Main Text

26,p. οὐδὲν πενίας βαρύτερόν ἐστι ϕορτίον.‎ Burton appears to have derived this quotation from Cardan's De consolatione 3 (p. 371), where the Latin translation is given as in note p. Cardan also gives the Ovidian quotation in l. 28.

28. census … amicitias . Cf. 'in pretio pretium nunc est: dat census honores, | census amicitias' ('Value is nowadays a matter of money: property brings honours, property brings friendships'; Ovid, Fasti 1.217–18).

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33–4,q. Gualterus says that Christ wished to endure poverty and all the miseries of human life 'ne quis illas divinae irae indicia esse, aut animarum salutem per ilia impediri putaret' ('lest anyone should think that they were signs of Divine anger or that salvation was impeded by them'; In evangelium Jesu Christi secundum Lucam, Homily 16 ((1601), f. 38r).

2.145:2. Silver … none . Acts 3:6.

5–9,r. The account of Crates in Apuleius (Florida 14) does not end with him throwing his money away; this comes from Diogenes Laertius (6.87), who retails from Diocles the story that when Crates became a Cynic, Diogenes persuaded him to relinquish his property and throw his money into the sea. Cf. 1.279:24–5,2.169:2–3.

9. Those Curii and Fabritii. Cf. 1.275:12 and 2.27:19–20.

note s. Oblatos … ivi &c . 'I rejected proferred honours, measuring the stirrings of ambition against the burden, and when asked I did not accede.' Peter of Blois's Epistle 72 inveighs against a former friend who has prevented him from obtaining preferment; his Epistle 132 (not 232) contains advice about modest behaviour to someone who has just been promoted; the quotation does not come from either place.

16. honor est in honorante. 'Honour lies in its bestower.'

19–20. Dantur … bona . Augustine, Sermo 50.3 (PL 38.327–8; summarized).

note t. Sudat … cruciatur . 'The poor man sweats out of doors at his work, the rich man in thought; the former opens his mouth to yawn, the latter to belch; the latter is worse troubled with a jaded appetite than the former by hunger'; Bernard, Sermo de diversis 2 ('De obedientia, patientia et sapientia'); Opera (1576), f. 91 r (PL 183.543).

note u. Natura … saniores . Cardan, Hyperchen 19 (Opera (1663), i. 287).

31–2,v. all that … Lucian . Gallus 12.

2.146:w. Et é contubernio … educit . 'And death at last will remove you from the companionship of the foul and noisome belly'; Seneca, Epist. 102.27.

note x. Divitiarum … motus . Cf. Chrysostom, Homily 13 on Acts 5, tr. Erasmus: 'Divitis autem anima omnibus est plena malis, arrogantia, vana gloria, concupiscentiis innumeris, ira et furore, avaritia, injustitia, et omni alio' (Opera (1547), iii. 536).

4–5,y. turpi … molles . 'Effeminate wealth has corrupted the age with foul luxury'; Juvenal 6.299–300.

7,z. Lucian. Epistolae Saturnales 2 (Opera (1563), ii. 911 ff).

note a. Vos quidem … miserias . Ibid.

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note b. Et quota … existimaretis . Ibid.

16–19,c. O si … est . Herc. Oet. 648–51.

24. suave … acervo . 'It is a pleasure to draw from a great heap'; Horace, Sat. 1.1.51.

note d. Et diis … facit . 'And foolish opinion makes them like gods.'

note e. Flamma … sequela . Cf. note x above.

2.147:1–2. pecuniis augetur improbitas . Epictetus, Encheiridion, ed. Wolfius, p. 217.

3–4. lubrica … præcipitio . 'A slippery position, on the edge of a precipice'.

5–7,g. celsæ … montes . 'High towers fall with the biggest crash; the lightning goes straight for the mountain peaks'; Odes 2.10.10–12.

note h. Quid … loco . 'Why, my friends, did you boast so often of my happy state? He who has fallen was not in a stable place'; Boethius, De consol, philos. 1, metre 1.21–2 [Boethiu has 'non erat ille gradu' ('was not sure of foot'; Burton quotes this correctly at 1.276:12–13)].

10–11. Rumpitur … opes . 'Heavily laden with innumerable apples the tree breaks and its too great riches are cast down'; Camerarius, Symbola et emblemata 1.13 (f. 15 r).

14. Inopem se copia fecit. 'Abundance of riches has made itself poor'; Ovid, Met. 3.466 (altered).

16. collogue. Cajole, flatter.

note i. Ut postquam … devorentur . Aeneas Silvius, Epistle 166 ('De curialium miseriis'); Opera (1571), p. 725 (probably taken from Herdesianus, Aulica vita (1578), f. 11 v).

20. Human. Esther 7:8–10.

20–1. potestas … gravior . Gregory, Cura pastoralis 1.9 (PL 77.22); cf. 1.277:34.

27–8,j. Millia … meus . 'Even if a hundred thousand bushels of corn have been threshed in your granaries, your stomach will not thereby hold more than mine'; Horace, Sat. 1.1.45–6.

29.'There is an evil sickenes that I have sene under the sonne: to wit, riches reserved to the owners therof for their evil'; Eccles. 5:12.

32. divitiæ … diaboli . Bernard, Sermo 3 In psalmum Qui habitat, §2 (PL 183.191), referring to 1 Tim. 6:9.

2.148:k. Quotiescunque … censeamus, &c . Theodoret, Graecarum affectionum curatio 6 (tr. Sylburgius (1592), p. 92).

7–8. qui gemmis … ostro . 'Who drinks from jewelled cups and sleeps in Tyrian purple'; Virgil, Georg. 2.506 (altered).

12–17,l. Non possidentem … timet . Odes 4.9.45–50.

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29–32,m. Non enim … volantes . Odes 2.16.9–12.

2.149:1. vindicate. Protect, justify.

1–2. nil … montes . 'It does not help [when you are ill] to promise immense mountains [of money] to Craterus [a doctor]'; Persius 3.65 (also quoted at 1.174:5, 2.5:22).

