William Ewart Gladstone

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Wed June One 1870. [Waimer Castle, Kent].

Wrote to Mrs Thistlethwayte—and minutes. Read. Sir G. Lewis's Letter. Preparations for departure. Went off at 11.45 to the Derby, by the S.E. Railway, with Granville, who most kindly arranged everything, including two drives through beautiful country. I was immensely interested in the scene, and the race. Conversation with P. of Wales—Admiral Rous4—and many more. The race gave me a tremor. We reached Walmer at 7 3 4 , joining C.G. & the party at Tunbridge.

Th. 2.

Wrote to Sir G. Grey—Mayor of Lpool5—Queen (Mem)—Mr Warner—D. of Argyll—and minutes. Read Lewis's Letters—Faraday's Memoirs.6 We went to St Margarets Bay, by that grand solitary road between cliff and sea. C. gallantly bathed. We watched the mackerel fishing.

To E. WARNER, 2 June 1870.                     Add MS 44538, f. 157.

I can assure you that as far as wishes are concerned nothing could be more acceptable to the Government than your reappearance in the House as member for Norwich. I find, however, upon inquiry, that Glyn is of opinion that this very desirable result cannot now be attained. I am not aware that he has authorised Mr. Tillett to make any declaration of our, or his, wishes, for this is a proceeding which often gives offence in a divided constituency.7 But it naturally would prevent him from taking any step in a contrary sense: nor could I with any advantage undertake to correct the information which he receives, & which he judges with an equally friendly, & a more experienced eye. I am truly glad to learn from him that another vacancy is likely at an early date, which he considers you would certainly be enabled to fill. Pray remember us kindly to Mrs. W.

pg 3023. Fr.

Wrote to The Queen (Mem)—Mrs Thistlethwayte—Ld Chancellor of Ireland—Mr Ayrton—Mr Glyn—Ld Lyttelton—and minutes. Finished Lewis's letters. Read Faraday's Memoirs—Whist in evg. Walked over to Updown & saw the Jameses. Rode back. Willy's birthday: God bless him.

4. Sat.

Wrote to Archbp of York—Ld Clarendon—The Queen (Mem)—Mr Hammond—and minutes. Read Brewster's Memoirs1—Brown on Shakesperian Sonnets2—Lewis's Letters (finished)—Annals of an Eventful Life3—Faraday's Memoirs. Cut down a tree: missed two rooks with a rifle: visited Ld C[lanwilliam] at Deal Castle & had tea. A party to dinner.

5. Whits.

Walmer Ch mg (with H.C.) and aft. Wrote to Ld Clarendon—Chancr of Exr—Ld R. Cavendish—& minutes. Read Marriott on Catacombs4—Blenkinsopp on Development. Tea at Deal Castle where Ld C. gave us a curious account of the Deal Boatmen; sad enough.

6. M.

Wrote to the Viceroy and minutes. Fête in the Gardens. Bp [Wilberforce] of Winchester came. Read Faraday (finished Vol I)—Blenkinsop on Devt—M'Carthy's Transl. of Calderon.5 Long & late evening conversation.

7. Tu.

Wrote to Ld Clarendon—The Queen—Bp of Brechin—Mr M. Arnold—and minutes. Drove to Shell Ness & rode back. Long conversation with Bp of W. on Education—& afterwards with Granville on that & other subjects. Read Brewster's Memoirs.6

pg 303

To MATTHEW ARNOLD, 7 June 1870.                Add MS 44538, f. 161.

I am greatly obliged by the present of your work1 which I shall read with particular interest. I cordially agree in what you appear to describe as your main thesis. Indeed I was upon ground not far apart from it in a book published more than 30 yrs ago. I admitted that the Church of England was politically intolerant, & accounted for this by special reference to the circumstances of its Reformation. Hooker's Mary I think in those times tended towards intolerance. But I maintained that theologically the Church of England was the most tolerant religious body of that age. And all this I still think is sound. I am in hopes it will not appear to you much otherwise.

I remember making a very weighty list of the notable men preferred by Abp. Laud, with whom he did not agree. Among them were Hall, Hales, & Chillingworth. There are others perhaps, including the very curious case of Goodman, the Bp. of Gloucester. Could I prevail on you to breakfast with me on Thursday morning at 10? May I say the 10th or any other (except 23rd) which might suit you better.2

To LORD CLARENDON, foreign secretary,              Clarendon MSS, c. 498.

7 June 1870.

You have the whole tenour of your Greek correspondence in your head much better than we have, & without doubt it will all come out right.3 As to the Constitution, I can conceive it perfectly possible to introduce great changes without diminishing the liberties of the people: but that diminution is, I fear, what Russia & France will desire. I do not say that in no case should it be effected: but we ought to require a good case to be made. And in any view of the matter, I feel convinced there is evil to be removed, & good to be done, without directly, or even substantially, involving the question of popular privileges. I hope whatever else we do, we shall take care to place the balance of receipt & expenditure in Greece on a sound footing, for without this, the little country never can keep straight.

8. Wed. [London].

Wrote to Bp of Bath & Wells—Mr Fortescue—Mr Forster—Mr Ayrton—Viceroy of I.—The Queen (Mem)—Ld Granville—Chancr of Exr—Mr Bruce—Mrs Rumpff—and minutes. Saw Bp of Winchester—Ld Bessborough—Sir D. Salomons. Left Walmer 10.15. Reached home at 2. Saw Mrs Th. Saw Isaac & another X. Read M'Carthy's Calderon.

pg 304

To H. A. BRUCE, home secretary,             Add MS 44538, f. 162.

8 June 1870.

I think with you1 that we should discuss as soon as possible the question of the Census. This application from Scotland will go far to make the ground taken by the English non-conformists in /60 untenable.2

To W. E. FORSTER, vice president,                     Add MS 44538, f. 161.

