ce bruit s'approche fort pres de sa personne. … Il commande au Comte de Soissons, & à quelques autres d'aller recognoistre ces chasseurs. Ils s'avancent, & oyent le bruit, mais n'en voyent ni les auteurs ni l'endroit. Un grand homme noir parle à eux du profond des halliers, mais comme les choses inopinees & nonpreveuës donnent du trouble à l'esprit, ils ne peurent distinctement entendre sa voix pour l'affinité des vocables que les uns rapporterent avoir ouy, M'attendez-vous? ou, M'entendez-vous? & les autres peut-estre avec plus de vraisemblance, Amendez-vous. Mais ce que le phantosme disparut aussi tost que la parole fut ouye, leur fit juger qu'il n'estoit pas expedient de poursuivre plus outre. … Les manOelig;uvres, charbonniers, buscherons, les pastres & paisans d'alentour rapportent qu'ils voyent aucunefois un grand homme noir, qui mene une meute de chiens, & chasse par la forest, sans leur faire neantmoins aucun mal. & appellent cest esprit errant, Le grand veneur (de Serres, Histoire, ii. 760–1).

p. 105, ll. 29–31. That whensoever they are worsted, etc. '[The Gauls] at the beginning, fight more fiercely than men, but in the end more faintly than women' (Livy, Romane Historie, X. xxviii. 4; trans. Holland, 1600, p. 372). Cf. Caesar, De Bello Gallico, III. xix. 6; Tacitus, Agricola, xi. 3.

p. 105, l. 34. in the Crowd: as one of the canons in the Confession of Faith directed against the errors of the Albigenses.

pg 343Brevint p 169: Daniel Brevint, Missale Romanum, Or the Depth and Mystery of the Roman Mass Laid Open and Explained, 2nd edn., Oxford, 1673, xiv. 169.

p. 106, ll. 4–5. Caligula had a Statue, etc. See Suetonius, Caligula, xxii. 3.

p. 106, ll. 7–8. as Chancers Friers did Hell. 'The Summoner's Prologue', Canterbury Tales (.). ll. 1693–6.

p. 106, l. 15. Statute of vagabonds. This statute 27 Hen. VIII. c. 25. enacted: 'A valiant beggar, or sturdy vagabond, shall at the first time be whipped, and sent to the place where he was born, or last dwelled by the space of three years, there to get his living: And if he continue his roguish life, he shall have the upper part of the gristle, or his right ear cut off: And if after that he be taken wandring in idleness, or doth not apply his labour, or is not in service with any Master, he shall be adjudged and executed as a felon. No person shall make any open or common dole, nor shall give any money in alms, but to the common boxes, and common gatherings in every Parish, upon pain to forfeit ten times so much as shall be given' (Joseph Keble, Statutes at Large, p. 470).

p. 106, ll. 20–1. Epistles Dedicatory, etc. For 'Demetrius exhortatory letter to Ptolomey as touching his library', 'Ptolomeis epistle to Eleazar for interpreters to translate the Bible', and 'Eleazars letters in aunswere to Ptolomey' see Josephus, Antiquities of the Jewes, XII, ii (Works, trans. Thomas Lodge, 1602, pp. 290–1).

p. 106, ll. 25–7. No man was capable, etc. 'Imperoche se i Magi, col configlio de' quali si governavano, erano cosi ben nati, come si sapea, che à quel grado non potea essere assunto chi non fusse generato da un figlivolo con la propria madre, si potea pensar, che religione, & che costu mi dovessero cercar d'imprimer ne gli animi de gli altri' (I Compassionevoli Avvenimenti di Erasto, Venice, 1556, xvii. 144–5). I have not been able to identify the edition to which Butler's page-reference applies.

p. 107, l. 7. Parens Historiæ. Bodin, Methodus, ad Facilem Historiarum Cognitionem, iv. 63.

p. 107, ll. 8–11. when commending his Ingenuity, etc. 'Another argument of his integrity and unpassionate disposition, was his refutation of Paulus Jovius his Oration de morbo gallico, in favour of the French … Reason it is (saith he) to disburden the French of the infamy of this disease, when as the Spanish brought it into Italy from the westerne Islands. Such was his love, such his care, to write nothing but truth? (ibid. iv. 80, trans. [Thomas Hey wood], in Sallust, Two Most Worthy and Notable Histories, 1608, Preface, sig. ¶¶3v).

p. 107, l. 11. the Neapolitans. 'It hapned as an infection to the french men whilest they were at Naples … [It] was transported out of Spaine to Naples, & yet not proper or natural of that nation, but brought thether from the yles, which pg 344in those seasons began to be made familiar to our regions by the navigacion of Christofer Colonus' (Guicciardini, Historie, ii. 128).

p. 107, l. 21. know nothing of the Longitude. Sprat, History, p. 382, claims that to accomplish the discovery of another new world 'there is only wanting the Invention of Longitude, which cannot now be far off…. This if it shall be once accomplish'd, will make well-nigh as much alteration in the World, as the invention of the Needle did before.' See also ibid., p. 183, and Dryden, Annus Mirabilis, clxiii and note.

p. 107, ll. 24.–9. The Scripture set's, etc. I Kgs. xi. 3–4.

p. 107. ll. 30–2. The 70 Disciples, etc. When 'the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them … into every citie and place, whither hee himselfe would come', he in fact said, 'Cary neither purse nor scrip, nor shoes' (Luke x. I, 4); but cf. Mark vi. 8, and Luke xxii. 36.

p. 108, ll. 4.–6. William the Conquerer, etc. William landed at Pevensey in East Sussex; but it is probably the origin of the New Forest which Butler recollects:

Along the East banke of this river [Avon] in this Shire [Hants], King William of Normandie pulled downe all the townes, villages, houses, and Churches far and neere, cast out the poore inhabitants, and when he had so done brought all within thirty miles compasse or thereabout into a forrest and harbour for wild beasts, which … we now call New forrest… . And this did he, either that the Normans might have safer and more secure arrivall into England, (For it lieth over against Normandie) in case after that all his wars were thought ended any new dangerous tempest should arise in this Hand against him (Camden, Britannia, p. 259).

p. 108, ll. 9.–10. Those 7 Cities of Greece, etc.

  • Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae, Orbis, de patria certat, Homere, tua.

See Greek Anthology, xvi. 297–8.

p. 108, ll. 14.–15. The Indians of Moabar, etc. '[The inhabitants of Moabar] are good men of warre, and verye fewe of them drinke wine, and those that doe drinke it, are not taken to be as a witnesse, nor yet those that go unto the Sea, saying, that the Marriners are dronkards' (Marco Polo, Travels, p. 117).

p. 108, ll. 16.–17. The Rabbins interpret, etc. Judg. xvi. 21. It is commonly suggested that this was a heavy mill normally turned by oxen, but I have failed to locate Butler's rabbinical interpretation.

p. 109, ll. 11.–12. Christ told the woman, etc. Mark v. 34.

p. 111, ll. 13.–15. as among the Antients, etc. The Romans frequently sacrificed cattle in their expiations of monstrous births. See Livy, XXIII. xxxi. 15 (when a cow calved a colt); XXVII. iv. 11–15; XXX. ii. 9–13; XXXI. xii. 5–9; XXXII. i. 10–14; etc.

p. 112, ll. 4.–5. as all things, etc. See note to p. 240, ll. 14.–15.

pg 345

p. 112, ll. 17.–19. The kings of Great Britaine, etc. From Edward III to Elizabeth the arms of France were borne in the first quarter; from James I onwards in the first place quarterly. Coins of 1663 introduced four distinct shields, which gave precedence to the arms of England. Early coins of James I were inscribed ANG SCO FRAN ET HIB REX; later coins substituted MAG BRIT for ANG SCO. See Stephen Martin Leake, Historical Account of English Money, 2nd edn. enl., 1745, pp. 362–3.

p. 112, ll. 29.–32. their keeping of Publique Ovens, etc. See Cotgrave, Dictionarie: 'Seigneur bannier. A Lord that hath the royaltie, or priviledge of a common mill, oven, presse, etc'; 'Subjects banniers. Such as are bound to grind at a Mill, or to bake in an Oven belonging to another'; 'Taureau bannier. A common, or town, bull; for whose leacherie the Lords of France … exact a fee of their poore tenants'

p. 113, ll. 10.–11. Wo to that Kingdom, etc. Eccles. x. 16.

p. 113, l. 14. Keepers of Liberties. After the execution of Charles I 'it was declared by the Parliament that they were fully resolved to maintain and uphold the fundamental laws of the nation, in order to the preservation of the lives, property, and liberty of the people, notwithstanding the alterations made in the government for the good of the people: and the writs were no more to run in the King's name, as they had always done, but the name, style, and test, to be "Custodes libertatis Angliæ, authoritate Parliamenti" ' (Clarendon, History, xi. 246). See also p. 164, ll. 15.and 23.

p. 114, l. 1. That Justice, etc. Isa. ix. 7.

p. 115, ll. 3.–5. Rebels have been used, etc. Luke xv. 7 ('ninety and nine' persons, as in variant B 193v); 'forty' may be suggested by Gen. xviii. 29.

p. 115, ll. 12.–13. It is Safer, etc. Cf. Samuel Parker, Discourse of Ecclesiastical Politie, 1670, Preface, pp. liv–lv: 'I think I have proved enough to satisfie any man of an ordinary understanding, That Indulgence and Toleration is the most absolute sort of Anarchy, and that Princes may with less hazard give Liberty to mens Vices and Debaucheries, than to their Consciences.' See also Marvell, Rehearsal Transpros'd, pp. 54–6.

p. 115, ll. 20.–1. The worst Governments are the Best, etc. See p. 118, ll. 28.–33.

p. 115, l. 22. chargeable: burdensome, expensive.

p. 115, l. 26. as their Predecessors the Pagans very wisely did: i.e. in the capacity of pontifex maximus.

p. 116, ll. 1.–3. The two best of all, etc. As for Titus's mother, '[Vespasian] espoused Flavia Domitilla, the freed woman of Statilius Capella, a Romane gentleman of Sabraca, and an Africane borne, committed unto him sometime upon trust, and enfranchised in the freedom of Latium' (Suetonius, Vespasian, iii, in Historie, trans. Holland, 1606, p. 241). As for Marcus's wife, the Historia Augusta speaks of Faustina's 'impudicitiae fama' and specifies her pg 346relations with pantomimists and with sailors and gladiators (Marcus, xxvi. 5; xxiii. 7; xix. 7). See also ibid. xxix. 1–3.

p. 116, ll. 4.–5. The Emperor Vitellius, etc. '[Vitellius] devided repast into three meales every day at the least, and sometime into foure … Now his manner was to send word that hee would breake his fast with one (freind) dine with another, &c. and all in one day' (Suetonius, Vitellius, xiii. I, trans. Holland, p. 235).

p. 116, ll. 11.–30. When our Edward the 4th, etc.

[Edouard] pouvoit reserver une bonne partie de l'argent qui se leveroit pour ce traiet (car les Rois d'Angleterre n'exigent rien outre leur domaine, sinon pour la guerre de France) Mais voici l'une des accortises d'Edouard. Il avoit à desseing amené dix ou douze bons sires de ville, lesquels avoyent parmi les communes, voix en chapitre, amp; qui le plus soigneusement avoyent procuré ceste levee. Ceux-cy ne sçachans ce que c'estoit que de loger à la haye furent bien tost las des fatigues militaires, ayans presumé que d'abordee une bataille advantageuse decideroit tout le differend. Et pour leur faire vivement favourer les douceurs de la paix au prix des aigreurs de la guerre: Edouard les alarmoit tantost de doutes, tantost de craintes, pour dissiper en Angleterre les murmures de son retour (de Serres, Histoire, i. 859).

p. 117, l. 18. Rate: i.e. of return.

p. 118, ll. 10.–14. The Chineses, etc. On the inhospitality of the Chinese (latterly more amenable to trade), see Barnadino de Escalante, Account of the Empire of China, trans. John Frampton (1579), in A Collection of Voyages, ed. Thomas Osborne, 1745, II. x. 48, xiv. 73. Purchas, Pilgrimage, IV. XIX. x. 475; [Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza], Historie of the Great and Mightie Kingdome of China, trans. Robert Parke, 1588, I. 111. vii. 71, xvii. 72.

p. 118, ll. 14.–16. The Jewes disdain'd, etc. Acts x. 28. Cf. Tacitus, Historiae, V. v.

p. 118, ll. 19.–20. But when the later began, etc. Roman citizenship was granted to the Italian peoples after the Social War, and its extension to the provinces began in the time of Caesar. In a.d. 212 the constitutio Antoniniana of Caracalla made all free inhabitants of the Empire citizens.

p. 119, ll. 4.–5. had not Power to make, etc. Such power was given first to Caesar, by a Lex Cassia, 44 or 45 b.c., at which time only 14 of the original 50 patrician gentes survived.

p. 119, ll. 6.–8. That if a great or Rich Plebeian, etc. This is apparent in Cicero, De Domo Sua, xiii. 35; xiv. 37, 38. The conditions and procedures of adoption are described in Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, v. xix, and Gaius, Institutes, i. 98–107, 134.

p. 119, ll. 23.–7. one of the most Antient Religions, etc. I cannot tell which religion Butler intended. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, De Religione Gentilium, 1673, ch. xi, provides a general account of men worshipped by the Romans and older nations.

pg 347

p. 119, ll. 27.–8. the Romans built Temples, etc. See note to p. 126, ll. 2.–3.

p. 120, ll. 12.–21. The ill Constitution, etc. See also p. 161, ll. 20.–9.

p. 121, ll. 9.–10. though Solomon say's, etc. Prov. xi. 14 and xxiv. 6: '… there is safetie'.

p. 12l, ll. 23–6. For it is an ill Signe, etc. See the proverb 'Never had ill workman good tools' (Tilley, W858). Cf. ODEP 26; Tilley, W857.

p. 122, ll. 17.–18. whose Death he tooke, etc. 'King Edward besides his being old, and worn with the labours of war, had other causes that hastened his end: his grief for the losse of so worthy a son, dead but ten moneths before [in July 1376] …' (Baker, Chronicle, p. 192).

p. 123, l. 3. Coronation-Cunduit. When Charles II before his coronation went in procession from the Tower to Whitehall, 'the Streets in the City were Rayled & Gravelled;… the Windowes & houses were beautifyed with rich Carpetts & hangings, the Conduits rann with wine' (Sir Edward Walker, Circumstantial Account of … the Coronation of His Majesty King Charles the Second, 1820, p. 76).

p. 123, l. 26.n. 2 Instit.: Sir Edward Coke, The Second Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England, 1642.

p. 124, ll. 1.–13. He that believes, etc. Cf. Hobbes, Leviathan, III. xxxii. 196:

When God speaketh to man, it must be either immediately; or by mediation of another man, to whom he had formerly spoken by himself immediately. How God speaketh to a man immediately, may be understood by those well enough, to whom he hath so spoken; but how the same should be understood by another, is hard, if not impossible to know. For if a man pretend to me, that God hath spoken to him supernaturally, and immediately, and I make doubt of it, I cannot easily perceive what argument he can produce, to oblige me to beleeve it… . For to say that God hath spoken to him in the Holy Scripture, is not to say God hath spoken to him immediately, but by mediation of the Prophets, or of the Apostles, or of the Church, in such manner as he speaks to all other Christian men.

p. 124, ll. 28.–30. Guevara, etc. 'The letters of one of these stamped mettals doth saye, Phoro. dact. Leg. Your Majestie hath to understand, that this stampe is the most auncient that ever I sawe or read … This Phoroneus was king of Egipte before that Joseph the sonne of Jacob was borne… . This was he that first gave lawes in Egypte, and also (as it is thought) in all the worlde, wherof it doth proceed, that all Counsellours and lawyers of Rome did call the lawes that were juste, and moste just Forum, in memory of king Phoroneus. And so the letters of this mettall would thus much saye: This is Kinge Phoroneus, which gave lawes to the Egyptians' (Antonio de Guevara, Familiar Epistles, trans. Edward Hellows, 1574, p. 22). Guevara's 'most auncient' could be taken in the limited context of Roman coinage, to which preceding discussion has been confined.

pg 348

p. 124, l. 30.–p. 125, l. 2. Much like the Stagg, etc. Wyatt's sonnet 'Whoso list to hunt I know where is an hind' concludes,

  • And graven with Diamondes in letters plain
  • There is written her faier neck rounde about:
  • 'Noli me tangere for Cesars I ame,
  • And wylde for to hold though I seme tame.'

Butler's story could derive from this or some other version of the Petrarchan original; but an actual report of a stag killed in France having a collar inscribed 'Hoc me cæsar donavit' is given by Robert Gaguin, Compendium super Francorum Gestis, Paris, 1500, ix. 93v. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. l. 119.

p. 125, ll. 32.–3. For Torva Mimaloniis, etc.

  • cludere sic versum didicit 'Berecyntius Attis'
  • et 'qui caeruleum dirimebat Nerea delphin,'
  • sic 'costam longo subduximus Appennino.' …
  • quidnam igitur tenerum et laxa cervice legendum?
  • 'torva Mimalloneis inplerunt cornua bombis,
  • et raptum vitulo caput ablatura superbo
  • Bassaris et lyncem Maenas flexura corymbis
  • euhion ingeminat, reparabilis adsonat echo.'
  • (Persius, Satires, i. 93–102.)

'Hi versus [99–102] Neronis sunt, et huic sunt compositi' (ibid., Scholia Antiqua).

  • 'quorsum haec? aut quantas robusti carminis offas
  • ingeris, ut par sit centeno gutture niti?'
  • (Ibid. v. 5–6.)

p. 126, ll. 2.–3. for the Antients never gave, etc. From Claudius to Diocletian deceased emperors judged worthy of apotheosis were given the title divus by the Senate. When it was proposed to build a temple of Divus Nero during his lifetime, 'ipse prohibuit, ne interpretatione quorundam ad omen malum sui exitus verteretur: nam deum honor principi non ante habetur quam agere inter homines desierit' (Tacitus, Annales, xv. lxxiv).

p. 126, ll. 4.–8. No less mistake, etc. Among 'queries concerning epitaphs' Sir Thomas Browne asks, 'Whether siste viator bee not improperly used in church epithites, that forme being proper unto sepulchres placed of old by high-wayes & where travellers dayly passed' (Addition to Miscellany Tracts, in Works, ed. Sir Geoffrey Keynes, 4 vols., 1964, iii. 226). See J. M. C. Toynbee, Death and Burial in the Roman World, 1971, p. 73.

p. 126, ll. 9.–11. The like error may be observd, etc.

  • Præterea quamvis solidæ res esse putentur:
  • Hinc tamen esse licet raro cum corpore cernas:
  • In saxis, ac speluncis permanat aquarum
  • Liquidus humor, & uberibus flent omnia guttis.

(De Rerum Natura, i. 346–9, edn. Leyden 'ex Officina Plantiniana', 1611, p. 11.)

pg 349

p. 126, ll. 13.–15. Persius also, etc.

  • 'Rem populi tractas?' (barbatum haec crede magistrum
  • dicere, sorbitio tollit quem dira cicutae)
  • quo fretus? dic hoc, magni pupille Pericli [i.e. Alcibiades]….
  • fert animus calidae fecisse silentia turbae
  • maiestate manus. quid deinde loquere? "Quirites,
  • hoc puta non iustum est, illud male, rectius illud." '
  • (Satires, iv. 1–9.)

p. 126, l. 15. Quirites: the Romans (in their civilian, as opposed to political and military, capacity).

p. 126, l. 18. preposterous: having last and first (here end and means) in inverted order.

p. 126, l. 21. Perspective: 'an optical instrument for looking through or viewing objects with; a spy-glass, magnifying glass, telescope, etc.' (OED).

p. 127, ll. 6.–8. They are much mistaken, etc. Cf. Butler's verse-draft criticisms of Descartes's separation of soul and body (B 21v, 109r). Descartes 'cannot believe, that what I seem to perceive in my sleep proceeds from outward Objects' (Meditations, trans. William Molyneux, 1680, vi. 92). On sleep see also French Virtuosi I, xxi. i. 130: '[Man's] superior part being then (according as Trismegistus saith) … freed and loosned from the senses and corporeal affections, it hath more particular converse with God and Angels, and receives from all parts intelligence of things in agitation… . [Another virtuoso] said, That he as little believ'd that the Species and Images of things come to the Soul, as that the Soul goes forth to seek them during sleep, roving and wandring about the world.'

p. 127, ll. 14.–18. Among so many Millions of Errors, etc. Cf. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. xiii. 4, in Works, iii. 388–9, on the sceptics: 'But here was their chief error; they charged the deceit upon the Senses; which in my judgment (notwithstanding all their cavillations) are very sufficient to certify and report truth … But they ought to have charged the deceit upon the weakness of the intellectual powers, and upon the manner of collecting and concluding upon the reports of the senses.' Cf. Locke, Human Understanding, IV. xi. 1–9.

p. 127, ll. 19.–24. When the Rude Antients, etc. Lucretius explains the process,

  • quo pacto per loca sola
  • Saxa pares formas verborum ex ordine reddant …
  • Hæc loca capripedes satyros, nymphasque tenere
  • Finitimi fingunt, & Faunos esse loquuntur:
  • Quorum noctivago strepitu, ludoque iocanti
  • Affirmant volgo taciturna silentia rumpi …
  • (De Rerum Natura, iv. 573–83, ed. cit., p. 95.)

The provision of the nymphs is Butler's addition.

pg 350

p. 127, ll. 29.–30. Lucretius is mistaken, etc.