2–3. sint … miseriis . See note at 2.5:e.

note n. Dives … epuletur . Florida 2.5.

13–16. Reveraque … auro . Lucretius 2.48–51.

note p. & mihi … Tarentum . 'Today if I want to I can go on a bobtailed mule all the way to Taranto'; Sat. 1.6.104–5.

27–8. ne majestatis … evilescat . 'In order not to cheapen his royal dignity'.

28. [kings] of Bornay and Tartarian Chams. The Sutans of Borneo and the Khans of Tartary; cf. 3.341:2.

29. aurea mancipia. 'Golden slaves'.

29–30. ut major … observantia . 'So that they will be regarded by men with greater respect'.

note q. Brissonius. De regio Persarum (1595), pp. 17–18.

33. Quippe … usus . Juvenal 11.208 (altered).

34–6. Darius … Mede . See Cicero, Tusc. 5.34.97.

2.150:r. Si modum … molesta . Epictetus, fr. 34 (55) (probably spurious); ed. Wolfius, ii. 230.

note s. Et in … tractant &c . 'And as to greed for gourmet dishes, the cook and the waiters have been handling them with filthy hands, straight from the lavatory'; De rer. var., p. 346.

9. in auro bibitur venenum. 'Poison is drunk from golden cups'; Seneca, Thyestes 453.

11–12,t. locuples mittit parasitum. Philostratus, Epist. 7 (Opera (1608), p. 901).

14–15,u. Nonius the Senatour … sestercies . The reference should be to NH 37.6.81–2. Nonius was apparently the son of the 'Struma Nonius' vilified by Catullus (52.2).

16–17,v. Perox the Persian King. As Shilleto notes, Perozes or Firuz, King of Persia ad 457–84, is not mentioned by Zonaras. His famous pearl is described by Procopius, De bello Persico 1.4.14. It is possible that Burton confused Zonaras with Zosimus; Procopius was often published together with Zosimus, as for example in the edition of Basle, 1576.

16. an union. A pearl.

17–18,w. In Antonius 28 Plutarch recounts that the physician Philotas of Amphissa visited the royal kitchen in Alexandria, and saw eight wild pg 226boars being roasted. He thought that these must be for a banquet with many guests, but the cook told him that the party was only of twelve persons, but that everything had to be exactly au point, and since it was impossible to know when Antony would be ready to eat, several suppers had to be prepared. Pliny (NH 9.58.119) tells the story of the banquet at which Cleopatra drank a cup of vinegar in which was dissolved a pearl worth ten million sesterces.

19–20,x. Num tibi … Pocula? Sat. 1.2.114–15.

24. Tartar Lambs wooll. See note at 2.37:20.

died in graine. Fast dyed.

a gowne of Giants beards. This may possibly be a garbled reminiscence of Malory's Tale of King Arthur in which the giant Royns (Ryence), King of North Wales, Ireland, and the Isles, sends a message to King Arthur saying that he has a mantle lined with kings' beards, and requires Arthur's beard to complete it (Malory, Works, ed. Vinaver (1948), i. 54–5).

note y. Nullam … induit . Nero 6.30.3.

32. temulentus divitiis. 'Drunk with riches'.

2.151:3–4. male … dilabuntur . 'Ill-gotten gains are soon dispersed'; quoted by Cicero, Philipp. 2.27.66 from Naevius (cf. Plautus, Poenulus 843).

6. inforcing. Probably 'strengthening' rather than 'compelling by violence'.

sowning. Swooning.

7. nænias. 'Dirges'.

9. Mausolean tombes. See note at 3.52:25.

note z. Ad generum … tyranni . 'There are few kings who go down to Ceres' son-in-law [sc. Pluto, King of the Underworld] except by sudden death and murder, and few tyrants who die a bloodless death'; Juvenal 10.112–13.

10–11. propter … suum . 'For these Hell opened wide its jaws'; Isaiah 5:14–15 (condensed from Vulg.).

19. Cræsus for his end. Croesus, last King of Lydia, was defeated by the Persians in 546 bc, and either attempted to commit suicide by throwing himself on a funeral pyre, or was placed on one by Cyrus, but was saved by Apollo.

note b. Divitiarum … doloris . Raimond Jordan, Contemplationes idiotae 1.33 (Bigne, Bibliotheca patrum (1610), v. 519).

21–4,c. Quid … bona . 'What is the right curse to call down on stupid minds? Let them seek wealth and honours, and when they are loaded down with these false goods they have acquired, then let them get to know what true blessings are'; De consol. philos. 3, metre 8.19–22.

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27. O fortunatos … nôrint . Cf. 2.130:12.

29–30. 'Better is a poore and wise childe, then an olde and foolish King, which wil no more be admonished'; Eccles. 4.13.

note d. Austin in Ps. 76. This reference seems to be wrong; cf. 'Via caeli est pauper, per quam venitur ad pattern', De verbis Domini in evangelio secundum Lucam, Sermo 25, and 'Haec est omnium sapientiarum et doctrinarum magistra et domina', Ad Fratres (PL 40. 1035).

note e. Bonæ … paupertas . 'Poverty is the sister of good sense'; Petronius, Satyricon 84.

note f. Pædagoga … benesuada . 'The stern schoolmistress of piety, the sober, loving mother, simple in toilette, taking no care over dress, a good adviser'; Apuleius, Apologia 18.2–5 (very inaccurate).

2.152:g. Opprobrium … non &c . Cardan makes frequent reference to his poverty (e.g. De vita prop. 25).

5. cui … nomen . 'His family was obscure; nobody ever heard of his ancestors'; Silius Italicus, Punica 8.246–7 (actually said of Gaius Terentius Varro, not a good example of Burton's case, since through his rashness the Romans lost the battle of Cannae).