8 June 1870.

Many thanks for your speech.3 I read it in the Times, where it seemed to be well reported. It is difficult, either for you or me or anyone, to speak or converse at any length, without betraying our personal preferences on this or that point, but I think you both evidently, & successfully endeavoured to avoid committing yourself or the Govt.

We shall have ample opportunity for conversation in London, but the Cabinet will not approach the question again until very hard upon the day of the opening of the discussion. I imagine we shall have perfect warrant for declining any more specific declaration before the Speaker leaves the Chair, if we think fit. Meantime the following seems to me a singular point. The discretion of the Boards as to religious teaching is to be limited, in order to prevent quarrelling. If so, the Boards ought to be either compelled or forbidden to aid denominational schools from the Rate? The latter is impossible. I continue of the opinion, for myself, that if we cannot hold the Bill as it is with respect to Rate Schools proper, the only sound course is to limit the application of the Rate absolutely to secular purposes. But I am bound to say I entertain some doubt at present whether the Church party would prefer this method to the adoption of the Bible as the only text book, with free exposition.

9. Th.

Wrote to Bp of Lichfield—Ld Chancr. Ireland—The Queen—and minutes. Read Wilkinson on Study of Hebrew:4 Faraday's Memoirs Vol. II. Dined with the Wests. We had a long éclaircissement with the new Butler: of doubtful issue. Small breakfast party. Saw Signor Guerzoni5—Mr Glyn—Mr Bulwer Lytton—WHG on Ch. preferments—Mr Childers—The Speaker—Tried to find Ld Salisbury. Saw Mr Noble's Studio & his beautiful recumbent statue of the Duchess.6 H of C. 4 1 2 8 1 2 & 9 1 2 1 1 4 .7

pg 30510. Fr.

Wrote to Ld Clarendon—Mr C. Villiers—Sir Geo. Grey—The Queen—and minutes. Saw Robertson X. Saw Mr Glyn—Mr Forster—Mr Stansfeld—Mr Childers—Mr West. H. of C. 4 1 2 8 1 2 and 9 1 2 –1.1 Read Gainsborough's Life2—Faraday's Memoirs.

To Sir G. GREY, bart., 10 June 1870.             Add MS 44538, f. 164.

Many thanks for your kindness in writing: will you also be so good as to return my mem. of which I have no other fair copy. I think it will be wise for us to decide nothing more until we are in fuller possession of the views which prevail, & which seem to fluctuate from day to day. The Nonconformist mind moves in the direction of confining the rate to secular instruction; in Rate-founded Schools especially, & to this, if we are again to move as is not unlikely, I personally incline; but I am doubtful whether the Church could be brought to acquiesce, though on this I hope to obtain further information. Winterbotham (who is of that way of thinking) told me he thought that the action of the Government might avail, so far as the N.C. are concerned, to carry any one of these 4 plans:— 1. Confining the rate to secular purposes. 2. Scripture reading. 3. Scripture with Exposition, limited to the [?] undenoml. 4. Scripture with Exposition free.

11. Sat.

Wrote to Dean of Ch Ch—Sol. General—Ld Ashburnham—Watson & Smith—Mr Ayrton—Mr T.B. Potter—Ld Clarendon—Bp of Gloucester—and minutes. Saw Mr Glyn—Ld Halifax—D. of Argyll —Saw Howard X missed Meurice. Dined at Argyll Lodge—Lady Halifax's afterwards. Rode with Helen. Read Faraday—Lancashire Songs (Waugh).3

12. Trin.S.

Chapel Royal mg (with H.C.) and aft. Wrote to Mr Childers (2)—and minutes. Saw Ld Spencer: Mr Glyn. Called on J. Wortley: missed Ld Salisbury again. Read Coll. Peripatetica4—Bp of Gl. on Revision5—Marriott on Catacombs—E. Irving.6

pg 30613. M.

Wrote to Ld Clarendon—Ld de Grey—Mr Hammond—Mrs Thistlethwayte—Prof. Jowett—Dr Bateson—The Queen—& minutes. Saw Ld Salisbury—The Speaker—Mr Glyn—Mr Childers—Mr Forster—Mr [R.] Peel Dawson—Mr Disraeli—Mr Samuelson—Chr of Exr—Col. Stepney. Saw two. Dined at Mr West's. H of C. 4 1 2 8 1 2 and 9 1 2 12 3 4 .1 Read Faraday.

To LORD CLARENDON, foreign secretary,              Clarendon MSS, c. 498.

13 June 1870.

I have read these interesting letters.2 Pray consider whether it would not be well to have a very careful collection & dispassionate review of all the facts that can be collected or have been already recorded which illustrate the case of Fenianism in America in its relations to international law. If done, it should be done with the aid of some men of the temper as well as knowledge of Bernard: but if so done, it might be of great advantage, as it seems to me, in more points of view than one. In the Alabama case, what an arbiter would probably find against us is insufficiency or miscarriage of preventive measures. He would have a nice point to determine in what seems to me to be the American contention, viz. that every such failure invests the foreign State injured thereby with a claim for compensation. A case substantially parallel, & in its development stronger & more varied, might be brought out in the inquiry about Fenianism & the U.S. Govt?

[P.S.] Note the great change of tone in the D. Telegraph of today about Greece.

To Rev. B. JOWETT, 13 June 1870.              Add MS 44538, f. 165.

Individually I attach little importance, & less value, to the reservation of the Headships.3 But the difficulty in which we are placed is this; we came under an engagement, as we thought to two parties: we are now not only not sustained, but resisted in its fulfilment by one of them: while we have no release from the other. I hope there will be some communication between the two Universities on this subject, which may help to clear up the case. If necessary; I shall propose to postpone the point tonight, indeed I may have no alternative. But I am sorry for anything which operates as a postponement to the Bill. In recommending Dr. Scott for Rochester, I anticipated, with my very partial information that you would obtain an honour to which, irrespective of particular opinions, every[one] must feel that you had established undeniable claims by eminent ability, by high & spotless character, & by selfdenying & unwearied devotion to your work.4

pg 30714. Tu.

