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Editor’s Note66

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Editor’s Note
The Greek text of the poem of Callimachus of which this is a translation was unknown, apart from a few meagre citations, until two papyri, the first published by G. Vitelli in 1929,1 the second by E. Lobel in 1952,2 made it possible to restore some twenty-five lines with more or less certainty. The poem was probably written in 246 or early in 245 b.c., shortly after its occasion, and later attached by Callimachus himself to the fourth book of his Aitia with the addition of some lines (represented by 79–88 in Catullus' version) dealing with the origin or αἵτιον‎ of a wedding custom.3
  On his accession to the throne of Egypt in 247 b.c. Ptolemy III (Euergetes) married his second cousin Berenice (B in the stemma below), daughter of the king of Cyrene. Shortly after the marriage he set out on an invasion of Syria (see on l. 12) and his queen vowed a lock of her hair for his safe return. He returned in triumph; the vow was paid and the lock dedicated, apparently in a Pantheon at Alexandria. From there it disappeared, and the astronomer Conon turned his professional skill to courtly use by finding it—in the sky, as a cluster of stars between Virgo and the Bear. Callimachus took up Conon's ingenious compliment, enlarged on it and added new conceits of his own; putting his poem into the mouth of the lock itself, he made it tell the story of its translation and proclaim, from its new home in the heavens, its devotion to the queen and its longing to be restored to her head.
  The piece is gallant court-poetry, characteristically Alexandrian in its parade of allusion, drawn from astronomy, history, and mythology, in its compressed and selective handling of incident, in its playful and arch sentimentality, and in its interest in the psychology of love. For the most part Catullus' version follows the Greek closely, even reproducing its structure and rhythm (see especially ll. 47–48, 51–54, 75–76), though he sometimes contracts (l. 45) or expands (l. 62) and once at any rate (ll. 77–78) fails (as our text stands) to bring out an essential point in the Greek.*
  The surviving fragments of the Greek text are printed (with the omission of some lines of which only a few letters remain) in the appendix, p. 407. For a full text with critical apparatus and commentary see Pfeiffer, Callimachus, vol. i, pp. 112 ff.; for a tentative reconstruction of the missing lines, E. A. Barber in Greek Poetry and Life (Oxford, 1936), pp. 343 ff.
 

 

Editor’s Note
1 P.S.I. 1092, Studi Ital. di Fil. Class. vii. 1 ff.
Editor’s Note
2 P. Oxy. 2258, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, xx. 69 ff.
Editor’s Note
3 See Pfeiffer, Callimachus, vol. ii, p. xl.
Editor’s Note
66. On Catullus as translator see R. Pfeiffer in Philol. lxxxvii (1932), 179 ff.; D. E. W. Wormell in The Classical Tradition, Studies in Honor of H. Caplan (1967), 194 ff.; W. Clausen in Harv. Stud. lxxiv (1970), 85 ff.
Critical Apparatus
66. 1 despexit V: corr. Calph.
Editor’s Note
1. dispexit : 'sighted', i.e. saw clearly and distinctly.
Editor’s Note
lumina mundi : the constellations; in Virg. Georg. i. 5 clarissima mundi lumina are the sun and moon. mundus, the firmament, as in 64. 206.
Critical Apparatus
2 habitus V: corr. ε‎
Editor’s Note
3. ut : 'how': this clause and the two which follow are objects of comperit, parallel to the nouns ortus atque obitus.
Editor’s Note
rapidi : 'the devouring sun', as in Virg. Georg. i. 92 'rapidi potentia solis', Ecl. 2. 10 'rapido aestu'.
Editor’s Note
obscuretur : for the spondaic ending see on 64. 3.
Critical Apparatus
4 certis] ceteris O
Critical Apparatus
5 sub latmia Calph.: sublamina O, sublimia G, sublimia al. sublamia uel sublimina (sublamina r) R
Critical Apparatus
religans V: corr. η‎
Editor’s Note
5 f. Triuiam … aereo : 'how Love calls the Moon down secretly from her heavenly orbit and banishes her to the rocks of Latmus': a romantic periphrasis for the occultation of the Moon. When she is invisible in the sky, she is visiting the mortal Endymion in the cave where he lies asleep on Mount Latmus in Caria.