8,h. fortunæ telum non culpæ. Cf. 'Est autem consolatio pervulgata quidem ilia maxime … homines nos ut esse meminerimus ea lege natos, ut omnibus telis fortunae proposita sit vita nostra, neque esse recusandum, quominus ea, qua nati sumus, condicione vivamus' ('There is, however, a consolation, thoroughly commonplace as it is, which is to remember that we are human beings born under the condition that our life shall be exposed to all the attacks of fortune, and that it is not open to us to refuse to live on those terms on which we are born'; Cicero, Ad fam. 5.16.2).

note i. Servus … cogitaveris . Seneca, Epist. 47.1 (condensed).

12–13,j Etiam … sunt . Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.11.

15. parasanges. A parasang is a Persian measure of length, of somewhat over three miles (cf. note at 1.13:1).

16. Narcissus was the favourite Greek freedman of the Emperor Claudius and is mentioned by Pliny as possessing great wealth (NH 33.47.154; cf. Juvenal 14.329–31).

Massa. Baebius Massa was a celebrated informer under Domitian, not Nero (see Tacitus, Agric. 45.6 and Hist. 4.50 and cf. Juvenal 1.35).

Parthenius was Domitian's chamberlain, and took part in his murder (Suetonius, Domitian 16.3; Dio Cassius 67.15.17).

18. calcas opes, &c. 'You tread on wealth'; Seneca, Depaupertate 16.7 (Opera (1605), p. 791; ed. Haase, iii. 459).

23–4,k culmen … habitavit . 'Thatch covered them when they were pg 228free; afterwards their slavery resided in marble and gold'; cf. Seneca, Epist. 90.10.

24. Amaltheæ cornu. 'The horn of Amalthea [or cornucopia]' Amalthea was the name either of the goat that suckled the infant Zeus, or of the naiad who fed the baby with food carried in a goat's horn (Ovid, Fasti 5.111–28).

25. a word overshot. An unguarded or intemperate remark.

28. as Alphonsus said. De dictis & factis Alphonsi regis 3.52 ((1585), pp. 78–81) is a meditation on death, but does not contain the phrase cinis æquat, although the role of death as an equalizer is mentioned.

m. Quidam … caudam . Nevisanus, Sylvae nuptialis libri VI 4.128 ((1572), p. 368).

2.153:4. hee that rejoyceth at affliction. Geneva has '… rejoiceth at destruction …'; AV has 'he that is glad at calamities'.

6. ditior … melior . Epictetus, Encheiridion 44 (summarized); ed. Wolfius, i. 34.

note n. Tanto … collectior . 'The more restricted you are, the more blessed'; Apuleius, Apologia 21.

8–9. Beatus … suis . 'Blessed is he who, removed from the press of business … ploughs his paternal acres with his own oxen!'; Horace, Epod. 2.1,3.

note o. Non amoribus … alitur . 'He is not a slave to desires, nor does he seek honours [he does not care for wealth], and is content to be in whatsoever state he has been left. […] He recognizes that he is mortal, he envies no one, he despises no one, he admires no one, he pays no attention to slanders and does not feed on them'; Pliny the Younger, Epist. 7.26.2.

13–14. Nee spes … cadant . 'He is not consumed with hope, nor does he cherish foolish worry, indifferent to the blows of Fate.'

16–17. mixt, temperate, or absolute. In a 'mixed' monarchy the King shares powers with the aristocracy and/or the commons; in a 'temperate'' monarchy the King's power is limited by constitution or practice.

17. the house of Ottomons. The dynasty founded by Osman I; the ruling house of the Turkish empire.

18–19. whether Peter … of force . According to tradition St Peter visited Rome, and was martyred and buried there, probably in Nero's reign, but there is no certain evidence of this. The 'Donation of Constantine' was a forged document purporting to record the Emperor's confirmation to Pope Sylvester I of supremacy over the Church and all its members, and temporal power in the West.

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22–6,p Fælix … vitæ . Politianus, Sylva (1518), pp. 7–8. Burton has mistranscribed, and consequently mistranslated, the second line, which should read 'Quem non mendaci …'.

note q. Gyges … contentus . 'Gyges, puffed up with [possession of] the kingdom of Lydia, sent to enquire of [the oracle of] Apollo whether there was any mortal happier than himself. Apollo replied: "Aglaus, the poorest man in Arcadia, who has never gone beyond the bounds of his land and is content with his country property"'; Valerius Maximus 7.1.2 (summarized).

2.154:r. hæc … gravique . 'Such is the life of those men who are freed of the burden of unhappy ambition'; Horace, Sat. 1.6.128–9.

2,s. as Simonides objecteth to Hieron. Xenophon, Hieron sive Tyrannus 2.

3–4,t in lectis … delibuitur . Amos 6:4–6 (Vulg.).

6. Laplolly. Or 'loblolly'; thick oatmeal gruel (or thin porridge) as served on board ship; burgoo.

8–13,u,v. The commencement of NH bk. 7 is relevant here, but the quotation in note u seems rather to be from Seneca, who has 'Nulli ad aliena respicienti sua placent. Inde diis quoque irascimur, quod aliquis nos antecedat' ('No one is content with his own lot when he considers the lot of others. Hence we grow angry even with the gods, because someone gets ahead of us'; De ira 3.31.1). The passage summarized in note v follows on this.

note w. Lipsius admir. Lipsius, Admiranda, sive de magnitudine Romana.

28. incult. Uncultivated.

30. Corvorum … lustra . 'The haunts of crows, wild beasts, wild boars, and savage animals'.

32. Emporiums. Market-towns.

33. Scaliger. The Scaligeri or Della Scala family were Princes of Verona in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Cf. note at 2.141:y.

2.155:3. Fæx populi. 'The dregs of the people'; Cicero, Ad Quint. fr. 2.4.5.

4. Maximinus. Cf. 2.134:21, 140:5.

Agathocles. Cf. 2.140:30.

9,y. Frisgobald and Cromwell. Foxe in his Actes and Monuments tells from Bandello the story of how Thomas Cromwell as a youth in Florence was befriended by a merchant called Francisco Frescobaldi. Frescobaldi later went bankrupt, and came to England to try to collect some debts which were owing to him; Cromwell met him in London, recognized him, entertained him, and gave him money ((1583), pp. 1186–7).