Wrote to Mr Fortescue—The Queen—Scotts—and minutes. Saw Ld Granville—Mr Forster—Mr Glyn. Read Faraday. Cabinet 1– 4 1 4 . H of C. 4 1 2 6 3 4 . Spoke on Revision of Authorised Version of H.S.1 Dined with Mr Tollemache & he drove us down, the whole party, to the Crystal Palace Fireworks. Saw 3[R].

Cabinet Jun 14. 70 1 PM2

  • ✓ Kensington Road. Postpone to another year.

  •     St James's Park Road

  • ✓ Buxton's motion. Object.

  • ✓ McCullagh Torrens's motion, oppose.3

  • ✓ Committee on Police Force. Report to be presented: motion not admitted now.

  • ✓ Mundella's motion for a Commission on Truck. Reserve judgment till debate.

  • ✓ Amendments on the Education Bill. Much debated. Accepted. C. of E. objected strongly. Goschen approved but anticipated serious party mischief. Others saw difficulties but approved.4

  • ✓ Processions Bill Ireland—approve

15. Wed

Wrote to Prof. Jowett—Chancr of Exr—Mrs Th.—Ld Clarendon—Mr Ayrton—and minutes. Read Faraday—Gk Papers—Jewitts Sepulchral Remains.5 H of C. 12 1 2 2 1 2 . Spoke on the minority Clause.6 Rode with Mary. Saw Ld Shaftesbury—Sir R. Alcock—Mr Glyn (2) —Ld Granville—Mr Bruce—Chancr of Exr—Mr Forster (3). Dined at Ld Shaftesbury's. Large evening party after.

With reference to the decision of the Cabinet of yesterday respecting the support of Voluntary Schools, the Chancellor of the Exchequer suggests that the sum which that decision would award to them should not be charged upon the Rates but distributed from the Exchequer.

I have consulted Mr Forster who approves. Ld de Grey is out of town but Mr. F. is sure he would approve. Ld. Granville is out of town. Mr. Cardwell Mr Bruce Mr Goschen (& Mr Glyn) approved.

pg 308I am most willing to agree. It is also proposed that Building grants should be discontinued.

I sent this Minute in partial Circulation.1

To LORD CLARENDON, foreign secretary,                     Clarendon MSS, c. 498.

15 June 1870.

I would avoid any official support of the Italian application to France for the evacuation of Rome by saying that this country had always abstained from mixing in that question: and that we were the more induced to persevere in that policy from being well convinced that the French Govt. is perfectly aware that in this country the occupation of any part of the Pontifical Territories by French troops is regarded with regret, pain & disapproval. Further that those who most strongly entertain these sentiments are generally the persons who most highly value & have most striven to promote the good understanding between France & England. Should France consult us we should readily give our opinion. Thus I have set out my view. The French occupation of Rome & Roman States has been almost a crime: & the French fear to use the power thus given against the madmen of the Council has been altogether a blunder. Such at least is my confession of Faith. While declining the Italian application officially might we not make known at Paris the terms in which we decline?2

[P.S.] I sent you a letter from Acton which I think requires notice from me.

To R. LOWE, chancellor of the exchequer,               Add MS 44301, f. 148.

15 June 1870.

I have received your letter, & I entirely appreciate the spirit of it, & of the suggestion it contains.3 I will not enter into detail, but I can confidently say that no agreement can be had on the Education question without sacrifices at the very least of cherished preferences.

Your suggestion is so big in relation to the machinery of the Bill, that I think I had better see Forster on it, as soon as I can get at him. The matter is clearly beyond the sphere of my discretion: but we are not too late for a Cabinet.

16. Th.

17 to breakfast. Wrote to Ld Clarendon—Dr Bateson—Mr Goschen —The Queen—& minutes. Worked much on the subject of Education pg 309& the Bill. Saw Mr Forster—Mr Glyn—Dr L. Playfair—Mr Thornton Hunt. H of C. 4 1 2 8 1 4 and 9 1 2 12 3 4 . Explained the plans of the Govt in modification of the Bill, to an eager and agitated House.1 Read Life of Faraday—do of Gainsborough—Cobden's Speeches on Education.2 Exhausting Siroccolike heat.

17. Fr.

Wrote to Ld Shaftesbury—Rev. H. Allon—The Queen—Mrs Thistlethwayte—Lady Westmoreland—Provost of Oriel—Sec. of King's Coll.—H. Glynne—The Queen—& minutes. Saw Lord Kildare3—Mr Glyn—Mr Forster—Lucy Cavendish—Ld Dalhousie—Mr Childers—Mr Whitbread. Saw Oates: who will write home X. H of C. 2–3 and 4 1 2 6 1 2 , also 9– 1 1 4 .4 Dined at Panizzi's.

To E. HAWKINS, provost of Oriel, Oxford.                     Add MS 44538, f. 168.

17 June 1870. 'Private.'

[First letter:] I thank you for your tract5 which I shall read with great interest. I cannot wonder at your thinking we go too far, & I shall read respectfully your ever fair & kindly criticism. But there are others who go a great deal further than we do. What we seek is to admit or render admissible all individuals to the honours emoluments, & powers of the University & Colleges where they are no[t] connected with Theology or Holy Orders, & to leave intact the established system except so far as it clashes with the purpose I have mentioned. What they seek is to destroy the established system for the favourite purpose of enthroning what is barbarously called undenominationalism, & the admission of individuals they regard not as the end in view but rather as a consequence. I was glad that in a petition or declaration some time ago the Oxford Liberals disclaimed this extreme purpose. On the contrary I am amazed at the line of conduct they have thought themselves at liberty to pursue with reference to the Headships. It is the first case of the kind that I have known, & I hope it will be the last.