Editor’s Note
5. Triuiam : for the identification of Hecate, one of whose culttitles Triuia properly is, with the Moon-goddess and with Artemis see on 34. 13.
Critical Apparatus
6 gyro 1472 (guro Ellis), cliuo ε‎: guioclero V
Critical Apparatus
7 in lumine Vossius (lumine iam ζ‎), in culmine Maehly: numine V
Editor’s Note
7. Conon, the astronomer, was Callimachus' contemporary, a native of Samos who worked in Alexandria; his astronomical and mathematical writings are lost, but his work is known from the references of his friend Archimedes. He was especially interested in the phenomena of eclipse (ll. 3–6); cf. Sen. N.Q. vii. 3. 3 'Conon postea diligens et ipse inquisitor defectiones solis seruatas ('recorded') ab Aegyptiis collegit'.
Editor’s Note
in lumine is Vossius's correction of the impossible numine of V; cf. 59 'uario … in lumine caeli', where V again has numine. But in caelesti lumine fulgentem is a strange phrase. Callimachus has merely ἔβλεδψεν ἐν ἠέρι‎. Baehrens's in limine is perhaps a more natural expansion of that phrase here and fits uario better ('the spangled floor of heaven') in 59.
Critical Apparatus
8 ebore niceo V: corr. η‎
Editor’s Note
8. Beroniceo : there seems to be no reason to suppose that the late form Beronice (the -o- of which has been preserved in its derivative 'Veronica') goes back to Catullus, who presumably had Βερενίκης‎ before him in the text of Callimachus. On the use of the adjective see on 44. 10; on the spelling of the suffix see on 68. 109. The normal adjectival form from Βερενίκη‎ would be Βερενικαῖος‎ (in Latin -aeus); Callimachus' Βερενίκειος‎ (1. 62: in Latin -eus) must have been derived from a by-form of the name, Βερενίκεια‎.
Editor’s Note
caesariem : elsewhere caesaries always refers to a head of hair; here it represents Callimachus' βόστρυχος‎, 'lock'.
Editor’s Note
9. multis … dearum : Catullus is dealing freely with his original's πᾶσιν ἔθηκε θεοῖς‎ (which seems to imply that the vow was made to a pantheon), but the change to the feminine is natural enough. Haupt unnecessarily proposed cunctisdeorum to bring Catullus into conformity with Callimachus, attributing the corruption to failure to recognize the irregular (but not impossible) use of cuncti with a 'partitive' genitive.
Editor’s Note
10. protendens brachia : in the usual ancient attitude of prayer; cf. Callim. Hymn 4. 107 πήχεις‎ / ἀμφοτέρους ὀρέγουσα‎, Virg. Aen. xii. 930 'dextramque precantem / protendens'.
Critical Apparatus
11 quare ex V: corr. 1473
Editor’s Note
11. tempestate : 'time'; for the archaic use see on 64. 73.
Editor’s Note
nouo auctus hymenaeo : for auctus cf. 64. 25 'taedis felicibus aucte'; for the lengthening of -us before the Greek word hymenaeo see on 64. 20. The hiatus after nouo may be another suggestion of Greek rhythm: Peiper's auectus removes it but hardly fits this context (cf. 64. 132).
Critical Apparatus
12 uastum V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Critical Apparatus
ierat V: corr. γ‎
Editor’s Note
12. iuerat : the normal perfect ii is not a 'contraction' of iui but an independent reduplicated perfect form; the alternative u- perfect iui is rare in the classical language, but the poets sometimes find it convenient; so Virgil has obiuit (Aen. vi. 801), Statius subiuit (Silv. ii. 1. 155).
Editor’s Note
Assyrios : Syrian; for this common confusion see on 68.144. The sister of Ptolemy Euergetes, another Berenice (C in the stemma), was the second wife of Antiochus II of Syria; after his death in 246 she was expelled by his first wife Laodice. Ptolemy, who had just succeeded to his throne in Egypt, invaded Syria with an army to protect her but was in time only to avenge her murder.
Editor’s Note
14. de : 'over': cf. Ov. Ibis 169 f. 'deque tuo fiet … /… corpore rixa lupis'.
Critical Apparatus
15 anne θ‎: atque V
Editor’s Note
15. nouis nuptis : 'brides'; cf. 61. 91.