  • Præterea meminisse iacet, languetque sopore,
  • Nec dissentit, eum mortis, letique potitum
  • Iampridem, quem mens vivum se cernere credit.
  • (ibid. iv. 765–7, p. 100.)

p. 128, ll. 1.–7. Men of the quickest apprehensions, etc. Cf. Sprat, History, p. 85: 'This [lack of persistence] is the wonted constitution of great Wits: such tender things, are those exalted actions of the mind; and so hard it is, for those imaginations, that can run swift, and mighty Races, to be able to travel a long, and a constant journey.'

p. 128, ll. 7.–11. Hence it is that Virgil, etc. Dryden, Preface to An Evening's Love, in Works, x. 206, refers to 'the superfluity and wast of wit … in some of our predecessors: particularly we may say of Fletcher and of Shakespear, what was said of Ovid, In omni ejus ingenio, facilius quod rejici, quàm quod adjici potest, invenies. The contrary of which was true in Virgil and our incomparable Johnson.' See also Dryden, Essay of Dramatick Poesie, in Works, xvii. 58; Richard Flecknoe, 'Short Discourse of the English Stage', in Spingarn, Critical Essays, ii. 93–4; Sir Thomas Pope Blount, De Re Poetica, 1694, ii. 106, 147, 148–9, 152–3.

p. 128, ll. 16.–17. a Virtuoso's watch, etc. See p. 83, l. 34.–p. 84, l. 4, and note.

p. 128, ll. 28.–9. The Sceptique Philosopher, etc. I have not identified the philosopher. For a possible example of the argument, see Davenant, Gondibert, Preface, pp. 18–19.

p. 129, ll. 8.–20. The Invention of the Vibration, etc. John Wilkins, Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language, 1668, ii. vii. 191–2, gives a full account of the pendulum experiment and derives the various units of measurement from the 39 1 4 inch 'standard'. The Royal Society was showing a continuing interest in the scheme. See Birch, History, i. 70, 74, 500, 505–7, 508–9, 510–11, etc.

p. 129, ll. 23.–4. Tis Strange that the Lacedemonians, etc. See Plutarch, Lycurgus, xix–xx, trans. North, i. 146–7, for an account of 'long speache [being] much disliked, and reproved among the Lacedæmonians'.

p. 129, ll. 28.–9. Cæsars dexterity in dictating, etc. 'For vigor and quicknesse of spirit, I take it, that C. Cesar Dictatour, went beyond all men besides… . I have heard it reported of him, that hee was wont to write, to read, to endite letters, and withall to give audience unto suiters and heare their causes, all at one instant. And being emploied, as you know he was, in so great and important affaires, hee ordinarily endited letters to foure secretaries or clearkes at once: and when he was free from other greater businesse, he would otherwhiles find seven of them worke at one time' (Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. XXV. 91, trans. Holland, i. 168).

pg 351

p. 130, ll. 1.–4. they provided not only Common Places, etc. Seneca, Controversiae, i, Preface, 23, describes an orator rehearsing 'has translaticias quas proprie sententias dicimus, quae nihil habent cum ipsa controversia implicitum, sed satis apte et alio transferuntur, tamquam quae de fortuna, de crudelitate, de saeculo, de divitiis dicuntur; hoc genus sententiarum supellectilem vocabat. Solebat schemata quoque per se, quaecumque controversia reciperet, scribere.' Cf. Cicero, De Oratore, I. xiii. 56; xxxi. 141; xxxvi. 165.

p. 130, l. 10. like Caligula. It was said of him 'nec servum meliorem ullum nec deteriorem dominum fuisse' (Suetonius, Caligula, x. 2).

p. 130, ll. 16.–17. because Trees and all Plants, etc.

  • Et sursum nitidæ fruges, arbustaque crescunt,
  • Pondera, quantum in se 'st, cum deorsum cuneta ferantur.
  • (De Rerum Natura, ii. 189–90, ed. cit., p. 33.)

p. 130, l. 25. Dr Sp:s Dedication, etc. I have found no book by a Dr. Sp… dedicated to Clarendon or any other Cl…. Sprat's History, for example, is dedicated to Charles II.

p. 130, ll. 25.–7. what Marco Polo relate's, etc. 'When they thinke it dinner tyme, then they … do poure out the broath upon the floore, saying, that theyr Idols, their wives, and children doe fill themselves with it' (Travels, p. 42).

p. 130, ll. 28.–30. Ja: Howell write's, etc. 'Thereupon the great Bell of Lorenzo rung out to give notice that every one should be ready in Arms, which had not been done a hundred years before' (J[ames] H[owell], Second Part of Massaniello, 1652, p. 14). 'Porto was offended by some of the Canons; whereupon they set up the Kings Picture in a high Balcone, but a Cannon bullet shot it through and through' (ibid., pp. 65–6). Howell's Second Part continues Alexander Giraffi, Exact Historie of the Late Revolutions in Naples, trans. Howell, 1650.

p. 131, ll. 1.–4. Lucretius is mistaken, etc.

  • hæc [corpuscula rerum] puncto cernuntur lapsa diei
  • Per totum cæli spatium diffundere sese …
  • Hoc etiam in primis specimen verum esse videtur,
  • Quam celeri motu rerum simulacra ferantur,
  • Quod simul ac primum sub divo splendor aquai
  • Ponitur: extemplo cælo stellante, serena
  • Sidera respondent in aqua radiantia mundi.
  • (De Rerum Natura, iv. 200–13, ed. cit., p. 87.)

p. 131, l. 4. a perpetual … emanation : i.e. light will not travel suddenly all the way from the stars; only from the height of the dispersing clouds, above which there is 'perpetual' starlight. Cf. Sir Kenelm Digby on 'that vast body of shining light … that filleth all the distance betweene heaven and earth' (Treatise of Bodies, vii. 7, in Two Treatises, p. 50).

pg 352

p. 131, ll. 11.–14. Dr Don's writings, etc. Cf. Philip King, Surfeit to ABC, 1656, i. 10: 'For Bishop Andrews and Dr. Donne, I could never conceive better of them, then as a voluntarie before a lesson to the Lute, which is absolutely the best pleasing to the eare; but after finished absolutely forgotten, nothing to be remembered or repeated.' If Butler has Donne's poetry in mind, his concern for over-all 'Designe' is unusual; other critics (notably Dryden, in Works, iv. 6–7, 78; xvii. 30) were preoccupied with Donne's versification and diction.

p. 131, l. 13. moode: mode.

p. 131, ll. 15.–17. They that write Plays, etc. Dryden, Essay of Dramatick Poesie, in Works, xvii. 74, defends the verisimilitude of rhymed plays 'by distinguishing betwixt what is nearest to the nature of Comedy, which is the imitation of common persons and ordinary speaking, and what is nearest the nature of a serious Play: the last is indeed the representation of Nature, but 'tis Nature wrought up to an higher pitch'. Yet he had used rhymed couplets in two comedies, The Rival Ladies and Secret Love (if only in places where the serious side of the action was being 'raised').

p. 13l, ll. 18–22. Our moderne Authors, etc. Thyer compares Pope, Epilogue to the Satires, Dia. II, ll. 171–80.

p. 131, ll. 25.–6. like witches to cast, etc. 'Paul affirmeth that the Galatians were deluded, when he saith, O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you? Gal. 3. 1. Where he useth a word [margin: ἐβάσκανϵ‎] borrowed from the practise of witches and sorcerers, who use to cast a miste (as it were) before the eies, to dazle them, and make things appeare unto them, which indeede they doe not see' (William Perkins, Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft, Cambridge, 1608, i. iv. 23). Cf. Joseph Glanvill, Philosophical Considerations about Witchcraft, 4th edn. enl., 1668, iii. 17.

p. 131, l. 26. Owles of Athens. Owls are emblems of wisdom, but also of solemn stupidity. For their association with Athena see A. B. Cook, Zeus, 3 vols., Cambridge, 1914–40, iii. i. 776–836.

p. 133, l. 1. Artificiall: 'skilfully made or contrived' (OED).

p. 133, ll. 20.–3. So Scaliger, etc. Scaliger, De Subtilitate, Preface, enumerates those qualities which make up the excellence of Cardan's De Subtilitate—'ut nihil in universa natura præterea requiri posse videatur'—and remedy the defects of Philo, Cicero, Apuleius, and Aristotle. Cardan, De Vita Propria, xlviii, in Opera, i. 47a, comments: 'Nam Scaliger, & Dunus, & Ingrassias, & Gauricus, & Solnander sibi nominis comparandi gratia contradixerunt.'

p. 133, l. 34. over-curious: too elaborate, intricate, abstruse.

p. 134, ll. 1.–6. They are in an Error, etc. See note to p. 127, ll. 6.–8.

p. 134, l. 8. Tincture: 'specious or "colourable" appearance' (OED). It may be significant that alchemists used 'tincture' to mean the 'quintessence' of a thing.

pg 353

p. 134, l. 18. Principles: chemical elements (supposedly mercury, sulphur, salt, water, and earth).

p. 134, l. 24. project: in alchemy, throw the elixir 'or powder of projection into a crucible of molten metal' (OED); here used figuratively for the animals' ejaculation of sperm.

p. 134, ll. 34.–5. Raymond Lully interpret's Kabal, etc.

… Kabbala. cum sit nomen compositum ex duabus dictionibus videlicet abba, & ala. abba enim arabice: idem est quod pater latine, & ala arabice idem est quod Deus meus, & cum Deus meus nomen nihil aliud importet nisi Christum dominum nostrum benedictum qui vere filius Dei est: & filius Dei nihil aliud importet nisi sapientiam divinam. Propterea dicimus quod hoc vocabulum kabbala, quod scribitur per litteram k. nihil aliud est arabice importans latine prater superabundans sapientia. Est igitur kabba habitus animæ rationalis ex recta ratione divinarum rerum cognitivus. Propter quod apparet quod est de maximo etiam divino, consequutive divina scientia vocari debet. (Ramón Lull, De Auditu Kabalistico, Preface, in Opera, ed. Lazarus Zetzner, Strasburg, 1598, p. 45.)

p. 135, ll. 1.–4. His Ars Brevis, etc. The nine letters (B–I, and K) have six sets of meanings: absoluta (B= bonitas, C=magnitudo, etc.), relata, questions (… K= quomodo), subjects for study (B=deus, and so down the Scala Natura), virtues, and vices. The letters are manipulated, in the Ars Brevis, through four geometrical figures. See Frances A. Yates, 'The Art of Ramon Lull', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, xvii (1954), 115–73. Lull does promise rapid instruction, but not to the ignorant: 'Homo habens optimum intellectum & fundatum in logica & in naturalibus, & diligentiam: poterit ipsam [scientiam] scire duobus mensibus' (Ars Magna Generalis et Ultima, xiii, in Opera, p. 681). A mere 'subtle and good mind' will need six months (ibid., loc. cit.).

p. 135, l. 2. Paire of Twises: set of small instruments kept in a little case.

p. 135, ll. 5.–10. This his Commentator Cornelius Agrippa, etc. 'Ea insuper huius scientia est promptitudo & facilitas, ut etiam pueri impuberes, hac arte freti, in omnibus ferme facultatibus docte disserere possint: multi etiam qui in extrema senectute se ad literas contulere, hac arte paucis mensibus in viros doctissimos evasere, ita hec ars omnem temporis indigentiam vincit & inopiam. Quod ne fabulosum videatur, extant nostre memorie testes' (Cornelius Agrippa, In Artem Brevem Raymundi Lullii Commentaria, Dedication, in Lull, Opera, p. 808). Unlike Lull, Agrippa demands no prerequisites for a study of the Art—'se sola sufficiente nulla alia scientia præsupposita' (ibid., p. 807).

p. 135, l. 6. Vanity of Science. Alluding to Agrippa's De Incertitudine et V anitate Scientiarum, 1530.

p. 135, ll. 11.–16. the Story of Cardan, and Nicholas Flamell, etc.

Quis fuit ille qui mihi vendidit Apuleium iam agenti annum ni fallor xx. Latinum, & statim discessit, ego vero qui eousque neque fueram in ludo literario nisi semel, qui nullam haberem Latinæ linguæ cognitionem, cum imprudens emissem quod pg 354esset auratus, postridie evasi qualis nunc sum in lingua Latina … (Cardan, De Vita Propria, xliii, in Opera, i. 38a).

… there fell by chance into my hands a Guilded Book, very old and large' [costing two florins. It explained] in plain words the transmutation of Metals [but concealed the prima materia in cabalistic symbols]… I made a Vow to God, to demand their interpretation of some Jewish Priest, belonging to some Synagogue in Spain … [and went to] S. James, where with much devotion I accomplished my Vow. This done in Leon, at my return, I met with a Merchant of Boloign, who brought me acquainted with a Physician one M. Canches, a Jew by Nation, but now a Christian … [and] he most truly interpreted unto me the greatest part of my Figures, in which, even to the points and pricks, he could decypher Great Mysteries which were admirable to me. (Nicholas Flammel, Hieroglyphicks, trans, in William Salmon, Medicina Practica, 1692, III. xxiv–xxv. 524–31.)

p. 135, ll. 16.–19. his 12 Principles in a Circle, etc. The twelve principles are 'forma, materia, generatio, corruptio, elementatio, vegetatio, sensus, imaginario, motus, intellectus, voluntas, & memoria' (Lull, Duodecim Principia Philosophiae, Introduction, in Opera, p. 118). There is no diagram of these principles

'6 Senses in a Circle.' From Ramón Lull, Opera, 1598, p. 109. (Reproduced by permission of the Bodleian Library, 71 a. 25)

'6 Senses in a Circle.' From Ramón Lull, Opera, 1598, p. 109. (Reproduced by permission of the Bodleian Library, 71 a. 25)

in a circle, though such arrangement would be consistent with Lull's practice. Butler may be confusing the twelve principles with the nine letters B–K; those appear in many circular diagrams. The diagram of five senses appears in De Auditu Kabalistico, iii. vi G, in Opera, p. 109.

p. 135, l. 20. Pyramids and Alters in verse. A variety of shaped poems is displayed in George Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie, 1589, 11. xi, and the fashion persists in the seventeenth century with such examples as Herbert's 'The Altar' and 'Easter Wings' in The Temple, 1633. Butler's contempt, more fully expressed in 'A Small Poet', par. 17 (GR ii. 120), is shared by Dryden in Mac Flecknoe, ll. 207–8, and later by Addison in Spectator 58.

p. 135, ll. 22.–3. such as Cardan saw, etc. Probably meaning the images of people pg 355and things which Cardan as a young child saw moving in the air at the foot of his bed (De Vita Propria, xxxvii, in Opera, i. 27).

p. 135, ll. 24.–8. The Author of the History, etc. 'A Relation of the Pico Teneriffe' explains that the town of Guimar is 'inhabited for the most part by such as derive themselves from the old Guanchios' (Sprat, History, p. 209). They use 'Butter of Goats Milk' as the base of a hardening agent, which they apply to dead bodies, then dried in the sun (ibid., p. 211). 'Antiently when they had no knowledge of Iron, they made their Lances of Wood hardned as before' (ibid., p. 212). See ibid., p. 213, for the description of their whistling 'so loud as to be heard five miles off'.

p. 135, ll. 29.–32. Scaliger say's, etc. Scaliger, De Subtilitate, xci, condemns Cardan's interpretation of Anaxagoras' saying 'in omnibus esse omnia': 'Non enim ubique omnem dicebat esse substantiam: sicut tu. Nunquam putasset ille, in acu Balænam inesse. Sed aiebat, nullam imponi formam novam: quia commistæ essent omnes. Ita artificem, puta sculptorum, ablatione superfluæ materiæ: formam detegere, quam falso imponere sese dicat: suberat enim.' See Cardan, De Subtilitate, v, in Opera, iii. 435.

p. 135, ll. 33.–4. Figure being, etc. Scaliger, ibid. ccclix. 4, makes a distinction: 'Est enim figura, non extremitas corporis, ut veteres dixere, sed dispositio extremitatis.' See also ibid. lxi. 1. Yet Butler need not have this in mind; cf. Walter Charleton, Physiologia, III. x. i. 265: 'The Figure of a Body is really nothing but the Body it self; at least, the meer Manner of its Extreme parts, according to which our sense deprehends it to be smooth or rough, elated or depressed.'

p. 136, ll. 1.–2. the wonders, etc. Most obviously the hypothesis that 'a streight Line continued grows a Circle' (Marvell, Rehearsal Transpros'd, ii. 199). Marvell cites Nicolaus of Cusa, De Docta Ignorantia, I. xiv–xv, in Opera, 3 vols., Basle, 1565, iii. 10–11.

p. 136, l. 8. Priviledg: sole right to print a text.

p. 136. ll. 13–14. Dicere quæ puduit, etc. Ovid, Heroides, iv. 10.

p. 137, ll. 3.–7. Ben: Johnson, etc. Volpone, Prologue, ll. 33–4. Browne, Pseudodoxia, vi. xii, explains that 'writing Ink [is] commonly made by copperose cast upon a decoction or infusion of galls…. [For] no other salt that I know will strike the colour with galls.'

p. 137, ll. 8.–10. Cambden, etc. Camden reads 'Trinobantes' for the Yorkshire 'Brigantes' in Tacitus, Agricola, xxxi. 4 (Britannia, pp. 687–8); I have found nothing closer to Butler's anecdote. The Trinobantes, from Middlesex and Essex, betrayed their country to Caesar (ibid., p. 417).

p. 137, ll. 11.–12. Dr Bates, etc. 'Redeo ad Cromwellium, cuius Victorias non ea erant Brigæ fluenta quæ suis ripis terminarent. Nam ponte sublicio e cymbis pg 356asseribusque contabulatis, ad Rossium coniungit utramque ripam' (George Bate, Elenchi Motuum Nuperorum in Anglia, Amsterdam, 1663, ii. 39). 'Priorex [of Ireland, Lord Ormonde], Episcopos & Primores conveniens, hortatur serio, ut … Sin minus ad salivan faceret ipsius regimen, obessetque patriæ defensioni, maturaret ille discessum lubens, alteri onere commendato' (ibid. ii. 53).

p. 137, ll. 15.–21. Glanvile of Witchcraft, etc. 'I have endeavoured … to remove the main prejudices I could think of, against the existence of Witches and Apparitions: and I'm sure I have suggested much more against what I defend, than ever I heard or saw in any that opposed it' (Glanvill, Philosophical Considerations about Witchcraft, xvi. 74–5). 'For he that saith, That if there are WITCHES, there is no way to prove that Christ Jesus was not a Magician, and Diabolical Impostor, puts a deadly Weapon into the bands of the Infidel, and is himself next door to the SIN AGAINST THE HOLT GHOST' (ibid. xiv. 70).

p. 138, l. 4. Coyne: the device stamped upon money.

p. 138, l. 6. Mr. Dr:: unidentified. I have found nothing resembling the statement in Dryden.

p. 138, ll. 12.–13. Juvenal proposes, etc.

  • quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas,
  • gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.
  • (Satires, i. 85–6.)

p. 138, ll. 14.–16. He commits as great a fault, etc.

  • Clytemestram nullus non vicus habebit.
  • hoc tantum refert, quod Tyndaris illa bipennem
  • insulam et fatuam dextra laevaque tenebat;
  • at nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubetae,
  • sed tamen et ferro, si praegustarit Atrides
  • Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis.
  • (Ibid. vi. 656–61.)

p. 138, l. 16. Methridate: 'a strong Treacle or preservative against poison, devised at first by the Pontian King Mithridates [131–63 B.C.], from whom it took name' (Blount, Glossographia). Immune to poison, the king had to persuade a guard to kill him with a sword (Appian, Historia Romana, XII. xvi. 111).

p. 138, l. 19. Dent riant. 'Dents riantes' is a term for the fore-teeth, 'because in laughing they are commonly seene' (Cotgrave, Dictionarie). I have not found it applied to satire.

p. 138, l. 21. Incogitance: thoughtlessness.

p. 139, ll. 1.–3. as Hippocrates says, etc. See note to p. 280, ll. 22.–4.

p. 140, ll. 9.–10. Play a Prize: 'engage in a contest or match' (OED).

p. 143, ll. 7.–9. So Mr Hobs believd, etc. In the Preface to his English translation Hobbes recalls that national anxiety 'concerning the rights of Dominion, and the pg 357obedience due from Subjects' had precipitated his publication of De Cive. 'I have not yet made it out of a desire of praise … but for your sakes Readers, who I perswaded my selfe, when you should rightly apprehend and throughly understand this Doctrine I here present you with, would rather chuse to brooke with patience some inconveniences under government … then selfe opintatedly disturb the quiet of the publique' (Philosophicall Rudiments concerning Government and Society, 1651, sigg. B6v–7r).

p. 143, ll. 9.–11. the Anatomist, etc. Francis Glisson, Anatomia Hepatis, 1654, v. 67, writes of bodily organs etc. 'partes istæ situm suum uno perpetuoque tenore servant, ut tam in vivis, quam demortuis, facta corporum dissectione, de partium omnium situ indubitate constet'. Cf. p. 246, ll. 6.–7.

p. 143, ll. 12.–14. Or he who durst never, etc. Presumably Roger Bacon's gatehouse at the northern end of Grandpont, or Folly Bridge, described in Wood, Antiquities of the City of Oxford, ed. Andrew Clark, 3 vols., Oxford, 1889–99, i. 425–6. 'There is a tradition, that the study of friar Bacon, built on an arch over the bridge, will fall, when a man greater than Bacon shall pass under it' Johnson, Vanity of Human Wishes, 1. 140 n., in Collection of Poems, ed. Robert Dodsley, 4 vols., 1755, iv. 161).

p. 143, l. 34.–p. 144, l. 2. The Rabins interpret, etc. '[Eve told Adam,] If I must die thou shalt die with me; but when her perswasions prevailed not over his constancie, she brake off a branch from the tree, and beat him till he did eat; as it is expressed in Genesis 3. [1]2. The Woman which thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the Tree, (that is, she pluck'd off a bough from the Tree, and with it beat me) and I did eat; so it is expounded in the Book Chajim (that is, the way of Life)' (Lancelot Addison, Present State of the Jews, 1675, xvi. 135).

p. 144, l. 26. Figure Dictionis, et Figuræ Sententiæ. 'The garnishing of speech in words, called figura dictionis, is wherein the speech is garnished by the pleasant and sweet sound of words joined together. This is either in the measure of sounds [as in verse]; or in repetition of sounds' (Pierre Ramée, Art of Rhetoric Plainly Set Forth, iii, trans, in Hobbes, English Works, ed. Sir William Molesworth, 11 vols., 1839–45, vi. 519). 'Garnishing of the frame of speech in a sentence, is a garnishing of the shape of speech, or a figure [by exclamation, revocation, apostrophe, prosopopœia, etc.]' (ibid, vii; vi. 524). Cf. George Puttenham, Arte of English Poesie, iii. x.

p. 144, ll. 29.–34. Of this Mr Waller, etc. 'He haz often sayd that way (e.g. Mr. Edmund Waller's) of quibling with sence will hereafter growe as much out of fashion and be as ridicule as quibling with words—quod N.B.' (John Aubrey, 'Samuel Butler', in Brief Lives, i. 136).

p. 144, l. 31. Heroiques: heroic couplets; 'the English Heroick of five feet' (Dryden, Sylvæ, Preface, in Works, iii. 17).

p. 144, l. 34. Trotto d'Asino dura poco. Proverbial (Giovanni Torriano, Italian Proverbes, i. 291, no. 1).

pg 358

p. 145, l. 19. instructs with Pleasure. See note to p. 13, ll. 21.–2.

p. 146, l. 26. Clinching: making clinches or puns.

p. 146, l. 28. the Devills Oracles. Raleigh, History of the World, 1614, l. 1. vi. viii. 96, refers to 'the Trade of riddles in Oracles, with the Devils telling mens fortunes therein', and specifies 'the Temple of Apollo at Delphos (one of his chiefe Mansions)'. See also Milton, Paradise Regain'd, i. 430–59.

p. 147, l. 7. Summum Jus, Summa Injuria. Proverbial (Erasmus, Adagia, 1. x. xxv). Cf. ODEP 235; Tilley, R122.

p. 147, l. 9. as Hippocrates say's. Aphorisms, 1. iii.

p. 147, ll. 12.–14. Simon Magus was destroyd, etc. Acts viii. 18–24; v. 1–10.

p. 147, l. 16. Impostures: impostors.

p. 148, ll. 3.–4. Antiquity abrogate's Laws, etc. See p. 207, ll. 26.–30, and note.

p. 148, ll. 20.–1. The Proverb say's, etc. See ODEP 352; Tilley, C305.

p. 148, ll. 21.–2. But he that visits, etc. Exod. xx. 5; xxxiv. 7; Num. xiv. 18; Deut. v. 9.

p. 148, ll. 23.–32. I have known, etc. Cf. p. 231, ll. 19.–25.

p. 149, ll. 7.–8. Charity is the chiefest, etc. 1 Cor. xiii. 1–3, 13.

p. 149, ll. 8.–10. For Faith and Hope, etc. Butler would appear to conclude from 1 Cor. xiii. 8–10 that charity alone is infallible and enduring, and that all other things—including faith and hope—must therefore pass away. Cf. p. 33, l. 1.

p. 150, l. 17. The Curse upon the Jews. Deut. xxviii. 25, 63–5.

p. 151, ll. 28.–9. ingendred by equivocall Generation. See Hudibras, iii. ii. 1–12.

p. 151, l. 32. as some believd: especially William Prynne. See John Miller, Popery and Politics in England 1660–1688, Cambridge, 1973, pp. 85–7.

p. 152, ll. 3.–9. The Pagan Religion, etc. See p. 30, ll. 22.–6, and note.

p. 152, ll. 23.–5. Our Bishops, etc. Cf. p. 194, ll. 22.–6. Bishop'd: confirmed in faith (the rite of confirmation).

p. 153, l. 3. manage: go through its paces.

p. 153, ll. 16.–20. Geometry, etc. Transcribed, with minimal alteration, from Leviathan, i. iv. 15, and i. iv. 14.

p. 153, ll. 21.–2. Germans Authors of Gentry, etc. 'Scutchions, and Coats of Armes hæreditary, where they have any eminent Priviledges, are Honourable; otherwise not: for their Power consisteth either in such Priviledges, or in Riches, or some such thing as is equally honoured in other men. This kind of Honour, commonly called Gentry, has been derived from the Antient pg 359Germans. For there never was any such thing known, where the German Customes were unknown. Nor is it now any where in use, where the Germans have not inhabited' (ibid. I. x. 45).

p. 153, l. 29.–p. 154, l. 4. His Grandfather, etc. In B Longueville interlines 'H 4. of France Ja–2d'. The Duke of York, whose Catholicism was clearly apparent when he resigned the admiralty in 1673 rather than take the test, was indeed proceeding in 'a way quite Contrary'. Burnet noted, 'He has a strange notion of government, that everything is to be carried on in a high way and that no regard is to be had to the pleasing the people' (Supplement to History of His Own Time, ed. H. C. Foxcroft, Oxford, 1902, p. 51).

p. 154, l. 9. Water's the clepsydra, etc. See p. 93, ll. 10.–21.

p. 154, l. 13. Grimoires: books 'of conjuring, or exorcising, much in use among Popish Priests' (Cotgrave, Dictionarie).