Pray remember us on some other Thursday if you can (not the 23d when we shall be away).

[Second letter:] On reading your tract I am glad to find, or think I find, that I can remove one stumbling block at least out of your way. If I have spoken of free and various teaching as to Religion in the Colleges of Oxford, it is not in the present Colleges. This is to say the Bill is not intended in any manner to affect their official teaching.

pg 310What may be done by particular members of those bodies in their own rooms on their own responsibility we cannot know. But we speak of teaching free & various with reference to the future & as against those who claim that hereafter no 'denominational' college shall be founded in either university. Next to teaching single & authoritative comes (in my judgment) teaching free & various.

It was freedom that brought the Christian Church up to the civil position which she is now unable [sic] to hold, & to guard this freedom is now I think the chief duty of politicians in their direct relations with religion. This is not said polemically, but in reliance on your never failing indulgence.

[P.S.] I congratulate you on having in your (our) new Chancellor a model of political integrity, as well as a most amiable, a most high minded, & a most able man.1

To LORD SHAFTESBURY, 17 June 1870.             Add MS 44538, f. 168.

I was not at liberty on Wednesday to speak to you otherwise than in very general terms on the intentions of the Govt. respecting the Education Bill. We have now taken our stand; & I write to say how ready I shall be to communicate with you freely in regard to the prospects & provisions of the measure.2 I can the better make this tender, because the plan we have adopted is by no means in all its main particulars the one most agreeable to my individual predilections. But I have given it deliberate assent, as a measure due to the desires & convictions of the country, & as one rendering much honour & scope to religion without giving fair ground of objection to those who are so fearful that the State should become entangled in theological controversy.

Energetic objection will I have some fear be taken in some quarters to our proposals; but I believe they will be generally satisfactory to men of moderation. Pray understand that the willingness I have expressed is not meant to convey any request, but only to be turned to account if you find it useful.

18. Sat. [Cassiobury Park, Hertfordshire].

Wrote to Rev Mr Hawley—Mr Ayrton—Chr of Exr—Ld Chancr— The Queen—Ld Granville—Bp of Glos.—and minutes. Cabinet 2 3 4 5 1 4 . Saw Mr Childers—Do cum Sir S. Robinson3—Ld Clarendon— Mr Glyn. Off at 5.30 to Cassiobury [Lord Ebury's] where we found a delightful retreat & most kind welcome. Read 'The Bible & the School Fund'.4

Cabinet June 18. 70. 2½ PM.5

  • ✓ Clarendon read commn. respecting measures in Greece: Ld Stratford's notice. A Paper to be drawn setting forth the shortcomings of Greece for answers, & pg 311conference with the Three Powers, with a view to being commun[icate]d for the Greek Govt. to elicit their views of remedies.

  • ✓ Queen's suggestion for the removal of Erskine.1

  • ✓ Childers mentioned the miscarriage of the transaction with Sir S. Robinson.

  • Mr C[hilders] agreed on our representations to take his departure at once.2

  • ✓ Colonies. Ld Russell's motion. Poss[ibilities:] 1. Previous question 2. Negative. If pressed3

  • ✓ Amendments to Irish Land Bill considered.4

19. 1 S.Trin.

Watford Churches mg & aft. Wrote to Ld Granville, & minutes. Read Abp Trench on Parables5—Bp Ellicott on Revision.

20. M. [London]

Wrote to Ld de Grey—Mrs Th.—The Queen (and Mem.)—Bp of Winchester: & identical letter to 8 other Bishops respecting Land Bill. Reached home 11.45. Smaller & larger conclaves on Land Bill till the House met. Also saw Mr Glyn—Mr Goschen. H of C. 4 1 2 –8 and 9– 12 3 4 .6 Read Faraday.

To S. WILBERFORCE, bishop of Winchester,             Wilberforce MSS, d. 38.

20 June 1870.

I venture earnestly to beg that, if you are able to contrive it, you will devote some time to the House of Lords during the Committee on the Irish Land Bill which commences on Thursday next, and that you will give such consideration as you may think fit to the important questions which are likely to be brought under discussion.

On an ordinary question of politics, indeed on any question of mere politics, I should hesitate long before venturing to make to a Prelate of the Church any request urging him to give attention to or take part in the proceedings on a particular measure. But I consider the Irish Land Bill to stand by itself: it really appertains not so much to the wellbeing as to the being of civilised society, for the existence of society can hardly be such as to deserve that name, until the conditions of peace & order, & of mutual goodwill & confidence shall have been more firmly established in Ireland.7

pg 31221. Tu.

Wrote to The Queen (& Tel)—Watson & S. (and Telegr.)—Sir S. Robinson (draft)—Sir W. Heathcote—Mr Delane—Mr Fortescue—Mr Brewster—Ld Bessborough—Rev Dr Bateson—& minutes. Saw Rev. Mr M'Coll—Mr Childers—Mr Glyn—Ld Chancr of Ireland—Mr Trevelyan—Mr Delane—Mr Forster. H of C. 3– 6 3 4 and 9– 1 1 4 . Spoke on Bps Seats in H. of Lords.1 Saw Davis X. Read Faraday—Statement respecting St Paul's.2

To J. T. DELANE, 21 June 1870.                  Add MS 44538, f. 171.

Will you do me the favour to come to my room at the House of Commons this afternoon at 4.30 & to send me word of your arrival? I make the proposal in conformity with your permission & name the hour because I hope it may suit your convenience with reference to the H. of Lds.