Editor’s Note
15 ff. anne … fundunt? : 'or are the tears false with which they disappoint their parents' pleasure on their wedding day'? The connexion of thought requires the change of atque to anne. The emphasis is on falsis and we need a particle which makes this question an alternative to the preceding one: 'Do they really not want love? or can it be that their tears are hypocritical? I assure you, their sighs are not sincere.' For the bride's tears cf. 61. 81 f.
Editor’s Note
16. lacrimulis : the disparaging diminutive was perhaps regularly used of 'crocodile' tears; cf. Ter. Eun. 67 'haec uerba una mehercle falsa lacrimula, / quam oculos terendo misere uix ui expresserit, / restinguet', Cic. Planc. 76.
Critical Apparatus
17 lumina V: corr. ζ‎
Critical Apparatus
18 diui β‎: diu V
Critical Apparatus
iuuerint V: corr. 1472
Editor’s Note
18. non, ita me diui, uera gemunt, iuerint : i.e. ita me di iuerint, non uera gemunt. This bold hyperbaton may have been suggested by hellenistic practice; there are examples of violent dislocation of word-order in the remains of Alexandrian verse: e.g. Callimachus, fr. 178. 9–10 Pf. αἶνος Ὁμηρικὸς αἰὲν ὅμοιον‎ / ὡς θεός, οὐ ψευδής, ἐς τὸν ὅμοιον ἄγει‎ (where οὐ ψευδής‎ belongs to αἶνος‎), fr. 384. 31 οὐδ‎ʼ ὅθεν, οἶδεν, ὁδεύω‎, / θνητὸς ἀνήρ‎, Theoc. 29. 3 κἠγὼ μὲν τὰ φρενῶν, ἐρέω, κέατ‎ʼ ἐν μυχῷ‎. But there are already examples in tragedy, e.g. Soph. O.C. 874 ἄξω βίᾳ‎ / κεἰ μοῦνός εἰμι, τόνδε, καὶ χρόνῳ βραδύς‎, O.T. 1251 χὤπως μὲν ἐκ τῶνδ‎ʼ οὐκέτ‎ʼ οἶδ‎ʼ, ἀπόλλυται‎,, Eur. Heracl. 205 σοὶ δ‎ʼ ὡς ἀνάγκη τούσδε βούλομαι φράσαι‎ / σῴξειν‎. And, on the other hand, in Latin such hyperbata are not confined to verse influenced by Greek technique (e.g. Virg. Aen. x. 385 'Pallas ante ruentem, / dum furit, incautum, crudeli morte sodalis, / excipit', i.e. incautum excipit dum furit crudeli morte sodalis, Ov. Her. 10. 110 'illic qui silices, Thesea, uincat, habes', A.A. i. 399–40 'tempora qui solis operosa colentibus arua, / fallitur, et nautis aspicienda putat', Met. xii. 314–15 'inter duo lumina ferrum, / qua naris fronti committitur, accipis, imae'); violent dislocations are found not only in Lucretius (e.g. vi. 176 'fecit, ut ante, cauam, docui, spissescere nubem', 158 'uentus enim cum confercit, franguntur, in artum, / concreti montes') but even in comedy; such lines as Plaut. M.G. 862 'ne dixeritis, obsecro, huic, uostram fidem' and Ter. Hec. 262 'eo, domum, studeo haec, priusquam ille redeat' show that interweaving of this kind was possible even in language based on ordinary speech. These examples make the appearances of hyperbaton in the informal style of Catullus' poem 44 (8 'quam mihi meus uenter, / dum sumptuosas appeto, dedit, cenas') and Horace's Satires (i. 5. 72, ii. 1. 60, ii. 3. 211) less surprising. But it is not easy to see how a reader coming upon them in continuous unpunctuated writing could find them readily intelligible. (For other Latin examples see Housman, J. Phil. xviii, pp. 6 ff., Vollmer, Sitz. Bay. Akad., Phil. Kl., 1918, 4, pp. 4 f., Platnauer, Latin Elegiac Verse, pp. 104 ff.)
Editor’s Note
ita me … iuerint : cf. 61. 189 'ita me iuuent / caelites'.
Editor’s Note
iŭerint is in origin an s-aorist optative formation (parallel to faxim, ausim: see on 44. 19), representing iouasint, in which the intervocalic -s-, by normal Latin change, became -r-. The form survives in other isolated instances in Plautus, (Rud. 305 adiuerit), Terence (Ph. 537 adiuerit) and Propertius (ii. 23. 22 iuerint). siris (91 below) is a formation of the same type. The combination of vocalic ŭ and consonantal u is represented in writing by single u.