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12–15,z Novus … juris . 'The new landlord has come; truly Nature does not make either him or me or anyone else perpetual owners of the land. He drove us out; in turn he will be driven out by fraud, or by ignorance of the tricks of the law'; Sat. 2.2.128–31.

18–20. Nunc … allis . 'Today the land bears the name of Umbrenus; lately it had that of Ofellus; it will be nobody's really, but will pass from my use to that of another (reading alii)'; ibid., ll. 133–5.

21. ager … Dominos? 'Whose field are you, how many masters have you?' (not from Horace).

note a. Virtus … saluberrimas &c . Machiavelli, Historia Florentina, tr. Zeznerus (1610), p. 231.

25–7,b. Cf. 'Non est ignominiosum praeclaris civitatibus, si post multorum annorum curricula, tandem in servitutem cadant: cum sit hoc fatale, ut omnia quae orta sunt, intereant, et aucta senescent atque mutentur'; F. Guicciardini, Hypomneses politicae, pt. 2, no. 25 (p. 13).

29,c. Qua parte … re? 'To what part in life have you been assigned?'; Persius 3.72.

2.156:2. celles. Burton can hardly mean a closet or a cottage—both possible meanings of 'cell'—in this catalogue of the possessions of great ones; still less a prison-cell. In Latin celia may mean a storeroom, a granary, a larder, or a wine-cellar.

11–12. Non est … Dei . Rom. 9:16 (Vulg.). Geneva has 'So that it is not in him that willeth, nor in him that runneth, but in God that sheweth mercie.'

20. hoc angit. 'This tortures [them].'

22. Vicinumque … habet . 'The cows next door have bigger udders'; Ovid, Ars amat. 1.350.

note d. Omnes … possunt . 'All are rich who can enjoy heaven and earth.'

28–9,e tolle … usus . 'Away with complaints; he is not poor who has a sufficient store of things'; Epist. 1.12.3–4.

note f. Panem … contendat . Seneca, Epist. 25.4 (summarized and paraphrased).

Cibus … arcet . 'Let plain food allay hunger; let thin clothes keep out the cold'; Epist. 8.5.

32–3,g. somnos … amnis . Boethius, De consol. philos. 2, metre 5.10–11, who has 'Somnos dabat herba salubres' ('the grass gave them healthful sleep').

35. Abrahams … wife . Gen. 24.

2.157:h. Maffæus. G. P. Maffei, Historiae Indicae (1588).

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note i. Brissonius. De regio Persarum principatu, p. 59 (ultimately from Plutarch, De exilio 6; cf. Herodotus 1.188).

1–3. Cf. 2.21:12–13 and note.

5. Bene … manu . 'Happy is he to whom heaven has given enough, but not too much'; Horace, Odes 3.16.43–4.

5–6. Cf. 'bread to strengthen man's heart'; Ps. 104:15.

note k. Si rectè … usui est . Apuleius, Apologia 19.

6. Maudarensis. Properly Madaurensis, i.e. Apuleius (who was born at Madaura in Numidia).

7–8. Agellius out of Euripides. The quotation from Euripides made by Aulus Gellius (6.16.7, but book 7 in older editions) is fr. 884 Nauck.

note m. Satis … cogitur . Jerome, Epist. 125.20 (PL 22.1085).

12–13. It was no Epicurean speech of an Epicure. Lucretius, who was an Epicurean philosopher; cf. the passage quoted from at 11. 15–16.

note n. O fili … pernitiosa est . Euripides, Melanippe (fr. 506 Nauck), quoted from Stobaeus, Sermo 92 (tr. Gesner (1608), p. 511).

15–16. Diviti… animo . 'It is great riches to a man to be content with little'; Lucretius 5.1118–19.

20–1,o. Siventri … majus . Horace, Epist. 1.12.5–6.

24–6. Socrates … want? Cicero, Tusc. 5.32.91 (where it is said that Socrates saw these riches displayed 'in pompa', i.e. in a procession).

note p. O nodes … deunt . 'O nights and feasts divine!'; Horace, Sat. 2.6.65.

2.158:q. Per mille … delitiatur . 'She was rejected with a thousand deceits and subtle tricks, [but] she found refuge in the house of her friend Poverty and her worshippers, delighting in their care and protection.'

5–7,r O vitæ … deûm . 'Oh, the secure ease of the poor man's life, and straitened dwelling, O gift of the gods still not understood'; Lucan 5.527–9 (quoted by Cardan, De consol, p. 389).

10–11,s sed quas … facit . The reference is to Lipsius, Epist. misc. 1.40, which is generally on the subject of resting content with little wealth, but our passage is not a quotation from it.

a kingdome in conceit. 'An imaginary kingdom' or 'in my own estimation' (roughly translating the Latin).

12–13,t nil amplius … faxis . 'I ask for nothing more, O son of Maia [sc. Mercury], than that you should make these gifts my own'; Horace, Sat. 2.6.4–5.

15–16,u. Dit … animi . 'The gods have done well in creating me a man pg 232of weak and feeble mind'; Sat. 1.4.17–18 ('fecerunt' in the second line is a mistaken repetition; it should be 'finxerunt').

17–18,v Vestem … probo . 'I like my clothes and my fortune fitting rather than ample.' The sense of this is in Apuleius, Apologia 21, but it is not a quotation.

note w. Accipite … contemnere . N. Chytraeus, Deliciae (1599), p. 100 (marked).

22–3. Stercora stercus amet. 'Let excrement delight in excrement.'

23. benè … vixit . 'He who has hidden his life well, has lived well'; Ovid, Trist. 3.4.25.

note x. Vah, vivere … lubet . –'Well, now it is really a pleasure to be alive!'; Terence, Adelphoe 445.

Quàm … nundinis . '"What a lot of things I don't need, what a lot I don't want"; as Socrates said at the procession, so the other says at the fair'; cf. 2.157:24–6 and note.