22. Wed. [Strawberry Hill, Twickenham]

Wrote to Robn G.—Ld Bessborough—Abp Manning—and minutes. Saw Lady Westmoreland. Saw Mr Glyn—Mr Herbert R.A. Read Robinson on the Drawings3—Br Quart Rev. on Plantag. Period4—Jewitt on Sepulchral Remains.5 Went down to Twickenham for the dinner & play at Lady Waldegraves. Saw Ld Russell—Ld Spencer—& others.6 The Play was well acted, rather low in tone & character. A Ball followed. I had a night in three periods of excessive heat, then noise, then light. A very few such would dispose of me.

To ARCHBISHOP H. E. MANNING, 22 June 1870.      Add MS 44249, f. 161.

My sentiments about the Council do not depend on the 'Correspondents' of any class; they are rooted deep in my nature. But (if that be a compensation) they are not the sentiments of the majority here. That majority is much better represented, on this question, by the British Quarterly Review just published which concludes an article p. 473 with the words 'Thanks be to God for having permitted Pius ix to summon his Oecumenical Council'.

I have written to Ld Granville about Ld. Beaumont:7 & am sure he will do all he can. Should any opportunity offer itself to me, I will gladly use it also.

pg 313You ask what we will do for the R.C. University in Dublin. Nothing could be less desirable than that there should be any correspondence between you & me on that subject at present. Already the shadow of the question of Irish Education is cast darkly over the English Bill. Upon that Bill, we have striven as far as we could to serve the interests of the Roman Catholic body, in & by serving the interests of general justice. I must say in honesty that in the general proposals & manifestations throughout the country, while no very enlightened view is taken of justice to the Ch. of England, justice to the R.C's appears except by a very few to be wholly forgotten. It is coolly proposed by a large section that while undenominational education shall be made to reign in Schools funded by the Rate, the Privy Council grants shall remain provisionally until the Schools which they aid can be gradually swallowed up in the so-called National System.

Communications with those who represented your Communion served to show, that their views with reference to the Bill were summed up in seeking adequate provision for the Voluntary Schools, & that there were no terms, which could be proposed for Rate Schools, of a nature to be accepted by them. Mr. Allies told me if they could make sure of one moiety of the School Charges from the State, he thought they could perhaps perform their work: & this moiety will I apprehend now be secured for efficient schools by the proposals of the Govt. While the R.C. interest is most concerned of all, I feel sure we have served the general & comprehensive interests of justice by the new provision. But the business is a very heavy one. Time is against us, so is much prejudice. On the other hand there is a lack of firmly organised opinion, & possibly the weight of the Govt. may in this state of things suffice to carry the Bill.1

23. Th. [London]

Wrote to Ld Bessborough—Sir W. Heathcote—The Queen—and minutes. Left at 9 1 2 for town. Cabinet at 11 1 2 . To Windsor at 1.45. Audience & Council. H of C. 4.45– 8 1 2 and 9.20–2.30.2 Saw Mr Fortescue—Mr Glyn—Ld de Grey—Ld Kimberley—Mr Hugessen— and others. Read Gainsborough's Life.3

Cabinet Thurs Ju 23 11½ AM4

  • ✓ Univ. Tests Bill. Headships [of colleges] not to be reserved.5

  • ○ Education Bill. Plural in Cl. 7. Minority vote.6

  • Irish Land Bill. Various Amendments cons[idere]d. Especially Assignment. Agreed to adopt WEG's 1, 3, 4.

pg 31424. Fr.

Wrote to Ld Clarendon—Mr Childers—The Queen—Ld E. Fitzmaurice—Mr Fortescue—and minutes. Saw Mr Trevelyan—Mr Forster—Mr Glyn—Ld Granville—Sir Geo Grey—Ld Bathurst—Mr Fortescue. H of C. 3–7. Spoke on Education Bill: & voted in 421: 60.1 Dined with the Thistlethwaytes. Col. N. Sturt then took me to the last act of The Huguenots2 at Covent Garden.

25. Sat. [Ashridge Park, Berkhamsted]

Wrote to Ld Chancellor—D. of Sutherland—Robn G.—Sir C. O'Loghlen—Scotts—Watson & Smith—Rev Dr Rigg—Ld Clarendon—The Queen—Mr Walpole—Mr Hardy3—and minutes. Cabinet 2 1 2 5 1 4 . Saw Rev. M. M'Coll—Mr Glyn—Ld Granard. Clarendon was absent, but we were not alarmed. Went down to Ashridge:4 with Lady M. Alford. Delighted with the place, scenery, & party. Read Dollinger's 'Stammen'5—Jewitt's Sepulchral Remains.

Cabinet 10 D. St. Ju 24 [sc. 25] 2½ PM.6

  • ○ Fix a day for abandoning bills?

  • ○ Mrs Lloyd's Pension.7 Postponed. Ld Clarendon absent8

  • ✓ Week's business: considered.

  • ✓ Red River. Riel's Amnesty urged by U.S.—Delay.—Ministry of Canada to have an opp[ortunit]y of saying whether they object.9

  • ✓ Amendment on Scale Clause respecting descent to a lower [?] Class approved.

  • ✓ Party Processions Bill. Mr Fortescue to consider further.

  • ✓ Dublin City. Writ to issue. Disfranchise the corrupt men.

  • ✓ Waterford [election] petition against Baron Hughes. Mr Matthews to be asked by Mr Fortescue what course he will pursue.10

  • ✓ Judicature Bills. Can Not come on at present.

  • ✓ Sandon. Parochial Councils Bill. Not oppose introduction.

  • ✓ Chambers Repeal of Act of Uniformity. Oppose.

  • ✓ Lectionary Bill. Bruce to inquire as to effect wh. a suspension of it wd. produce upon trade.

  • ✓ Committee on Army Colonels (Anson). Resist.11

  • pg 315✓ Ballot Bill. Not decline to support Mr Leatham's 2°R if he means to go no farther and if we do not go on with our own Bill.1

To Sir C. M. O'LOGHLEN, Judge Advocate General,        Add MS 44538, f. 174.

