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1.3.2.4

1.414:3–418:17. BEcause … addam . The whole of this subsection was added in 28. It may be that the works by Lodovicus Mercatus and Rodericus à Castro had come to Burton's notice only after the second edition, since they are not quoted before 28 (Sennert, indeed, was not added until 32), but it seems more likely that Burton had become conscious (or been made aware) that he had omitted from his account the different kinds of melancholy afflicting women, and for his third edition decided to give them especial treatment, as well as inserting or enlarging references to female melancholy elsewhere in the Anatomy (e.g. 1.169:17–20, 32–3, 230:23–9). In this subsection he relies very heavily on the books he cites, but in the last paragraph he adds a powerful attack of his own on enforced celibacy. This might seem to have personal feeling behind it, given his own situation, but it may be that he distinguished between his own case and that of the inhabitants of monks and nunneries: while he was not allowed to marry so long as he held his Studentship at Christ Church, he had freely pg 56chosen his profession and had not been compelled to take it up, and could have left Oxford, taken a college living or some other employment, and married if he so desired. Clearly he associated enforced vows of chastity with Popish practices, which he was always ready to attack, and with the scandals revealed in the visitations of the monasteries and nunneries at the time of the Reformation (cf. 3.258:26ff.); but at the same time as he inserted this attack he went somewhat out of his way to add another passage (1.244:11–25) expressing the view that the Reformers had perhaps gone too far in destroying the religious houses, which might instead have been converted for use as retreats for men and women who did not desire to marry but wished to devote themselves to study and contemplation.

4. Rodericus … lib. 2 . De morbis mulierum is actually part 2 of Castro's De universa mulierum medicina (1603). This comprises five books; bk. 2, ch. 3 is 'De melancholia virginum et viduarum'.

5. Daniel Sennertus … 13 . This chapter of Practica medicinae (1628), which is entitled 'De melancholia ex utero', is quite brief; Burton added this reference in 32, but in fact makes little use of Sennert. This subsection is heavily dependent on Mercatus and Castro, whose statements (which in any case are often very similar) are occasionally conflated.

7. de Melancholiâ … viduarum . 'Of the melancholy of virgins, nuns, and widows'.

note a. Differt … causam . Castro, De universa mulierum medicina, ii. 116.

14. Gynæciorum Scriptores. 'Writers on the ailments of women'. Burton owned a collection, edited by C. Wolphius, of such medical writings, Gynaeciorum … libri veterum et recentiorum aliquot (1566; K1726).

15. ob septum transversum violatum. 'Because of damage to the midriff'; Mercatus, Opera, iii. 552, quoting 'Hippocrates lib de virg. morb.'

17–18. inflammationem … Rodericus addes . Castro, loc. cit.

note b. Ex menstrui … augentur, &c . 'From the foul exhalation of the menses to the heart and brain the infected seed disturbs the mind, etc., not directly but by consent. The sad and anxious soul from thence suffers ill, and the spirits in the brain are darkened, which together increase, etc.' Ibid.; cf. Mercatus, Opera, iii. 553.

21–2. Universa … malitia . Cf. Mercatus, loc. cit.

25. si amatorius accesserit ardor. 'If the passion of love be also present'; ibid.

29. ob suppressam purgationem. 'Because of lack of evacuation' (i.e. of the menses; cf. Sennert, p. 408).

30–1. crebriùs … Rodericus . 'It happens more often to these than to the rest, says Rodericus'; Castro, loc. cit.

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32. Areteus. Cf. 1.388:28–9.

32–3. angorem animi. 'Animi angor in cogitatione defixus' ('Anguish of the soul firmly rooted in one's thoughts'; Castro, loc. cit.).

1.415:c. Cum tacito … occupantis, &c . Cf. Mercatus, Opera, iii. 552.

Cutis … deficit, &c . Castro, ii. 117, quoting Aretaeus, De causis et signis acutorum morborum 2.8 (translated in ll. 5–8).