Bead rols: rolls or lists 'of such as Priests were wont to pray for in Churches' (Blount, Glossographia).

p. 154, l. 16. Monsters, etc. In fact monstrare, 'to show', is in another line of derivation from the common source, monere, 'to warn'. 'Monster' is derived via monstrum, 'an omen'. See Eric Partridge, Origins, 1966.

p. 154, l. 18. to go into them. 2 Sam. xvii. 25; 1 Kgs. xi. 2; 1 Chr. ii. 21; vii. 23; etc.

p. 154, ll. 19.–22. in the little French Lawyer, etc. In Act 11, sc. i, of Beaumont and Fletcher's comedy the lawyer La-Writ is persuaded to take the place of an absent combatant in a duel, and after his victory (ii. ii) he grows incorrigibly quarrelsome. Eventually he is beaten by a lame old gentleman (iv. vi), and then foreswears violence.

p. 154, l. 22. So the last Duke of Burgundy, etc. Charles's early victory at Montlhery, 1465, quite changed his character, 'for after this he never followed any mans devise but his owne, and whereas before he had hated the wars, and loved nothing that appertained thereunto: his thoughts were after this so cleane altred that he continued in the wars till his death, in them ended his life, & by them desolated his house' (Phillippe de Commines, Historie, trans. Thomas Danett, 1596, i. iv. 18).

p. 155, ll. 1.–3. The Fortunes of Sir W. C., etc. Presumably they allowed their homonymous benefactor to pass as a relative. I can find no occasion for this anecdote in the lives of Sir William and Henry Coventry or of other, less prominent, candidates.

p. 155, ll. 13.–14. Banish'd all Philosophers, etc. Tacitus, Agricola, ii. 2, notes the fact, 'expulsis insuper sapientiae professoribus atque moni bona arte in exilium acta, ne quid usquam honestum occurret'. See also Suetonius, Domitian, x. 3; Pliny, Epistles, iii. xi. 2; Aulus Gellius, xv. xi. 4.

pg 360

p. 155, ll. 14.–16. As the Lady, etc.

  • Nunc igitur qui res Romanas imperat inter,
  • non trabe sed tergo prolapsus et ingluvie albus,
  • et studia et sapiens hominum nomenque genusque
  • omnia abire foras atque urbe excedere iussit.
  • 'Quid facimus? Graios hominumque relinquimus urbes,
  • ut Romana foret magis his instructa magistris.
  • Nunc Capitolino veluti turnante Camillo
  • ensibus et trutina Galli fugere relicta,
  • sic nostri palare senes dicuntur et ipsi
  • ut ferale suos onus exportare libellos.'

(Sulpicia, Queritur de Statu Rei Publicae et Temporibus Domitiani, ll. 35–44.)

  • Haec ego. Tum paucis dea [Calliope] me dignarier infit:
  • pone metus aequos, cultrix mea: summa tyranno
  • haec instant odia et nostro periturus honore est.
  • (Ibid., ll. 63–5.)

p. 155, ll. 17.–18. The Historian of Gresham Colledge, etc. Sprat, History, pp. 111–13, emphasizes the Society's abhorrence of luxury in language. 'The ill effects of this superfluity of talking, have already overwhelm'd most other Arts and Professions; insomuch, that when I consider the means of happy living, and the causes of their corruption, I can hardly forbear … concluding, that eloquence ought to be banished out of civil Societies, as a thing fatal to Peace and good Manners' (p. 111).

p. 155, ll. 20.–1. which were sayd to be, etc. 'Has [statuas] primum Tusci in Italia invenisse referuntur, quas amplexa posteritas paene parem populum urbi dedit quam natura procreavit' (Cassiodorus, V ariarum, vii. xv. 3).

p. 155, ll. 23.–5. which the French virtuosi, etc. 'Let two contrary extremities never touch each other, &c. … This rule obliges us to know those Colours which have a Friendship with each other, and those which are incompatible, which we may easily discover in mixing together those Colours of which we would make trial…. Green, for example, is a pleasing Colour, which may come from a blue and a yellow mix'd together, and by consequence blue and yellow are two Colours which sympathize: and on the contrary, the mixture of Blue with Vermillion, produces a sharp, harsh, and unpleasant Colour; conclude then that Blue and Vermillion are of a contrary Nature' (Roger de Piles, obs. ¶ 361, in C. A. du Fresnoy, De Arte Graphica, trans. Dryden, 1695, pp. 174–5).

p. 156, ll. 1.–2. Red Lattices, and Dogs turds Proper. Butler alludes to the trellis-work and, probably, the drops which heralds would have called 'frett(ee)' and 'gutt(ee)' respectively. See Randle Holme, Storehouse of Armory and Blazon, Chester, 1688, pp. 55 (figs. 56–68, 89–96), 59–60, 62–3.

p. 156, ll. 9.–11. The holy Ghost, etc. Acts ii. 3–4.

pg 361

p. 156, ll. 13.–15. as the Division of Tongues, etc. Gen. xi. 6–8.

p. 156, l. 16. weapon-Salve. Walter Charleton quotes recipes for this sympathetic ointment, as for example: 'Of the Mosse grown on a humane skull 2. ounces: Mumie half an ounce: Human fat depurated 2. ounces: Oyle of Line seed 12. drachmes: Oyle of Roses, and Bole Armeniack, ana one ounce. Mix them, and by frequent agitation incorporate them into an Unguent. Into which a splinter of wood, or the weapon stained with the patients blood, is to be immersed' ('Translators Supplement' to J. B. van Helmont, 'Magnetick Cure of Wounds', in Ternary of Paradoxes, 1650, p. 103). Cf. Hudibras, iii. ii. 1031–2.

p. 156, l. 18. Morisco: 'the Moorish language' (OED).

Fingalian. According to Sir William Petty, Political Anatomy of Ireland, 1691, p. 106, 'the Fingallians [near Dublin] speak neither English, Irish, nor Welch'.

p. 157, l. 13. Evidences: title-deeds.

p. 157, l. 17. Publique Registers. Petty, Treatise of Taxes and Contributions, 1662, ii. 27, predicts many less lawsuits 'if Registers were kept of all mens Estates in Lands, and of all the Conveyances of, and Engagements upon them'. See Commons Journals, viii. 480, 482, 545–6; ix. 436, 445; Sir Josiah Child, Brief Observations concerning Trade, 1668, p. 6; Petty, Political Arithmetic, i ad fin.

p. 157, ll. 23.–4. the only man of their Profession, etc.: i.e. Bacon.

p. 157, l. 26. Sufficient: sufficiently.

p. 158, l. 17. Aio te Æacida Romanos, &c. This line from Ennius, Annales, is quoted in Cicero, De Divinatione, ii. lvi. 116: 'Quis enim est qui credat Apollonis ex oraclo Pyrrho esse responsum

aio te Aeacida Romanos vincere posse. … [Pyrrhus] hanc amphiboliam versus intellegere potuisset, "vincere te Romanos" nihil magis in se quam in Romanos valere'.

p. 158, l. 28. Fustian: 'belonging to cant or made-up jargon' (OED).

p. 158, l. 30. Intention: 'meaning, significance, import' (OED).

p. 159, ll. 1.–3. like Lullys Ars brevis, etc. See p. 134, l. 34.–p. 135, l. 10, and notes.

p. 159, ll. 12.–14. The English, etc. Paraphrased from Baker, Chronicle, p. 518.

p. 159, ll. 23.–7. Dryden weighs Poets, etc. Butler most probably refers to Dryden's comparing Shakespeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, and Jonson in Essay of Dramatick Poesie, in Works, xvii. 55–8.

p. 159, ll. 23.–4. the Virtuoso's Scales, etc. The Royal Society virtuosi had invented 'A very exact pair of Scales, for trying a great number of Magnetical Experiments' (Sprat, History, p. 247).

p. 159, ll. 26.–7. Committit vates, etc. Juvenal, Satires, vi. 436–7.

pg 362

p. 159, l. 28. He complaynd of B Johnson, etc. Dryden is most critical of Jonson in the Epilogue to the Second Part of The Conquest of Granada, 1672, and in the appended 'Defence of the Epilogue', p. 170, he explains that Jonson, 'when at any time, he aim'd at Wit, in the stricter sence, that is Sharpness of Conceit, was forc'd either to borrow from the Ancients, as, to my knowledge he did very much from Plautus: or, when he trusted himself alone, often fell into meanness of expression'. Butler may recall '40' from an unrelated quotation in Dryden's next paragraph.

p. 159, l. 29. Set a Thief, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 810; Tilley, T110). 'There is another crime with which I am charg'd…. I am tax'd with stealing all my Plays, and that by some who should be the last men from whom I would steal any part of them' (Dryden, An Evening's Love, Preface, in Works, x. 210). For such charges see R. F., A Letter from a Gentlemen to the Hon. Ed. Howard, 1668, p. 2, and Gerard Langbaine, 'Dryden', in Lives and Characters of the English Dramatick Poets, Oxford, 1691, pp. 130–77.

p. 160, l. 1. without a Seame. John xix. 23.

p. 160, l. 3. tore their Garments. Josh. vii. 6; 2 Kgs. xix. 1; Esther iv. 1; etc.

p. 160, l. 4. left his Mantle behinde. 2 Kgs. ii. 13.

p. 160, l. 11. as Plato from Epichamus. According to Diogenes Laertius, Plato, iii. 9, trans. E. Smith, in Lives of Philosophers, 2 vols., 1688–96, i. 205, '[Plato] was also beholding to Epicharmus the Comedian, most of whose Writings he transcrib'd, as Alcimus assures us … It is apparent, says he, that Plato took many things out of Epicharmus. As for Example …'

p. 160, ll. 12.–13. Homer stole his Poems, etc. The source of this story is in fact Naucrates, in Eustathius, Commentarii ad Homeri Odysseam, Preface ad fin. Vulcan's temple was at Memphis, and the name of the supposed authoress was Phantasia.

p. 160, l. 14. from him and Ennius Virgil, etc. 'lam vero Aeneis ipsa nonne ab Homero sibi mutuata est errorem primum ex Odyssea, deinde ex Iliade pugnas?' (Macrobius, Saturnalia, V. ii. 6). See ibid. v. ii–xvi. '[As for] those Fopps, who … would put off to us some French Phrase of the last Edition: … at best they are onely serviceable to a Writer, so as Ennius was to Virgil. He may. Aurum ex stercore colligere' (Dryden, Conquest of Granada, Defence of the Epilogue, p. 168). See Macrobius, op. cit. vi. i–v.

p. 160, ll. 16.–17. Charlton excepted, etc. Charleton, Physiologia, I. i. i. 4, classes himself amongst those 'ELECTING' philosophers, who, 'reading all with the same constant Indifference, and æquanimity, select out of each of the other Sects, whatever of Method, Principles, Positions, Maxims, Examples, &c. seems in their impartial judgments, most consentaneous to Verity'. Apologies for copying are habitual in his prefaces—for example, Darknes of Atheism pg 363Dispelled, 1652, sigg. b3r–C2r; Natural History of the Passions, 1674, sigg. bb5v–6r, CCIr–v.

p. 160, ll. 22.–3. One that can raise, etc. Cf. 'A Republican', par. 1 ad fin. (GR ii. 56), who 'has a mind to be a Piece of a Prince, tho' his own whole Share of Highness will not amount to the Value of a Pepper Corn yearly if it be demanded'.

p. 160, ll. 31.–2. the Law of selve-preservation. 'Therefore the first foundation of naturall Right is this, That every man as much as in him lies endeavour to protect his life and members' (Hobbes, Philosophicall Rudiments concerning Government and Society, 1651, i. 11). See also ibid. i. 10; v. 1; Leviathan, 11. xxvii, xxx.

p. 161, ll. 5.–6. Mr Hobs his Doctrine, etc. '[Nosce teipsum is meant to teach us that] whosoever looketh into himself, and considereth what he doth, when he does think, opine, reason, hope, feare, &c, and upon what grounds; he shall thereby read and know, what are the thoughts, and Passions of all other men, upon the like occasions' (Leviathan, Introduction, p. 2).

p. 161, ll. 9.–10. Club-Caballers: fellow members of political cliques.

p. 161, ll. 20.–9. There is no Question, etc. See also p. 120, ll. 12.–21.

p. 162, l. 3. Presbytery is, etc. 'For never was there a plainer Parallel than of the Troubles of France, and of Great Britain; of their Leagues, Covenants, Associations, and Ours; of their Calvinists, and our Presbyterians: they are all of the same Family' (Dryden, Dedication of History of the League, in Works, xviii. 7). See also Dryden, op. cit., Postscript, and Religio Laici, Preface, in Works, xviii. 396; ii. 105–6.

p. 162, ll. 17.–18. as he bas illegitimate. Six bastard sons are mentioned in Wood, Life and Times, ed. Andrew Clark, 5 vols., Oxford, 1891–1900, i. 208; ii. 46, 53, 192–3, 237; iii. 8. The DNB article on Charles names eight.

p. 163, l. 4. Great Counsels: parliaments, by analogy with 'Privy Council' (but historically in England an assembly of peers alone, last convened by Charles I at York in 1640).

p. 163, l. 13. Mutiners: 'turbulent, rebellious, or mutinous' persons (OED).

p. 163, l. 17. under the Rose. Proverbial (ODEP 854; Tilley, R185).

p. 163, ll. 30.–3. This Parliament, etc. Possibly in reference to the session 18 September 1666 to 8 February 1667, when Parliament became much involved with accounts of money spent, and the propriety of its proceedings was a matter of argument. See Cal. Treasury Books, ii, Introduction, pp. xxxiv–l. On 19 December 1667 the Parliamentary Commission of Accounts was set up, for the history of which see ibid., pp. l–lxxxvi. But B 211's hand seems to be late.

p. 164, l. 3. distrain'd: constrained or forced 'by the seizure and detention of a chattel or thing, to perform some obligation' such as payment of money; pg 364punished 'by such seizure and detention for the non-performance of such obligation' (OED).

p. 164, ll. 6–7. as the Saxons did, etc. Faced with invasions by the Picts and Scots, the British king Vortigern 'fled to the Saxons for aide, a warlike people of Germany, and who had greater swarmes then their hives would well hold. And here we may plainly see how dangerous a thing it is for a Nation, to call in strangers to their aide, and especially in any great number; for though they come at first but Mercenaries, yet once admitted, and finding their own strength, they soon grow Masters, as here it proved with the Saxons' (Baker, Chronicle, p. 3). The Saxons, under Hengist and Horsa, landed in 449.

p. 164, l. 15. Keepers of the Liberties. See note to p. 113, l. 14.

p. 164, l. 17. the Safty. On 26 October 1659 the officers of the army agreed 'that a number of persons should be chosen, who under the style of a Committee of Safety should assume the present entire government, and … consider and determine what form of government was fit to be erected to which the nation should submit' (Clarendon, History, xvi. 90). This committee, in which the officers had control, was suppressed in January 1660 (ibid. xvi. 91–5, 109–11).

p. 164, l. 18. Sejanus: Gnaeus Seius, put to death by Mark Antony. For the story of his wonderful horse see Aulus Gellius, iii. ix: subsequent owners were Dolabella, Cassius, and Antony, and it became proverbial to say of unfortunate men, 'Ille homo habet equum Seianum.'

p. 165, l. 10. Organum Animatum. Aristotle's definition of a slave qua slave, the corresponding definition of a tool being 'inanimatus servus' (Ethica Nichomachea, viii. 1161b4–5).

p. 165, l. 12. Jument: 'a laboring beast, a horse' (Blount, Glossographia).

p. 165, ll. 15–16. Colebert might better, etc. 'Le nom de Colbert n'a rien de commun avec celui de la couleuvre (coluber); on dit que ce reptile avait été adopté comme armes prétendues parlantes par un courtisan qui se faisait gloire de se réchauffer aux rayons du symbolique soleil de Louis XIV. On appelait colibertus en b. lat. (colonus libertus), colibert et collebert en v. franc, des colons libres, attachés comme ouvriers ou laboureurs aux domaines de leur seigneur' (Baron de Coston, Origine, Etymologie & Signification des Noms Propres, Paris, 1867, pp. 407–8).

p. 165, l. 19. Dutch Reconning: 'or Alte-mall, a verbal or Lump-account without particulars' (B.E., New Dictionary of the Terms … of the Canting Crew, 1699).

p. 165, ll. 26–7. Charecters Languages, etc. Wilkins, Essay towards a Real Character, iv. i–iii. 385–420, sets out, and transliterates into, universal characters. For universal language see ibid. iv. iv. 421–34. For universal medicines see pg 365ibid. ii. viii. 219–25; for measures see ibid. ii. vii. 190–4, and also p. 129, above, ll. 8–20, and note.

p. 166, l. 1. Aristotle says they prove nothing. For Aristotle universals have no independent existence, nor can they be grasped except through induction from particulars; yet the concept is important in logic (Analytica Posteriora, 81a40–b6). His unequivocal criticism is limited to the Platonic Forms, which contribute neither to the being of sensible things, nor to an understanding of them (Metaphysica, M. 1079b12–18).

p. 166, l. 15. Shipmoney: 'a writ is framed in form of law, and directed to the sheriff of every county in England, to provide a ship of war for the King's service, … and with that writ were sent to each sheriff instructions that, instead of a ship, he should levy upon his county such a sum of money' (Clarendon, History, i. 148). For the opposition to ship-money see S. R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603–42, 10 vols., 1883–4, viii. 92–4, 102–3, 200–3, etc.

p. 166, ll. 15–16. the vast Sums brought in, etc. On 10 June 1642 Parliament published 'Propositions for the bringing in of money or plate to maintain horse, horsemen and arms, for the preservation of the public peace' (Clarendon, History, v. 336). 'And it is hardly credible what a vast proportion of plate was brought in to their treasurers within ten days; there being hardly men enough to receive it, or room to lay it by in' (ibid. v. 338).

p. 166, ll. 27–8. new lights. For an ironic account of these divine revelations see Hudibras, 1. i. 473–514.

p. 167, l. 6. Estimation: repute, prestige.

p. 167, l. 24. by thousands at a time. Acts iv. 4. Cf. p. 296, ll. 13–31.

p. 167, ll. 25–8. If the Thiefe, etc. See Luke xxiii. 39–43. Cf. Matt, xxvii. 38; Mark xv. 27.

p. 168, ll. 1–2. for thousands dy, etc. 'My first Observation is, That few are starved. This appears, for that of the 229250 which have died, we find not above fifty one to have been starved' (John Graunt, Natural and Political Observations … upon the Bills of Mortality, 1662, iii. 1). Butler makes the same observation on p. 5, ll. 8–9, and p. 301, ll. 8–9.

p. 168, ll. 3–4. Noe men are more unsatiable, etc. Cf. p. 148, ll. 12–19.

p. 168, l. 14. dispence with: excuse.

p. 169, l. 5. Roote and branch. Londoners petitioned the Commons, 11 December 1640, to end episcopal government, beseeching 'That the said Government with all its Dependencies, Roots and Branches, may be abolished' (John Rushworth, Historical Collections, 8 vols., 1659–1701, iii. i. 93). For 'An Ordinance for the pg 366abolishing of Archbishops and Bishops', 1646, see Firth and Rait, Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, ii. 879–83.

They set up Presbytery. Parliament, 'having abolished the Prelaticall Hierarchy by Archbishops, Bishops, and their Dependants, and instead thereof laid the foundation of a Presbyterial Government in every Congregation, with Subordination to Classical, Provincial, and National Assemblies, and of them all to the Parliament', established Presbyterianism by the Ordinance of 14 March 1646 (Firth and Rait, i. 833–8).

p. 169, l. 19. the Engagement. In January 1650 it was enacted that 'all men whatsoever … of the age of eighteen years and upwards shall as is hereafter in this present Act directed, take and subscribe this Engagement following; viz. I do declare and promise, That I will be true and faithful to the Commonwealth of England, as it is now Established, without a King or House of Lords' (Firth and Rait, ii. 325). This Act was subsequently repealed in January 1654 (ibid. ii. 830–1). Bulstrode Whitelock, Memorials of the English Affairs, 1682, p. 428, reports opposition in March 1650: 'Letters from Chester, of the Ministers in that Country, bitterly exclaiming against the Ingagement, and condemning all that take it to the Pit of Hell. … From Exeter, Letters of the averseness of the Citizens to the Ingagement. … That all the Magistrates, except two Constables, refused to take the Ingagement.'

p. 169, l. 24. the Covenant. In September 1643 Parliament subscribed to the 'Solemn League and Covenant' between England and Scotland, and directed that the nation do likewise. Subscribers undertook to preserve the reformed religion of Scotland and to reform that of England; they concluded, 'And this covenant we make in the presence of Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same, as we shall answer at that great day when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed …' (Clarendon, History, vii. 259).

p. 169, l. 30–p. 170, l. 4. Some write that Apelles, etc. Zeuxis painted 'a boy carying certaine bunches of grapes in a flasket, and seeing … that the birds flew to the grapes, he … sayd, Ah, I see well ynough where I have failed, I have painted the grapes better than the boy, for if I had done him as naturally, the birds would have beene afraid and never approched the grapes' (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. xxxvi. 66, trans. Holland, ii. 535).

p. 170, ll. 8–12. The Turkish Historys report, etc.