25 June 1870.

I am led to suppose by your absence from the Division yesterday, that there may not be a perfectly clear understanding between us as to the obligations of members of the Govt. on these occasions. Yesterday gave occasion of much inconvenience on account of the entertainment at Windsor, but all the members of the Govt., who could be expected to attend, voted in the Division, except yourself. This circumstance would of itself suffice to show the general impression on the subject of official duty, notwithstanding that the invitation to Windsor was a Royal one, & commonly to be regarded as a command. I can say from my own recollection that as far as regards political affairs the Sovereign always permits the claim of the H. of C. to prevail. Forgive my noticing the matter.2

26. 2 S.Trin.

Little Gadsden Ch mg and Prayers in Ashridge Chapel aft. Read Irving's Remains3—Massey's In Memoriam4—Galls Instant Salvation.5 Walk about the unrivalled Beechwoods: saw the old Manor House.

27. M. [London]

Early Telegrams informed me of the death of Ld Clarendon: an incomparable colleague, a statesman of many gifts, a most loveable and genial man. Peace be with him.6

We went to town at 10.45. Arr. 12.40. Wrote to Mr Anderson— Mr Stanley—Ld Sydney—Mr Hammond—Mr Bright—The Queen (2)—and minutes. Saw Mr Hammond—Ld de Grey cum Mr Forster —Mr Cardwell—Ld Granville7—Mr Glyn—Mr Angerstein—Sir Thos G.—Sir R. Phillimore. H of C. 4 1 4 8 1 2 and 9 1 2 –1. Educn Bill admirably driven by Forster.8

pg 316

To J. BRIGHT, president of the board of trade,       Add MS 43385, f. 81.

27 June 1870.

You will, I know, feel deeply the death of Ld. Clarendon & even amidst the great pressure of business I must write you a line about it. I am afraid his gallant spirit has been fatal to him. He probably counted on the marvellous elasticity of constitution or the force of mental action which have repeatedly seemed to bring him back from the gates of death. On Wed. he was at dinner & evening entertainment at Strawberry Hill, when the heat was excessive. He kept at his work on Thurs: & was in the H. of Lds. on Fri: he was with difficulty restrained from going to Windsor. But on Sat. he wrote me a note saying he had had five days of unchecked Diarrhoea, & could not attend the Cabinet. The family were, I believe, not then seriously alarmed. But yesterday morning his state was so bad that he was almost despaired of. In the afternoon he was better, but did not, I believe, recover consciousness. This morning at six, he died. He is gone where we shall soon follow him. Peace & rest be with him, & joy in a better world. Nothing since the formation of the present Govt. has given me greater pleasure than to observe the rapid & steady formation of friendship between you & him. Late in life, these intimacies are not readily formed. I can scarcely say to which of the two it was more honourable. And now as to politics I will only tell you we have become hopeful about the Education Bill. Your favourite clauses, I believe, in the Land Bill, are not to be mutilated by the Lords: & the Commons will enable us, I have no doubt, to repair the havock in other parts of the Bill, which they have indiscreetly made. Pray take care of yourself, & do not be troubled to write unless it is quite good for you.1

28. Tu.

Helen's birthday: God bless her.

Wrote to W. Phillimore—Watson & S.—Mr Grogan—Mr W. Harcourt—V. Chr James2—D. of Sutherland—The Queen (3)—Sir J. Young—Sir T. Gladstone—and minutes. Saw Mr Glyn—Mr Cardwell—Ld Granville—Mr Brand—Ld Bessborough—Mr Forster. Rode with H. H of C. 2 1 2 –7 and 9 1 4 –2.3 Dined with the Thistlethwaytes. Read Faraday.

29. St P.

Wrote to V. Chr James—Lady M. Alford—Mr Hignett—Watsons (Tel.)—Scotts—Mr Childers—Mr Ouvry—Queen (& Mem)—Lord Hyde—Ld Sydney—Ld Granville—Mr Hammond—Mr Cardwell & minutes. Saw Mr Trevelyan—Lord T. Clinton—Mr Glyn—Lord W. Hay—Ld Granville—Count Bernstorff—Mr Grote—Mr Mitford— pg 317Ld Acton. I went to Notting Hill to see Mrs Rumpff and received a sad tale from her which baffled me. Read Sharman Crawford's Pamphlet of 1837 on Ireland.1 Dined at Ld Houghton's. Saw 4 X.

To E. CARDWELL, war secretary, 29 June 1870.          PRO 30/48/7, f. 59.

'Most Private.'

If you are disposed to take the vacant Red Ribbon,2 I think that among many good claims yours is very decidedly pre-eminent. Are you inclined to allow me to name you to H.M.?

At the proper time Granville will without doubt take the F.O. It appears to me that Kimberley is his proper successor. If you desired it, without denying your title, I should intreat you to remain for a while in your present heavy charge. On that supposition, what think you of K?3

30. Th.

Wrote to Lord T. Clinton—Mr Hammond—Ld Spencer—The Queen (2) (and Mem.)—Ld Kimberley—Mr West—Abp of Canterb.—Watsons—Ld Campbell—Lord W. Hay—Prof. Sedgwick—and minutes. Saw Mr Fortescue—Ld Granville—Ld de Grey—Ld De Tabley— Mr Forster—Bp of Winchester—Mr Glyn—Duke of Argyll—Chancr of Exr—Mr Stansfeld. Dined at Mr Forsters. Rode with Agnes & Gertrude. H of C. 4 1 4 7 3 4 and 8 1 2 –2. With effort, & some pressure, we disposed of the 'religious difficulty' beating Mr Jacob Bright by 259: 132.4 The Bill I hope is now clear of shoals. Read Faraday.

