Main Text

1657

1657. Jan: 1 Having praied with my Family & celebrated the Anniversarie, I spent some time in imploring Gods blessing the yeare I was entred into.

2 I invited some neighbours: 3. Came Mr. Bovey3 to see me: 4th our Preacher proceedes, concerning the right which the faithfull have to the Creature, by their Interest in Christ, & that they onely do truely enjoy those Comforts.

7 Came Mr. Mathew Wren4 [since Secretary to the Duke slaine in the Dut〈c〉h War]a eldest sonn to the Bish: of Ely (now a Prisoner in the Tower) and a most worthy, & learned Gent: to visite me. (11) Being not well, could not go to the Parish Church. 18, my Indisposition continued: Dr. Joylife that famous Physitian (& Anatomist, first detecter of the lymphatic veins) came to visite me.

24 Came againe the old Marquis of Argile5 & another Scotch Earle: 25. My sore Eyes hindred me from going to Church: 31 I was let bloud:

pg 187Feb: 3 Came my Bro: Geo: & Mr. Needham to visite me. 5, I din'd at the Holland Ambassadors:1 he told me the E. India Comp: of Holland had constantly a stock of 400000 pounds in India, 48 Men of Warr there: of their exact & just keeping their books, Correspondence &c: so as no Adventurers Stock could possibly be lost or defeated:2 That it was a Vulgar Error of the Hollanders furnishing their Enemies with powder & ammunition for their mony, though ingaged in actual warr; but that they usd to merchandize indifferently, & were permitted to sell to the friends of their Enemies:3 He laugh'd at our Commitèe of Trade, as compos'd of men wholy ignorant of it, & how they were the ruine of Commerce, by gratifying some for private ends:4 Sir Geo: Wentworth,5 Bro: to my Lord Deputy Strafford & his lady dined with us &c:

8 Dr. Gauden6 [since Bish: of Excester]a preachd at St. Greg:pg 188an Eloquent discourse touching the dignity of the Crosse of our Lord; how we should embrace it; he said that Jacobs interchanging & crossing his armes to blesse Josephes two sonns Eph: & Manasses was to denote the blessing that should come by it:1 That all foundations & contignations in buildings, all contrivement of natural things were full of those figures & signatures;2 these were pretty curiosities but the application of the use of it, was profitable & pious:

10 I went to visite the Governor of Havana,3 a brave sober, valiant Spanish Gent: taken by Capt: Young4 of Deptford, when after 20 yeares being in the Indias & amassing greate Wealth, his lady, & whole family (excepting twoa〈Sonns〉b) were burnt,c destroyed, & taken within sight of Spaine: His Eldest Son, daughter and Wife perishing with immense treasure: One Soon, with his brother of one yeares old were the onely saved: The young Gent:5 about 17: was a well complexion'd Youth, not olive colourd: he spake latine handsomly, was extreamely well bred, & borne in the pg 189Charcasa1 1000 miles south of the Equinoxial neere the mountaines of Potisi : had never ben in Europe before: The Governor was an antient Gent: of greate Courage, of the order of S: Jago: sore wounded, his arme & rib broken & lost for his owne share 100000 pounds sterling, which he seem'd to beare with exceeding indifference, & nothing dejected; after some discourse I went with them to Arundel house2 where they dined: They were now going back into Spaine, having obtaind their liberty from Cromewell. An example of human Vicissitude:

11 I went home: 14: To Lond: return'd:b where I found Mrs. Cary; next day came Mr. Mordaunt3 [since Vicount Mordant]c (younger son to the Countesse of Peterborow) to see his Mistris; bringing with him two of my Lord of Dovers daughters:4 so after dinner they all departed.

Mar: 1. To Lond: to receive the B: Comm: Dr. Hewet preaching on 7: Luke: 37, on the Efficacy of teares.

5 Dr. Rand5 a learned Physitian, dedicated to me his Version of Gassendus's Vita Peireskij:6

pg 1908 Our Preacher on 4: Eph: 17: 18: That all sinn, was the product of Ignorance: 15 on the same subject: 16. Came my Bro: Richard, Wife & family to visite us, & staied all this Weeke: 19, I went with my Bro: to Lond: to seale some Writings, wherein I was a Trusteè for my Co: Tuke,1 & return'd: 12:2 My Bro: & lady &c: went home to Woodcot:

22 Our Viccar preached on the same Text, of Gods infinite grace to the Gentiles. 25. I went to Lond: to celebrate the feast of Annuntiation: Dr. Gunning3 preaching at a private house, on: 11: Phil: 6. 7.4 shewing the stupendious humility & exinanition5 of Christ, in his Incarnation: seea notes:a I visited Dr. Taylor, who shewed me his MSS: of Cases of Conscience, or Ductor dubitantium now fitted for the presse:6 I return'd next day: 29 I went to Lond: to keepe Easter, in the morning preach'd Dr. Gillingham on 1. Cor: 15. 20, a Resurrection sermon: The Communion follow'd: In the afternoone Mr. Gunning on 60: Esay. 20. 21. &c: shewing how the Christian Faith spread abroad, under the dominion of Christ: I returned home:

The Protector Oliver, now affecting King-ship, is petition'd to take the Title on him, by all his new-made sycophant pg 191Lords &c: but dares not for feare of the Phanatics, not thoroughlya purged out of his rebell army:1

Aprill: 1 Came Sir Tho: Hanmer2 of Hanmer in Wales to visite me: 2: I went about buisinesse to the Commissioners of the Sewers.35: our Parson—on 4: Eph: 19. 20: as formerly, & on the 12th,b proving the Scriptures to be the Word of God, so on the 〈19th〉c That Truth made us most to resemble God: 21 I went to Lond: to consult Dr. Bate4 about taking preventing Physick: Thence to Visite my Lord Hatton,5 with whom I dined; at my returne I step'd into Bedlame,6 where I saw nothing extraordinarie, besides some miserable poore pg 192Creatures in chaines, one was mad with making Verses: & also visited the Charter-house,1 formerly belonging to the Carthusians; now an old neate, fresh solitarie Colledge for decaied Gent: It has a grove, bowling-greene, Garden: Chapell, hall &c where they eate in common: I likewise saw Christ-Church & Hospital,2 a very goodly building,a Gotic:a also the Hall, Schoole, Lodgings, in greate order, for the bring〈ing〉 up many hundreds of poore Children of both sexes, & is a〈n〉 exemplary Charity: There is a large picture at one end of the Hall, representing the Governors, founders, & Institution:3 so on the 23d I returned home: 25. To Lond, return'd that Evening. I had a dangerous fall out of the Coach in Covent Garden, going to my Bro:4 but without harme, The Lord be praised: 26: our Viccar on his former subject: shewing how the old man, dwelt even in the regenerate:5