26–7. Due me … fatum . A line of verse from Cleanthes (H. von Arnim, Stoicorum veterum fragmenta, i. 118–19, fr. 527), found in Seneca, Epist. 107.11.

note y. Quò sum … alacriter . 'Whither I am bound, I will even follow promptly'; Encheiridion, ed. Wolfius (1596), i. 40; no. 53 in modern editions.

2.159:2–4. Stet … quies . 'Let who will stand on the slippery peak of power; I only desire sweet peace'; Seneca, Thyestes 391–3.

5–6,z. Ertmus … erunt . Puteanus, Epistolarum fercula secunda (1603), p. 97; marked.

8–9,a dant … Musæ . 'The immortal Muses confer undying fame.' Bensly 14 points out that this is the conclusion to a poem 'De Marullo' by F. Thorius found in Marullus, Poemata (Paris, 1561); it is also found in Poetae tres elegantissimi (1582), f. 106 v.

note b. Hoc … silvæ &c . 'This is what I prayed for—a plot of land not so very big, where there should be both a garden and, near the house, a spring of perpetual water, and a little wood, &c'; Horace, Sat. 2.6.1–3.

13–14. His … fuissent . 'Thus I comfort myself with the thought that I shall live more happily than if my grandfather and my father and my uncle too had attained the rank of quaestor'; Horace, Sat. 1.6.130–1.

17–18,c qui Christum … conficiat . Jerome, Epist. 58.6 (PL 22.583).

note d. Qui continet … sequitur . Seneca, De consolatione ad Helviam 11.4.

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20. totus non sufficit orbis. Said of Alexander by Juvenal (10.168).

22–3. 'Better is a drye morsel, if peace be with it, then an house full of sacrifices with strife'; Prov. 17.1.

note e. Pro his … accepisti . Cf. the beginning of Chrysostom, Homily 12 ad pop. Antioch.

26–160:3,f. Si dat … repleta . 'If your little table offers you simple fare accompanied by peace don't look for rich and elegant banquets accompanied by quarrels'; from the monument to Joachim von der Luhe (d. 1583) in the Cathedral of Güstrow (Gustonii should be Gustrovii) in Germany (N. Chytraeus, Deliciae (1579), pp. 391–2).

2.160:g. Quid … libertatem, &c . Cardan, De consolatione 3 (p. 380).

8–11,h. Vitam … nunquam &c . 'My dear Martial, the things that make for happiness are wealth, not earned but inherited … freedom from lawsuits, etc.'; Epigrams 10.47.1–3, 5.

note i. Transiens … erant, &c . Augustine, Confessions 6.6 (PL 32.724).

note j. Et certè … veritate . Ibid.

29. settle thine affection. Calm your passion.

2.161:1–3,k. Denique … utere . 'In short, make a limit to the search for wealth, and as you increase your means let your fear of poverty decrease and begin to make an end of toil; having got what you wanted, start to use it'; Horace, Sat. 1.1.92–4 (but utere is Burton's addition).

6–7, 1. Quod … æquus . 'What you are looking for is here; it is at Ulubrae [a deserted town in the Pontine marshes], if you preserve the balance of your mind'; Epist. 1.11.29–30.

9–10. O si … agellum . 'O if that nearby corner could be added, which now spoils the shape of my little farm'; Horace, Sat. 2.6.8–9.

12. O si … monstret . Horace, ibid., 1. 10. (Since Burton translates it as 'a pot of money', 'venam' in 32–51 must be a misprint for 'urnam', the correct reading.)

pg 234

note m. O si nunc … supererint? '"O if I die now," he says, "how many and how important affairs of mine will not be settled; but if I were to survive for ten or even eight months, I could reduce everything to order, free myself from every debt and credit!" Meanwhile ten and eight months go by and years with them, and still there remain more things to do than before. Madman, why do you hope to bring about an end to things in your old age which you could not achieve when you were young? Oh the lunacy, when in your own judgement you are unhappy because of business worries, what do you expect things will be when more troubles arise?'; Cardan, De rer. var. 8.46 ((1557), p. 345).

Tacete … videtis . '"Be silent," said the mole, "since you see that I am blind"'; cf. 2.130:21–2.

19–22,n. Plutarch, Pyrrhus 14; cf. 1.281:23.

22. Si … magnis . 'If we may compare small things with great'; Virgil, Georg. 4.176.

28,o. as Censorinus well writ to Cerellius. De die natali (1593), p. 1.

2.162:1,p. Non adjice … cupiditates . From Stobaeus, Sermo 17 (tr. Gesner (1608), p. 157).

2–5,q. as Chrysostome … possesse . Opera (1547), iv. 777.

3. Si vis … divitias . 'If you want to be really rich, despise riches.'

5. & nihil … deorum . 'And to want nothing is the privilege of the gods.'

note r. Non … laboras . Seneca, Ad Gallionem X. 1 (Opera, ed. Haase, iii. 451).

18–21. as those … Barbarians . Gildas, De calamitate, excidio, & conquestu Britanniae 1.20 ((?1525; K471), sig. Biii v).

28–9. Diogenes Laertius (1.36) says that Thales was asked 'What is difficult?' and replied 'To know oneself'; to the query 'What is easy?' he answered 'To give someone else advice.'

30. Qui satur … ventre . Mantuan, Eclog. 1.61 (Bucolici autores [1546], p. 142).

note s. Sed si … valent . Not from Vopiscus; translated in ll. 34–5.

32. Neque … lœtius . Vopiscus, Aurelianus 47.4.

35–6. Seneca … poverty . Burton may be thinking of De paupertate, which is quoted at 2.152:18; see note ad loc.

2.163:u. Quidam … arbitrium, &c . Sermo quartus de adventu Domini (Opera (1576), f. 3 v; PL 183.49).

note v. Nemo … pauper . Andreae, Menippus, p. 121.

8–9. Nunc … petat . Petronius, fr. 94.5–6 (PLM iv. 97). This poem is included under 'Fragmenta' in 1587, not with 'Catalecta'.

14,x. Vix … locum . 'There is hardly room on my body for a new blow'; Ovid, Ex Ponto 2.7.42.