Editor’s Note
20. nouo … uiro : cf. Livy xxxvi. 17. 8 'uxorem duxit et nouus maritus … ad pugnam processit'. see on 61. 55.
Critical Apparatus
21 et O, et al. at X
Editor’s Note
21. et tu : the sudden apostrophe to the queen in the second person comes awkwardly after mea regina in the preceding sentence. For et tu introducing an ironical or indignant question ('and you tell me, do you, that it was not a husband but a brother that you were grieving for?') cf. Cic. Phil. ii. 51 'et tu apud patres conscriptos contra me dicere ausus es?', 110 'et tu in Caesaris memoria diligens?'
Editor’s Note
luxti : i.e. luxisti: for the syncopated form see on 14. 14.
Critical Apparatus
22 fratris] factis O
Editor’s Note
22. fratris : Berenice and Ptolemy were not brother and sister; they were actually cousins (and frater is regularly used for 'cousin'), but that relationship is not in point here. The reference is to the formal honorific style which described the Egyptian king's consort as his sister: so these two are described in inscriptions (Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscr. Sel. 60, 61) as βασιλεῖς Πτολεμαῖος Πτολεμαίου καὶ Ἀρσινόης θεῶν ἀδελφῶν καὶ βασίλισσα Βερενίκη ἡ ἀδελφὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ γυνή‎. The coma takes advantage of it to put the mischievous question 'perhaps it was sisterly love that made you cry?'
Critical Apparatus
23 quam Bentley: cum V
Editor’s Note
23. exedit cura medullas : cf. 35. 15; cura of the lover's pains as in 64. 72, 68. 51.
Critical Apparatus
tunc O, nunc al. tunc X
Critical Apparatus
solicitet V: corr. 1473
Editor’s Note
24. toto pectore may be taken either with sollicitae or with mens excidit; in the latter case cf. 68. 25.
Critical Apparatus
25 te add. Auantius3
Editor’s Note
25. ereptis : cf. 51. 6 'omnis / eripit sensus mihi'.
Critical Apparatus
26 magnanima V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Critical Apparatus
27 quo Auantius3: quam V
Critical Apparatus
adepta es Calph. (-ta's Lachmann): adeptos O, adeptus X
Editor’s Note
27. bonum … facinus : the reference is probably to the story told by Justin (26. 3). Berenice had been betrothed to Ptolemy by her father Magas, but after the death of Magas in 258, her mother Apame (whom Justin wrongly calls Arsinoe) invited Demetrius ὁ καλός‎, another cousin of Ptolemy, from Macedonia to marry Berenice and succeed to the kingdom of Cyrene. Demetrius transferred his affections from Berenice to her mother and made himself obnoxious to her subjects; with Berenice's help he was assassinated and she married Ptolemy in 247. The account of Hyginus (Ast. ii. 24), who professes to be explaining magnanimam here, wrongly makes Berenice a daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus and says that she saved her father's life in battle: but that act could not have assisted her to attain her regium coniugium.
Critical Apparatus
28 quo (ita ζ‎) non fortius (ita Iuntina) Muretus
Critical Apparatus
ausit 'antiqui codices' teste Petro Nicetto apud Robortellum: aut sit V
Editor’s Note
28. quod non fortior ausit alis : 'which another, though stronger, would not venture'; to take fortior as predicative, 'which no other would show himself braver by venturing', gives an impossibly awkward construction.
Editor’s Note
alis : i.e. alius: for the form see on 29. 15.
Editor’s Note
29. mittens : letting him go on his way; so 64. 221 mittam.
Editor’s Note
30. tristi : i.e. triuisti.
Editor’s Note
Iuppiter : for the exclamation cf. 48, 1. 7.
Editor’s Note
31. quis … deus? : 'who was the great god who changed you?', i.e. what god was so powerful as to change you?: for this pregnant use of tantus and tam in questions cf. Virg. Aen. i. 539 'quaeue hunc tam barbara morem / permittit patria?', i. 605 'quae te tam laeta tulerunt / saecula?', ii. 282 'quae tantae tenuere morae?'. For quis see on 61. 46.