27 I tooke preventing Physick.

May: 1 Divers Souldiers quarter'd at my house, but I thank God, went away the next day towards Flanders:62: I tooke Physick. The next-day (lying at Greenewich on the 4th) I went into Surrey with my Co: G: Tuke, to see Baynards,7 an house of my Bro: Richards, which he would have pg 193hired: We going in a Charriot drawne with unruly young horses, one of which (they said) had already killed two keepers,a were often in very greate danger; so as after 20 〈miles〉b riding, we were forced to change our horses.c This is a very faire & noble house of my Bro: built in a park, & having one of the goodliest avenue of Oakes up to it, that ever I saw:1 There is also a pond of 60 Ackers neere it: The Windos of the chiefe roomes are of very fine painted glasse:2 but the situation excessively dirty & melancholy: We return'd next day, dining by the way at Wotton: 8: I went to Lond: to congratulate Mr. Hyldiards sonns,3 newly returned from their Travells: came home at night: 11. To Lond: to visite my Bro: Richard: returnd. 13 To Lond: to treate againe with Sir Cha: Harbord about a Match with my Co: Hungerford, of which formerly:4 return'd at night: There had ben at my house this afternoone Laurence5 president of Olivers Council, & some other of his Court Lords to see my Garden & plantations: 14. Came my Aunt Hungerford to dinner:

16 I went to Lond: to keepe Whitsonday. 17: I received at St. Greg: where now againe Dr. Hewet preached on 2: Act: 4: [Se notes:]d in the Afternoone Mr. Gunning on part of the Creede, I believe in God the H: Ghost: shewing what it was to believe, onely, & to believe in: & spake something of the Controversy with the Greeke-Church [see notes]:e I visited Mr. Mordaunt & returned. 22d, I went to see Sir Tho: Hanmer. 24: our Preacher on his former text: see notes: pg 19430 To Lond: lay at the Midle Temple:131: at Serjeants Inn2 preached Doctor Gauden on 27: Psal: 9. how we are to seeke the face of God [see notes]a &c: In the Afternoone Mr. Gunning expounding the Gospel of the day.316 Luke, declaiming against un-mercifullnesse to the poore, & voluptuousnesse of Life: [See notes.]a1 June I returned home, having dined at the Countesse of Peterborows, & brought Mr. Mordaunt & new married Lady my deare friend, to my house, who returned also that Evening back to Lond:4

3 June Came my Lady Glanvill5 (〈my〉b Wifes Aunt) to visite us: 6: Came my Bro: Richard & his Wife:

7 June My Wife fell in Labour from 2 in the morning till 8½ at night, when my fourth Sonne was borne, it being Sonday: he was Christned on Wednesday on the 10th & named George6 (after my Grandfathers name) my Bro: Rich: Evelyn: Co: George Tuke & Lady Cotton susceptors &c: Dr. Jer: Taylor officiating in the withdrawingroome at Says-Court:

14: A stranger preached on 32: Psal: 11,7 shewing the danger & insecurity of the Wiccked.

16 To Lond, returned: 18 I saw at Greenewich a sort of Catt brought from the East Indies, shaped & snouted much like the Egyptian Ratoone, in the body like a Monkey, & so footed: the eares & taile like a Catt, onely the taile much pg 195longer, & the Skin curiously ringed, with black & white: With this taile, it wound up its body like a Serpent, & so got up into trees, & with it, would also wrap its whole body round; It was of a wolly haire as a lamb, exceedingly nimble, & yet gentle, & purr'd as dos the Cat.1

21 Our Minister preached on 4: Eph: 23. concerning the soules renovation: 25 I went to Lond to visite friends, return'd. 28: our Preacher on his former Text: That putting on the new man, was induing of Christian graces &c:—29a a stranger: see Notes.a

July: 3 A ship blown-up at Wapping,2 shooke my whole house, & the chaire I was sitting & reading in 〈in〉 my study. 5. Dr. Owen preached at my house on. 128 Psal: 1. 2. ad. 5. upon occasion of now Churching my Wife: he also gave us the H: Sacrament: See notes:

12 Our Viccar, on his former: afternoone at Greenewich Mr. Hardy on 84 Psal. 11. shewing in how many Instances God was both Sun & shild, light, & defence to the Righteous: se notes:16 On Dr. Taylors recommendation I went to Eltham to helpe one Moody3 a young man, to that living, by my Interest with the Patron: return'd:

19 Preachd a stranger: on 5: Eph: 2: concerning the necessitie & want of charity: [see notes:]b In the afternoone our pg 196Parson, shewing how holinesse was in God the Archtype, in us as in the Ectype.1

26: on the same &c: see notes:

August 2: Our Minister on the same Text: 6: I went to see Coll: Blount who shewed me the application of the Way-Wiser2 to a Coach, exactly measuring the miles, & shewing it by an Index as one rid along: It had 3 Circles, one point〈e〉d to the number of rods: The other to the miles by 10, to 1000: with all the subdivisions of quarters &c: very pretty, & very usefull: 6:a Our Viccar 18 Joh: 36 declaiming at the folly of a sort of Enthusiasts & desperat Zealots, cald the fift Monarchy-men, pretending to set up the Kingdome of Christ with the Sword: to this passe was this age arivd, when we had no king in Israel:37: Came Sir Edm: Bowyer4 & Lady to visite us.

