S. P. Oakley (ed.), A Commentary on Livy, Books VI–X, Vol. 2: Books VII–VIII
5. 1. in Capitolio eis senatus datus est: the Capitoline temple of Jupiter was one of the regular meeting places of the senate, used in pg 419particular at the opening meeting of the official year; see e.g. xxvi. 1. 1, xxxii. 8. 1, O'Brien-Moore, RE Suppl. vi. 704, and Bonnefond-Coudry (1989) 65–80. Appian (Lib. 75) states that the senate met on the Capitol when it was deciding whether to go to war. His testimony is unsupported and may not be sound; but it should be noted that at 6. 8 the senators resolve on war against the Latins. The reference to the Capitol also alludes to the theme of Rome being caput rerum, for which see 4. 5 n.
3. tempus erat: 'it has long since been time'; for the idiomatic imperfect, cf. Hor. carm. i. 37. 4 (with the note of Nisbet and Hubbard), Ov. am. ii. 9. 24, iii. 1. 23, trist. iv. 8. 25, Sen. Med. 111, Mart. iv. 33. 4, and Juv. 2. 115. Nisbet and Hubbard note that the expression is more urbane than tempus est (which L. uses at vi. 18. 13 and xxi. 43. 9), but the evidence listed above suggests that it may also have been somewhat poetical.
nunc (for which M has tunc) was tentatively deleted by Madvig (1877: 188 n. 1). The sequence tandem iam … cum … nunc … nunc … may not constitute L.'s most elegant piece of writing, but the paradosis is defensible if tandem iam is taken closely with agere and the first nunc with florentissimum.
florentissimum … armis uirisque: for florere in the context of a healthy population, cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 641–4 'pandite nunc Helicona, deae, … | … quibus Itala iam tum | floruerit terra alma uiris', Tac. hist. iii. 34. 1, and other passages cited at TLL vi. 1. 920. 29–35.
armis uirisque: when Virgil sang of arms and the man he echoed a coupling which was commonplace in his day; cf. e.g. 13. 1, 25. 3, ix. 19. 13, 38. 7, x. 16. 6, 34. 6, xxiii. 30. 6, xxviii. 37. 5, Virg. Aen. xi. 747 (note also Aen. vi. 814, ix. 57, 462, 777, where however arma and uir are not co-ordinate).
hoc: the neuter pronoun is idiomatic, and after it ut may be translated 'namely that'. In this context cf. esp. v. 17. 9 'sanguini tamen nominique et praesentibus periculis consanguineorum id dari ut si qui iuuentutis suae uoluntate ad id bellum eant non impediant'; also e.g. Ter. Eun. 395–6, Cic. fam. ix. 6. 5, and Tac. ann. xvi. 16. 2.
7. forte ita accidit ut …: for formulas of this kind, see vi. 34. 6 n. The use of ita before accidit ut may be paralleled at Cic. Q. fr. i. 1. 2 'quoniam ita accidit ut neque praetores … neque nos … quicquam proficere possemus' and fam. iii. 8. 3 (where see Shackleton Bailey's note); note also Caes. Gall. v. 23. 3 'ac sic accidit uti … '.
dementia … cepisset: this forceful coupling was much favoured by Virgil, but is otherwise rare; cf. [x] Ecl. 2. 69 'a, Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit!', 6. 47, georg. iv. 488, and Aen. v. 465. L. uses dementia only here, and this expression may perhaps derive from his reading of the Eclogues and Georgics.
8. audi, Iuppiter, haec scelera … audite, Ius Fasque: this use of audi is standard in prayers; cf. e.g. i. 24. 7, 32. 6 'audi, Iuppiter … audite, fines … audiat Fas', Catull. 64. 195, Luc. vi. 706, Stat. silu. iv. 3. 144, and see Appel (1909) 119 and Hickson (1993) 115–17. The outrage of Manlius here is paralleled well by the utterances of Seneca's Thyestes (Thy. 1068–71) 'clausa litoribus uagis | audite maria, uos quoque audite hoc scelus, | quocumque, di, fugistis. audite inferi, | audite terrae … '. The similarity of the language to that of the formula for the declaration of war at i. 32. 6 perhaps prepares the reader for the declaration of war at the end of this senatorial scene.
According to TLL vii. 700. 36–8 ius is personified only here in Latin, but personification of fas is less rare; cf. e.g. i. 32. 6 (quoted pg 421above), Sen. Herc. fur. 658 'fas omne mundi teque dominantem precor', Luc. x. 410, Val. Fl. i. 792, Auson. xxv (technopaeg.). 8. 1, Paul. Fest. 505, and see TLL vi. 1. 295. 67–71. In general, i. 32. 6 provides a good parallel for the invocation and personifications found here. ius and fas are commonly combined, and together suggest natural law and justice. (ius refers to human, fas to divine justice.) Cf. e.g. 10. 1, i. 2. 6, iii. 55. 5, vii. 6. 11, 31. 2 (n.), xxiii. 12. 15, xxvii. 17. 13, xxx. 31. 5, xxxiii. 33. 7, xl. 15. 5, xlii. 21. 3, xlv. 33. 2, Plaut. Cist. 20, Ter. Hec. 387 etc.
Iuppiter: Vasaly (1993) has recently illustrated how ancient orators tried to make the most of the settings in which they were speaking; note in particular her discussion (pp. 40–87) of Cicero's references to Jupiter in Cat. i and iii. Compare also Cic. fam. x. 12. 4 'uenit paratus Seruilius Ioui ipsi iniquus, cuius in templo res agebatur' and see further vi. 20. 9 n.
captus atque ipse oppressus: Alschefski tentatively proposed c. ipse atque o., which was accepted by e.g. Luterbacher and Zingerle; but L. employs the combination atque ipse eighteen times (note esp. xxiv. 9. 9 'praesenti Fabio atque ipsi comitia habenti') as opposed to ten instances of ipse followed by ac or atque, and there seems to be no compelling reason to emend. For the coupling captus atque oppressus, see vii. 18. 9 n.
beneficiorum: the nature of these benefits is not wholly clear; W–M suggest the mild treatment of the Latins by Rome, but perhaps we should also think of annalistic notices of their protection by Rome (4. 8, vii. 19. 6 nn.).