[To kill Mustapha] seven Muts (these are strong men bereft of their speech, whom the Turkish tyrants have alwaies in readinesse, the more secretly to execute their bloudy butchery) … cast a bow-string about his necke, he poore wretch stil striving, and requesting that he might speake but two words to his father before he died. All which the murtherer … both heard and saw by a travers from the other side of the tent: but was so far from being moved with compassion, that thinking it long till he were dispatched, with a most terrible and cruell voice he rated the villains enured to bloud; saying, Will you never dispatch that I bid you? … Which horrible commanding pg 367speeches, yet thundering in their eares, those butcherly Muts … strangled him (Richard Knolles, Generall Historie of the Turkes, 1638, p. 763).

p. 170, ll. 13–14. Lucullus his Lamprys, etc. I have found no report of this in connection with Lucullus. He cut through mountains to let the sea into his fish-pools at Baiae (Plutarch, Cimon and Lucullus, xxxix. 3; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. lxxx. 170; Varro, Res Rustica, iii. xvii. 9). Fish there later came to the hand of Domitian (Martial, Epigrams, iv. xxx. 1–7). Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. lxxxix. 193, xxxii. vii. 16. On lampreys in particular see Macrobius, Saturnalia, iii. xv; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. lxxxi. 172. Cf. Varro, Res Rustica, iii. xvii. 5–8.

p. 170, ll. 14–15. Arion in the Fable, etc. Arion, when his servants conspired to throw him overboard, asked to sing a lament, and, 'cithara sumpta, suam coepit defiere mortem; quo sonitu ducti delphines e toto mari pronatant ad Arionis cantum. Itaque … super eos se deiecit; quorum unus Ariona exceptum pertulit ad Taenarium litus' (Hyginus, Astronomica, ii. 17). Cf. idem, Fabulae, 194; Herodotus, i. 24; Ovid, Fasti, ii. 83–116.

p. 170, l. 26. Gods Servants Servant. 'Servus Servorum Dei' is 'a title of the Pope employed in official documents. It was first used by St. Gregory the Great (590–604) and has been in general use since the time of Gregory VII (1073–85)' (Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F. L. Cross).

p. 170, l. 30. Cain slew his brother Abel. Gen. iv. 8.

p. 172, ll. 5–6. And those times cald, etc. See p. 185, ll. 1–6, and note.

p. 172, ll. 9–10. The Scripture says, etc. Matt. xxvi. 3–5; Mark xiv. 1–2; Luke xxii. 2.

p. 172, l. 9. President: 'the appointed governor or lieutenant of a province' (OED).

p. 172, l. 13. Crucifige: crucify (him). 'At illi succlamabant dicentes crucifige crucifige ilium' (Luke xxiii. 21). Cf. Mark xv. 13.

p. 172, l. 23. in Querpo: with the body not concealed by overgarments or armour.

p. 173, ll. 2–5. For Knight and Squire, etc. 'Knight or Cnihτ or Cnyhτ (as it was writen in the Saxon) signified as puer, servus, or an attendant' (Seiden, Titles of Honor, 2nd edn. enl., 1631, II. v. xxxiii. 769). 'Esquire signified one that was attendant, and had his employment as a servant, wayting on such as had the Order of Knighthood in matters that conduced to Armes, bearing their Shields, and helping them to Horse and such like' (ibid. II. iii. xxvii. 555). Cf. Latin 'scutarius', a shield-wright. 'But doubtlesse both in Persius and Cicero, Baro is taken for a stupid or contemptible and blockish fellow. … [The Germanic root] signifying a man came by application to be restraind to a dignitie, as Dux and Comes from their common significations did' (ibid. II. i. lii. 428.) 'Count or Comes (which wee now call earle) is, in notation of pg 368the word, only as much as a Follower' (ibid., edn. 1614, ii. iv. 219). Butler takes 'dux' in the sense of 'one who leads or shows the way; a guide' (Oxford Latin Dictionary).

p. 173, l. 8. Curious: 'intricate, abstruse, subtle' (OED).

p. 173, ll. 15–16. Navigation the only Art, etc. God told Noah how to build the ark (Gen. vi. 14–16).

p. 174, l. 32. the Princes of Parma. Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma, was regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567.

p. 175, l. 8. Palmerins: sixteenth-century Spanish romances, of which the original hero was Palmerin de Oliva, a legendary prince of Byzantium.

p. 175, l. 28. of the skins of Beasts. Gen. iii. 21.

p. 176, ll. 8–10. No Sect of Philosophers, etc. Besides the ancient Mediterranean cults, there were the Brahmins of modern India. Herbert, Travels, pp. 54–5, shows 'in how many things they concurr with Pythagoras, (to this day famous among them.)'

p. 176, ll. 11–14. There is a Trick, etc. Cf. p. 65, ll. 10–21, and notes.

p. 176, ll. 30–1. St Paules Doctrine, etc. 1 Cor. vii. 14.

p. 177, ll. 9–10. the whore of Babilon. Rev. xvii. 1–5.

p. 177, l. 17. Intrepidity. The noun was new in French (1665—Robert, Dictionnaire); it did not enter English until the end of the century (first OED quotation, 1704).

p. 178, ll. 1–2. Some outlying whimsy, etc. Cf. 'A Humorist', GR ii. 324, who applies himself 'to some particular Kind of Folly … 'Tis commonly some out-lying Whimsie [etc.]' A beast is said to be 'outlying' that 'makes its lair outside a park or enclosure' (OED).

p. 179, ll. 11–14. Mr Wray and Coleman, etc. Burnet, History, ii. 105, recounts how the 'zealous protestant' wife of Sir Philip Tyrrwhit, 'a papis', invited Edward Stillingfleet and himself to a discussion, 3 April 1676, 'with some that her husband would bring'. These included Edward Coleman, secretary to the Duchess of York, subsequently executed, December 1678, for complicity in the Popish Plot. Coleman 'took the whole debate upon him', and Burnet afterwards published A Relation of a Conference, Held about Religion, 1676, in which he identifies another of the Catholics present as 'Mr. W.' (p. 1). Edward Wray of Barlings Abbey, Lines., was associated with his neighbour Tyrrwhit in estate matters (Cal. State Papers Dom., 1672, pp. 46, 226). In September 1673 he had argued religion with Richard Baxter: 'The Lady Clinton having a Kinswoman (wife to Edward Wray, Esq;) who was a Protestant, and her Husband a Papist (throughly studied in all their Controversies, and oft provoking his Wife to bring any one to dispute with pg 369him) desired me to perform that office of Conference …' (Reliquie Baxteriane, ed. Matthew Sylvester, 1696, iii. 107. 244). For family relationships see Complete Peerage, ed. G.E.C., 14 vols., 1910–59, vu. 698; xii. ii. 259, 569–70; Complete Baronetage, ed. G.E.C., i. 91; Charles Dalton, History of the Wray Family, 2 vols., 1880–1, II. 84.

p. 179, l. 21. Ragust: ragout; specifically, the sauce or relish of the stew.

p. 179, ll. 21–2. The Parish clearks, etc. Sir Edmund Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, 2 vols., Oxford, 1903, ii. 118–19, ascribes cycles of miracle plays at Clerkenwell, B. 1400, to 'a guild of St. Nicholas, composed of the "parish clerks" attached to the many churches of the city. At a later date the performances of this guild seem to have become annual and they are traceable … to the beginning of the sixteenth century.' See also ibid. ii. 379–82. Clerkenwell derives its name from a much earlier association with scholars. See J. E. B. Gover et al., Place-Names of Middlesex (English Place-Name Soc. xviii), Cambridge, 1942, p. 95.

p. 179, l. 24. the Devill with two Loggerheads. Double heads for devils are a common medieval stage property. See, for example, Fork Records, ed. Alexandra F. Johnston and Margaret Rogerson (Records of Early English Drama i), Toronto, 1978, i. 55. As a child, Bulter might have seen them in plays at Worcester. The connection with the Jesuits eludes me.

p. 179, l. 25. Dutch Roderigos. Probably the 'Rederijkers' or 'Cameren van Rhetorica'. These medieval dramatic societies had survived into the seventeenth century, most notably in Amsterdam. See Penguin Companion to Literature: Europe, ed. A. Thorlby, 1971, p. 643.

p. 179, ll. 29–30. he that can belive, etc. John Wilkins, Discovery of a New World … in the Moone. With a Discourse concerning the Possibility of a Passage Thither, enl. edn., 1640. In adding the 'Discourse' (i. xiv. 203–42) Wilkins was probably influenced by Francis Godwin, The Man in the Moone, 1638.

p. 179, l. 31. of Gotham, as wel as Gresham. Gotham College was 'an imaginary institution for the training of simpletons' (OED). Wilkins was a founder of the Royal Society.

p. 180, ll. 2–3. He that undertook, etc. John Bulwer, Pathomyotomia, Or a Dissection of the Significative Muscles of the Affections of the Minde [i.e. the head muscles nearest the brain], 1649.

p. 180, ll. 3–4. the modern French Virtuosos, etc. 'The end of Portraits is not so precisely as some have imagin'd, to give a smiling and pleasing Air together with the resemblance; this is indeed somewhat, but not enough. It consists in expressing the true temper of those persons which it represents, and to make known their Physiognomy' (Roger de Piles, obs. ¶ 393, in du Fresnoy, De Arte Grapbica, p. 182). Cf. ibid., obs. ¶ 233, pp. 152–3.

p. 181, l. 16. in Sober Sadnes: 'in earnest, not joking' (OED).

pg 370p. 181, ll. 23–4. by the Grant. 'Grants, concessiones; the regular method by the common law of transferring the property of incorporeal hereditaments, or, such things whereof no livery can be had' (Blackstone, Commentaries, ii. xx. 317).

p. 182, ll. 1–2. make mens opinions the Standart, etc. The Confession of Faith of the Westminster Assembly of Divines (1646) emphasizes doctrine as determining the purity of particular churches (xxv. 1) and acknowledges Church officers' 'power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom [of heaven] against the impenitent, both by the Word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners' (xxx. 2). See also Firth and Rait, i. 789–91; Roger L'Estrange, Interest Mistaken, 1661, pp. 59, 102, 114.

p. 182, ll. 15–22. The Spanish Souldiers, etc. When in July 1575 they had forced their commander to flee, 'almost three thousand of the old souldiers, after the manner of seditions, created them a Generall, whom they called the Electo, casting their Militia into a new model; and dividing the Offices of Warre among themselves, in order of battell marched to Antwerp … [There] they all bound themselves by oath to obey the Electo, and not to lay down arms till they had their pay to a Maravedi. Which very Act passed not tumultuously in that tumult, but orderly and gravely, as if there had been no sedition. … Nay, they set up a Gallows on the place, and made Proclamation in the Electo's name, That whosoever for the future stole or plundred, should be immediately hanged: which was so punctually observed by the souldiers, two of them being instantly trussed up, that Antwerp heard of no more such offences' (Famianus Strada, De Bello Belgico, trans. Sir Robert Stapylton, 1650, viii. 5). For further mutinies see ibid. viii. 8, 17 ff.

p. 183, ll. 13–14. The Richest, etc. Cf. Montaigne, Essayes, ii. xii. 280: 'Whereas in other creatures, there is nothing but we love, & pleaseth our senses: so that even from their excrements & ordure, we draw not only dainties to eat, but our richest ornaments and perfumes.'

p. 183, ll. 23–4. The Goths, etc. Cf. p. 164, ll. 28–9.

p. 185, ll. 1–6. believe the Best Modern, etc. 'Those times are the ancient times, when the world is ancient, and not those which we account ancient ordine retrogrado, by a computation backward from ourselves' (Bacon, Advancement of Learning, i. v. 1, in Works, iii. 291). See also Hobbes, Leviathan, Conclusion, p. 395; Glanvill, Vanity of Dogmatizing, xv. 141; Swift, Battle of the Books, in Works, i. 147.

p. 185, l. 10. Imagines et Spectacula Humane vite. 'Tragedy is essentially an imitation not of persons but of action and life, of happiness and misery' (Aristotle, Poetica, 1450a16–17).

p. 185, l. 11. Persone mezzane. Lodovico Castelvetro, Poetica d' Aristotele pg 371Vulgarizzata, et Sposta, Vienna, 1570, iii. xiii. 153r, expounds Poetica, 1452b30–1453a17: 'Divide le persone in tre parti in ottime, in pessime, & in mezzane, & mostra come trapassando l'ottima persona o la pessima da felicita a miseria o da miseria a felicita non generano compassione ne spavento nel commune popolo, & come solamente la mezzana il sa trapassando da felicita a miseria. Laonde conchiude che la mezzana persona è la persona tragica quando trapassa da felicita a miseria.'

p. 185, l. 20. are Incapable of Pitty: cannot be pitied.

p. 185, l. 24. for their own Sakes. 'Griefe, for the Calamity of another, is Pitty; and ariseth from the imagination that the like calamity may befall himselfe; and therefore is called also Compassion, and in the phrase of this present time a Fellow-feeling: And therefore for Calamity arriving from great wickedness, the best men have the least Pitty; and for the same Calamity, those have least Pitty, that think themselves least obnoxious to the same' (Hobbes, Leviathan, i. vi. 27).

p. 185, ll. 29–30. some Mistake or oversight of their Ancesters. This may be found in the families of Alcmeon, Oedipus, Orestes, Meleager, Thyestes, and Telephus, which are specified as pre-eminent sources for tragedy in Aristotle, Poetica, 1453a18–21.

p. 185, l. 30. the Jews eating of Sour Grapes. Jer. xxxi. 29; Ezek. xviii. 2.

p. 186, ll. 12–14. though tru History be, etc. A falsification of Aristotle's argument that 'the poet's function is to describe, not the thing that has happened, but a kind of thing that might happen, i.e. what is possible as being probable or necessary' (Poetica, 1451a36–8).

p. 186, ll. 15–18. the Tragedy of Pyramus and Thisbe, etc. Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, iii. i. 34–43. 'Flute the Bellows mender' is an error for Snug the joiner.

p. 187, ll. 6–7. who are the Only Persons, etc.

  • Mediocribus esse poetis
  • non homines, non di, non concessere columnae.

(Horace, De Arte Poetica, ll. 372–3.)

p. 187, ll. 25–6. Davids Tongue, etc. Ps. xiv. 1.

p. 188, l. 5. Curious: studious, heedful.

p. 188, l. 6. Pricks: points.

p. 188, ll. 17–19. All the Stars, etc. Cf. p. 87, ll. 13–14, and p. 98, l. 17.

p. 189, l. 12. Comfortable Importances. See Samuel Parker, Preface to John Bramhall, Vindication of Himself and the Episcopal Clergy, 1672, sig. A2r: He has agreed to write this preface even though he is much concerned 'in Matters of a closer and more comfortable importance to my self and my own Affairs'. Marvell, pg 372Rehearsal Transpros'd, i. 6, wonders 'what this thing should be of a closer importance; But being more comfortable too, I conclude it must be … either his Salvation, or a Benefice, or a Female.' As Parker can have no worries about the first two, 'Why, then it must of necessity be a Female.'

p. 189, ll. 20–4. One that could tell, etc. Cf. p. 151, ll. 27–9.

p. 189, l. 27. Complexions: dispositions, natures.

p. 190, l. 3. ——that bring him Children. Most notably Barbara Villiers, Charles's 'first and longest mistress, by whom he had five children' (Burnet, History, i. 168). See note to p. 162 above, ll. 17–18.

p. 190, ll. 4–15. And this unhappines, etc. In 1667 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, was dismissed from the chancellorship, in which capacity he had directed national policy since his return from exile with the King. He died in banishment at Rouen in 1674. Burnet, History, i. 450–1, comments on his dismissal: 'The king was grown very weary of the queen: and it was believed, he had a great mind to be rid of her. The load of that marriage was cast on the lord Clarendon, as made on design to raise his own grandchildren. Many members of the house of commons … were brought to the king, who all assured him that upon his restoration they intended both to have raised his authority and to have increased his revenue, but that the earl of Clarendon had discouraged it'. See also ibid. i. 176; Evelyn, Diary, i. 289, iii. 493; Wood, Life and Times, i. 335, 337, 440. Compliance with circumstances by a sometimes reluctant Clarendon had become in popular retrospect his 'plots': his daughter's marriage to the Duke of York, Charles's match with Catherine of Braganza, the sale of Dunkirk, the second Anglo-Dutch war, and that Restoration settlement to which Butler probably alludes, whereby the old Royalists who had sold their lands to Civil War 'wolves' received no compensation. See p. 197, ll. 1–12. In Aesop the 'guardians' are sheepdogs.

p. 190, ll. 8–10. For when be had enterd, etc. The metaphor is from backgammon. Divisions on the board are called 'points', and when a player enters a point with a single man he lays it open to possible hits from the opponents' men, this vulnerability being called a 'blot'. But if he then binds his man by entering another on that same point he denies the opponent access.

p. 190, l. 18. his Gout. Clarendon recounts his having suffered from gout since 1645 (Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon … Written by Himself, iii. 68, vi. 7; Continuation, par. 1215).

p. 190, ll. 19–29. The old Greek Poets, etc. Cf. p. 39, ll. 5–26.

p. 190, ll. 26–9. And Ovids Metamorphosis, etc. Cf. p. 6, ll. 13–15.

p. 191, ll. 22–3. whose very imaginations, etc. 'And yet the effects of the force of the Mothers Imagination in the signing of the Foetus is very wonderful … Signatures of less extravagance and enormity are frequent enough, as the pg 373similitude of Cherries, Mulberries, the colour of Claret-wine spilt on the woman with child, with many such like instances. … [Thomas Fienus] does acknowledge that the Imagination of the Mother may change the figure of the Fœtus so as to make it beare a resemblance, though not absolutely perfect, of an Ape, Pig, or Dog, or any such like Animal' (Henry More, Immortality of the Soul, iii. vi. 3). See further ibid. iii. vi–vii.

p. 192, l. 3. weather glass: 'a kind of thermometer, used to ascertain the temperature of the air, and also to prognosticate changes in the weather' (OED).

p. 192, ll. 10–11. In the Scotch translation, etc.: unexplained. No such departures from the received English text are found in Scottish editions (Geneva Version, 1579, 1601, 1610; King James, 1633, etc.). The editio princeps of the Old Testament in Scottish Gaelic was not until 1801 (Irish Gaelic, 1685).

p. 192, ll. 24–5. as all Empire, etc. For example, [Dudley Digges], An Answer to a Printed Book, Intituled, Observations upon Some of His Majesties Late Answers and Expresses, Oxford, 1642: 'Those long lived Patriarchs had this advantage, by begetting a numerous posterity, they might people a Nation out of their own loynes, and be saluted Patres patrie without a metaphor; the same being their subjects and their children. In relation to this, it was properly said by the Ancients, a Kingdome was but a larger family … Thus Regall power sprang first from Paternal'. See also Hobbes, Leviathan, ii. xx. 102–3; Sir William Temple, 'Essay upon the Original and Nature of Government', in Miscellanea, 1680, pp. 63–8; Sir Robert Filmer, Patriarcha, 1680, i. 8.

p. 193, ll. 7–8. Angels converse by Intuition, etc. 'But if any speak at a distance to another, he must use a louder voice; but if neer, he whispers in his ear: and if he could be coupled to the hearer, a softer breath would suffice; for he would slide into the hearer without any noise, as an image in the eye, or glass. So souls going out of the body, so Angels, so Demons speak: and what man doth with a sensible voyce, they do by impressing the conception of the speech in those to whom they speak, after a better manner then if they should express it by an audible voyce' (Cornelius Agrippa, Occult Philosophy, iii. xxiii. 413). See also Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Ia. cvii. 1.

p. 193, l. 9. In St. John's time. Rev. viii. 1.

p. 193, l. 12. Truth can be no older, etc. Cf. the proverb 'Truth is time's daughter' (ODEP 844; Tilley, T580; Hudibras, ii. iii. 663–4).

p. 193, l. 14. the Father of Lyes. John viii. 44.

p. 194, ll. 1–2. who are more, etc.: of whom there are more to each just and grateful person than can easily be reckoned.

p. 194, l. 6. on Free-cost: 'cost-free, gratis' (OED).

p. 194, l. 8. Occasions: 'affairs, businesses' (OED).

pg 374

p. 194, ll. 22–6. The Bishops, etc. Cf. p. 152, ll. 23–5.

p. 194, ll. 29–30. Adam and Eve believd, etc. Gen. iii. 5–6.

p. 194, l. 30–p. 195, l. 1. Lucifer fell from Heaven, etc. Isa. xiv. 12–15.

p. 196, ll. 11–13. Adam after his Fall, etc. Gen. iii. 7–10.

p. 197, ll. 1–12. The Chanceler Hide, etc. See note to p. 190, ll. 4–15.

p. 197, ll. 10–11. Dispensations and outgoings: Puritan terms for Providential intervention. 'An Hypocritical Nonconformist', GR ii. 41, 'does not care to have any thing founded in Right, but left at large to Dispensations and Outgoings of Providence, as he shall find Occasion to expound them to the best Advantage of his own Will and Interest'.

p. 197, ll. 13–14. The Cruelty of the Grand Signor, etc. According to Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, I. xvi. 74, 'the Grand Signior hath scarce performed the ceremonies of his inauguration before he hath seasoned his entrance to his Throne with the bloud of his Brothers; which barbarous custom began in the time of Sultan Bajazet'.

p. 197, ll. 23–5. where Merit is so much Regarded, etc. There were greater opportunities on account of the Turks 'admitting no succession to Offices or Riches, but only in the direct Ottoman Line' (ibid. 1. xvi. 69). Blount, Voyage into the Levant, p. 63, contrasts with Christian practice examples of the Turks' 'choice, and education of persons, apt to each use, [which] must needs make it excellently performed'. Yet cf. Rycaut, op. cit. I. i. 2, on favouritism.

p. 197, l. 30. having more sons, etc. Five sons survived to adulthood: Edward, the Black Prince; Lionel, Duke of Clarence; John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; Edmund, Duke of York; Thomas, Duke of Gloucester.

p. 198, l. 1. occupyd: practised, employed. The construction with an adverb is not in OED.

p. 199, ll. 6–8. For as there is no Folly, etc. Cf. p. 280, ll. 22–4.

p. 199, ll. 11–12. that Devill that assume's, etc. 2 Cor. xi. 14.

p. 199, l. 24. as Diogenes was. See Seneca, Epistulae Morales, xc. 14; Lucian, Historia, 3; Diogenes Laertius, vi. 23, 43.

p. 199, l. 28. Sir P. Neal: Sir Paul Neile, c. 1613–86, scientist and F.R.S. In his verse draft of ll. 4–6 Butler changes the name to 'Sidrophel'. Cf. Joseph Toy Curtis, 'Butler's Sidrophel', PMLA xliv (1929), 1066–78, and Wilders, Appendix B to Hudibras, p. 454. Neile was a Commissioner for Appeals in Excise, first appointed 1673 (Cal. Treasury Books, iv. 143). I have been unable to trace Butler's two stories about him.