16,y. Et nihil … opem . 'I have found nothing to help me'; ibid. 2.7.46.

20–6,z. Plutarch, Crassus 27. Marcus Licinius Crassus, consul for the second time in 55 bc, was defeated by the Parthians at Carrhae (in Mesopotamia; modern Harran) in 53, and killed himself.

23. clamoribus … complêrunt . Cf. Lucretius 4.1017.

24. as lowd as Homers Mars. Iliad 5.858–60.

pg 235

2.164:1. Quod … benè . 'Get used to what you can't endure; you will be able to bear it well'; Ovid, Ars amat. 2.647.

4. In me … nocendo . 'Fortune has exhausted all her means of doing harm on me' (from Seneca, Agamemnon 696–8, where Cassandra says:

  • equidem nee ulla caelites placo prece
  • nec, si velint saevire, quo noceant habent.
  • Fortuna vires ipsa consumpsit suas.

'Neither do I appease the Gods by prayer; nor, if they wish toívent their wrath, have they anything wherewith to hurt me. Fortune herself has exhausted all her powers').

7. Qui … cadat . 'He that is on the ground can fall no further'; Alain de Lille, Doctrinale minus, ch. 2, l. 18 (PL 210.584).

9. [Contemnite dolorem:] aut solvetur aut solvet. '[Despise pain:] it will either be relieved or relieve you [i.e. by killing you]'; Seneca, De provid. 6.6. Cf. 2.135:28.

11. Ne tu … ito . 'Do not yield to misfortunes, but go out to face them more boldly'; Virgil, Aen. 6.95.

13–14,a. serpens … virtuti . Lucan 9.402–3.

note b. An quum … pretiosiorem . Chrysostom, Homily 78 ad pop. Antioch. ('Quod melius est injuriam pati quam inferre'), Opera, v. 465.

note c. Hæc videntes … agitemur . Cf. 'Haec itaque scientes, ex voluntate philosophemur, neque patiamur quae solent insipientes' ('Thus knowing this let us willingly be philosophical and not suffer as fools are wont to do'; ibid.).

26. molested. Disturbed, troubled.

26–8. Sed qua … cogitaveris . Chrysostom, loc. cit. Cf. 2.197:20–1,o.

32. why … soule? Cf. Luke 24:38.

2.165:f. Afflictio dat intellectum. 'Affliction gives understanding' (Tilley, A 42).

quos … castigat . 'For whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth'; Hebr. 12:6 (Geneva).

Deus … afficit . Seneca has 'Quare deus optimum quemque aut mala valetudine aut luctu aut aliis incommodis afficit?' ('Why does God afflict all the best among us either with bad health, or with sorrow, or with other misfortunes?'; De provid. 4.8).

note g. Quam … intueor . 'How paltry the earth seems to me when I look up to Heaven!'

6. the very … numbred . Matt. 10:30.

pg 236

note h. Diis … meum . The passage cited from Seneca is relevant, but this sentence is not from this source.

14,i. that Lycian Pandarus. Iliad 4.122–40.

note j. Voluit … concessit, &c . Chrysostom, Homily 6 ad pop. Antioch. 12, tr. Brixianus (Opera, v. 75).

note k. De terrâ … pauperem . Ps. 112:7–8 (Vulg.). 'He raiseth the needy out of the dust, and lifteth up the poor out of the dung'; Ps. 113:7 (Geneva).

note m. Preme … septum . 'Bear down, bear down; I like Pindar am unsinkable, like a cork on the surface of the sea'; Lipsius, 'In admonitionem Diodori', De una religione adversus Dialogistam (Opera (1613), ii. 152), translating Pindar, Pyth. 2.146.

29. Though … him . Job 13:15.

29–30. Justus inexpugnabilis. Perhaps from Chrysostom's Homily on Psalm 95, which has 'Sublati sunt justi, sed extincti non sunt; in memoria sempiterna eris justus' ('The just have been slain but not extinguished; you will be for ever remembered as just'; Opera, i. 772).

2.166:n. Hic ure … parcas . 'Burn this, excise this, so that you may save in eternity.' Cf. 'ubi enim sanitas est, nec mors metuenda est, nec urentis aut secantis medici manus' ('for where there is health neither is death to be feared, nor the cauterizing and cutting hand of the physician'); Augustine, Enarratio in Ps. 6, §3 (PL 36.92). Cf. 3.439:38–9.

Diis … malis . 'He delights in the anger of the gods; he rises above and thrives on misfortune'; Seneca, Hercules Furens 33–4; cf. 2.202:19.

Mutium … potuit . 'Fire could not overcome Mucius [i.e. Gaius Mucius Scaevola; see Livy 2.12], nor poverty Fabricius [i.e. Gaius Luscinus Fabricius; Val. Max. 4.4,10], nor torture Regulus [cf. Horace, Odes 3.5 and note at 1.159:11–27], nor poison Socrates'; Seneca, De provid. 3.4 (paraphrased).

2. rectam mentem. 'The upright mind'.

3–5,o. nempe … custode . '"You mean my cattle, money, couches, plate? You may take them!" "You will be kept in handcuffs and fetters under a savage warden"'; Epist. 1.16.75–7 (the last line should be 'compedibus saevo te sub custode tenebo').

note p. Auferet … pugnat . Chrysostom, Homily 5 ad pop. Antioch. (Opera, v. 62).

10–11. si fractus … ruinæ . Horace, Odes 3.3.7–8.

14,q. Ipse … opinor . 'God himself can deliver me when he will, I believe'; Epist. 1.16.78. Modern editions read 'Ipse deus, simul atque volam, me solvet' and take 'opinor' with what follows ('hoc sentit: moriar', 'he means: "I shall die"'); the phrase translates Euripides, pg 237Bacchae 498 ('The god himself will release me when I wish', spoken by Dionysus himself in disguise).

16–17. Terris … fuge . 'Banished from earth, make haste to Heaven; deserted by men, fly to God.'

17–19. Psal. 10.18. & vers. 9. Actually Ps. 9:18 and 9:9.