21 Fell a most prodigious raine at Lond: & the yeare very sickly in the Country.5 Our Viccar, on 3: Psal: 8. An anniversary, commemorating Gods infinite mercys to this nation, in pg 197continuing the purity of his Gospel, notwithstanding the many troubles & alterations in State; which was true but in part: for never was Religion so perverted:130:—on 1. Rom: 6: shewing the benefit of a true faith. A most unseasonable, wett, sickly Summer: my son: Richard ill of a Feavor:

September: I visited Sir Ed. Bowyer at his melancholy Seate at Cammerwell:2 he has a very pretty grove of Oakes, & hedges of yew in his Garden, & a handsom row of tall Elmes before his Court: 6: To Lond: to receive the B: Comm: Dr. Taylor preaching on 1. Cor: 11. 27. piously discoursing of the signes of a worthy Communicant [see notes:]a The afternoone, a grave old man at Woolchurch3 on. 102 Psal: 6 shewing the ignominie of Christs suffering [see notes]:a I returnd home. 13 our Viccar on 45 Isa: 22. how Christ was the onely object of our Faith:

15 Going to Lond: with some Company, who would needes step in to see a famous Rope-daunser call'd the Turk,4 I saw even to astonishment the agilities he perform'd, one was his walking bare foote, & taking hold by his toes onely, of a rope almost perpendicular & without so much as touching it with his hands: also dauncing blindfold on the high-roope: & with a boy of 12 yeares old, tyed to one of his feete about 20 foote beneath him dangling as he daunced, & yet moved as nimbly, as it had ben but a feather: Lastly he 〈stoode〉b on his head, upon the very top of a very high mast, daunced on a small roope that was very slack, & finaly flew downe the pg 198perpendicular, with his head foreward on his breast, his legs & armes extended: with divers other activities, to the admiration of all the Spectators: I also saw the hairy Maid,1 or Woman wh〈om〉 20 years before I had also seene when a child: her very Eyebrowes were combeda upward, & all her forehead as thick & even as growes on any womans head, neately dress'd: There come also tw〈o〉 lock〈s〉 very long out of Each Eare: she had also a most prolix beard, & mustachios, with long locks of haire growing on the very middle of her nose, exactly like an Island Dog;2 the rest of her body not so hairy, yet exceeding long in comparison, armes, neck, breast & back; the 〈Colour〉b of a bright browne, & fine as well dressed flax: She was now married, & told me had one Child, that was not hairy, [as]c nor were any of her parents or relations: she was borne at Ausburg in Germanie, & for the rest very well shaped, plaied well on the Harpsichord &c: I returnd home:

17 I went to see Sir Rob: Needham3 at Lambeth, a relation of mine, and thence John Tradescants Musæum,4 the pg 199chiefest rarities were in my opinion, the antient Roman, Indian & other Nations Armour, shilds & weapons; Some habits also of curiously colourd & wrought feathers: particula〈r〉ly that of the Phoenix Wing, as tradition gos:1 other innumerable things there were too long here to recite, & printed in his Catalogue by Mr. Ashmole,2 to whom after death of the widdow, they are bequeathe'd: & by him designd a Gift to Oxford:

Dunkirk was now beseig'd by our Fleete joynd with theaFrench.3

pg 20019 I went to see divers Gardens about London, returnd home: 20: our Viccar on his former subject: 22: To Lond: to visite the Holland Ambassador1 with whom I had now contracted much friendly corresponden〈c〉e: usefull to the Intelligence I constantly gave his Majestie abroad: returning, I saw at Dr. Joylifes, two Virginian rattle-snakes a live: they exceeded a yard in length, small heads, & slender tailes but as big as my leg in the middle;a when vexed or provoked, swiftly vibrating & shaking theire tailes, they rattled as looud as a Childs rattle, or as if on〈e〉 heard a jack2 going: & this by the collision [or atrition]b3 of certaine gristly Skinns curiously joynted, yet loose, like the Vertebra or back bone; & transparant as parchment; by which they give warning, a providential caution for other creatures to avoid them: They leape cruely:4 the Doctor tried their biting on ratts & mice which they immediately killed; but their vigour must needes be much exhausted here, where they had nothing to eate, & were in another Climate, kept onely in a barill of bran &c: 27: the Viccar proceedes. 30: To Lond: to pay 100 pounds which I had borrowed, returnd: Now 〈w〉as Mardyke taken by the English:5

Octob: 4: Our Viccar proceedes. 10: I dind at Lond: with the Dutch Ambassador, now taking his leave,6 I return'd. 11: The Viccar on his former: see your notes: 18 he preached on: 1 John: 1. 1 about Christs humane-nature. 21:c Came pg 201Mr. Henshaw & Lady1 to visite us, with his Bro: in Law Mr. Dorrell:225 The Viccar proceedes how our B: S. was the Word: 31: I was 〈now〉a 37 yeares of age: Lord so teach me to number my dayes, that I may apply my heart to Wisedome:3

Nov. 1 I went to Lon: to receive the H. Sacrament: Dr. Taylor preaching on 1. Cor: 16.16 concerning Charity [see notes:]b

15 Our Viccar on 1. Jo: 1. 2. How Christ was eternal life: 16 To Lond: about buisinesse with the E. of Chesterfield4 'til the 20th.22: our Viccar proceedes: of the felloship of Believers:

26 I went to Lond: to a Court of the E. India Comp; upon its new Union: where was much dissorder by reason of the Anabaptists, who would have the Adventurers obliged onely by an Engagement, with out Swearing, that they might still pursue their private trade; but it was carried against them: & that Wednesday should be a Generallc Court for Election of Officers; after Sermon, & prayers for good successe: The stock resolv'd on was 800000 pounds:5 (27) I tooke the Oath, pg 202at the E. India house, subscribing 500 pounds:1 & so returnd: 〈29〉:a our Vice: persu'd his former Text.

December 1 To Lond. 2: Dr. Raynolds2 [since Bishop of Norwich]b preached before the E. India Comp: at St. Andrews undershaft on 13 Nehem: 31. shewing by the Example of Nehemiah all the Perfections of a trusty person in publique affaires, with many good precepts apposite to the occasion; ending with a prayer for Gods blessing on the Comp: & Undertaking:

33 Mr. Gunning preached on: 3. John: 3 against the Anabaptists, shewing the effect, & necessity of the Sacrament of Baptisme: [Se notes.]c This Sect was now wonderfully spread:46: Dr. Taylor on 26 Psal: 6: concerning the preparation before the H. Sacrament, but chiefly insisting on care, & perseveration afterwards, also the necesity of restitution in case of wrongs &c:—In the afternoone at the Savoy Monsieur D'Espagne,5Cathechizing: why God makes use of Wicked Instruments to execute his designes, as the Devil himselfe: That very impious men, commonly die by their owne hands, pg 203as being the worst to be found; by the Example of Judas, Achitophel, Saule, &c:

9 I paied in my fi〈r〉sta payment to the E. Ind: stock: There being a Court in Merchant-Taylors hall:110 returned home: 〈13〉b Our Viccar on 1. Jo: 4 that the plenitude of the Saints Joy consisted in his Communion with God.217 Came to dine with me my Bro: R. Evelyn, & Mr. Needham.