p. 200, ll. 1–3. This Pope, etc. Presumably Clement X, 1670–6, who left all business to Cardinal Altieri. 'This manner of dealing gave occasion to many witty Men at Rome (according to their custom) to publish Pasquils … one pg 375of which was affixed on the Pope's Picture, hanging over the door of his Bed-Chamber, and was this, Qui stô, per Insegna, that is, I am here for a Sign; alluding to the person of the Pope, who served onely for a shadow' (Rycaut, Pt. ii to Platina, Lives of the Popes, p. 362).

p. 200, l. 2. Pasquill: 'an old Statue or Image in Rome, whereon Libels, Detractions, and Satyrical invectives are fixed, and on him fathered, as their Author' (Blount, Glossographia). See also OED, s.v. 'Pasquin'.

p. 200, l. 12. Lipsius his Dogge. Lipsius' dog would bring his master as much meat from the market as he carried forth money to pay for, but 'other lesse doggs, snatching as he trotted along, part of what hung out of his basket (which he carried in his mouth) he sett it downe to werry one of them; whiles in the meane time, the others fedde at liberty and at ease upon the meate that lay there unguarded; till he coming backe to it, drove them away, and himselfe made an end of eating it up' (Digby, Treatise of Bodies, xvii. 1, in Two Treatises, p. 320).

p. 200, ll. 23–4. to aske Leave, etc. See Job i. 8–19.

p. 201, ll. 16–17. Dr. Wil: has set up, etc. I have found no occasion for this comment in John Wilkins or other likely writers.

p. 201, l. 19. wars with the Græcians: the two Illyrian Wars (229–228, 219 B.C.) and the three Macedonian Wars (214–205, 200–196, 172–168/7 B.C.).

p. 202, l. 4. Cross-knave: perverse knave.

p. 202, l. 16. a burnt Child, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 92; Tilley, C297).

p. 203, ll. 6–7 as the Roman Velites, etc. 'The youngest and poorest soldiers became velites or light-armed troops; those next in age composed the bastati or front-line troops; the soldiers in their prime made up the principes or second line; while the oldest men were assigned to the third line and called triarii' (H.M.D. Parker, Roman Legions, Oxford, 1928, p. 14).

p. 203, ll. 9–10. that Sottish Story, etc. See Aulus Gellius, X. xvii. 1.

p. 203, ll. 17–18. Socrates his Dying, etc. Socrates was indicted for refusing to recognize the state gods and for introducing other new deities (Diogenes Laertius, ii. 40). See also Plato, Apology, 24b, and passim; Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1. i. 1, and passim. See Diogenes Laertius, ii. 37, on Xanthippe's beating her husband.

p. 203, ll. 22–3. that Paralel, etc. Florus divides the Romans' history into 'foure degrees, or maine progressions', each of 250 years. 'The first revolution was under Kingsin which space they wrestled and strove about their Mother-citie with their neighbours. This may be the time of their infancie. The following period, from the Consulship of Brutus, and Collatinus, to the Consulship of Appius Claudius, and Quintus Fulvius, … in which they subdued Italy wasa time most famous for pg 376manhood, and deeds of Chevalry. It may well bee therefore termed their youthfull age. From hence, to Augustus Cæsar, … in which he setled peace thorow all the Worldis the very Mans estate, and as it were the strength & ripenesse of the Roman Empire. From Augustus Cæsar, to our dayes,through the unworthinesse of Empereurs, the force of the Roman people waxt old, as it were, and wasted it selfe' (Roman Histories, i, Introduction, 4–8, trans. E[dmund] B[olton], Oxford, 1636, sigg. A10v–nv).

p. 203, ll. 28–32. But when the world, etc. Godfrey Goodman, Fall of Man, Or the Corruption of Nature, 1616, iii. 348–82, contended 'now is the olde age or decay of this world'. Cf. Lucretius, ii. 1150–74. This was opposed by George Hakewill, Apologie of the Power and Providence of Godin the Government of the World, 1627; see esp. bk. iii. In 'A Romance Writer' (GR ii. 275) Butler refers to the world as 'grown old'.

p. 204, ll. 14–15. when they had the Management, etc. 'And where before the Bishop and the Alderman were the absolute Judges to determine all businesse in every Shire, and the Bishop, in many Cases, shared in the benefit of the Mulcts with the King; now he [William I] confined the Clergie within the Province of their own Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction' (Baker, Chronicle, p. 38).

p. 205, l. 23. the good old Cause: a Puritan phrase for the interests of their party. Butler's Character, 'An Hypocritical Nonconformist' procures 'fresh supplies for the good old Cause and Covenant, while they are under Persecution' (par. 1; GR ii. 36).

p. 205, l. 27. carry on the work: a phrase used by Puritans for the furtherance of their cause. See Hudibras, 1. i. 201; II. i. 919; II. ii. 50.

p. 206, l. 19. Burnt wine: wine warmed by immersing a hot poker. OED cites Steele, Tatler 36: 'I'll lay Ten to Three, I drink Three Pints of burnt Claret at your Funeral'.

p. 206, l. 20. mortality-Rings: rings with the figure of a skull, worn in memory of one dead; death's-head rings. Cf. p. 225, l. 1.

p. 206, l. 29. Legall Interest: currently limited by statute 12 Car. II, c. 13, to a maximum of 6 per cent. See Blackstone, Commentaries, II. xxx. 463.

p. 207, l. 16. as Mahomet was. '[Mahomet] was made over-seer of the businesse of Abdalmutalif his Master, or (as some say) his Grand-father: and traded for him in Soria, Egypt, and Persia, and after his death, inherited his goods' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, III. III. i. 241).

p. 207, ll. 26–7. Customes that are made, etc. According to Blackstone, Commentaries, Introduction, iii. 67, 'the goodness of a custom depends upon it's having been used time out of mind; or, in the solemnity of our legal phrase, time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary. This it is pg 377that gives it it's weight and authority; and of this nature are the maxims and customs which compose the common law, or lex non scripta, of this kingdom.'

p. 209, l. 34. Artificiall: systematic, logically contrived.

p. 210, ll. 14–20. Renegades are always, etc. Sir Henry Blount 'generally … found them Atheists, who left our cause for the Turkish as the more thriving in the Wor[l]d, and fuller of preferment: these hate us not otherwise than in shew, unlesse where they finde themselves abhorred for their Apostacy; then take heed, for in your ruine they get both revenge, and reputation of zeale' (Voyage into the Levant, p. 112). Cf. Marvell, Rehearsal Transpros'd, i. 42.

p. 210, l. 23. Agnition: 'recognition, acknowledgement' (OED). Sir T N cannot be identified; possibly the royalist Sir Thomas Nott, mentioned p. 245, l. 26. Butler may refer to Nott's Civil War dealings with Parliamentary committees (see DNB) or to his expulsion from the Royal Society in 1675 for non-payment of his subscription.

p. 211, ll. 25–6. Boyling a kid, etc. Exod. xxiii. 19; xxxiv. 26; Deut. xiv. 21.

p. 211, l. 26. Muzzling the Ox, etc. Deut. xxv. 4; 1 Cor. ix. 9; 1 Tim. v. 18.

p. 211, ll. 28–9. the Divine Nature, that is, etc. Jas. iii. 17; Exod. xxxiv. 6.

p. 212, ll. 3–4. the Husband and wife are one Flesh. Gen. ii. 24.

p. 212, ll. 5–6. condemnd to keep hogs. Luke xv. 15. Cf. vv. 13, 30 ('devoured thy living with harlots').

p. 213, l. 4. upon the Place: 'on the spot' (OED).

p. 213, l. 17. Restringences: retentions (produced by the astringency of cold).

p. 214, ll. 1–2. Socrates was wont, etc. See Plato, Symposium, 220c–d (cf. §§ 174e–175d); Aulus Gellius, II. i. 1–3; Diogenes Laertius, ii. 23.

p. 214, ll. 2–3. some Indian Fanatiques, etc. 'Within the Temple [at Ahmedabàd] continually stand many naked Gioghi … There is, no doubt, but these are the ancient Gymnosophists … who then went naked, andexercis'd great patience in sufferings' (Pietro della Valle, Travels into East India and Arabia Deserta, trans. George Havers, 1665, 1. xv. 52). See further ibid. I. xv. 52–3; I. xvii. 55–6.

p. 214, l. 5. God made Man in his own Image. Gen. i. 27.

p. 214, l. 27. Disaffected: a term applied by Puritans to those not sympathizing with their cause. See Hudibras, III. ii. 553.

p. 214, ll. 28–9. the Naturall Priviledg of wormes, etc. A reference to the proverb 'Tread on a worm and it will turn' (ODEP 837; Tilley, W909).

p. 215, l. 1. all extreames use to meet. Proverbial (ODEP 235).

pg 378

p. 215, ll. 6–8. the Antient Greek Philosophers, etc. Butler may have in mind the Greek συμπόσιον‎ nominally a drinking-party, first used as a setting in works, so titled, by Plato and Xenophon; later used by Plutarch and Athenaeus. German skill in mechanical arts was proverbial (ODEP 300; Tilley, G88); so was German drinking (Tilley, G86; Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, I. II. ii. 2, III. III. i. 2).

p. 215, l. 12. the Bishop of Munster: Christoph Bernhard von Galen (1606–78). He engaged in numerous wars, latterly against the Turks (1664), against the Dutch (166–6 and 1672–4), and against the Swedes (1675–8). His making peace with the Dutch in April 1666 was considered a betrayal by his English allies. See Dryden, Annus Mirabilis, ll. 145–8.

p. 215, ll. 18–20. The Prince of Conde, etc. Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (1530–69), fought in Piedmont, at Metz, and at St. Quentin; then, with Coligny, he led the Huguenots in the first three religious wars, and was killed at the battle of Jarnac. 'On tenoit ce Prince de son temps plus ambitieux que religieux; car le bon Prince estoit bien aussi mondain qu'un autre, & aymoit autant la femme d'autruy que la sienne, tenant fort du naturel de ceux de la race de Bourbon, qui ont esté fort d'amoureuse complexion' (Brantôme, Memoires, Contemns les Vies des Hommes Illustres, 4 vols., Leyden, 1666, iii. 211).

p. 216, l. 2. the Laws against vagabonds. These date from the 'Act for Punishment of Rogues, Vagabonds, and sturdy Beggars' (39 Eliz. c. 4), in which all earlier legislation was repealed. Offenders were to be whipped, then escorted to the parish of their birth. See further Acts of 43 Eliz.; 1 and 7 Jac. I; 14 and 19 Car. II. (See further note to p. 106, l. 15.)

p. 216, l. 3. Scandalum Magnatum: 'the utterance or publication of a malicious report against any person holding a position of dignity' (OED).

p. 216, l. 11. the —: the king of England, Charles II.

p. 217, l. 13. Drinke of this Cup. 1 Cor. xi. 28. Cf. Matt. xx. 22–3; xxvi. 27.

p. 217, ll. 23–4. the Devill has his Chappell, etc. Cf. the proverb 'Where God has his church, the devil will have his chapel' (ODEP 309; Tilley, G259).

p. 217, ll. 23–4. Metropolitan: metropolis, chief centre.

p. 217, ll. 24–5. those very Oracles, etc. See note to p. 146, l. 28.

p. 217, ll. 26–7. Sandwitch was burnt, etc. The body of Edward Mountagu, Earl of Sandwich, was recovered from the sea after the battle of Solebay, 28 May 1672, in which his ship the Royal James had been burnt. See Evelyn, Diary, 31 May 1672; iii. 616. In 1656 Mountagu had shared Blake's command when the Spanish West Indian treasure fleet was intercepted at Cadiz (in fact by a squadron under Captain Richard Stayner). The Marquis de Baydes, governor of Peru, was travelling with his family in the vice-admiral, which pg 379was fired. 'In the fire the marquesse's lady, and one of his daughters fell downe in a swownd, and were burned. The marquesse himself had opportunitye to have escaped, but seinge his lady and his daughter, whom he loved exceedingly, in that case, said he would die where they died, and embracinge his lady, was burned also with them' (letter from Mountagu, in State Papers of John Thurloe, ed. Birch, 1742, v. 433). See also ibid. v. 399; Clarendon, History, xv. 26; Waller, 'Of a War with Spain, and a Fight at Sea', ll. 75–88.

p. 217, ll. 27–9. So Cromwels and Bradshaws Heads, etc. On 30 January 1661 the remains of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton were removed to Tyburn. There 'they were pull'd out of their Coffines and hang'd at the several angles of that Triple Tree, where they hung till the Sun was set; after which they were taken down, their heads cut off, and their loathsome Trunks thrown into a deep hole under the Gallows' (Mercurius Publicus, 1661, iv. 64). 'The Heads … are set upon Poles on the top of Westminster-hall by the common Hangman: Bradshaw is placed in the middle, (over that part where that monstrous High Court of Justice sate,) Cromwell and his Son in Law Ireton on both sides of Bradshaw' (ibid. v. 80).

p. 218, l. 5. Self-preservation. See note to p. 160, ll. 31–2.

p. 218, ll. 12–13. which he take's up of himself: i.e. as beneficiary of his own self-love.

p. 218, l. 35. to blinde: i.e. with blinkers attached to the bridle.

p. 219, l. 17. Ingineres: plotters, schemers.

p. 219, l. 35. give aime to: make a target for.

p. 220, ll. 8–9. take place of: 'take precedence of; go before' (OED).

p. 220, l. 9. Dependences: dependants.

p. 220, l. 16. a worme in his Tongue. 'There is a certaine little worme in doggs tongues, called by a Greeke name Lytta, which if it be taken out when they be young whelps, they will never after proove mad' (Pliny, Nat. Hist. XXIX. xxxii. 100, trans. Holland, ii. 363).

p. 220, l. 18. set: wager.

p. 220, l. 22. Pudding: jack pudding, attendant buffoon.

p. 221, ll. 19–20. Loosers, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 485–6; Tilley, L458).

p. 221, l. 23. Hackney-coach. 'Hackney' was in fact a slang term for a prostitute. Cf. Hudibras, III. i. 892.

p. 222, l. 11. Vesinanza, etc. Cf. Boccaccio, Decameron, i, Introd., par. 49: 'Tutte l'una all'altra, o per amistà, o per vicinanza, o per parentado, congiunte.'

pg 380

p. 222, l. 13. Jocorum Mascarum, etc. Royal patents conferred 'officium Magistri iocorum revelorum et mascorum omnium et singulorum nostrorum vulgariter revelles and Maskes' (Documents relating to the Office of the Revels in the Time of Queen Elizabeth, ed. A. Feuillerat, Louvain, 1908, p. 53, and passim).

p. 222, ll. 15–16. Il prioit, etc. '[It was reported] que ses prieres sentoyent plus l'homme de guerre que le Chrestien, plus un grand Capitaine qu'un bon Religieux, Il prioit en commandant & commandoit en priant' (de Serres, Histoire, ii. 999). Charles de Gontaut, Duke of Biron, who had fought with distinction against the League, intrigued with Spain and Savoy, and suffered death for treason in 1602.

p. 222, l. 26. a Witches feast that never satisfies: i.e. 'where nothing feeds but only the Imagination' ('The Luxurious', GR ii. 357). In antiquity the magician Pases 'incantamentis quibusdam efficiebat, ut repente convivium omnibus instructum partibus adesse videretur: rursum ubi libuisset, omnia protinus evanescebant' (Erasmus, Adagia, II. VII. xxxi). See Suidas, s.v. Πάσηϛ‎ also Bodin, Demonomanie des Sorciers, Paris, 1580, II. iv. 85v, for a similar description of the feasts of a recent Count of Aspremont.

p. 223, l. 27. Pagod. See p. 230, l. 31–p. 231, l. 1, and note.

p. 224, l. 2. the Soule of the World. 'The Spirit of Nature [or Universal Soule of the World] … is, A substance incorporeal, but without Sense and Animadversion, pervading the whole Matter of the Universe, and exercising a plastical power therein according to the sundry predispositions and occasions in the parts it works upon, raising such Phenomena in the World, by directing the parts of the Matter and their Motion, as cannot be resolved into meer Mechanical powers' (Henry More, Immortality of the Soul, 1659, III. xii. 1).

p. 224, ll. 4–5. all in all, and all in every part. A common scholastic formula: 'anima est tota in toto, et tota in qualibet parte' (Milton, De Doctrina Christiana, in Works, New York, 1931–40, xv. 46). For further citations see Arnold Williams, 'A Note on Samson Agonistes, ll. 90–94', MLN lxiii (1948), 537.

p. 224, ll. 6–7. Our Lady of Loretta, etc. Loretto, near Ancona, is described in Heylin, Cosmography, p. 97: 'The Church here being admirably rich, and frequented by Pilgrims from all parts to pay their devotions to our Lady of Loretto, and behold her Miracles. Concerning the removal of whose Chamber hither, in our description of Palestine [p. 722], you shall meet with a very proper Legend.'

p. 224, l. 17. as Conjurors doe Spirits. According to Agrippa, Occult Philosophy, III. xxiv. 414–15, the names of spirits 'obtain efficacy and vertue to draw any spirituall substance from above or beneath, for to make any desired effect'. Agrippa discusses at length the calculation and use of spiritual names or pg 381'characters' (ibid. III. xxiv–xxxiii). Perhaps more pertinent is the process whereby a conjuror, having raised a spirit, can 'bind and tye him with the bond of obligation … that he will attend him constantly at his thrice repeating [his name]' (Additions to Scot, Discovery of Witchcraft, 1665, XV. viii. 226).

p. 224, l. 21. Villanies: villeins—who 'could not leave their lord without his permission; but, if they ran away, or were purloined from him, might be claimed and recovered by action, like beasts or other chattels…. A villein could acquire no property either in lands or goods; but, if he purchased either, the lord might enter upon them, oust the villein, and seise them to his own use' (Blackstone, Commentaries, II. vi. 93).

p. 224, ll. 26–7. grow's as longe as he live's. 'Now a Crocodile … layeth an Egge no greater then a Gooses Egge, and from so small a beginning ariseth this monstrous Serpent, growing all his life long, unto the length of fifteen or twenty cubits' (Topsell, History of Four-footed Beasts and Serpents, p. 683).

p. 225, l. 1. Burnt Wine Deaths-head-Rings. See p. 206, ll. 19–20, and notes.

p. 225, ll. 1–2. Tristitiæ Imitamenta. Tacitus, Annales, III. v; XIII. iv.

p. 225, ll. 9–14. Though Lawyers, etc. Cf. p. 237, ll. 5–8.

p. 225, l. 14. John a Nokes, and John a Stiles. 'Fictitious names for parties in legal actions' (OED).

Chiauses: gulls, dupes.

p. 225, ll. 15–17. A Wel[sh] Farme, etc. 'He hires the public money, as they do farms in Wales, for half the profits, pays the one moiety to the collectors and receivers, and keeps the other himself' ('A Banker', . 83r).

p. 225, ll. 19–20. a Crocodile, etc. 'The tail of a Crocodile is his strongest part, and they never kill any beast or man, but first of all they strike him down and astonish him with their tails' (Topsell, History of Four-footed Beasts and Serpents, p. 685).

p. 225, l. 21. an Elke, etc. '[The elk's] upper lip is so great, and hangeth over the neather so far, that he cannot eat going forward, because it doubleth under his mouth, but as he eateth he goeth backward like a Sea-crab, and so gathereth up the grass that lay under his feet' (ibid., p. 167). Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. VIII. xvi. 39.

p. 225, l. 22. present: give presents to.

p. 225, l. 23. Sangriá: a present made to one who bleeds.

p. 225, ll. 26–7. as the Gaul did, etc. When Rome was occupied by Brennus' Gauls in 390 B.C., and a ransom—'a thousand pound weight of gold'— had been agreed on, 'the Gaules brought forth false weights and uneven ballance. And when the Tribune refused them, behold, the insolent and pg 382prowd Gaule would needs have his sword weighed too for vantage' (Livy, V. xlviii. 8, trans. Holland, p. 211).

p. 226, l. 8. slurring: sliding the die out of the box without turning it.

p. 226, l. 11. like Spanish Swords. The Spaniards retained the old long rapier throughout the seventeenth century, whereas in England there was a transition to the short sword and swords carried therefore varied in length. See Egerton Castle, Schools and Masters of Fence, 1892, pp. 242–7, 317–19, 334–5.

p. 226, l. 14. Act of Oblivion. This enacted, 12 Car. II, c. 11, s. 48, that 'any manors, lands, tenements or hereditaments, not being the land or hereditaments of the late King, Queen, Prince or of any of the archbishops, bishops, deans, deans and chapters, nor being lands and hereditaments sold or given for the delinquency or pretended delinquency of any person … shall be held and enjoyed by the purchasers'.

p. 226, l. 15. Tis fair play, etc. See note to p. 190, ll. 8–10.

p. 226, ll. 16–19. the Lapland witches, etc. It was popularly believed that witches could 'saile in an egge shell, a cockle or muscle shell, through and under tempestuous seas' (Reginald Scot, Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, I. iv. 10); also that 'the Sorcerers neare the North sea use to sell the winde to saylers in glasses' (Sir John Harrington, notes to Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, xxxviii, ed. R. McNulty, Oxford, 1972, p. 447). The Royal Society 'Inquiries' to be sent to Iceland in 1662 include: 'Whether it be true, that they sell winds, or converse with spirits, or often see them?' (Birch, History, i. 166). According to Glanvill, Philosophical Considerations about Witchcraft, xviii. 90, ''tis confidently reported by sober intelligent men that have visited those places, that most of the Laplanders, and some other Northern people are Witches.' John Scheffer, History of Lapland, Oxford, 1674, xi. 58, discusses the Laplanders' supposed control of winds.

p. 226, ll. 23–4. For as the sturdy youth, etc. Probably a reference to the wrestling, for which sport in particular Lincoln's Inn Fields were well known. See H. B. Wheatley, London Past and Present, 3 vols., 1891, ii. 394.

p. 226, ll. 25–6. a whole week, etc. Cf. Terence, Eunuchus, 223–4: 'hui univorsum triduom'.

p. 226, l. 27. He had issue, etc. Oedipus, to whose situation this would apply, is usually said to have had four children by Iocasta.

p. 227, ll. 1–7. The Hobbists, etc. Hobbes argues that the only alternative to political submission is a primal anarchy in which there can be no security whatever because all men are equal in ability to destroy one another (Leviathan, I. xiii, II. xvii). The rights of a prince cannot be extinguished but, in cases where he lacks power of enforcement, the obligations of subjects may pg 383be; the commonwealth being in effect dissolved, men are at liberty to seek other protection (ibid. II. xxix. 174). If they submit to one who already has the power, that is 'sovereignty by acquisition'; if they contract to establish a ruler, and covenant their rights to him, that is 'sovereignty by institution' (ibid. II. xvii. 88). This contract is invalid as soon as made inasmuch as by transferring all rights to him they cease to be a party. It is further imaginary in that Hobbes did not regard a multitude as a legal entity; individuals can agree among themselves to cede rights to a ruler, but only in him, when he assumes power, do they become a corporate body (ibid. II. xviii; De Cive, v–vi).

p. 227, ll. 15–17. Heroique Poets, etc. Cf. p. 13, ll. 18–34.

p. 227, ll. 18–24. Strada in the Proem of his Decads, etc.