Editor’s Note
an quod : 'or can it be because'; for the ellipse cf. 40. 5 an ut. So, e.g., Plaut. Aul. 424, Prop. i. 18. 17.
Critical Apparatus
33 me Colotius: pro V
Editor’s Note
33. ibi : 'then', as in 8. 6, 63. 4, 48, 76.
Critical Apparatus
34 taurino om. O
Critical Apparatus
35 si] sed O, sed al. si X
Critical Apparatus
haut Statius (haud iam Aldina): aut V
Editor’s Note
35. reditum tetulisset : for the epic phrase and the archaic tetuli cf. 63. 47.
Editor’s Note
36. Asiam : Ptolemy extended his Syrian expedition throughout Asia Minor, across the Euphrates, and up to the borders of India; so at least the official record testifies in the inscription at Adule (Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscr. Sel. 54).
Editor’s Note
addiderat : i.e. when he returned, he had added.
Editor’s Note
37. caelesti reddita coetu : i.e. duly rendered, as promised, to the gods; for reddere of payment of a vow cf. 36. 16, Hor. Od. ii. 7. 17 'obligatam redde Ioui dapem', Virg. Ecl. 5. 75 'sollemnia uota / reddemus Nymphis'.
Editor’s Note
coetu : for the dative form cf. 64. 385.
Editor’s Note
38. pristina … nouo : the desire to provide a pair of balanced adjectives (cf. 68. 60; see p. 275) produces an artificial and purely formal antithesis: similarly Virg. Aen. iii. 181 'nouo ueterum deceptum errore locorum'.
Editor’s Note
dissolŭo : for the prosody see on 2b. 13.
Editor’s Note
39 f. inuita … inuita : for the emphatic epanalepsis cf. 75–76 afore … afore, 82–83 onyx, vester onyx.
Editor’s Note
39. Virgil borrows the line to put it into the mouth of Aeneas meeting Dido in Elysium, Aen. vi. 460 'inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi'. But to suppose that he deliberately raised the words from their trivial context in Catullus to one charged with tragic emotion may be as rash as to suspect that Ovid was parodying Virgil when he made the solemn hoc opus, hic labor est serve the purposes of the Ars Amatoria (i. 453). The one reminiscence may well be as unconscious as the other.
Editor’s Note
40. adiuro … caput : for the direct accusative instead of the normal per te cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 324 'iurare … numen', 351 'maria aspera iuro', xii. 816 'adiuro Stygii caput implacabile fontis'; the formula 'Iouem lapidem iurare' in Cic. Fam. vii. 12. 2 suggests that it is an old use rather than a graecism.
Critical Apparatus
41 ferat quod X, feratque O
Critical Apparatus
adiuraret V: corr. Aldina
Editor’s Note
41. digna ferat … adiurarit : 'and may anyone who swears lightly by that (quod) receive his deserts'.
Editor’s Note
42. qui se : for the substantival use of qui see on 61. 46 and 17. 22.
Editor’s Note
postulet esse : 'expect, claim, to be'.
Critical Apparatus
43 quem X, quae O
Critical Apparatus
maximum 'alii' apud A. Guarinum: maxima V
Editor’s Note
43. maximum in oris : i.e. in oris terrarum: so Virg. Aen. iii. 97 'domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris', and an anonymous fragment from tragedy (43 R.: of Eleusis) 'ubi initiantur gentes orarum ultimae'; for ora in the sense of 'region' cf. 64. 281.
Critical Apparatus
44 Thiae Vossius: phitie O, phytie X
Editor’s Note
44. progenies Thiae : Pfeiffer, combining the meagre evidence of the papyrus with a lemma in Suidas, restored ἀμνάμων‎ ('descendant') Θείης‎ in Callimachus; the reference here is not, as Bentley naturally supposed, to the Sun as son of Thia but to Boreas, the North Wind, son of Astraeus and Eos and so grandson of Thia; progenies then means 'descendant' and clarus is used of the North Wind as it is in Virg. Georg. i. 460, claro Aquilone.