20 Viccar: proceeded: 25, I went with my Wife &c: to Lond: to celebrate Christmas day. Mr. Gunning preaching in Excester Chapell3 on 7: Micah 2. Sermon Ended, as he was giving us the holy Sacrament, The Chapell was surrounded with Souldiers: All the Communicants and Assembly surpriz'd & kept Prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away: It fell to my share to be confined to a roome in the house, where yet were permitted to Dine with the master of it,4 the Countesse of Dorset,5Lady pg 204Hatton1 & some others of quality who invited me: In the afternoone came Collonel Whaly2Goffe3 & others from Whitehall to examine us one by one, & some they committed to the Martial4 some to Prison, some Committed: When I came before them they tooke my name & aboad, examind me, why contrarie to an Ordinance made that none should any longer observe the superstitious time of the Nativity5 (so esteem'd by them) I dursta offend, & particularly be at Common prayers, which they told me was but the Masse in English, & particularly pray for Charles stuard, for which we had no Scripture: I told them we did not pray for Cha: Steward but for all Christian Kings, Princes & Governors: The〈y〉 replied, in so doing we praied for the K. of Spaine too, who was their Enemie, & a Papist, with other frivolous & insnaring questions, with much threatning, & finding no colour to detaine me longer, with much pitty of my Ignorance, they dismiss'd me: These were men of high flight, and above Ordinances: & spake spitefull things of our B: Lords nativity: so I got home late the next day blessed be God: These wretched miscreants, held their muskets against us as we came up to receive the Sacred Elements, as if they would have shot us at the Altar, but yet suffering us to finish the Office of Communion, as perhaps not in their Instructions what they should do in case they found us in that Action:627: Our Viccar proceeded:

pg 20528 I invited some of my Neighbours according to Costome.