20–1,r. Servus … superis . 'I, Epictetus, was a slave and lame, and as poor as Irus; yet was beloved of the gods.' Translated from Greek lines attributed to Leonidas (Anth. Graec. 7.676); cf. Macrobius, Saturn. 1.11.45.

24. Lodovicus Vertomannus. Ludovico di Bartema, the celebrated Italian traveller, who at the beginning of the sixteenth century visited the Near East, India, Ceylon, Malaya, and the Moluccas, and returned home round the Cape. Burton made a good deal of use of his Itinerario (first published in 1510), in the Latin translation by Madrignanus. J. C. Scaliger says of him 'quem equidem virum divinum, ac Deo charum semper existimabo' ('whom I will always truly regard as a holy man, and one dear to God'; Exot, exerc. 131.1 (1582), p. 448), because of the many dangers he withstood.

2.167:1. Non si … semper . 'If things are bad now, it doesn't follow they will be so in future'; Horace, Odes 2.10.17–18 (semper has intruded from the following sentence).

note t. Dabit … finem . 'To this, too, God will grant an end'; Virgil, Aen. 1.199.

2. expect a little. Wait a while.

4,u. futura … angor . 'While waiting for the future, I suffer in the present.' Not from Seneca; Shilleto suggests Cicero, De fin. 1.18.60: 'Praeterea bona praeterita non meminerunt, praesentibus non fruuntur; futura modo exspectant, quae quia certa esse non possunt, conficiuntur et angore et metu' ('Besides, they do not remember past blessings nor enjoy those of the present; they only look forward to those of the future, and since these cannot be assured, they are consumed with both agony and terror').

whilest the grasse growes the horse starves. Tilley, G 423; cf. Hamlet 3.2.334–5.

note v. Nemo … lapsus . 'Let none despair of better things when fortune fails'; Seneca, Thyestes 616.

6–7,w. Spera … spera . 'Live in hope, Battus; tomorrow's dawn may bring something better; while you breathe, hope'; Theocritus, Idylls 4.41–2.

8. Spes alit agricolas. 'Hope keeps the farmers going'; Tibullus 2.6.21.

8–9. he that sowes … joy . Ps. 126:6 (BCP).

pg 238

10–11. Si fortune … contente . 'If fortune torments me, hope contents me.' This apparently French motto is twice misquoted by Pistol in 2 Henry IV (2.4.178, 5.5.94); no source has been found for it.

15,x. Grata … hora . Ovid is a mistake for Horace (Epist. 1.4.14).

19,y. Nube … dies . 'When the cloud has been banished the day is bright again'; Ovid, Trist. 2.142.

21. suavissimum … fieri . 'It is most sweet to obtain one's wish'; from Diog. Laertius 1.36.

23–6,a. as Machiavel … cloud . Historia Florentina, tr. Zeznerus, pp. 363–4 (summarized).

26. Huniades. Matthias Hunyadi (Corvinus) (1440–90) was incarcerated in Prague when he was elected King of Hungary in 1458.

27. Henry the 3. of Portugall. Henry, son of Manuel I and brother of John III of Portugal, was the only Henry of the house of Aviz to rule; he came to the throne in 1578 when his grand-nephew Sebastian was killed in battle; he was then 66 and in poor health, and died two years later. He was hardly an obscure monk, being Cardial-Archbishop of Lisbon.

28. Multa … labra . 'There's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip'; Erasmus, Adagia 1.5.1, recounts the story of the origin of the phrase as given by the Greek tragedian Lycophron in his Alexandra: one Anceus of Samos was engaged in planting out vines when a soothsayer told him he would never taste the wine. When he protested the seer uttered this saying, at which point the arrival was announced of the Calydonian boar. Anceus left to hunt it, and was killed.

2.168:2. Nondum … occiderunt . Said by Philip V of Macedon (Livy 39.26.9).

8. Sperate … secundis . 'Hope, and reserve yourself for better days'; Virgil, Aen. 1.207 (which has 'Durate …', 'Endure …').

11. corsive. Corrosive, bitterness.

13–14. Miserum … fælicem . 'It is sad to have been happy [and to be so no longer]'; Tilley M 1010.

14. Infælicissimum genus infortunii. 'The saddest kind of misfortune'; Boethius, De consol. philos. 2, prose 4.5.

note b. Lætior … nescit . 'Peace of mind follows more happily, which cannot live with riches.'

note c. Pecuniam … manens . Seneca, Ad Gallionem XI.1 (Opera, ed. Haase, iii. 453).

note d. Expeditior … jacturam . 'You will proceed more quickly, having got rid of your money'; ibid. XI.3.

Fortuna … potest . 'Fortune can take away wealth, but not courage'; Seneca, Medea 176.

pg 239

21–3. as Saint Hierome … heaven . Cf. Jerome, Epist. 125.20: 'Si habes substantiam, vende, et da pauperibus. Sinon habes, grandi onere liberatus es: nudum Christum, nudus sequere' ('If you have property, sell it, and give [the proceeds] to the poor. If you have no possessions, you are freed from a great burden; having stripped, follow the naked Christ'; PL 22.1085).

24–7,e. Vel nos … pœnitet . 'Let us cast into the sea our jewels and gems, and useless gold, the source of all evil, if we truly repent of our sins'; Horace, Odes 3.24.47–50.

note f. Jubet … Philosophari . 'Fortune commands me after this to pursue philosophy with fewer encumbrances'; Seneca, De tranquillitate 14.3.

29. Opes … potest . Cf. note d above.

32–5. Alexander … am . Plutarch, Phocion 18.

2.169:1. Non … pretium . 'I do not seek gold for myself; do not pay me a ransom'; Pyrrhus' words in Ennius, Annales 183 Skutsch.

2. That Theban Crates. Cf. 2.145:5–9.

note g. Quirites … mutabant . Sallust, Oratio C. Cottae ad populum Romanum 1 (Histor. 2.47.1 Maurenbrecher).

note h. Qualis … serenus . Seneca, Epist. 59.16.