And indeed, since there is such weight in the truth of History, from which nothing takes off more then affection in the writer; whence should we rather fear the faith of a relation, from one that is a party and hardly dispenses with love and hatred? or from one that centred in the middle, and professing holiness of life, either untouched with any factious desires, or above them; and either keeps at distance the occasions of a lie, or beats it from him? That I may speak something of my self, I hold not the subject of this Warre inconsistant with my course of life, Religion being the cause of both; nor do I conceive my self unfit either to report the matter of fact, or to find out the causes (Strada, De Bello Belgico, i. 2).

p. 227, l. 25–p. 228, l. 3. Philosophers, etc. Browne, Religio Medici, i. 21, declines to dispute 'whether the world was created in autumn, summer or spring, because it was created in them all; for whatsoever sign the sun possesseth, those four seasons are actually existent'. Browne's proof of this, Pseudodoxia, VI. ii, depends on the various heights of the sun at various latitudes, an absolute comparison of which could suggest that one part of the globe is always on the same plane as the 'æquinox line' or celestial equator.

p. 228, ll. 4–6. Aristotelians say, etc. 'Nee tarnen sequitur, si in materia est potentia passiva tantum, quod non sit generatio naturalis: quia materia coadiuvat ad generationem, non agendo, sed inquantum est habilis ad recipiendum talem actionem, quae etiam habilitas appetitus materiae dicitur et inchoatio formae' (Aquinas, Scriptum super Sententias, II. XVIII. i. 2C). Cf. Aristotle, De Generatione et Corruptione, 324b18–19; Cardan, De Subtilitate, i, in Opera, iii. 358b–359b; Scaliger, De Subtilitate, lxi. 1. See also note to p. 87, 11. 14–15.

p. 228, l. 7. Solomon calls a whore, etc. Prov. ii. 16; v. 3, 20, etc.

p. 228, l. 8. having soe many, etc. See p. 107, ll. 24–9, and note.

p. 228, ll. 18–19. Aristotle undertake's, etc. Aristotle's analysis, De Caelo, i. 10–12, establishes 'that the heaven as a whole neither came into being nor admits of destruction, as some assert, but is one and eternal, with no end or pg 384beginning of its total duration, containing and embracing in itself the infinity of time' (ibid. ii. 1, 283b26–30).

p. 228, l. 20. Materia prima. 'Our own doctrine is that although there is a matter of the perceptible bodies (a matter out of which the so-called "elements" come-to-be), it has no separate existence, but is always bound up with a contrariety. … We must reckon as an "originative source" and as "primary" the matter which underlies, though it is inseparable from, the contrary qualities' (De Generatione et Corruptione, 329a29–31). Cf. Physica, I. vi–ix.

p. 228, ll. 20–2. Democritus and Epicurus, etc. See Diogenes Laertius, ix. 44, x. 43–5; Lucretius, v. 416–31.

p. 228, l. 22. Principles: sources, those things from which it originates (viz. atoms moving in the void).

p. 228, l. 23. Plato banishd Poets, etc. Republic, 398a–b, 607e–608b.

p. 228, l. 24. Poetical: fabulous, fictional, ideal.

p. 229, ll. 1–2. The Stoiques, etc. '[The Stoics] say, That a wise man always keeps himself in a sedate and quiet Temper, free from Passion' (Diogenes Laertius, Zeno, vii. 117, trans. R. M., in Lives of Philosophers, i. 533). Cf. ibid. vii. 110.

p. 229, ll. 3–4. That hundreds, etc. Zeno, going to the Stoa or Portico at Athens, and 'designing it a Place of Peace and Quiet, that had been a Place of Sedition; he there began to teach his Philosophy, and read upon several Subjects. For in that Place, during the Government of the Thirty Tyrants, no less than fourteen hundred of the Athenians had been put to Death' (ibid, vii. 5, trans, in Lives, i. 466). Butler is misinterpreting a Latin version which he quotes in his note to Hudibras, II. ii. 15: 'In Porticu (Stoicorum Scholâ Atbenis) Discipulorum seditionibus, mille Quadringenti triginta Cives interfecti sunt.' Cf. 'An Hermetic Philosopher', par. 6; GR, ii. 241–2.

p. 229, ll. 10–14. Lucretius, etc. The invocation, which makes this request for peace (i. 29–43), is shortly followed by an attack on religion (i. 62–126). Cf. ibid. v. 165–9; ed. cit., p. 116:

  •     quid enim immortalibus, atque beatis
  • Gratia nostra queat largirier emolumenti,
  • Ut nostra quicquam causa gerere adgrediantur?
  • Quidve novi potuit tanto post ante quietos
  • Inlicere, ut cuperent vitam mutare priorem?

p. 230, ll. 11–12. The Rabbins interpret, etc. '[With respect to Gen. ix. 24, Rab and Samuel differ,] one maintaining that he castrated him, whilst the other says that he sexually abused him. He who maintains that he castrated him, [reasons thus:] Since he cursed him by his fourth son, he must have injured pg 385him with respect to a fourth son' (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, viii. 70a, trans. H. Freedman, 1935, p. 469).

p. 230, ll. 28–30. devote themselves, in their Armies, etc. '[The] Voluntiers or Adventurers, called by the Turks Gionullu, … are often very hardy, and ready to attempt the most desperate Exploits, moved by a desire of the reward, and by the perswasion, that at worst dying in a War against Christians, they become Martyrs for the Mahometan Faith' (Rycaut, Present State of the Ottoman Empire, III. iv. 181).

p. 230, ll. 30–1. to put out their eies, etc. See Purchas, Pilgrimes, II. IX. ix. 1503, on the Prophet's tomb at Medina: 'The Mosleman Pilgrimes … throng hither, and with great Veneration kisse and embrace the grates (for none have accesse to the Urne of stone) and many for love of this place leave their Countrey, yea, some madly put out their eyes to see no worldly thing after, and there spend the rest of their dayes.'

p. 230, l. 31–p. 231, l. 1.. the Indians, etc. 'In the Kingdome of Narsinga, or the Coast called Choramandel, there standeth a Pagode, that is … drawne forth, with great Devotions and Processions: there are some of them, that of great zeale and pure devotion doe cut peeces of flesh out of their bodies, and throw them downe before the Pagode: others lay themselves under the wheeles of the Cart, and let the Cart runne over them, whereby they are all crushed to peeces, and pressed to death, and they that thus die, are accounted for holy and devout Martyrs' (ibid. II. X. viii. xliv. 1769).

p. 231, ll. 3–4. the Jewish Idolaters, etc. 1 Kgs. xviii. 28; Lev. xviii. 21; 2 Kgs. xxiii. 10.

p. 231, ll. 19–25. There are many, etc. Cf. p. 148, ll. 23–32.

p. 231, ll. 29–30. Noah had, etc. Gen. ix. 20–1.

p. 232, ll. 1–2. Rei Militaris, etc. Pro Murena, ix. 22.

p. 232, l. 2. Cedant Arma Toge. De Consulatu Suo, in De Officiis, I. xxii. 77.

p. 232, l. 20. according to the Church of Rome. See p. 49, l. 29–p. 50, l. 3, and note.

p. 232, l. 25. convenient: due, requisite.

p. 233, l. 12. in a right nick: at a critical juncture (cf. ODEP 565; Tilley, N160).

p. 234, ll. 14–15. A burnd Child, etc. See ODEP 92; Tilley, C297.

p. 234, l. 22. Prester-Jone: the Emperor of Ethiopia. It was reported that the Emperor 'shewed his face but once in the yeere, having at other times his face covered for greater state, and therefore also spake to none, but by an Interpreter' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, VII. iv. 742). Cf. Herbert, Travels, p. 228.

p. 234, ll. 26–30. Those that perjure, etc. Cf. p. 27, l. 32–p. 28, l. 2.

pg 386

p. 235, ll. 8–12. Persius, etc. For Persius' attack on abuse of language see Satires, i. Cf. p. 125, ll. 30–3, and note.

p. 235, ll. 14–15. if Ephestion, etc. See note to p. 21, ll. 25–7.

p. 235, ll. 23–6. The Subtletys of the Stoiques, etc. 'It is the opinion of our sect, that that which is good is a bodie, because that which is good acteth. … They say that wisedome is good, it followeth then of necessitie that it is corporall. But they thinke that to be wise is not of the same condition. It is a thing incorporall, and accidentall unto wisedome, and therefore it cannot produce any action, neyther profite any wayes' (Seneca, Epistulae Morales, cxvii. 2–3, in Works, pp. 467–8). Ep. cxiii deals with the question 'so much canvassed amongst Stoicks, whether justice, fortitude, prudence, and the rest of the vertues are living creatures' (sec. 1; p. 454). A virtue is defined as the soul (an animal) in a certain attitude.

p. 236, ll. 11–19. They that tell us, etc. Cf. p. 6, ll. 7–12.

p. 236, l. 15. perspective. See note to p. 126, l. 21,

p. 237, ll. 5–8. The Common-wealth of Lawyers, etc. Cf. p. 225, ll. 9–14.

p. 237, l. 9. Civity: (perhaps a scribal error for) civility. This sense is not in OED.

p. 237, ll. 12–13. some Philosophers, etc. Lucretius, who denies the immaterial and makes the soul substance, acknowledges vacuum (De Rerum Natura, iii. 94–135, i. 329–417). Plato, who acknowledges the immaterial and ideal, denies vacuum (Timaeus, 80c).

p. 237, ll. 14–16. The opac body, etc. Cf. p. 87, ll. 1–4, and note.

p. 237, ll. 19–20. as O Cromwel, etc. On 29 September 1654 Cromwell drove his coach in Hyde Park, 'but at last provoking the horses too much with the whip, they grew unruly, and run so fast, that the postillion could not hold them in; whereby his highness was flung out of the coach-box upon the pole … and afterwards fell upon the ground' (Thurloe, State Papers, ii. 652). Cf. Denham, 'A Jolt', in The Rump: or a Collection of Songs and Ballads, 1660, pp. 15–18.

p. 237, l. 27. disposd of: put in place, made ready.

p. 238, l. 7. the hand and Pen, etc. In signs and emblems concerning a hand it was conventional to draw a cloud around the forearm, as it would otherwise look to be severed. It is this convention to which Butler alludes, not to the subject–matter of some particular hand-and-pen emblem. See illustration on p. 320 above.

p. 238, ll. 25–6. the Trumpets sound, etc. 1 Cor. xv. 52.

p. 239, ll. 3–4. the Gallique Orators, etc. Presumably an allusion to the fates of leaders chosen at councils, most prominently Vereingetorix: 'The next day pg 387Vercingetorix having called a Councell, told them, that he had not undertook that warre for his own occasions, but for the cause of a common liberty: and forasmuch as they were necessarily to yield to fortune, be made offer of himself unto them, either to satisfie the Romans with his death, or to be delivered unto them alive' (Caesar, De Bello Gallico, vii. 89, in Commentaries, trans. Clement Edmonds, 1655, i. 195). Cf. Scipio Dupleix, Memoires des Gaules, Paris, 1627, I. ix. 31: 'Leur coustume estoit de venir armés en leurs conseils de guerre: & celuy qui arrivoit le dernier estoit cruellement meurtri en pleine assemblée.'

p. 239, ll. 16–17. like the eldest son, etc. See note to p. 197, ll. 13–14.

p. 239, l. 24. It is sayd, etc. I have failed to locate the saying; the sentiment is in Livy, IX. i. 10: 'iustum est bellum … quibus necessarium, et pia arma, quibus nulla nisi in armis relinquitur spes' (quoted by Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pacis, II. xxiv. 7, in an extensive discussion of causes of war).

p. 239, l. 32. Conversation: involvement, preoccupation.

p. 240, l. 2. applications: approaches, addresses.

p. 240, ll. 14–15. al things are maintaind, etc. According to Harvey, Generation of Living Creatures, lxxii. 464, 'an Animal is nourished by the same thing whereof it is made; and augmented by that out of which it is generated.'

p. 240, l. 21. lere: 'sly, underhand' (OED).

p. 240, ll. 30–2. where a Saint ha's a Fayre, etc. John Brand records that in ancient times 'upon any extraordinary Solemnity … Tradesmen used to bring and sell their Wares, even in the Church-yards, especially upon the Festival of the Dedication; as at Westminster, on St. Peter's Day; at London, on St. Bartholomew' (Observations on Popular Antiquities, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1777, Appendix, p. 361). The well-known Westminster fair of Butler's day was St. Edward's, or Magdalen's. Granted to the Abbot of Westminster by Henry III in 1248, it was at first held in St. Margaret's churchyard, and from 1542 up to the nineteenth century in Tothill Fields. Bartholomew Fair, chartered 1133, was finally suppressed in 1855. See Wheatley, London Past and Present, i. 110–15, iii. 387; William Addison, English Fairs and Markets, 1953, PP. 51, 95.

p. 241, l. 2. a good Conscience, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 318; Tilley, C605).

p. 241, l. 4. Dry-money-Cheat: i.e. involving hard cash.

p. 241, ll. 15–16. the Asse in the Emblem. See Geffrey Whitney, Choice of Emblemes, Leyden, 1586, p. 48: The ass's being allowed to eat a laboriously made rope can represent 'those, that lewdely doo bestowe / Suche thinges, as shoulde unto good uses goe'.

p. 241, l. 18. the Drinking Bishop. Unidentified; but cf. Sir William Temple, Letters … from 1665 to 1672, [ed. Jonathan Swift], 2 vols., 1700, i. 58–9, on 'the most Episcopal Way of Drinking that could be invented' out of 'a pg 388formal Bell … that might hold about two Quarts or more', at the Castle of the Bishop of Münster (for whom see note to p. 215, l. 12).

p. 241, l. 23. the memory of the unjust, etc. Cf. Prov. x. 7; Matt. v. 45.

p. 242, l. 2. humiliations: 'days of prayer and fasting. From time to time, Parliament set aside special days of humiliation, on which the nation was to acknowledge its errors or seek the assistance of God for the accomplishment of His will' (Wilders, note to Hudibras, II. iii. 712).

p. 242, ll. 11–16. the Prodigal child, etc. Luke xv. 11–24. The initial parallel is with the prodigal son's taking his portion from his father and forsaking him to go into a far country.

p. 242, l. 14. King Dor.

Partendosi da Pianfu andando verso Ponente, si truova un grande, & bel castello nominato Thaigin, qual dicesi haver edificato anticamente un Re chiamato Dor. … [Un-Khan, called Prester John, had this rebellious vassal brought to his court.] Dove giunto, per ordine di quello, vestito di panni vili, fu posto al governo dell' armento del Signore, per volerlo dispregiare, & abbassare. Et quivi stette in gran miseria per due anni … [Then Un-Khan] li perdonò, & fece vestir lo di vestimenti regali, & con honorevole compagnia lo mandò al suo regno. Qual d'indi innanzi fu sempre obediente, & amico ad Umcan. (Marco Polo, Viaggi, II. xxxi, in Gian Battista Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, 3 vols., Venice, 1563–1606, ii. 32–3.)

p. 242, l. 19. Cunning-men: 'wise men', wizards. Cf. Hudibras, II. iii. 106.

p. 243, l. 14. Deare Sister: more likely the sister of Butler's wife, through whom the request had been made and whom Butler refers to as 'your Sister' (p. 244, l. 9). The tone of the letter too would be more suited to a sister-in-law. Of Butler's wife and her family there is no certain knowledge. Butler himself had four sisters (b. 1602, 1602, 1610, and 1621), and if the letter is in fact to one of them, the youngest, Margaret, would be most likely to have this son of grammar-school age in the latter part of the century.

p. 244, l. 9. to her Power: as far as she is able.

p. 244, l. 24. Cark: trouble, anxiety (usually coupled with 'care').

p. 245, l. 15. Counter: the prison attached to the city court of a mayor, 'the name of certain prisons for debtors, etc. in London, Southwark, and some other cities and boroughs' (OED).

p. 245, l. 23–p. 246, l. 18. The MaydChambermayd. The identity of the following may be, at least, conjectured. Dr Charlton: much ridiculed for his scientific pretensions and perhaps in these instances for his use of inappropriate words; see p. 160, ll. 16–17, and 'On Dr. Charlton's Feeling a Dog's Pulse', GR, i. 404–10. Father More: Henry More (1586–1661), Jesuit; but no record of the dispute. Sir T Not: Sir Thomas Nott; see note to p. 210, l. 23. The Rats: in the fable of 'The Mice in Council' (Perry, Æsopica, 613). Payton: Sir Edward Peyton (1558?–1657), anti-royalist, involved in violent pg 389incidents. The Gamster: his 'Flat' being his broad and thin false die. D Givillim: Butler's variant of 'Guillim' and possibly an error for John Guillim, author of A Display of Heraldry, 1610. Lord Scudamor: ambassador 1634–9; petitioned his recall after Lady Scudamore had been refused, in May 1638, the tabouret or right of being seated on a ceremonial visit to the French queen; his petition negotiated in England, in November 1638, by his secretary Sir Richard Browne (subsequently English resident in France, 1641–57). Dr Gerrard: Peter Gerrard, M.D. (Oxon.) 1669, admitted College of Physicians 1671; but no publications. Scarbrow: Sir Charles Scarborough, F.R.S., physician to Charles II, author of Syllabus Musculorum, 1676. Mr Peck: possibly Thomas Pecke (fl. 1664), verse writer. Dr Glisson: see p. 143, ll. 9–11, and note. Pagan Fisher: Payne (or, in his Latin, 'Paganus') Fisher, poet-laureate to Cromwell, author of Threnodia Triumphalis in Obitum Olivari Protectoris, 1658 (trans. 1659). Dr Dorchester: Henry, Marquis of Dorchester, F.R.S., a close student of physic and anatomy, elected Fellow of the College of Physicians 1658 (ridiculed in the pamphlet Lord Roos His Answer to the Marquesse of Dorchester's Letter [1660], attributed to Butler by Aubrey and Ashmole). W. Egerton: possibly Sir William Egerton, K.B., son of Earl of Bridgewater. Busby: Richard Busby, headmaster of Westminster School 1638–95. B Blandford: B[ishop] Walter Blandford (1619–75), bishop of Worcester; 'wops' (? blows) uncertain. Squint Ferran: Captain Ferrers, attended Sandwich on his embassy to Spain (1666–8); on their travelling see F. R. Harris, Life of Edward Montagu, 1912, ii. 52–6, 126–7, 142–3, 152–3. Sir p witche: Sir Peter Wyche, jun. (1628–99?), F.R.S., traveller and translator, or possibly Sir Peter Wyche, sen. (d. 1643), ambassador to the Porte. Sir James Bag: Sir James Bagge, of Plymouth, knighted 1625, creature of Buckingham's and enemy of Sir John Eliot.

p. 247, l. 1. Fides Nominum, etc. Tertullian, De Carne Christi, xiii. 11 (slightly misquoted).

p. 247, l. 3. as Spencer. See Faerie Queene, VI. ii. f ('aglets'), II. iii. 26 ('aygulets').

p. 247, ll. 5–6. Garde chaud, etc. Proverbial. Cf. Montaigne, Essayes, II. xii. 271 ('Tenez chauds les pieds et la teste, / Au demeurant vivez en beste'), and Jan Gruter, Florilegium Ethico-Politico, Frankfurt, 1610, ii. 220 ('Le pied sec, chaut la teste; au reste, vivez en beste').

p. 247, ll. 7–8. Gulae substructa, etc. 'Prior venter, et statim cetera saginae substructa lascivia est; per edacitatem salacitas transit' (Tertullian, De leiunio, i. 2.).

p. 247, ll. 11–15. 4 throws of Rome. 'Iactus quisque apud lusores veteres a numero vocabatur, ut unio, trinio [or ternio], quaternio, senio. Postea appellatio singulorum mutata est, et unionem canem [or canicula], trionem suppum, quaternionem planum vocabant' (Lsidorus, Origines, XVIII. lxv) pg 390The highest throw, Venus, was when each of the dice showed a different number. See further Oystein Ore, Cardano the Gambling Scholar, Princeton, 1953, PP. 168–9, 232–40.

p. 247, l. 14. damnosa canicula. Persius, Satires, iii. 48.

p. 248, l. 9–10. mettle upon mettle. Proverbial: 'metal upon metal is false heraldry' (ODEP 529; Tilley, M906).

p. 248, l. 20. Souse markée: 'Sou marqué, ancienne pièce de cuivre valant quinze derniers' (Littré, Dictionnaire).

p. 248, l. 31. Raucàque Garrulitas, etc. Ovid, Metamorphoses, v. 678 ('Nunc quoque in altibus facundia prisca remansit / raucaque … ').

p. 249, l. 12–13. Presbiterian Hugonots. See p. 162, l. 3, and note. Butler refers to Presbyterian witch-hunting in Hudibras, II. iii. 139–44, and footnote.

p. 249, l. 33. a most Stately Triumphall Arch. 'The arch was unquestionably the Arc de Triomphe du Trône set up in the Faubourg S. Antoine to celebrate the victories of Louis XIV in Flanders and la Franche-Comté in 1666–1661. Designed by Claude Perrault, it was partially erected between 1668 and 1680 when construction finally stopped altogether; very little work, however, was done after 1670' (Norma E. Bentley, 'Hudibras Butler Abroad', MLN lx. 255). 'The Triumphal Arch out of the Gate of St. Antoine is well worth seeing; for in this the French pretend not only to have imitated the Ancients, but to have out-done them. They have indeed, used the greatest Blocks of Stone that could be got, and have laid them without Mortar, and the least side outward, after the manner of the Ancients; but I am afraid their Materials are very short of the Roman, and their Stone is ill chose, though vastly great. Indeed the Design is most Magnificent; it is finisht in Plaister, that is, the Model of it, in its full Beauty and Proportions' (Martin Lister, Journey to Paris, 1699, p. 54). Cf. John Northleigh, Topographical Descriptions, 1702, ii. 62–3; [Germain Brice], New Description of Paris, trans. [James Wright], 1687, i. 128–9.

p. 249, l. 38. as Titus &c. The Arch of Titus was erected 'in honour of Titus and in commemoration of the siege of Jerusalem in summa Sacra via … but not finished and dedicated until after his death' (S. B. Platner, Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, 1929, p. 45). Other famous arches were those of Constantine (A.D. 312; victory over Maxentius) and Septimus Severus (A.D. 203; the Parthian victories).

p. 249, l. 38–p. 250, l. 1. decreed (like triumphs), etc. 'Concerning the rewards which were bestowed in war, some were by the Senate conferred upon the L. Generall … [As last of these] they honoured him at his comming home also with a Triumph. … Moreover for a perpetuall memory of this their triumph in some publique place certaine trophies were erected. … Sometimes there were statues, columnes, and arches built in token of triumph. pg 391These arches … were known by the name of Arcus triumphales' (Thomas Godwin, Romane Historie Anthologia, Oxford, 1614, IV. vi. 190–1).

p. 250, l. 7. pretends: intends, plans.

p. 250, l. 8. their Old tragedies of Rebellion. Most recently of the Fronde: the First Fronde (of the Parlement) in 1648–9, the Second Fronde (of the Princes) in 1649–53.

p. 250, ll. 11–12. a magnificent fabrick upon a Hill. 'The Observatory—so it was actually called—was also designed by Perrault. On a site selected by the most prominent astronomers in Paris, the building was begun in 1667 and completed five years later' (Bentley, MLN lx. 255–6). Lister visited the completed 'Observatoire Royal, built on a rising Ground just without the City Walls … In all this Building there is neither Iron nor Wood, but all firmly covered with Stone, Vault upon Vault. The Platform a-top is very spacious, and gives a large and fair view of all Paris, and the Countrey about it' (Journey to Paris, p. 52). Cf. Brice, New Description of Paris, ii. 64–7; Northleigh, Topographical Descriptions, ii. 51–2.

p. 250, l. 19. filous: thieves.

p. 250, l. 32. house of office: latrine. Cf. p. 216, ll. 5–9.

p. 251, ll. 5–6. priviledges of the Gallican Church. The libertés de l'Église gallicane constituted an historical claim to administrative autonomy by both king and bishops. In 1663 the Sorbonne had published a declaration to this effect (reiterated in the Four Gallican Articles of 1682). Louis XIV claimed that right to nominate senior ecclesiastics which derived from the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) and the Concordat of Bologna (1516).

p. 251, ll. 8–11. a Controversy between them whither the fryers, etc.