31 Praised God for his mercies the yeare past,a & set all things in order in my family:

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
3 Presumably James Bovey, 1622–95, merchant and lawyer: Aubrey, Brief lives, i. 112–15; Harleian miscellany, ed. Park, 1808–13, vii. 449–51; see also Pepys, 20 May 1668; Manning and Bray, ii. 467.
Editor’s Note
4 1629–72; eldest son of Dr. Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely (below, p. 271); secretary to James duke of York 1667–72: D.N.B., art. Wren, Matthew, 1585–1667. He is said to have been wounded in the battle of Southwold Bay (Solebay), 28 May 1672, but probably died of an illness which had begun some days earlier: Cal. S.P., Dom., 1672, pp. 67, 83, 111–12, 684. The bishop was imprisoned in the Tower from 1642 to 1660 (15 March).
Critical Apparatus
a Marginal note.
Editor’s Note
1 Willem Nieupoort: above, p. 174.
Editor’s Note
2 I have been unable to check these statements. For the Dutch East India Company see the works of P. van Dam and G. C. Klerk de Reus.
Editor’s Note
3 At an earlier period, during the war with Spain, the Dutch appear to have traded with the Spaniards in spite of attempts to suppress the trade: J. H. Kernkamp, De handel op den vijand, 1572–1609, n.d. [c. 1932]. See also W. A[glionby], The present state of the United Provinces, 1669, pp. 113–14.
Editor’s Note
4 The Trade Committee was established on 11 Nov. 1655 and was still in existence on 27 May 1657. It was too large and included too many members of the council and apparently did not possess sufficient power. Colonial affairs were badly managed during the Protectorate: C. M. Andrews, British committees, commissions, and councils of trade and plantations, 1622–1675 (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Hist, and Political Science, ser. xxvi, nos. 1–3, 1908), pp. 37–43, 47–8, 58–60.
Editor’s Note
5 1609-a. 1667; matriculated from University College, Oxford, 1626; knighted 1633; M.P. for Pontefract in the Short Parliament and in the Long Parliament until 1646, when he was disabled. He appears to have been a follower and assistant of his brother. His wife was Frances, daughter of Sir Francis Ruishe of Sarre in Thanet: J. Wentworth, The Wentworth genealogy, 1878, i. 16, &c.
Editor’s Note
6 John Gauden, 1605–62; D.D. 1641; bishop of Exeter 1660; of Worcester May–Sept. 1662: D.N.B. He was now dean of Bocking in Essex and held the living until the Restoration; in 1656 he had been trying to reconcile the Presbyterians, the Independents, and the Anglicans: Thurloe, State papers, v. 598–601.
Critical Apparatus
a Marginal note.
Editor’s Note
1Genesis xlviii. 13–20.
Editor’s Note
2 Distinctive marks, &c.: O.E.D.
Editor’s Note
3 Evelyn's Statements here are confused and wrong. On 9 Sept. 1656 three English ships captured two and destroyed three ships belonging to the Spanish plate fleet (eight ships in all), which was returning from Havana to Cadiz; the action took place off Cadiz. Among those captured were Don Diego de Villalba y Toledo, governor of Havana (Cuba) 1647–53, and five children, including the eldest son, of the marquis of Baides (see note below); the marquis himself, his wife, his eldest daughter, and a younger son losing their lives during the fight. The accounts do not mention any family belonging to Villalba. He was apparently ransomed or exchanged early in 1657. In the English accounts he is called Villa Alva: Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, i. 48–53, and authorities there cited; F. Calcagno, Diccionario biog. Cubano, 1878; Cal. S.P., Dom., 1657–8, p. 63.
Editor’s Note
4 Anthony Young, c. 1616–93, buried at Deptford: Drake's Hasted, p. 32; he is frequently mentioned in documents at this time. He does not appear to have taken part in the fight on 9 September, but received some of the prize goods on board at 'Wyers Bay' (Vejer?): Cal. S.P., Dom., 1656–7, p. 444. Further notice below, 17 Nov. 1693.
Critical Apparatus
a Substituted for one.
Critical Apparatus
bMS.Sonne.
Critical Apparatus
c Followed by & deleted.
Editor’s Note
5 'Don Francisco de Lopez', eldest son of Don Francisco Lopez de Zuñiga, marquis of Baides and count of Pedroso, governor of Chile 1639–46, later living in Peru; the son was about sixteen years old at the time of the fight: Thurloe, State Papers, v. 434; for the father see M. de Mendiburu, Diccionario hist. biog. del Perú, 1931–4.
Critical Apparatus
a MS. Charch?
Editor’s Note
1 Los Charcas, a district forming part of the modem Bolivia and northern Chile: Heylyn, Cosmo-graphie, pp. 1069–70, where Potosi is mentioned as a town in it; Encic. univ. ilustrada. Part of Bolivia still bears this name.
Editor’s Note
2 See below, p. 234.
Critical Apparatus
b Followed by 16 deleted.
Editor’s Note
3 John Mordaunt, 1626–75; created Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon 1659: D.N.B.; Letter-book, 1658–1660, ed. M. Coate (Royal Hist. Soc, Camden 3rd ser., vol. lxix, 1945). He became a friend of Evelyn and is frequently mentioned below. His mistress (the word is used in its older sense) was Elizabeth Carey (above, p. 155), whom he married in May: below, p. 194 n. For Lady Peterborough see above, p. 156.
Critical Apparatus
c Marginal note.
Editor’s Note
4 Lord Dover is Henry Carey, c. 1580–1666; fourth Lord Hunsdon 1617; created earl of Dover 1628: G.E.C. He was a first cousin of Elizabeth Carey's father and of Lady Peterborough's father. For his daughters see Herald and genealogist, iv (1867), 41.
Critical Apparatus
5 William Rand, c. 1617–63: R. W. Innes Smith, English-speaking students of medicine at Leyden. Besides the life of Peiresc (see below) he translated with Nicholas Culpeper A sure guide; or, the best and nearest way to physick and chyrurgery, by J. Riolan the younger, 1657; 3rd ed., 1671. He signs a letter to Hartlib on 2 Nov. 1654 as 'William De Rand': Chymical, medicinal, and chyrurgical addresses made to Samuel Hartlib, 1655, p. 157.
Editor’s Note
6The mirrour of true nobility & gentility. Being the life of the renowned Nicolaus Claudius Fabricius Lord of Peiresk, Senator of the Parliament at Aix, 1657. The title of the original is Viri illustris Nicolai Claudii Fabricii de Peiresc, senatoris Aquisextiensis vita; it was first published at Paris in 1641; new ed., omitting some Greek verses at the end, Hague, 1651; 3rd ed., also omitting the Greek verses but with some additions at the end, Hague, 1655. Rand omits the verses and gives the additions. His dedication is dated 30 Jan. 1656, i.e. 1656/7. Gassendus is Pierre Gassend, generally called Gassendi, 1592–1655: Nouvelle biog. gén.
Critical Apparatus
a-a Added later.
Editor’s Note
1 George Tuke: above, p. 172.
Editor’s Note
2 The date is obviously wrong.
Editor’s Note
3 Peter Gunning, 1614–84; bishop of Chichester 1670; of Ely 1675: D.N.B. He was not created D.D. until 1660. He was now or shortly afterwards holding services at Exeter House chapel (below, p. 203). Frequent notices below.
Editor’s Note
4 i.e. Philippians ii. 6, 7.
Editor’s Note
5 The action or process of emptying of pride, self-will, or dignity; abasement, humiliation; it is used especially of Christ with reference to Philippians ii. 8: O.E.D.
Editor’s Note
6 The Ductor Dubitantium, or the rule of conscience in all her generall measures; serving as a great instrument for the determination of cases of conscience, in four books, was published in 1660; Taylor was preparing the first three for the press already in 1655: Heber, Life of Taylor, pp. xliv–xlv.
Critical Apparatus
aMS.thrôly.
Editor’s Note