4. pulsatio juxta dorsum. Castro, loc. cit.

8–9. fauces … decerni . 'The throat closes up with dryness, so that it is difficult to distinguish from hysteria'; ibid.

10. Alvus … flavum . 'The bowels in many cases yield nothing, in others a little bitter, bilious, yellow urine'; ibid.

11–15. Mercatus, De mulierum affectionibus 2.4 (Opera, iii. 553).

15. ferina deliramenta. Cf. Rabbi Moses (Maimonides), Aphorismi (1579), 22.49.

16–17. subrusticus … ignava . Castro, ii. 117; cf. above, 1.393:33.

note d. Animi … judicium . 'Dejection of mind, a perverse estimation of things, ridiculous judgement'. Not Castro.

Fastidiosæ … amant, &c . Castro, loc. cit. (translated in ll. 19–22).

31–2. aptæ … hypocondriis . 'Prone to weeping, despair; to pains in the breast and midriff'; Mercatus, Opera, iii. 552.

note e. Nolunt … mammis, &c . 'They are loath to confess the misery from which they suffer, but they complain of their head, heart, breasts, etc.'; Castro, Medicina, ii. 118.

In puteos … erigi, &c . 'They are liable to run mad and want to throw themselves into wells or strangle themselves, and cannot be aroused to hope of recovery by any persuasive argument'; ibid. 117.

Familiares … si & c . 'They take no care for their friends, will not speak or reply, etc., and these symptoms are the more severe if, etc.'; ibid. 118.

1.416:3. sine causâ manifestâ. 'Without obvious cause'.

4–5. they are troubled … Rodericus . Castro, ii. 118. Mercatus notes, quoting Hippocrates, that such women patients often say that they are possessed by demons (Opera, iii. 554).

note f. Clisteres … laudat . 'He highly praises enemas and purges of hellebore as prescribed by Matthiolus'; cf. 2.241:24–6.

24. hinc illæ lachrymæ. See 1.327:22.

33–417:4. In this passage Burton closely follows Mercatus in his chapter 'De virginum & viduarum melancholia' (De mulierum affectionibus 2.4; Opera, iii. 552–3).

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1.417:2–3. grandiores … melancholicæ . 'Most older virgins, childless women, and widows are melancholy'; Mercatus, Opera, iii. 552.

12–13. næ ego … dixerim . 'I am surely a great fool to talk about these things.'

13–15. as Pallas … face . Martianus Capella, De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, 1.40.

15. me reprimam. 'I will pull myself up.'

17–18. in gratiam Virginum & Viduarum. 'On behalf of virgins and widows'.

22. tyrannizing Pseudopolititians. Dictatorial and hypocritical arrangers of other people's lives ('pseudopolitician' seems to be Burton's own invention).

25–6. cum sibi sit interim benè. 'Being themselves comfortably placed all the while'.

40. hæccine fieri flagitia? 'Are these crimes to be put up with?'

41. better … Apostle . 1 Cor. 7:9.

1.418:3–4. miserum … non miserescere . Confessions 1.13.21.

10. Spintrias, Tribadas, Ambubaias. 'Male prostitutes, lesbians, dancing-girls'.

12. Bales visitation of Abbies. Burton here treats the visitation of religious houses by Richard Layton and Thomas Legh, which began in 1535 and was the subject of reports to Parliament, as if it had actually been conducted by Bale, who refers to it in the 'Praefatio ad lectorem' to Acta Romanorum pontificum (1567). Burton quotes from this at 3.50:15–20.

note h. Cap. de Satyr. & Priapis. Mercurialis, Medicina practica 3.38.

14. sed viderint … Theologi . 'But let the politicians, doctors, and theologians look to it.'

16–17. Illius … addam . 'In case you should think that I am speaking in favour of that particular widow, or this virgin, I will not say another word'; cf. Horace, Sat. 1.1.120–1.

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