Notes Settings


Editor’s Note
4 Jockey Club member and public handicapper; see 14 May 42.
Editor’s Note
5 Joseph Gibbons Livingston.
Editor’s Note
6 H. B. *Jones, The life and letters of … Faraday (1870).
Editor’s Note
7 By-election following a petition; Warner did not stand; J. H. Tillett, liberal, won.
Editor’s Note
1 Probably M. M. Brewster, The home life of Sir David Brewster (1869).
Editor’s Note
2 H. Brown, The sonnets of Shakespeare solved (1870).
Editor’s Note
3 [G. W. *Dasent], Annals of an eventful life, 3v. (1870).
Editor’s Note
4 W. B. *Marriott, The testimony of the catacombs (1870).
Editor’s Note
1 Almost certainly 'St Paul and Protestantism', sent with a letter on 4 June 1870, Add MS 44427, f. 3: 'The preface treats of the effect which political dissent has upon practical religion. . . . Dissent has been due, not to Church persecution only, as is commonly said and believed, but yet more to the Church's refusal to make more narrow and exact her definitions of doctrine on the points of original sin, election, justification.'
Editor’s Note
2 School inspections prevented his coming; Add MS 44427, f. 19.
Editor’s Note
3 Replying to Clarendon's charge that Gladstone and Granville were 'overcritical' of a draft to Lyons on the Greek constitution; 6 June 1870, Add MS 44134, f. 216.
Editor’s Note
1 Bruce's letter of 7 June 1870, Add MS 44086, f. 151, reported Free Church requests for a religious census.
Editor’s Note
2 When they prevented a religious census; see 9 July 60; but none taken 1871.
Editor’s Note
3 Forster sent the Bradford Observer report of 6 June of meeting with the Bradford education league, Add MS 44157, f. 26.
Editor’s Note
4 W. F. Wilkinson, A plea for the study of Hebrew (1870).
Editor’s Note
5 Giuseppe Guerzoni, poet and biographer of Garibaldi.
Editor’s Note
6 Of Sutherland; for a different version, see above, vi. 360.
Editor’s Note
7 Spoke on customs: H cci. 1816.
Editor’s Note
1 Misc. business: H cci. 1855.
Editor’s Note
2 G. W. Fulcher, Life of Thomas Gainsborough (1856).
Editor’s Note
3 E. *Waugh, Lancashire songs (1863).
Editor’s Note
4 C olio quia peripatetica [by J. Duncan] (1870).
Editor’s Note
5 C. J. *Ellicot, Considerations on the revision of the English version of the New Testament (1870).
Editor’s Note
6 Possibly from The prophetical works, ed. G. Carlyle, 2v. (1867–70).
Editor’s Note
1 Questioned on civil service and education; spoke on university tests: H cci. 1944.
Editor’s Note
2 Perhaps Thornton to Clarendon, 10 May 1870, Clarendon MSS, c. 481, on Fenianism, Canada and the U.S.A.
Editor’s Note
3 To continue to have a Test; Jowett had signed a memorial, Add MS 44427, f. 40.
Editor’s Note
4 Gladstone had told G. V. Wellesley (25 May 1870, Add MS 44538, f. 153) that he believed *Jowett would be elected master of Balliol if *Scott went to Rochester.
Editor’s Note
1 Opposing Buxton's motion for American collaboration for a Revised Version: H ccii. 112.
Editor’s Note
2 Add MS 44638, f. 83.
Editor’s Note
3 On unemployed labour; opposed by *Goschen on 17 June: H ccii. 407.
Editor’s Note
4 de Grey's note reads: 'Shown to Mr Gladstone after the Cabinet 14 June 70. 1. To accept Cowper-Temple's amendment [for non-denominational religious instruction in rate-funded schools]. 2. To render aid to Denominational Schools compulsory upon School Boards with provision to secure its being applied only to secular instruction and with limitation as to amount. 3. To withdraw the year of Grace but to maintain the power of sliding now Denominational Schools from local & national resources'; Add MS 43514, f. 33. See 16 June 70.
Editor’s Note
5 L. F. W. *Jewitt, Grave-mounds and their contents: a manual of archaeology (1870).
Editor’s Note
6 Supporting Hardcastle's Bill to abolish the minority clauses of the 1867 Act: H ccii. 142.
Editor’s Note
1 Initialled and dated 15 June 1870, Add MS 44759, f. 131. Comments noted on it: 'I feel sure that the MAIN danger of the proposal lies in the compulsory application of Local Rates to R.C. Schools—and that this danger is lessened greatly, by giving the needful aid out of the Consol. Fund. Argyll. I approve H[atherle]y. I entirely concur C[larendon]. So do I G[ranville.] I think this proposal avoids a serious danger. I entirely concur in it K[imberley.] C. P. F[ortescue.]'
Editor’s Note
2 Clarendon replied on 15 June, Add MS 44134, f. 221, that he would discourage Italy from making an official request.
Editor’s Note
3 Lowe to Gladstone, 15 June 1870, Add MS 44301, f. 146, proposed that 'if you must increase the pay to denominational schools you had better take it [the money] from the general Revenue than from the Rates. Increase the Privy Council Grant by one half and the thing is done. . . .' Lowe stressed his constituents' dislike for denominational education, concluding 'much as I value my [cabinet] place I value my seat more'.
Editor’s Note
1 Accepting *Cowper-Temple's amendment: H ccii. 226.
Editor’s Note
2 Quoted in his speech this day.
Editor’s Note
3 Charles William Fitzgerald, 1819–87; liberal M.P. Kildare 1847–52; Baron Kildare 1870; 4th duke of Leinster 1874.
Editor’s Note
4 Supply, and unemployed labour (see 14 June 70): H ccii. 407.
Editor’s Note