Si Clément IX avait pu croire que le roi, en renonçant aux commissaires apostoliques, entendait reconnaître les droits du saint-siège et la liberté des religieux, il fut bientôt tiré de son illusion par un arrêt du Conseil d'État qui, même pour le spirituel, soumettait les réguliers aux évêques français, et ceux-ci à la couronne: c'est le célèbre arrêt d'Agen, ainsi nommé parce qu'il fut rendu à l'occasion d'un différend entre l'évêque d'Agen et certains religieux de son diocèse (4 mars 1669). … Clément IX ne se laissa pas abuser par ces hypocrites excuses [Louis's claim to act within Gallican rights], et le cardinal Rospigliosi, en ordonnant au nonce de réclamer sans délai la rétractation de l'arrêt, chargea Lionne d'avertir le roi que de pareils attendats n'étaient pas moins périlleux pour l'État que pour la religion … Aux plaintes répétées de Clément IX, Louis XIV se contenta de répondre que, 'si Sa Sainteté voulait bien expédier une bulle qui contînt les mêmes réglements portés dans l'arrêt …, il la ferait recevoir dans son royaume en l'autorisant de ses lettres patentes (Charles Gérin, Louis XIV et le Saint-Siege, 2 vols., Paris, 1894, ii. 379–81).

p. 251, ll. 16–19. The Lawyers, etc. Northleigh, Topographical Descriptions, ii. 48–9, describes 'their Palais, [so called] from its having been antiently the Palace and Residence of their Kings … There is in it a great Hall arch'd and vaulted, with the several Chambers of Justice about it … Their Parliament opens at a set Day, call'd St. Martin [11 November]; when all the pg 392Members of it attend in that great Hall in their scarlet robes … They keep a Court of Aids here, a separate Jurisdiction from the Parliament; and also a Chancery for the Tryal of Points of meer Equity. They have here also what they call their Chamber of Accounts, the same with our Court our Exchequer.' Northleigh also stresses the number of 'Court Officers and Ministers of Justice, Advocates and Proctors'; the Palais 'is more crowded than our Westminster Hall' (ibid. ii. 106).

p. 251, l. 19. in great state. 'Amongst the Living Objects to be seen in the Streets of Paris, the Counsellors and Chief Officers of the Courts of Justice make a great Figure; They and their Wives have their Trains carried up; so there are abundance to be seen walking about the Streets in this manner' (Lister, Journey to Paris, p. 18).

p. 251, l. 24. All trades sett up among them. 'This Hall [of the Palais] is all Vaulted with Freestone, with a row of Arches in the middle, supported with great Pillars, round which are several Shops employed by divers Tradesmen' (Brice, New Description of Paris, ii. 169–70).

as they doe with us. 'Besides the Law Courts, a part of Westminster Hall was taken up with the stalls of booksellers, law stationers, sempstresses, and dealers in toys and small wares' (Wheatley, London Past and Present, iii. 484).

p. 252, ll. 29–30. the Basenesse of their money, etc. Petty, Treatise of Taxes, xiv. 6, includes the French 'Soulz' among base moneys 'for the most part consisting [of] great pieces, though of small value'.

p. 254, l. 1–p. 255, l. 7. The things, etc. See Martial, Epigrams, x. xlvii:

  • Vitam quae faciant beatiorem,
  • iucundissime Martialis, haec sunt:
  • res non parta labore sed relicta;
  • non ingratus ager, focus perennis;
  • lis numquam, toga rara, mens quieta;
  • vires ingenuae … non tristis torus et tarnen pudicus . …

p. 254, ll. 1–22 are based on 'Vitam … ager' (ll. 17–22 alluding to 'vires ingenuae'); ll. 23–6 are based on 'lis numquam, toga rara'; l. 27–p. 255, l. 3, are based on 'focus perennis'; p. 255, ll. 4–7 may be prompted by 'non tristis torus et tarnen pudicus' (ll. 6–7 being used in Hudibras, III. ii. 907–8).

p. 254, l. 10. Paw: hand.

p. 254, l. 26. presse: (1) cupboard; (2) crowded conditions, or (possibly) straits.

p. 254, l. 31. that burnd: i.e. with the rest of the city.

  • arduus armatos mediis in moenibus adstans
  • fundit equus victorque Sinon incendia miscet
  • insultans.
  • (Virgil, Aeneid, ii. 328–30.)

pg 393

p. 255, l. 5. Kind: sexually compliant.

p. 255, ll. 8–15. Blest in your selfe, etc. A free translation of Martial, Epigrams, IV. lxxv.

p. 255, l. 12. E[v]adne and Alcestis. Evadne burned herself on her husband's funeral pyre; Alcestis volunteered to die on behalf of her husband, who had omitted to sacrifice to Artemis at the bridal feast.

p. 255, l. 17. reformado'd: of an officer, left without a command, owing to the 'reforming' or disbanding of his company.

p. 255, l. 18. exauthorized: deprived of authority.

p. 255, l. 21. uninterested: without a personal share or stake in anything.

p. 255, l. 23. vayld: humbled, fallen.

p. 255, ll. 27–8. Ars utinam Mores, etc. Lines 5–6 of the epigram. Martial's subject is Marcus Antonius Primus.

p. 256, ll. 3–4. Fallit enim Vitium, etc. Juvenal, Satires, xiv. 109–10.

p. 256, ll. 7–10. Goe hunt, etc. A parody of Davenant, 'For the Lady, Olivia Porter', ll. 1–4:

  • Goe! hunt the whiter Ermine! and present
  • His wealthy skin, as this dayes Tribute sent
  • To my Endimion's Love; Though she be farre
  • More gently smooth, more soft then Ermines are!
  • (Shorter Poems, ed. A. M. Gibbs, Oxford, 1972, p. 43.)

p. 256, ll. 11–12. Some suppose, etc. The exposition of 'waters' in Genesis i. as watery vapour was congenial to alchemical and hermetic authors. Interpreting Jacob Boehme, Three Principles [iv. 19], Thomas Vaughan writes in Cœlum Terræ, 'This first something was a certain kind of cloud or darkness, which was condensed into water, and this water is that one thing in which all things were contained'; and in Aula Lucis he specifies 'concerning the chaos itself … it is not rain-water, nor dew, but it is a subtle mineral moisture' (Works, pp. 213, 318). Anaxagoras' primitive humidity may also be relevant; see 'Plutarch' (Aerius), De Placitis Philosophorum, III. xvi. 896–7.

p. 256, l. 19. the tree of life. Gen. ii. 9; iii. 22. Cf. Gen. ii. 16.

p. 256, ll. 22–5. The Dri'd up Nipples, etc. See Hudibras, III. i. 761–70, and Browne, Pseudodoxia, III. xvii: 'Plato and some of the Rabbins … conceived the first Man an Hermaphrodite; and Marcus [Angelus] Leo the learned Jew, in some sense hath allowed it; affirming that Adam in one suppositum without division, contained both Male and Female.' See Plato, Symposium, 189e ff.

p. 256, ll. 24–5. as the Scripture sayes. Gen. i. 27; v. 2.

p. 257, l. 6. countervaile: 'make an equivalent return for' (OED).

p. 257, l. 10. far-fet: far-fetched.

pg 394

p. 257, l. 15. Jura per Anchialum. Commentators on Martial (Epigrams, XI. xciv. 8) offer various interpretations of 'Anchialum': a (supposed) Hebrew deity, Martial's boy, the town Anchiale, etc.

p. 257, l. 18. the Building of Babell. Gen. xi. 1–9.

p. 257, ll. 19–22. as the first, etc. Cf. p. 97, ll. 7–9, and note.

p. 257, ll. 25–6. his Labour for his Paines. Proverbial (ODEP 438; Tilley, L1).

p. 259, l. 1. Seneca sayes. According to Marcus Seneca, Controversiae, i, Preface, 18, 'quorumcumque stilus velox est, tardior memoria est'. This principle is alluded to by Lucius Seneca (Epistulae Morales, lxxxviii, ad fin.), and explicitly stated in Plato, Phaedrus, 275a; Caesar, De Bello Gallico, vi. 14; Quintilian, Institutions Oratoriae, XI. ii. 9.

p. 259, l. 11. Chargeable: expensive.

p. 260, ll. 12–14. like Witches, etc. '[Witches] might try to obtain something personal belonging to their victims—a tooth, nail clippings, hair, or bits of clothing—for use in working evil' (Rossell Hope Robbins, Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1959, pp. 322–3).

p. 260, l. 14. Hanke: 'restraining or curbing hold' (OED). Cf. Thomas Potts, Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches, 1613, sig. P4r: '[The witches] had then in hanck a child of Michael Hartleys of Coine.'

p. 261, l. 5. Flourish: complexion. Cf. Shakespeare, Sonnets, lx. 9.

p. 261, l. 21–p. 262, l. 3. rates his abilities, etc. Sir William Dugdale, Origines Juridiciales, 1666, lxx. 321a, quotes Judges' Orders of 1630, 'That none be admitted to the Barr, but only such as be at the least of eight years continuance, and hath kept his Exercises within the House, and abroad in Innes of Chancery, according to the orders of the House.' For the pertinent orders see ibid. lvii. 159a (Inner Temple), lxi. 202b (Middle Temple), lxvii. 288b (Gray's Inn). To retain his inn-chamber a Middle Temple student had to be in commons—i.e. eat at the common table—for six weeks in every year, a Gray's Inn student eight weeks (ibid. lxi. 202a, lxvii. 287a).

p. 262, ll. 1–2. the Butler's booke. In the Middle Temple 'the Chief Butler is to keep a Buttry-book, and to enter therein all such Orders as are made by the Bench, at the Table … He is likewise to enter the names of such as are admitted into Commons … He also entreth the names of all such as perform any Moot or Exercise, either within the House or abroad, to the end he may give a true accompt thereof when he is thereto called' (ibid. lxi. 198). Cf. ibid, lxvii. 275b (Gray's Inn).

p. 262, ll. 13–14. Butchers are, etc. Dryden, Second Prologue to Secret Love, ll. 28–31, makes the same allusion. It has yet to be explained.

p. 263, l. 11. entertained: treated, considered, received.

pg 395

p. 264, ll. 1–2. For as the first production, etc. 'This Masse, or indigested matter, or Chaos created in the beginning was without forme, that is, without the proper forme, which it afterwards acquired, when the Spirit of God had separated the Earth, and digested it from the waters' (Raleigh, History of the World, I. I. v. 5).

p. 264, ll. 5–6. The world accounts 7 yeares, etc. 'A lease for a single life is generally valued at seven years Purchase' (Stephen Primatt, City and Country Builder and Purchaser, 1667, p. 21). Cf. Petty, Treatise of Taxes and Contributions, iv. 20.

p. 264, l. 6. God Almighty enlarges It to 70. Ps. xc. 10.

p. 264, l. 10. man is not born fit to society. See De Cive, Paris, 1642, i. 2.

p. 264, ll. 12–14. For 1st. hee sayes, etc. A literal translation from De Cive, loc. cit.

p. 265, l. 3. Lord of Misrule: 'one chosen to preside over Christmas games and revels' (OED). See Stubbes, Anatomy of Abuses, 1877–82, I. xii. 146–8; Stow, Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 2 vols., Oxford, 1908, i. 97; Wood, Athene Oxonienses, ii. 239.

p. 265, l. 4. like the King of Macassa. See An Historical Description of the Kingdom of Macasar [trans. from the French of N. Gervaise], 1701, ii. 98–9: 'When the ordinary Justice has seiz'd upon an Offender, the Court refers him to be judg'd by the King, if he be not too far off: and … if he deserve death, the King makes him serve in some public Place for a Divertisment to the People, by proposing a Reward to such of the Souldiers as shall first hit the Offender in such a part of the Body, as he shall direct 'em: and sometimes to make tryal of his own Activity, he will shoot at the fatal Mark himself.' Macassar is a district in the Indonesian island of Celebes.

p. 265, l. 5. Authority is a great Corrupter of good manners. Cf. the proverb 'Honours change manners' (ODEP 383; Tilley, H583).

p. 265, l. 7. conteine Himselfe: confine himself; remain.

p. 265, ll. 11–13. Hee carryes his Rod, etc. The lictors' office was to carry before the consul 'certaine bundles of birchen rods with an axe wrapped up in the middest of them: the rods in latin were called Fasces, the axe Securis. The reason why they carryed both axes and rods was to intimate the different punishment that belonged unto notorious and petty malefactors' (Godwin, Romane Historiæ Anthologia, III. II. ii. 111).

p. 265, l. 16. but hee takes him upp: 'except by interrupting and correcting what the boy is saying'.

p. 265. ll. 16–17. as a Grave statesman, etc. Clarendon, in his eulogy on the army, addressed to the Lords and Commons on 13 September 1660: 'The King pg 396will part with them, as the most indulgent Parents part with their Children, for their Education, and for their Preferment: He will prefer them to Disbanding; and prefer them by Disbanding' (Lords Journal, xi. 173–4; Commons Journal, viii. 172).

p. 265, ll. 17–19. to say the same thing, etc. 'Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros' (Juvenal, Satires, vii. 154).

p. 265, ll. 21–2. as Demosthenes, etc. See Plutarch, Demosthenes, xi. 1.

p. 266, l. 3. Particular: individual.

p. 266, l. 7. Magicall: 'addicted to magic' (OED).

p. 266, l. 10. with a Hot spitt, etc. Cf. perhaps Hudibras, I. ii. 233–8, or Aubrey, Miscellanies, xiii. 112: 'In the Bermudas, they use to put an Iron into the Fire when a Witch comes in.'

a Flint, etc. See note to p. 98, l. 16.

p. 266, l. 11. an Hors-shoe. 'It is a thing very common to nail Horse-shoes on the Thresholds of Doors: Which is to hinder the power of Witches that enter into the House' (Aubrey, Miscellanies, xiii. 112).

p. 266, ll. 11–12. a Sive and sheares. 'To discover a thief by the sieve and sheers: Stick the points of the sheers in the wood of the sieve, and let two persons support it, balanced upright, with their two fingers: then read a certain chapter in the Bible, and afterwards ask St. Peter and St. Paul, if A. or B. is the thief, naming the persons you suspect. On naming the real thief, the sieve will turn suddenly round about' (Francis Grose, 'Superstitions', pp. 54–5, in Provincial Glossary, 1787).

p. 266, l. 12. the Running of an Hare. 'If an Hare or the like creature crosse the way where one is going, it is (they say) a signe of very ill luck' (Nathaniel Homes, Dæmonologie, 1650, vi. 60). Cf. Browne, Pseudodoxia, V. xxii. 1.

p. 266, ll. 12–13. the flying of a Crow. 'If a Crow fly but over the house and Croak thrice, how do they fear, they, or some one else in the Family sha[l]l die?' (William Ramesey, Ελμινθολοτια‎. Or, Some Physical Considerations … of Wormes, 1668, VI. VI. v. 271.) John Gaule, Πῦϛ–μαντία‎, The Mag-Astro-mancer, 1652, xx. 181, specifically mentions among omens 'a crow lighting on the right hand, or on the left'.

p. 266, l. 13. the falling of Salt. See Browne, Pseudodoxia, V. xxii. 3; Brand, Popular Antiquities, ix. 87, 95; Grose, 'Superstitions', pp. 65–6, in Provincial Glossary.

a spider. '[Some] have thought themselves secure of receiving Money, if their Hands itched, or, by chance, a little Spider fell upon their Cloaths' (Defoe, Secret Memoirs of the late Mr. Duncan Campbel, 1732, vi. 60). This is the 'money-spider' or 'money-spinner' (Aranea scenica). It was proverbially unlucky to kill spiders (ODEP 819).

pg 397

p. 266, ll. 13–14. the Itching of their noses. This usually presages the appearance of a guest or stranger. See Tilley, N224.

p. 266, l. 18. not to begin, etc. 'Some days … are commonly deemed unlucky: among others, Friday labours under that opprobrium; and it is pretty generally held, that no new work or enterprize should be commenced on that day' (Grose, 'Superstitions', p. 65, in Provincial Glossary). Cf. Tilley, F679, and Gaule, Πῦϛ–μαντία‎, xx. 181.

p. 266, ll. 18–19. nor to paire, etc. See Browne, Pseudodoxia, V. xxii. 10, on 'the set and statary times of paring of nails' (Tuesday not being mentioned). Saturday was proverbially unpropitious (ODEP 288, 54; Tilley, F682, N10).

p. 266, l. 19. to rise, etc. Butler's Character, 'An Undeserving Favourite … came to Preferment by unworthy Offices, like one that rises with his Bum forwards, which the Rabble hold to be fortunate' (GR, ii. 366). Cf. Foresight, in Congreve, Love for Love, II. i.

p. 266, l. 20. put on the Right stockin first. Cf. Hudibras, II. iii. 701–4:

  • Augustus having, b'oversight,
  • Put on his left-shoo, 'fore the right,
  • Had like to have been slain that day,
  • By Souldiers mutining for pay.

p. 266, l. 23. Sort: i.e. of 'knowledge'.

p. 266, l. 24. originall. See note to p. 32, l. 14.

p. 267, ll. 11–13. As the people of Rome, etc. Magistrates were elected through the comitia (curiata, centuriata, or tributa), to the vote of which assembly they had then to bring their proposals. 'Constat autem et ambos Consules et Magistratus omnes obtemperare Senatui semper debuisse, quoties id è repub. esse, patribus et plebi visum est' (Milton, Defensio Prima, in Works, vii. 370).

p. 267, ll. 21–33. Next o're his shoulders, etc. Lines 30–1 suggest a source later than Butler: some unidentified panegyric upon William Howard, Viscount Stafford, beheaded 29 December 1680. It was observed at his trial 'that all his owne Relations, & of his Name & family Condemn'd him, excepting onely his Nephew the Earle of Arundel' (Evelyn, Diary, 7 December 1680; ed. de Beer, iv. 234). Stafford had, however, been imprisoned since October 1678, and the drawn-out preliminaries to impeachment could have suggested to Butler these (albeit uncharacteristic) reflections on the fate of a Catholic peer.

p. 268, ll. 1–4. The Lawes of the land, etc. Until the Customs and Excise yield began to increase after 1674, revenues fell short even of peace-time expenditure. For details of Charles's finances see W. A. Shaw, introductions to Cal. Treasury Books.

pg 398

p. 268, l. 9. As all Countries, etc. Proverbial (ODEP 900; Tilley, M426). See also Hudibras, III. ii. 1293–4, and Wilders's note.

p. 268, l. 15. 'Cause Solomon sayes, etc. Eccles. i. 9 (Solomon being the supposed speaker).

p. 268, l. 22. tenents: tenets.

p. 269, l. 24. Seminary: 'seed plot, a place where plants are set to be removed' (Blount, Glossographia).

p. 270, ll. 7–8. like Andromeda, etc. See Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv. 668–90; Apollodorus, II. iv. 3.

p. 270, ll. 9–10. brands Idolatry with the name of Whoredome. Most frequently in Ezekiel (vi. 9; xliii. 7–9; and passim).

p. 270, l. 10. calls AntiChrist, etc. The identification of Antichrist (1 John ii. 18, 22; iv. 3; 2 John 7) with the Whore of Babylon (Rev. xvii. 1–5) is not explicit in Scripture.

p. 270, ll. 14–15. Such a remedy, etc. Diogenes Laertius records the Stoics' opinion 'That Wives should be in common; so that a man might make Use of the first he met by accident; for thus Zeno and Chrysippus both ordain'd in their Common-Wealths; for that they will all have the same Charity and Affection for their Offspring; and by that means Adultery and Jealousie will be remov'd out of the World' (Zeno, vii. 131, trans. in Lives, i. 542).

p. 270, l. 17. He hath endowed, etc. See 'Solemnization of Matrimony', in Book of Common Prayer, 1662: 'With my body I thee worship, and with all my worldly goods I thee endow.'

p. 270, l. 19. Vespasian turned Urine into Silver. See Suetonius, Vespasian, xxiii. 3: 'When his sonne TITUS seemed to finde fault with him for devising a kinde of tribute, even out of urine: the monie that came unto his hand of the first paiment, hee put unto his sonnes nose: asking withall, whether he was offended with the smell, or no, and when he answered No: and yet quoth he, it commeth of Urine' (trans. Holland, p. 251).

p. 273, l. 15. Men's faith, etc. Jas. ii. 18.

p. 273, ll. 19–20. between Hauke and Buzzard. Proverbial (ODEP 359; Tilley, H223).

p. 274, l. 14. an old man. Cf. Dan. vii. 9: 'the Ancient of dayes'.

p. 274, ll. 14–15. before the Creation, etc. Cf. du Bartas, Devine Weekes:

  • Shall valiant Scipio, thus himselfe esteeme,
  • Never lesse sole then when be sole doth seeme:
  • And could not God (O Heav'ns! what frantike folly)
  • Subsist alone, but sinke in melancholy?

pg 399('First Day of the First Weeke', ll. 45–8, trans. Sylvester, 1605, p. 3.) Scipio's saying is proverbially applied to a wise man (ODEP 900; Tilley, A228).

p. 274, ll. 32–3. though Light bee, etc. Gen. i. 3. Cf. 1 John i. 5: 'God is light'.

p. 275, l. 4. like Mohomet, etc. The elmparac or alborach, said to have carried Mahomet to heaven, was 'of nature betweene a Mule and an Asse' (Purchas, Pilgrimage, III. III. ii. 245). See also Topsell, History of Four-footed Beasts, p. 26.

p. 275, ll. 7–8. like the French manufactures. According to the 1674 'Scheme of the Trade, as it is at present carried on between England and France' (Somers Tracts, 1809–15, viii. 30–1), English imports totalled £1,136,150, exports only £171,021, leaving a £965,129 'balance gained by the French from us yearly, besides the toys, gloves, laces, &c.'

p. 275, l. 19. Compasse: proper limits.

p. 275, ll. 20–1. which they therefore, etc. See note to p. 34, ll. 9–10.