Critical Apparatus
45 cum Rmg: tum V
Critical Apparatus
peperere η‎: propere V
Critical Apparatus
cumque O, atque G, atque al. cumque R
Editor’s Note
45–46. Athos, the peak of 6,350 feet in which the most easterly of the three prongs of Chalcidice terminates, is not in fact the highest mountain even in Northern Greece; not only Olympus (9,571 feet) but also Parnassus, Pindus, and Oeta are much higher. And when in 483 b.c. the Persian king Xerxes in his second invasion of Greece dug a canal to avoid a repetition of the disaster of 492, which had wrecked his fleet on the point of Athos, he did not cut through the mountain (as euersus implies) but through the narrow neck of the peninsula behind it.
Editor’s Note
46. classi : ablative as in 64. 212.
Editor’s Note
barbara : i.e. oriental: cf. 64. 264.
Editor’s Note
Athon : this form may represent Ἄθων‎, the earlier accusative of Ἄθως‎, which was supplanted by Ἄθω‎. But Catullus may be using the false graecism Athŏn, as Virgil does in Georg. i. 332. Callimachus here has the genitive Ἄθω‎.
Editor’s Note
47. quid facient : there are reminiscences in Virg. Ecl. 3. 16 'quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures?', and Ov. A.A. iii. 655 'quid sapiens faciet? stultus quoque munere gaudet'.
Critical Apparatus
48 Chalybon Politianus: celerum O, celitum G, celitum al. celorum R (al. celtum add. r)
Editor’s Note
48. Iuppiter, ut … pereat : cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 43 'o pater et rex / Iuppiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum'. The curse on the πρῶτος εὑρετής‎, the inventor of something which has turned out to man's hurt, is a common cliché of the poets: cf. Tibullus i. 4. 59, i. 10. 1 ff., Prop. i. 17. 13, ii. 6. 27, iv. 3. 19; the formula is parodied in comedy, Plaut. Men. 451, Naeuius fr. 19 R. For examples in Greek see Eur. Hipp. 407, Arist. Lys. 946, Menander, fr. 154 K.
Editor’s Note
Chalybon : the Greek genitive plural termination is extremely rare in Latin, but clearly Catullus avoided hiatus by taking over the Greek form from Callimachus' line: the manuscripts agree on the termination -um, but they are attempting in various ways to make a familiar word (celerum, celitum, or celorum) out of the unintelligible proper name.
Editor’s Note
The Chalybes were a tribe of miners and ironworkers on the south-eastern shores of the Black Sea: in Xenophon's itinerary they appear as a real people (Anab. v. 5. 1 ὁ βίος ἦν τοῖς πλείστοις αὐτῶν ἀπὸ ἀπὸ σιδηρείας‎). In later literature they become the legendary inventors of iron-working or even, as Callimachus makes them here, the discoverers of iron; for a lively picture of their activities see Apoll. ii. 1001–7.
Editor’s Note
49 f. principio … institit : for the combination cf. Ter. Hec. 381 'hanc habere orationem mecum principio institit'; here, as often in prose, institit (properly set about' with determination) is synonymous with instituit.
Critical Apparatus
50 ferri (ita ζ‎η‎) stringere Heyse: ferris fringere (fingere O) V
Editor’s Note
50. stringere is a technical term for drawing molten metal into bars: so in Virg. Aen. viii. 420 f. 'striduntque cauernis / stricturae Chalybum', 'their molten bars hiss in their caverns'.
Editor’s Note
ferri … duritiem : i.e. durum ferrum: a common device of poetry in which the quality is presented more vividly and with more 'body' by a substantive than it would be by an epithet; cf. Virg. Georg. i. 143 ferri rigor.
Editor’s Note
51. abiunctae, as the Greek (νεότμητόν με κόμαι ποθέεσκον ἀδελφεαί‎) shows, is to be taken not as nominative with comae but as genitive with mea ('of me separated'); for the construction cf. Ov. Her. 5. 45 'nostros uidisti flentis ocellos', Am. i. 8. 108 'ut mea defunctae molliter ossa cubent'.