12. infractum … opponas . 'Meet it it with an unbroken and unconquered mind.'

note i. Bona … incursum . 'A sound mind can withstand the blow of adverse fortune'; Val. Maximus 4.4.praef.

Qui … nihil . 'Let who can hope for naught despair of naught'; Seneca, Medea 163.

12–13. Rebus … appare . 'When times are hard show a brave and bold face'; Odes 2.10.21–2.

15–16,j. Durum … nefas . 'It is hard, but patience makes that easier to bear which cannot be amended'; Horace, Odes 1.24.19–20.

note k. Æquam … mentem . 'Maintain a calm head in adversity'; Horace, Odes 2.3.1–2.

17–18,l. necessitati … sapit . Epictetus, Encheiridion, tr. Wolfius, i. 40 (in modern editions this is §53); from Euripides (fr. 865 Nauck).

20–2,m. Ita vita … corrigas . 'For human life is like a game at dice; if you don't throw what you really want, you must use your skill to make the best of what you've got'; Adelphoe 739–41.

note n. Unaquæque … accipere . Encheiridion 45 (ed. Wolfius, i. 33). Simplicius' commentary on this passage is ibid. ii. 200–2.

2.170:1–2,o. Ut quimus … licet . '"As we may", they say, since we can't do things "as we wish"'; Andria 805.

pg 240

2. Be contented with thy losse. The emendation to 'lotte' is very tempting, but it is just possible that 'losse' here is a variant of lose or loos (ultimately from the Latin laudes), meaning 'fame', 'reputation'.

5–6. Esto … velis . Walther 8046.

note p. Invitatus … negant . Epictetus, fr. 17 (15); Encheiridion, ed. Wolfius, ii. 217.

11. Non … Corinthum . 'It is not given to everyone to visit Corinth'; Horace, Epist. 1.17.36.

12. as Tully telleth us. Cf. 'Nec tarnen omnes possunt esse aut Scipiones aut Maximi'; Cicero, De senectute 5.13.

note q. Mortales … admoveant . Theodoret, Graecarum affectionum curatio, tr. Sylburgius (1592), p. 94.

17. parcels. Pieces.

note r. Si sint … exprimeret? 'If everyone were equal it is inevitable that all would starve to death. Who would till the soil with the plough, who would sow the seed, who would plant the plants, who would press the wine?'

21. Darii. There were a number of rulers of Persia with the name Darius, the most famous being Darius I (521–486 bc); the Persian Kings and their courts were a byword for opulence and luxury.

22–3,s. Menenius' well-known oration is actually in Livy 2.32. Cf. 1.350:25.

25. in Aristophanes Plutus. Lines 507 ff.

33–171:1,t. Nihil … credas . 'Nothing else is necessary for you to be miserable than that you should believe yourself to be miserable'; Cardan, De consol., p. 370. (Cardan actually puts it the other way round: in order not to be unhappy it is only necessary to believe that you are not unhappy.)

2.171:3–4. Vidi … tranquillitatem . Seneca, Epist. 55.8.

8. for a Corollary. As an addendum.

12,u. Mæcenas … dolio . 'Maecenas sleeps no better in his down-bed than Regulus in his barrel'; Seneca, De Provid. 3.10. 'In dolio' looks like a mistake, and should perhaps be in dolore, unless Burton has confused Diogenes in his tub with Regulus on the cross (Seneca has in cruce); on his return to Carthage Regulus was cruelly tortured, and according to some accounts was finally crucified. See note at 1.159:11–27.

13,v. Bartison—i.e. Willem Barents, the Dutch navigator—did not leave his men behind when their ship was trapped by the ice in Novaya Zemlya in the winter of 1596–7; he remained with them and died in the attempt to get away in open boats in June 1597.

14–17,w. The eight men from the Salutation, having been put ashore in a shallop to hunt for venison on 15 August 1630, were driven off-shore by wind and could not find their way back to the main party. Pellham pg 241describes the 'stove' or cabin in which they found shelter as a shed originally built as a cooper's shop; inside this they built a smaller shed. They were rescued on 25 May 1631.

20–2,x. Parentes … mala . Terence, Heaut. 194–6.

25. Faber … suæ . 'Everyone is the maker of his own fortune.' This tag, attributed to Appius Claudius Caecus, is quoted in the pseudo-Sallustian Ad Caesarem senem de republica epist. 1.1.2.

26. Nemo … seipso . 'No one is hurt except by himself'; Erasmus, Adagia 3.6.34.

31–2. Luxuriant … secundis . Ovid, Ars amat. 2.437.

note z. Fortuna … facit . 'Whom Fortune indulges too much she makes stupid'; Publilius Syrus 173.

2.172:4. optimi … imperassent . 'Excellent emperors, if they had never ruled'. Tacitus (Hist. 1.49) says of Galba that he was 'omnium consensu capax imperii nisi imperasset' ('by general consent worthy of the Empire if only he had not been Emperor').

6–7. cum … convertunt . 'When they attain to triumphs, riches, honours, the next thing that happens is that they give themselves up to pleasure and idleness.'

7–8,b. 'twas Catos note. Marcus Porcius Cato the Censor refused to attend on King Eumenes II of Pergamum when that monarch came to Rome seeking help against the Macedonians because he disapproved of kings, who were, he said, carnivorous by nature (Plutarch, Cato 8).

9–13,c. Eutrapilus … Officium . Horace, Epist. 1.18.31–5.

20–1,d. ut calceus … uret . Ibid. 1.10.42–3.

22–3. sed è malis minimum. 'But of evils choose the least'; Cicero, De off. 3.1.3.

24–5,e. hæc … instruit . Only the second sentence, which Burton translates, is from Boethius, De consol. philos. 2, prose 8.11, not the first ('One calls for a curb, the other for consolation').

28. Demetrius in Seneca. De provid. 5.5–6.

note f. Libet … suscipiet . PL 23.28.

2.173:3. hast (32) is a stop-press correction of 'goe' (21–28, 32U); the 38 compositor reverted to 'goe' presumably because his copy of 32 had an uncorrected sheet.

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