1 There is no adequate ground for believing that Cromwell wanted the title of king. Suggestions that he should adopt it appear late in 1656; on 23 Feb. 1657 it was proposed in parliament that he should adopt it. This proposal was incorporated in a new constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice, which was submitted to him on 31 March; on 3 April he declared that he could see no necessity for him to adopt the title; he finally refused it on 8 May. His refusal was due to the opposition of many of the officers of the army, as well as of other supporters; the delay in refusing it was due to his fear that, if he refused it at the outset, parliament might in its turn refuse to proceed with the rest of the proposed constitution: D.N.B., art. Cromwell; Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, vol. i. It was in accordance with the Humble Petition and Advice that Cromwell nominated the members of his 'Other House'; but this was not done until the last months of 1657.
Editor’s Note
2 1612–78; second baronet 1624: G.E.C., Baronetage, i. 152; John Hanmer, Lord Hanmer, Memorial of the parish and family of Hanmer, 1877, pp. 63–114, where letters from him to Sir R. Browne (1647–9) and to Evelyn (1668, 1671) are printed; see also his Garden Book, ed. E. S. Rohde (from MS.), 1933. Evelyn prints a note from him about the preparation of cider in Pomona, in Sylva, 1679, p. 405; and mentions him as a collector of medals, &c., in Numismata, p. 245.
Editor’s Note
3 See above, p. 151 n.
Critical Apparatus
b Substituted for 20th.
Critical Apparatus
c MS. 20th:
Editor’s Note
4 George Bate, 1608–68; M.D. 1637; physician and author: D.N.B.; I.H.R., Bull., v. 118.
Editor’s Note
5 He had obtained leave to return to England in September 1656: D.N.B.
Editor’s Note
6 Bethlehem Hospital. It was situated to the west of Bishopsgate Street Without, on a site included in that of Liverpool Street Station; it was transferred to a new building in Moorfields in 1676. It housed about fifty lunatics at this time. Visitors were admitted regularly until 1770; the lunatics were regarded as a source of amusement: E. G. O'Donoghue, The story of Bethlehem Hospital, 1914; Notes and Queries, clxxvii (1939), 362. O'Donoghue suggests that Evelyn's lunatic was not mad as a result of making verses, but that his making them was a consequence of his mania.
Editor’s Note
1 It contained a school for forty boys in addition to providing a home for twenty-five brothers. A great part of the buildings survives; they are still used by the brothers: G. S. Davies, Charterhouse in London, 1921.
Editor’s Note
2 Christchurch was the old church of the Greyfriars (Franciscans), near Newgate Street; it was damaged in the Fire and was rebuilt by Wren. Christ's Hospital, the Blue Coat School, occupied the friars' conventual buildings, north-east of the church; it was largely rebuilt after the Fire. At this time the charity maintained about a thousand children, but they were not all living here. The girls' school was moved to Hertford in 1779 and the boys' school to Horsham in 1902; the buildings were then demolished: E. H. Pearce, Annals of Christ's Hospital, 2nd ed., 1908; Notes and Queries, clxxvii (1939), 362. Further notice below, 13 March 1687.
Critical Apparatus
a–a Or buildings Gotic.
Editor’s Note
3 It represents Edward VI presenting the charter of the school and is now at Horsham; reproduced in Pearce, p. 31.
Editor’s Note
4 Cf. above, p. 148.
Editor’s Note
5 This refers to Ephesians iv. 22.
Editor’s Note
6 Six regiments en route for Flanders were reviewed on Blackheath on 1 May; they embarked for Boulogne on 8, 9, and 16 May: Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, i. 275, and authorities there cited.
Critical Apparatus
aMS.keepers).
Critical Apparatus
bMS.mises.
Critical Apparatus
cMS.horses;, followed by & deleted.
Editor’s Note
1 Evelyn describes it in Sylva, 1664, p. 117. He mentions the pond in his letter to Aubrey prefixed to the latter's Nat. hist. of Surrey (Misc. writings, p. 690).
Editor’s Note
2 Some heraldic glass formerly at Baynards was removed c. 1800 to West Clandon church, where it still remains: Manning and Bray, i. 536; A. V. Peatling, Ancient stained … glass in … Surrey, 1930, pp. 25–7.
Editor’s Note
3 Above, ii. 550. The two Hildyards signed the Padua visitors' album on 21 July 1655: H. F. Brown, nos. 523, 524; and also matriculated there: Andrich, p. 149. Walker was in Basel in October 1655: D.N.B.
Editor’s Note
4 Above, pp. 175–6.
Editor’s Note
5 Henry Lawrence, 1600–64; lord president of the council from 1653 to 1659: D.N.B.
Critical Apparatus
d Interlined later.
Critical Apparatus
e Interlined.
Editor’s Note
1 Evelyn had surrendered his share of the chamber in the Middle Temple on 28 Nov. 1654: above, ii. 24 n. It was now occupied by Henshaw.
Editor’s Note
2 There were two Serjeants' Inns, one in Fleet Street, the other in Chancery Lane; the site of the former still retains its name; the latter was situated immediately to the south of the Rolls Chapel: A. Pulling, Order of the coif, 1884, pp. 126–7, &c.
Critical Apparatus
a Interlined.
Editor’s Note
3 First Sunday after Trinity.
Critical Apparatus
a Interlined.
Editor’s Note
4 This is the earliest notice of the marriage; Evelyn later gives its date as 7 May: below, 7 May 1674. Mrs. Mordaunt mentions her husband in an entry in her Private diarie dated 15 June 1657: pp. 12– 14.
Editor’s Note
5 Above, p. 111 n. She was Mrs. Evelyn's great-aunt.
Editor’s Note
6 He died on 15 Feb. 1658: below, pp. 210–11. His birth and christening are entered in the parish register of St. Nicholas, Deptford, 10 June being given as the date of the christening: Foljambe, p. 37. Lady Cotton is George Evelyn's wife.
Editor’s Note
7 Apparently cited from the Prayer Book.
Editor’s Note
1 Ratoon is evidently a variant of ratton, a rat (there may be some confusion with the rattoon, an obsolete name for the racoon). The Egyptian ratton is the ichneumon or Egyptian mongoose, also called Pharaoh's mouse or the 'rat of Nilus'; for it see Topsell, Hist. of foure-footed beastes, pp. 448–51; Sandys, Relation of a journey, pp. 100–1. The animal seen by Evelyn is identifiable as a ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).
Critical Apparatus
a– a Added later.
Editor’s Note
2 It was not a ship that blew up but a barrel of gun-powder in a ship-chandler's workshop: Publick intelligencer, 6, 13 July (pp. 1470, 1476), &c. The place is given as at Ratcliffe, 'near the Hermitage'; this appears to have been situated near the present Hermitage Basin in Wapping.
Editor’s Note
3 Identifiable as Lively Moody, 1632–88; B.A., Cambridge, 1655; M.A. 1658; D.D. 1671: Venn. He did not obtain the living at Eltham. The present patron of the living appears to have been Edward Roper, 1640–1723: Drake's Hasted, pp. 189, 200, 202, 210; Genealogist, new ser., xiii (c. 1896), 143.
Critical Apparatus
b Interlined.
Editor’s Note
1 The word is here used in its figurative sense, a copy or reproduction, as opposed to the archetype. Evelyn uses it in its literal sense, an impression (in wax, &c.) of a seal or medal, in Numismata, p. 196: O.E.D.
Editor’s Note
2 Above, p. 110.
Critical Apparatus
a Preceded by 9 deleted; see commentary.
Editor’s Note
3 The date is presumably an error for 9 August; the date of the succeeding notice is also perhaps wrong. The Fifth Monarchy men were a sect of millenarians, believing that the second coming of Christ was at hand and that it was the duty of Christians to be prepared to assist in establishing His reign by force; they derived their name from Daniel ii. 44. As a political party they had been most influential in 1653; they had now declined in numbers and importance; a few of them had projected a rising to take place on 9 April, but it had been suppressed immediately: Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, i. 206–18; for the sect, C. E. Whiting, Studies in English Puritanism, 1660–1688, 1931, pp. 234–41; see also Evelyn, Hist. of religion, ii. 266.