Critical Apparatus
52 menonis ethyopis X
Editor’s Note
52 f. Memnonis … equos : unigena Memnonis represents Callimachus' γνωτὸς Μέμνονος‎ and must mean 'Memnon's brother' (see on 64. 300); as the scholiast on Callimachus explains, the reference is to Zephyrus, the West Wind, who like Memnon is a son of Eos. ales equos appears to be confirmed by κυκλώσας βαλιὰ πτερὰ‎ … ἵππος‎ in the Greek: Zephyrus is represented not, as the winds sometimes are, as a rider but as a winged horse. Arsinoe, Ptolemy II's queen, was deified and identified with Aphrodite, and had a temple on the promontory of Zephyrium, east of Alexandria (Strabo xvii. 800), from which she had the title Zephyritis (57: so Call. Epigr. 5. 1 Pf.); hence Zephyrus, apparently, is represented as her attendant (famulus, 57) and he is dispatched to bring the lock from the Pantheon, where it has been dedicated, to her own temple, from which it is conveyed to the sky. Bentley's Locridos is confirmed by Λοκρίδος‎ of Pap. Oxy. 2258, which seems preferable to Λοκρικός‎ of P.S.I. 1092 (for the corruption in V cf. 64. 3 fas(c)idicos for Phasidos), but this epithet for Arsinoe has not been satisfactorily explained; there was another Zephyrium in south Italy in or near the territory occupied by Locrian settlers from Greece, the so-called Λοκροὶ Ἐπιξεφύριοι‎, but an allusion to that seems unlikely.
Critical Apparatus
54 arsinoes Og, asineos G, asineos al. arsinoes Rm
Critical Apparatus
Locridos Bentley, Locricos Statius: elocridicos V alis V: corr. ζ‎
Critical Apparatus
55 isque V: is quia al. -que m, al. quia add. g
Critical Apparatus
56 collocat O, aduolat X (al. collocat Rmg)
Critical Apparatus
57 zyphiritis V
Critical Apparatus
legerat X (al. legarat Rmg)
Editor’s Note
57. eo : 'for that purpose'.
Critical Apparatus
58 Graiia Baehrens (graia iam Lachmann): gratia V
Critical Apparatus
Canopitis Statius, canopieis ed. Rom.: canopicis (con- O) V
Editor’s Note
58. incola litoribus : the unusual construction is paralleled at 64. 300.
Editor’s Note
Graiia : Arsinoe is of the Macedonian dynasty of the Ptolemies. O's reading gratia may point to the old spelling with double i; so Cicero (according to Quintilian i. 4. 11) wrote Maiia for Maia. See Housman, C.R. v (1891), 296.
Editor’s Note
Canopitis : the Greek has K]ανωπίτου ναιέτις α‎[ἰγιαλοῦ‎, 'dweller on the Canopic shore'; the town of Canopus was not far from Zephyrium, but the adjective may be used as a general term for Egyptian (cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 287). If the Latin is to correspond, we must read Canopeis … litoribus. litoribus needs an epithet, but Statius's Canopitis cannot be ablative plural: Greek adjectives with masculine termination -ίτης‎ (Latin -ita) and feminine -ιτις‎ have no neuter form.
Critical Apparatus
59 inde Venus Postgate, hic lumen Mowat; locus multum uexatus
Critical Apparatus
lumine γ‎, limine θ‎: numine V (mumine R)
Editor’s Note
59. The sense is clear: Ariadne's crown is not to be the only adornment of a mortal head to be placed in the sky. But the beginning of the line is corrupt and has not been plausibly emended: Postgate's inde Venus involves a very awkward separation of Venus from diua in 1. 64.
Editor’s Note
uario … in lumine caeli : the epithet suits limine better than lumine (see on 7; for uarius, 'star-spangled', cf. Ov. Met. ii. 193 'sparsa quoque in uario passim miracula caelo', Fast. iii. 449 'caeruleum uariabunt sidera caelum'), but Catullus seems to be representing φάεσ‎]ιν ἐν πολέεσσιν‎ and uario … lumine ('shifting lights') may be right.
Critical Apparatus
60 adrianeis V: corr. η‎
Critical Apparatus
61 uos OG1(?)
Editor’s Note
61. corona : the crown given by Dionysus to Ariadne and after their marriage taken from her head and placed in the sky as a constellation (Ov. Fast. iii. 459 ff.).
Editor’s Note
fulgeremus : for the spondaic ending see on 64. 3.
Critical Apparatus
63 uuidulam A. Guarinus (-lum iam η‎), umidulum ζ‎: uindulum V (uiridulum rmg)
Critical Apparatus
fluctu V: fletu Pall.