5 Sent by Hawkins on 16 June, Add MS 44206, f. 285; apparently unpublished, see J. W. Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1891), 218, 231; Hawkins strongly opposed the change. See 21 Mar. 66.
Editor’s Note
1 i.e. *Salisbury; this letter is in Add MS 44206, f. 289.
Editor’s Note
2 Shaftesbury was 'delighted with the amendments'; Add MS 44300, f. 42.
Editor’s Note
3 Sir Robert Spencer *Robinson, 1809–89; controller of the navy 1861–71; lord of the admiralty 1868–71; effectively dismissed after a dispute with Childers.
Editor’s Note
4 Untraced.
Editor’s Note
5 Add MS 44638, f. 88.
Editor’s Note
1 * Victoria wished to remove Edward Morris Erskine, d. 1883, British minister at Athens, for mismanaging the Dilessi murder question.
Editor’s Note
2 *Robinson objected to the conditions of his service imposed by Order in Council; Add MS 44538, f. 174.
Editor’s Note
3 *Russell withdrew his motion for a royal commission on imperial security on 20 June: H ccii. 485.
Editor’s Note
4 The Lords had completed their amendments; see Steele, Irish Land, 307.
Editor’s Note
5 R. C. *Trench, Notes on the parables of Our Lord (1841).
Editor’s Note
6 Education Bill in cttee.: H ccii. 495.
Editor’s Note
7 A circular intended also for the bps. of Salisbury, Bath & Wells, Exeter, Carlisle, Oxford, Chichester, Manchester, and Chester; Wilberforce replied supporting the Bill, Add MS 44345, f. 164 (see Wilberforce, iii. 345) but does not seem to have voted for it; all the others named did; H ccii. 766, 772, 988.
Editor’s Note
1 Defending their presence there: H ccii. 688.
Editor’s Note
2 Untraced.
Editor’s Note
3 Sir J. C. *Robinson, A critical account of the drawings of Michel Angelo and Raffaello in the University Galleries, Oxford (1870).
Editor’s Note
4 British Quarterly Review, li. 362 (April 1870).
Editor’s Note
6 See O. Hewett, Strawberry Fair (1956), 210.
Editor’s Note
7 Not in Ramm; Manning wrote from Rome on 14 June requesting 'work' for Beaumont and asked about Irish university legislation; Add MS 44249, f. 159.
Editor’s Note
1 Some in Lath bury, ii. 140.
Editor’s Note
2 Education Bill: H ccii. 751.
Editor’s Note
4 Add MS 44638, f. 89.
Editor’s Note
5 For Anglicans only; Gladstone had told the master of St. John's, Cambridge, on 21 June 1870 (Add MS 44538, f. 172): 'I think the restriction on the Headships can hardly be maintained with advantage, but on Thurs. I shall submit the questn. to the Cabinet wh. had cheerfully accorded to the request, as they reed, it at the commencement of the year.' The amndt., secularising Headships of about a quarter of the colleges, was carried by 205:86: H ccii. 1391.
Editor’s Note
6 Clause 7 dealt with regulations for conduct of public elementary schools.
Editor’s Note
1 Defeating H. *Richard's amendt.: H ccii. 929.
Editor’s Note
2 By Meyerbeer.
Editor’s Note
3 Same letter sent to S. H. *Walpole and Gathorne *Hardy telling them of Cabinet decision on Heads of Houses (see 23 June 1870): Add MS 44538, f. 179.
Editor’s Note
4 Seat of 3rd Earl Brownlow and his mother, Lady Marion *Alford, connoisseur (see 3 June 43 and 30 Oct. 63n.)
Editor’s Note
5 J. J. I. von Döllinger, Einige Worte über die Unfehlbarkeitsadresse (1870).
Editor’s Note
6 Add MS 44638, f. 90.
Editor’s Note
7 Barbara, widow of Edward Lloyd, in debt when murdered by the Greek brigands; see 2 Aug. 70n and Jenkins, Dilessi murders, 149.
Editor’s Note
9 *Wolseley's expedition withdrew in September 'without bloodshed or political entanglement'; PP 1871 xlviii. 99.
Editor’s Note
10 On 30 June; H cii. 1208.
Editor’s Note
11 But on 29 June Cardwell agreed to Anson's motion for a select cttee on colonels in India: H cii. 1168.
Editor’s Note
1 On 27 July Gladstone supported Leatham's Ballot Bill, lost by end of session: H cciii. 1028.
Editor’s Note
2 No reply has been found.
Editor’s Note
4 G. Massey, 'In memory of John William Spencer, Earl Brownlow' (a poem) (1869).
Editor’s Note
5 J. Gall, Instant salvation by the instant acceptance of a mediator and surety (1864).
Editor’s Note
6 Misleading version in Morley, ii. 417.
Editor’s Note
7 About to become foreign secretary, the news being kept secret until the cabinet met on 2 July; he received the seals on 6 July; see 2 July 70. Gladstone told Hammond of the appointment on 29 June 'in order to enable you to place yourself in relations with him'; Add MS 44538, f. 178.
Editor’s Note
8 H ccii. 1006.
Editor’s Note
1 Bright replied briefly on 3 July, Add MS 44112, f. 136.
Editor’s Note
2 Offering lord justiceship to Sir William Milbourne James, 1807–81; vice-chancellor 1869–70, lord justice from 1870.
Editor’s Note
3 Education: H ccii. 1090.
Editor’s Note
2 The civil G.C.B., eventually declined.
Editor’s Note
3 'I believe that his [Kimberley's] views of Colonial questions are in harmony with the policy of your government.' Cardwell to Gladstone, 30 June 1870, Add MS 44119, f. 117.
Editor’s Note
4 Figures given in Hansard as 251:130; Bright's amndt. prohibited 'teaching … in favour or against the distinctive tenets of any religious denomination'; Gladstone said its effect would be 'to introduce a new kind of State religion'; H ccii. 1281.
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