Editor’s Note
4c. 1613–81; admitted to Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1630; knighted 1633; M.P. for Gatton 1660; for Surrey 1661. He presented the Surrey Petition (above, ii. 541) to the house of commons on 16 May 1648. He married first Hester, d. 1665, daughter of Sir Anthony Aucher; secondly, in 1671, Dame Martha Cropley: Visitations of Surrey, 1530, &c. (Harleian Soc.), p. 32; Manning and Bray, iii. 408–9; D. Allport, Collections illustrative … of Camberwell, 1841, pp. 68, 136; G.E.C., Baronetage, iii. 190 and n. For his house see below.
Editor’s Note
5 This day was ordered to be kept as a fast on account of the widespread sickness: proclamation of 13 August (Steele, no. 3084).
Editor’s Note
1 The notice of the sermon apparently belongs to the fast day 21 August (see preceding note), but may belong to the following Sunday, 23 August. Apart from the fast the only day calling for special commemoration at this season was St. Bartholomew, 24 August.
Editor’s Note
2 It was situated in what is now the Camberwell Road. It was much altered after the Restoration and was pulled down in 1861: Allport, pp. 68–72; W. H. Blanch, Ye parish of Cam⁓erwell, 1875, pp. 302–3.
Critical Apparatus
a Interlined.
Editor’s Note
3 St. Mary Woolchurch Haw. It was burnt down in 1666 and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Mary Woolnooth; the site forms part of that of the Mansion House.
Critical Apparatus
a Interlined.
Editor’s Note
4 There are many references to this performer between 1654 and 1658: see Studies in philology, xviii (1921), 313–15; xx (1923), 58, 68; Hotson, Commonwealth and Restoration stage, p. 86. Evelyn mentions him as 'the late Famous Funamble Turk' in Numismata, p. 277.
Critical Apparatus
bMS.stoote.
Editor’s Note
1 Barbara Ursler, wife of Michael Van Beck, born near Kempten, about fifty miles from Augsburg, in 1629. Brackenhoffer saw her in Paris in 1645: Voyage de Paris en Italie, p. 70; there are portraits of her by H. Winze, 1638, and by R. Gaywood, 1658; these give her age, parentage, &c.; Gaywood's portrait agrees closely with Evelyn's description. The bearded woman seen by Pepys on 21 Dec. 1668 is apparently a different person.
Critical Apparatus
a Substituted for covered.
Editor’s Note
2 An Iceland dog. These were shaggy, sharp-eared white dogs, apparently fashionable as lap-dogs in the first half of the seventeenth century: O.E.D.; see also Shirley, Hyde Park, 1. ii.
Critical Apparatus
bMS.Coluur.
Critical Apparatus
c Interlined.
Editor’s Note
3 D. 1661. He was a nephew of Robert Needham, first Viscount Kilmorey; knighted 1631; M.P. for Haverfordwest c. 1645–8. His relationship to Evelyn was through his first wife, Elizabeth, d. 1639, daughter of John Hartop by Anne, daughter of Evelyn's uncle John Evelyn of Godstone. Needham had now married a second wife (below, 31 Aug. 1663), by whom he was father of the future Mrs. Myddelton (below, 24 Aug. 1683): G. Steinman Steinman, Some particulars contributed towards a memoir of Mrs. Myddelton, 1864 (addenda 1880); see also Foljambe, pp. 3, 56, 57; Cal. Committee for Advance of Money, pp. 1282–3. Steinman cites no authority for the first marriage, but there is no reason for questioning it.
Editor’s Note
4 John Tradescant the younger, 1608–62, traveller and gardener: D.N.B. The museum was kept in his house in South Lambeth; the site is commemorated by Tradescant Road. It was founded by the elder John Tradescant (d. 1637?: D.N.B.), a large number of donors contributing to it. The younger Tradescant compiled a catalogue with the help of Dr. Thomas Wharton (1614–73; D.N.B.) and Elias Ashmole (see below); he published it as Musæum Tradescantianum, 1656: Gunther, Early science in Oxford, iii. 280–8 (the greater part of the 1656 catalogue is reprinted there, pp. 390–435); Thomas Allen, Hist. … of Lambeth, 1826, p. 393, &c. For the later history of the collection see note below.
Editor’s Note
1 The 1656 catalogue includes an item: 'Severall attires and ornaments made of most beautifull feathers': p. 51.
Editor’s Note
2 Elias Ashmole: above, p. 159. The present notice is an addition to Evelyn's original memoranda. On 12 Dec. 1659 Tradescant and his wife told Ashmole that they had decided to give their collection to him after their deaths; on 16 December they executed a deed of gift to that effect. Tradescant for some unknown reason did not regard this deed as binding and by his will, dated 4 April 1661, left the collection to his wife and after her death to whichever of the two English universities she should think fit. Tradescant died on 22 April 1662; the will was proved on 5 May; in the next few days Ashmole preferred a bill in chancery against Mrs. Tradescant. In 1664 an award was given in his favour, subject to Mrs. Tradescant's life interest; prior to her death in 1678 she sold some objects from the collection, but it must have been almost intact when Ashmole acquired it. Some months earlier Ashmole proposed giving it to the university of Oxford, if the university would erect a building to house it. This was done in 1679–82 and in 1683 the collection was transferred. The building was the Old Ashmolean; the collection remained there until the nineteenth century: Gunther, Early science in Oxford, iii. 287–333: see also Ashmole, Diary, ed. Gunther, 1927. Objects from the collection are still preserved in the University Galleries (Ashmolean Museum) and in the University Museum; for the latter group see Gunther, iii. 346–66.
Critical Apparatus
a Followed by Hollander deleted.
Editor’s Note
3 Dunkirk had been blockaded by small English squadrons since the spring: Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, i. 299. The French did not take part in the blockade and there was no attempt to besiege it at this time; the capture of Mardyke (see below) was a necessary preliminary.
Editor’s Note
1 Nieupoort: above, p. 174, &c. The correspondence was probably with Sir Richard Browne; no letters from Evelyn to Browne at this time appear to be extant.
Critical Apparatus
a Followed by having deleted.
Editor’s Note
2 The machine for turning a spit.
Critical Apparatus
b Interlined; atrition may be attrition.
Editor’s Note
3 i.e. attrition; the action of rubbing against one another, mutual friction: O.E.D.
Editor’s Note
4 This statement is incorrect, unless leap is used in some special sense.
Editor’s Note
5 Mardyke was taken by the French and English troops under Turenne on 23 September/3 October and was immediately handed over to the English: Mercurius politicus, 1 Oct., p. 1664; Firth, Last years of the Protectorate, i. 284, where the date is given as 22 September.
Editor’s Note
6 Nieupoort left England in November and returned about July 1658: Jan de Witt, Brieven, 1723–5, vol. iii.
Editor’s Note
c Or 20.
Editor’s Note
1 Anne, d. 1671, daughter of Robert Kipping of Kippings Cross, Kent, and widow of James Darell. She had married Henshaw on 11 July 1657: Parish register of Kensington, 1539–1675 (Harleian Soc, Registers, vol. xvi, 1890), pp. 76, 142; for genealogy see next note.
Editor’s Note
2 Edward Darell, c. 1618–65. Son of Sir Robert Darell of Calehill, Kent; matriculated Oxford 1634; admitted Gray's Inn 1637; married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Kipping and sister of Mrs. Henshaw: Visitation of Kent, 1663–8 (Harleian Soc.), p. 45; Le Neve, Pedigrees, p. 240; Hasted, Kent, iii. 224–5; W. Berry, County genealogies: Kent, 1830, p. 102.
Editor’s Note
3 'So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom': Psalms xc. 12.
Critical Apparatus
b Interlined.
Editor’s Note