p. 276, ll. 4–6. Popery was attempted, etc. Butler would have in mind the fourteenth-century English statutes of Provisors and Praemunire (see Blackstone, Commentaries, IV. viii); the French Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438); the Council of Constance (1414–17, convened at the instigation of the Emperor Sigismund); the Council of Basle (1431–49).

p. 276, l. 8. santering: wandering. 'To Santer … is derived from Saincte terre, i.e. The Holy Land, because of old time … many idle persons went from place to place, upon pretence that they had taken, or intended to take the Cross upon them, and to go thither' (John Ray, Collection of English Words Not Generally Used, 1691, p. 111).

p. 276, l. 9. by the Eares. See note to p. 7, l. 18.

p. 276, l. 13. Deprivd of their Congregations of Estates. The French States-General had last met in 1614–15, and was not to meet again until 1789.

p. 276, ll. 23–4. Eating what They worship, etc. Cf. p. 30, ll. 30–2.

p. 276, ll. 26–31. It was not Queen Elizabeth, etc. See p. 2, ll. 10–18.

p. 276, l. 28. her Breach of Faith. Mary initially proclaimed that, while she much desired her subjects to embrace Catholicism, 'her highness mindeth not to compel any her said subjects thereunto unto such time as further order by common assent may be taken therein' (Tudor Royal Proclamations, ed. Hughes and Larkin, 1964–9, ii. 5–6).

p. 277, ll. 18–19. the Clergy tooke upon Them, etc. Cf. p. 48, ll. 35–8, and note.

p. 277, ll. 22–3. had no Share, etc. Josh. xiv. 1–4.

p. 277, l. 24. in Feeing of their Sacrifices. By the law of Moses the tenth of all produce, as well as flocks and cattle, must be offered to the Lord (Lev. xxvii. 30, 32); this tenth was assigned to the Levites as the reward of their services pg 400(Num. xviii. 21, 24). 'How the payment of these Tenths was either observed or discontinued, partly appeares in holy Writ [2 Chr. xxxi; Neh. xiii; Mal. iii], partly in their institution of more trustie Over-seers [some thirty years] after the new dedication of the Temple by Judas Machabeus' (John Selden, Historie of Tithes, 1618, II. vi. 18). Malachi deals explicity with the Levites' unjust 'feeing': they sacrificed as the Lord's part of the offerings what was polluted or corrupt (i. 6–ii. 9; iii. 7–12).

p. 277, ll. 26–30. As when they gott Jerusalem, etc. According to Tacitus, Historiae, V. xii, 'pervicacissimus quisque illuc [Jerusalem] perfugerat eoque seditiosus agebant. tres duces, totidem exercitus: extrema et latissima moenium Simo, mediam urbem Ioannes, templum Eleazarus firmaverat. multitudine et armis Ioannes ac Simo, Eleazarus loco pollebat; sed proelia dolus incendia inter ipsos, et magna vis frumenti ambusta.' Cf. Josephus, Wars, V. i. 2–5.

p. 277, ll. 30–1. to kill Beasts &c. The Levites 'shall slay the burnt offering, and the sacrifice for the people' (Ezek. xliv. 11).

p. 277, ll. 31–2. the Executioners, etc. Best taken in the same general sense as Christ's lament over Jerusalem (Matt. xxiii. 37; cf. vv. 29–35). The Old Testament is deficient in recording such executions; furthermore, the authority to judge false prophets 'belonged onely to the seventy in Ierusalem', in the supposed composition of which 'onely foure were chosen' out of 'the Tribe of Levi' (Thomas Godwin, Moses and Aaron, 1625, V. iv. 235, 233). At the trial of Christ, however, the priests were also of the assembly (ibid. V. i. 221–2; Matt. xxvi. 3, 57 ff.).

p. 278, ll. 8–9. like the Austrian family. Most prominently in the case of the ruling emperor Leopold I: himself the child of first cousins, he married in 1666 his sister's daughter Margaret of Spain.

p. 278, ll. 10–11. Jubemur in Evangelio, etc. Matt. vi. 1–7.

p. 279, l. 38–p. 280, l. 2. Man is of all Creatures, etc. Cf. Aristotle, Poetica, 1448b 5–19.

p. 280, ll. 22–4. Nulli mortalium, etc. See Butler's translation of Hippocrates, Aphorisms, VI. liii: 'Madness of Study and Consideration are harder to be cured than those of lighter and more fantastic Humour' ('An Affected Man', GR, ii. 335). The next entry in B is a Latin version of the aphorism.

p. 281, ll. 18–19. Solomon only, etc. Prov. xvi. 12. Cf. Isa. ix. 7.

p. 281, l. 26. Impostors: an error for 'impostures'.

p. 282, l. 3. Plague Sores. Probably the deep, ragged, slow-healing ulcers left by the broken buboes of those who have recovered from the fever. But none of the plague's skin lesions is infectious; in its bubonic form the disease cannot spread directly from man to man. See J. F. D. Shrewsbury, History of Bubonic pg 401Plague in the British Isles, Cambridge, 1970, pp. 4–5; W. G. Bell, The Great Plague in London in 1665, rev. edn., 1951, pp. 126–8.

p. 282, l. 12. Act of Continuance. This enacted, 'That this present Parliament now assembled, shall not be dissolved, unless it be by Act of Parliament to be passed for that purpose; nor shall be, at any time or times, during the continuance thereof, prorogued or adjourned, unless it be by Act of Parliament to be likewise passed for that purpose' (Rushworth, Historical Collections, III. i. 264). Charles gave his assent on 10 May 1641.

p. 282, l. 16. president: precedent.

p. 282, ll. 22–3. a Treaty with his most Implacable Enemyes: i.e. with the French. See pp. xxvii–xxviii.

p. 282, ll. 23–4. great Councell. See note to p. 163, l. 4.

p. 282, ll. 31–2. Merchant Adventurer: historically 'a merchant engaged in the organization and despatch of trading expeditions over sea' (OED).

p. 283, ll. 13–14. as time, etc. See p. 207, ll. 26–30, and note.

p. 283, ll. 21–2. To doe that to others, etc. Cf. Luke vi. 31.

p. 283, l. 25. voted a King to bee So. By 'An Act of the Commons of England … for the Trying and Judging of Charles Stuart, King of England' (6 January 1649; Firth and Rait, ii. 1253–5).

p. 283, l. 31. the Countrey. Trial by jury is 'called also the trial per pais, or by the country' (Blackstone, Commentaries, III. xxiii. 349).

p. 284, ll. 4–6. They shoul (like malefactors), etc. See note to p. 216, l. 2.

p. 284, l. 19. present: current, existing.

p. 284, l. 27. concernd in: mindful of; affected by.

p. 285, l. 15. recruites: reinforcements.

p. 285, l. 19. presense: presentiment, foreboding.

p. 285, l. 28. bare: bare-headed.

p. 285, l. 31. Scaramuch. The part of the braggart Scaramouch was created by Tiberio Fiorelli, whose Italian company made triumphant visits to London under the patronage of Charles II, April-September 1673 and June-October 1675. See Eleanore Boswell, Restoration Court Stage, Cambridge, Mass., 1932, pp. 118–22.

p. 286, ll. 14–15. takes It to Himselfe: takes it personally.

p. 286, ll. 16–17. carrying It on. See note to p. 205, l. 27.

p. 286, l. 24. to make the wreck sufficient and lawfull.

Wreck … Is, where a Ship is perish'd on the Sea, and no man escapes alive out of it, if any part of the Ship, or any of the Goods that were in it are brought to Land pg 402by the Waves, they belong to the King by His Prerogative, or to such other person to whom the King has granted Wreck. But, if a man, a Dog or a Cat escape alive, so that the owner come within a year and a day, and prove the Goods to be his, he shall have them again by provision of the Statute of Westm. 1. ca. 4. & 17 Ed. 2. ca. 11. (Thomas Blount, Νομο-λϵξικον‎, A Law-Dictionary, 1670, s.v. 'Wreck'.)

p. 286, l. 27. Assay: foretaste (made by a subordinate to test royal food).

p. 286, l. 30. the Kings evill: scrofula. It was believed curable by the royal touch, and 'it has been estimated that Charles II touched in all as many as 100,000 persons' (Cross, Dictionary of the Christian Church). The 'touch piece' of gold or silver (at first an angel coin), pierced for hanging round the neck, dates from the reign of Edward III. See Shakespeare, Macbeth, IV. iii. 141–65.

p. 287, l. 11. in a way: established.

p. 287. ll. 14–15. stood out: undergone the process prescribed by.

p. 287, l. 21. His going to ——. Before the morning Council, 'Le Roi alloit à la messe, où sa musique chantoit toujours un motet' (Saint-Simon, Mémoires, ed. A. de Boislisle, Paris, 1879–1930, xxviii. 342).

p. 287, ll. 21–2. King Phys his, etc. See Buckingham, The Rehearsal, V. i:

1 King: Come, now to serious counsel we'l advance.

2 King: I do agree; but first, let's have a Dance.

These are in fact the 'rightful kings' of Brentford. The usurpers, King Phys[ian] and King Ush[er], have just 'stolen away'.

p. 287, l. 32. his Imprisonment in Egipt. Louis left France in 1248, and in 1249 took the Egyptian port of Damietta. 'Le dessein de Louys estiot sans laisser refroider la victoire, & donner moyen à son ennemi de se recognoistre, d'attaquer le Caire, … mais l'ignorance des lieux estrangers où il estoit … [gave Sultan Melexala means] de desfaire l'armee de Louys, & de le prendre prisonnier…. Les conditions furent fort dures en une grande extremité. Que Damiete seroit remise entre les mains du Sultan: tous prisonniers rendus, & huict mille livres d'or…. Mais à son retour il ne retrouva ni son Royaume en si bon ordre qu'il avoit laissé, ni les Estats voisins en meilleure paix' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 315–17). Captured and released in 1250, Louis returned to France in 1254.

p. 287, l. 33. then King Johns was in England. Presumably an error for 'King Richard's'. Cœur de Lion was imprisoned at Durrenstein (1292–4), having been captured while attempting, more 'wisely', to return home from the Holy Land. 'But in England Duke John took upon him as king, perswading the people that his brother king Richard was not living; and indeed it was easie to remove, they knowing him to be a prisoner, to the affirming him to be dead' (Baker, Chronicle, p. 94).

p. 288, ll. 1–3. hee engagd upon a 2d Adventure, etc. 'Louys donc ne pouvant vivre sans servir à l'avancement des affaires de la Chrestienté, ne peut estre retenu de se resoudre au voyage de la Barbarie: contre l'advis de ses Estats, pg 403& contre sa propre experience. Zele qui lui succedera mal, & à tout son Royaume. Ainsi il se croisa pour la seconde fois' (de Serres, Histoire, i. 319). He embarked on 1 July 1270, and died of dysentery at Tunis on 25 August.

p. 288, ll. 3–5. tho the frenzies of Charles the 6th., etc. Charles VI (1380–1422)

regna treze ans, ou avec ses oncles, ou seul, jouyssant de son bon sens, & vingt et [neuf] en phrenesie, non regnant, mais regi ou plustost ravi de la diverse passion d'autrui…. En la premiere Scene de ce theatre, nous verrons les oncles du jeune Roy en mauvais mesnage l'un contre l'autre. Louys Duc d'Anjou declaré Regent, comme premier Prince du sang, traversé par ses freres, les Ducs de Berry & de Bourgongne, & luy abusant imperieusement de son autorité. Le Duc d'Anjou estant forti de quartier par la mort, Louys Duc d'Orleans frere du Roy Charles VI. prendra sa place, comme premier Prince, & viendra aux Prinses avec Philippes le Hardy, Duc de Bourgongne son oncle: lequel en mourant laissera Ian son fils successeur de sa jalousie contre Louys Duc d'Orleans son cousin. Ian passera outre, car il le tuera. mais la haine ne sera pas morte, estant provignee en Charles Duc d'Orleans fils de Louys massacré: & esmouvera infinis troubles…. Ian qui avoit tué, sera tué par Charles Dauphin, qui sera Roy à son tour. mais de Ian naist au autre Philippes de Bourgongne, qui rallume un nouveau feu pour se vanger de la mort de son Pere. L'estranger meslé parmi ces guerres civiles, les femmes y entassent leurs fureurs. (ibid. i. 489, 455–6.)

p. 288, l. 8. as it is said to do Martyrs. 'It is not the suffering, but the cause which makes a martyr' (ODEP 785; Tilley, S956).

p. 288, ll. 13–14. to make a Bastard, etc. Alexander VI made an agreement with Louis XII, whereby 'Cæsar Borgia who was the Popes bastard Son, having renounced his Cardinals Cap, and taking Carlotta de Alebretto, Daughter to the King of Navar, and Kinswoman to the King of France for his Wife, should be invested in Romagna, Marca, and Umbria … [Alexander] gave his Daughter Lucretia in Marriage to John Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, … then he took her from Sforza, and gave her to Lewis of Aragon, Bastard Son of Alfonso King of Naples; who being killed, she was given to Alfonso da Esté Duke of Ferrara, with whom afterwards she ended her days' (Rycaut, Pt. ii to Platina, Lives of the Popes, p. 15).

p. 288, l. 17. Suite and Service. See Blount, Law Dictionary: 'Sute of Court, or Sute-service, is an attendance which a Tenant owes to the Court of his Lord, (Anno 7 Hen. 7. ca. 2.)'.

p. 288, l. 27. by the Right of two Women. Margaret Tudor, Henry VII's eldest daughter, who married James IV of Scotland, and her granddaughter Mary Queen of Scots, mother of James I of England.

p. 288, l. 31. by forcing Him to marry a Whore. The Duke of York, contracted to Anne Hyde at Breda on 24 November 1659, secretly married her on 3 September 1660, and their first child was born seven weeks later. Charles was against the match, but reconciled himself to it. See Burnet, History, i. 293–5, 298–9, and notes. Cf. Marvell's attack on Anne's character in Last Instructions to a Painter, ll. 49–78. p. 289, ll. 1–2. Doe unto others, etc. Lev. xxiv. 19; Matt. vii. 1–2.

pg 404

p. 289, ll. 6–7. they produce the fruites, etc. Cf. Matt. vii. 17–18.

p. 289, l. 12. like the Prophets. Elijah was fed by ravens (1 Kgs. xvii. 6).

p. 289, ll. 14–16. A Tubb was bigger, etc. See Hudibras, I. iii. 18–21, and Wilders's notes: 'On being told of Democritus' opinion that there were an infinite number of worlds, Alexander cried out in despair that he had only conquered one of them. See Valerius Maximus, VIII. xiv; Plutarch, De Tranquilitate Animi, iv. 466. According to Cicero (Tusculan Disputations, V. xxxii. 92), Diogenes frequently told Alexander that he himself was superior to the King, for whereas he had no needs, Alexander was never satisfied.'

p. 289, ll. 19–20. of which the Devill is Prince. See John xiv. 30, and cf. Matt. iv. 8–9.

p. 290, l. 5. on a Sledge. Blackstone, Commentaries, IV. vi. 92, describes the punishment of high treason: 'That the offender be drawn to the gallows, and not be carried or walk; though usually a sledge or hurdle is allowed, to preserve the offender from the extreme torment of being dragged on the ground or pavement.'

p. 290, l. 7. eminently: conspicuously.

p. 290, l. 14, a flat Divine law. Lev. xix. 11.

p. 290, ll. 16–17. A ship-board, etc. 'Seamen convicted of Lying, to be corporally punish'd, by being hoisted up upon the Main Stay, &c. and others to forfeit half a Day's Pay' (Laws, Ordinances, and Institutions of the Admiralty of Great Britain, 2 vols., 1746, ii. 297). See ibid. ii. 296–7 for relevant statute 13 Car. II c. 9.

p. 291, l. 1. as love and honour: i.e. in heroic plays. Butler parodies such emotional conflicts in 'Repartees between Cat and Puss' (GR, i. 91–7).

p. 291, l. 16. Keepers of the liberties. See note to p. 113, l. 14.

p. 291, l. 21. Cato: Cato Uticensis (95–46 B.C.). For praise of his character see Plutarch, Cato Minor, passim.

p. 291, ll. 23–5. Athenodorus, etc.

When Cato understoode that Athenodorus surnamed Cordylion, a Stoicke Philosopher, excellently well learned, dwelt at that time in the city of Pergamum, being a very old man, and one that stiffely refused the friendship of kings, Princes, and noble men, desirous to have him about them: to write to him, he thought it was but lost labor. Wherefore … he tooke sea, and went into Asia to him, hoping he should not lose his jorney, for the great vertues he knew in him. So when he had spoken with him, and talked of divers matters together: at length he brought him from his first determination, and caried him to the campe with him, esteeming this victorie more, then all the conquestes of Lucullus or Pompey, who had conquered the most parte of the world. (Plutarch, Cato Utican, x, trans. North, v. 117.)

p. 292, l. 7. Langageur: i.e. langayeur, 'an Officer that searches the tongues of pg 405Market-Hogs, thereby to discerne whether they be sounder no' (Cotgrave, Dictionarie). Cf. langayer, 'to worme, or search the root of the tongue of a Hog' (ibid.).

p. 292, l. 11. Symplements: symptoms.

p. 292, l. 12. meazles: a disease produced in swine by tapeworm larvae.

p. 292, ll. 22–3. like the Clay of China Potters. See Brownes's discussion (Pseudodoxia, II. v. 7) 'concerning Porcellane or China dishes, that according to common belief they are made of Earth, which lieth in preparation about an hundred years under ground'.

p. 293, ll. 11–12. designes Himselfe: maps out for himself; assigns himself.

p. 293, ll. 13–14. more then in his owne Countrey. Matt. xiii. 57; Luke iv. 24; John iv. 44.

p. 293, l. 27–8. as eliah burnt his Sacrifice with water. 1 Kgs. xviii. 30–8.

p. 294, l. 2. Livings: livelihoods.

conversion: in law 'the action of (illegally) converting or applying something to one's own use' (OED).

p. 294, l. 6–7 his Dominions. See p. 289, ll. 19–20, and note.

p. 295, l. 4. free State: republic.

p. 295, l. 23. like Miracles. It was a common belief among Protestants that miracles had ceased to occur after apostolic times. See Shakespeare, Henry V, I. i. 67, and All's Well, II. iii. 1; Scot, Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, VIII. i. 156; Perkins, Discourse of Witchcraft, I. iv. 13–17.

p. 296, ll. 16–18. they would follow Him, etc. Matt. xv. 29–33; Mark viii. 1–4.

p. 296, l. 19. for the Same Reasons endeavour to stone Him. 'Then the Jewes tooke up stones againe to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many good workes have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those workes doe ye stone me? The Jewes answered him, saying, For a good worke we stone thee not, but for blasphemy, and because that thou, being a man, makest thy selfe God' (John x. 31–3).

p. 296, ll. 19–21. take his part, etc. Matt. xxi. 46; Luke xx. 19.

p. 296, ll. 22–4. within 2 or 3 dayes after, etc. Luke xxiii. 13–23.

p. 296, ll. 24–5. To bee eye witnesses, etc. John x. 24–5.

p. 296, ll. 25–6. lesse then the Devill. See Matt. iv. 3–6; Luke iv. 3, 9–11.

p. 296, ll. 26–8. when the same things, were but, etc. Acts iv. 4 ('about five thousand'). Cf. Acts ii. 41 ('about three thousand').

p. 296, l. 28. at a Clap: at a stroke; all at once.

p. 297, l. 3. Ferity: 'cruelty, fierceness' (Blount, Glossographia).

pg 406

p. 297, l. 6. Lord of all other Creatures. Gen. i. 26, 28.

p. 297, ll. 12–14. the very Gouvernment of Hell, etc. Matt. xii. 26; Luke xi. 18.

p. 297, l. 22. such as have no ears, to Heare. See Matt. xi. 15; xiii. 9, 43; Mark iv. 9, 23; vii. 16.

p. 297, l. 26. as well as Ordinances. See Hudibras, II. ii. 250 (A saint should be above Conscience, 'As far, as above Ordinances'), and Wilders's note: 'Clarendon describes this phrase as "peculiar to that time". He applies it to the younger Vane, whom he describes as "unlimited and unrestrained by any rules or bounds presecribed to other men by reason of his perfection. He was a perfect enthusiast and without doubt did believe himself inspired"' (Clarendon, History, xvi. 88). Cf. Evelyn, Diary, 25 December 1657; ed. de Beer, iii. 204.

p. 298, ll. 1–2. the Heathens objected, etc. 'I heare that amongst all filthy beasts, from what perswasion I know not, they worship an Asses head, like worship like manners' (Minucius Felix, Octavius, ix. 3, trans. Richard James, Oxford, 1636, p. 29). See also Tertullian, Apologeticus, xvi. 1–2; Ad Nationes, I. xi, xiv; and cf. Tacitus, Historiae, V. iii–iv; Josephus, Contra Apion, II. vii.

p. 298, l. 3. a Jew and a Christian were all one. See Suetonius, Claudius, xv. 4; Dio Cassius, LXVII. xiv. 1–2; LXVIII. i. 2; Tertullian, Apologeticus, xvi. 3.

p. 298, ll. 5–6. all the firstlings, etc. Exod. xiii. 12–13.

p. 299, l. 11. Periissem nisi periissem: i.e. he would not have enjoyed the prosperity he did (in Persia) had he not fallen from power in Greece (Plutarch, Themistocles, xxix). Cf. Thucydides, i. 136.

p. 299, ll. 11–12. the Earle of Somersetts breaking of His Legg. According to Wilson, Life and Reign of King James the First, p. 54, 'Sir James Hayes, some say the Lord Dingwell, at a Tilting … made choice of Mr. Car (according to the custom) to present his Shield, and Device to the King; and as he was descending, the Horse … threw him down before the King, and broke his leg. This accident gave the King occasion to take notice of him.' Robert Carr was created Earl of Somerset in 1613.

p. 299, ll. 31–2. like the Prisian, etc. Browne, Pseudodoxia, II. iii, cites the case of 'a young man of Spruceland [i.e. Prussia] that casually swallowed a knife about ten inches long, which was cut out of his stomach, and the wound healed up'.

p. 300, l. 10. turns him up: turns him loose.

p. 300, l. 29. breeding: bringing up.

p. 301, ll. 5–6. Faciunt nec intelligendo, etc. Andria, Prologue, l. 17.

p. 301, ll. 8–9. as more men perish, etc. See note to p. 168, ll. 1–2.

p. 301, ll. 24–5. the Alps cost Hanniball, etc. Polybius writes of Hannibal's pg 407completed crossing that 'although a little before hee had parted from the River of Rhone with thirty eight thousand Foote, and eight thousand Horse, hee had scarce then halfe his Army entire' (History, III. lx. 5, trans. Edward Grimestone, 1633, p. 137). Cf. Livy, xxi. xxxviii. 2–5.

p. 301, ll. 26–9. Holland that is, etc. Cf. p. 184, ll. 13–17, above.

p. 302, ll. 6–7. When Adam by disobedience, etc. Rom. v. 12.

p. 302, l. 15. Pragmaticall: busy; doctrinaire; officious.

p. 302, l. 22. the whole duty of man. Eccles. xii. 13; also the title of an enormously popular devotional work, published 1658, probably by Richard Allestree. Wing, Short-Title Catalogue … 16411700, i, New York, 1972, lists 39 editions.

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