4 Chesterfield had succeeded to the title in 1656. He appears to have been permanently resident in England since late in 1656.
Critical Apparatus
c MS. Genll:
Editor’s Note
5 The East India Company was granted a new charter on 19 Oct. 1657, restricting the East India trade to the company. A subscription for a new stock was opened on the same day and £786,000 (about £740,000 effective) had been subscribed before the end of November; this was called the New General Stock (it was found that the company could not employ the whole amount profitably and only half of it was called up). Subscribers were not allowed to trade to the East on their own account, but were allowed until 31 Jan. 1659 to terminate their private ventures. The difficulty on the present occasion (a 'General Assembly of all the New Adventurers') arose apparently from the conscientious doubts of those at the time trading to the East on their own account as to whether they could take the new oath prescribed in the charter; there seems to have been no question of bad faith. In spite of an appeal the obligation to take the oath was confirmed on 8 December: Calendar of the court minutes, &c., of the East India Company, vol. for 1655–9, ed. E. B. Sainsbury, introd. by Sir W. Foster, 1916, pp. xvi, xix–xxi, 191–2, 195–6.
For the name Anabaptists see note below.
Editor’s Note
1 For the East India house, situated in Leadenhall Street, see Sir William Foster, The East India House, 1924. For Evelyn's investment see below, p. 203.
Editor’s Note
2 Edward Reynolds, 1599–1676; D.D. 1648; bishop of Norwich 1661: D.N.B. He published the present sermon as The comfort and crown of great actions, 1658. He was paid £5 for preaching it and another £5 on printing it: Cal., Court minutes, E.I. Co., 1655–9, pp. 202, 214. The church still exists.
Critical Apparatus
b Marginal note.
Editor’s Note
3 A Thursday.
Critical Apparatus
c Interlined later.
Editor’s Note
4 The Baptists repudiated the name Anabaptist, which was commonly applied to them: so Evelyn, Hist. of religion, ii. 264–5; they had little or no connexion with the sect to whom it was more correctly applied. They appear to have increased rapidly after 1649: Whiting, Studies in English Puritanism, P. 83.
Editor’s Note
5 Above, p. 181.
Critical Apparatus
a Or perhaps fift.
Editor’s Note
1 The first payment, one-eighth of the amount subscribed, was due on 1 December. There was a general court of election held at Merchant Taylors' Hall on 10, 11, 12, and 14 December; Evelyn apparently attended this meeting; the amount of his subscription would entitle him to one vote in it: Cal., Court minutes, E.I. Co., 1655–9, pp. 174, 197.
Editor’s Note
2 The text should be 1 John i. 4.
Editor’s Note
3 Presumably the chapel of Exeter House, which was situated on the north side of the Strand, on the site of Burleigh Street and Exeter Street. The house was built mainly by William Cecil, Lord Burghley; after his son's death it was generally let; in 1676 it was pulled down and Exeter 'Change was built on the site. It was occupied by John Manners, eighth earl of Rutland, from 1642 until September 1657 or later, and Gunning conducted the services in the chapel from early in 1656 (or slightly earlier) until the Restoration: above, p. 95; it is almost certainly the 'Lord Rutlands Chapel' there mentioned. Further notices below. For the raid see note below.
Editor’s Note
4 Presumably Rutland: see preceding note.
Editor’s Note
5 Probably Frances, d. 1687, daughter of Lionel Cranfield, first earl of Middlesex, and wife of Richard Sackville, fifth earl of Dorset, 1622–77, succeeded 1652; in 1679 she married Henry Powle, the speaker of the Convention Parliament; she was the mother of Charles Sackville, sixth earl of Dorset, the poet and patron of men of letters: G.E.C. On 8 Nov. 1657 she had acted as godmother in Exeter House chapel to a converted Turk: T. Warmstry, The baptized Turk, 1658, p. 139. There was also living Anne Clifford, 1590–1676, suo jure Baroness Clifford, who had married in 1609 Richard Sackville, third earl of Dorset, 1589–1624; she had subsequently married Philip Herbert, fourth earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 1584–1650: D.N.B. Evelyn would scarcely have applied to her the title 'Countess of Dorset' without some qualification.
Editor’s Note
1 Above, ii. 558 n. Gunning was at this time a dependant of Lady Hatton and perhaps lived at Hatton House in Holborn: B.M., Add. MS. 29569, f. 193; see also Add. MS. 29550, f. 183.
Editor’s Note
2 Edward Whalley, d. 1675?, the regicide: D.N.B. He was one of the major-generals.
Editor’s Note
3 William Goffe, d. 1679?, the regicide: D.N.B. He was brother of Stephen Goffe (above, ii. 36) and son-in-law of Whalley; he was also one of the major-generals.
Editor’s Note
4 Presumably an officer whose duty it was to take charge of any prisoners.
Editor’s Note
5 See above, p. 145 n. On 22 December the Council ordered the ordinance to be enforced in London and Westminster: Cal. S.P., Dom., 1657–8, p. 226.
Critical Apparatus
a Followed by come deleted.
Editor’s Note
6 On this Christmas Day all the known places where the Anglicans were celebrating the festival appear to have been visited by the authorities. The newspapers give the following account of the raid:
'Decemb. 25
'This being the day commonly called Christmas, and divers of the old Clergy-men being assembled with people of their own congregating in private to uphold a superstitious observation of the day, contrary to Ordinances of Parliament abolishing the observation of that and other the like Festivals, and against an express Order of his Highness and his Privy-Council, made this last week; for this cause, as also in regard of the ill Consequences that may extend to the Publick by the Assemblings of illaffected persons at this season of the year wherein disorderly people are wont to assume unto themselves too great a liberty, it was judged necessary to suppress the said meetings, and it was accordingly performed by some of the Soldiery employed to that end; who at Westminster apprehended one Mr Thiss cross, he being with divers people met together in private; In Fleet street they found another meeting of the same nature, where one Dr Wilde was Preacher; And at Exeter-house in the Strand they found the grand Assembly, which some (for the magnitude of it) have been pleased to term the Church of England; it being (as they say) to be found no where else in so great and so compact a Body, of which Congregation one Mr Gunning was the principal Preacher, who together with Dr Wilde, and divers other persons, were secured, to give an account of their doings: Some have since been released, the rest remain in custody at the WhiteHart in the Strand, til it shall be known who they are:' Publick intelligencer, 28 Dec. 1657, p. [206]; the notice is reprinted in Mercurius politicus, 31 Dec., pp. [199]–200 ('Thiss cross' is Timothy Thurscross: below, p. 237 n.). Other accounts show that no service was permitted at St. Gregory's by St. Paul's; elsewhere the sermons were not interrupted and presumably not the services actually in progress; at 'one church by Garlick Hill' there was a choir and the service was celebrated 'in all pontificalibus': Clarke papers, vol. iii (R. Hist. Soc., Camden series, 1899), pp. 130–1. The object of the raid was political; it was due to the danger of royalist plots; several persons had been arrested at the gaming ordinaries on the previous night: ibid.; the Anglican divines were questioned but there is no evidence to show that any of them were kept in prison. At the same time it is clear that some of the puritans approved of the raid on religious grounds.
Critical Apparatus
a Or paste.
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