Critical Apparatus
deum me ζ‎: decumme V
Editor’s Note
65. The cluster of stars which is the Coma adjoins Virgo, Leo, and the Bear and sets before Bootes.
Editor’s Note
namque very rarely stands so late in the sentence, but Virgil has it in the sixth place at Ecl. 1. 14 and in the fourth at Aen. v. 733; on postponement of connectives in Catullus see on 23. 7.
Critical Apparatus
66 Callistoe iuncta Lycaoniae Parth.: calixto (calisto γ‎) iuxta licaonia V
Editor’s Note
66. iuncta : V's iuxta involves an unparalleled shortening of the -a.
Editor’s Note
Callisto : Καλλιστῷ‎, the only example in Latin literature of this Greek dative form. Callisto, daughter of the Arcadian king Lycaon, was changed into a bear by the jealousy of Hera, but Zeus atoned by placing her in heaven as the constellation of the Bear: for the story see Ov. Met. ii. 409 ff., Fast. ii. 155 ff.
Editor’s Note
67. 'As I wheel to my setting, I lead the way in front of slow Bootes': for tardum … sero cf. Hom. Od. v. 272 ὀψὲ δύοντα Βοώτην‎, Q. Cic. 19 'serus in alta / conditur Oceani ripa cum luce Bootes', Ov. Fast. iii. 405 'piger ille Bootes'.
 

 

Editor’s Note
68. uix sero : for the strengthening uix cf. uix tandem, 62. 2.
Critical Apparatus
69 quicquam O
Editor’s Note
69 f. She is in the sky, the floor of heaven, by night and at morning returns to Ocean.
Editor’s Note
Tethyi : Tethys was wife of Oceanus; cf. 64. 29. For the Greek dative in –ĭ cf. 64. 247 Minoidi.
Critical Apparatus
70 autem cod. Berolinensis anni mcccclxiii: aut V
Critical Apparatus
Tethyi B. Guarinus: theti V
Critical Apparatus
restituem V: corr. Lachmann
Critical Apparatus
71 pace r: parce V
Critical Apparatus
ranumsia O, ranusia X
Editor’s Note
71. An interjected prayer to Nemesis, who punishes presumption and whose displeasure the coma is inviting by her indifference to her new beatitude.
Editor’s Note
pace tua : a familiar conciliatory formula, 'without offence to you': cf. Lutatius Catulus, fr. 2 Morel, 'pace mihi liceat, caelestes, dicere uestra: / mortalis uisus pulchrior esse deo', Ov. Am. iii. 2. 60 'pace loquar Veneris: tu dea maior eris', Cic. Tusc. v. 12 'pace tua dixerim'.
Editor’s Note
hic : 'at this point'.
Editor’s Note
Ramnusia : cf. 68. 77: there was a famous temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus in Attica.
Critical Apparatus
72 ullo O, nullo X
Critical Apparatus
73 si me θ‎: sine V
Editor’s Note
73: nec si : 'not even if': the earliest instance of the use of nec for ne quidem which becomes common in post-Augustan Latin; elsewhere Catullus uses non si—70. 2 (see note there), 48. 5, 69. 3, 88. 8.
  discerpent : 'pull to pieces', as we say; the simple carpo is common (cf. 62. 36) in this sense.
Critical Apparatus
74 qui V (qui al. quin R)
Critical Apparatus
ueri cod. Berol. (uerei Lachmann): uere V, fort, recte euolue V: corr. 1473
Editor’s Note
74. condita … pectoris, what is stored in my heart; cf. Plaut. Pseud. 575 'meo in pectore conditumst consilium'.
Editor’s Note
euolŭam : for the prosody see on 2b. 13.
Critical Apparatus
75, 76 affore V
Editor’s Note
76. discrucior, 'I am racked by the thought that': this use with accusative and infinitive is perhaps colloquial; cf. Cic. Att. xiv. 6. 1 'discrucior Sextili fundum a uerberone Curtilio possideri'.
Editor’s Note
77 f. quicum … bibi : the sense of the Greek is clear: 'with whom I, while she was a virgin, drank many simple perfumes but had no share in those of grown womanhood'; the contrast here, as in Hymn 5. 15, 25, is between the χρίματα λιτά‎ or ἄμεικτα‎ which the girl uses and the more elaborate μεικτά‎ of the married woman; the coma left Berenice's head before she could enjoy the latter. Lobel's correction uilia, representing λιτά‎, for milia is highly probable, but even with that correction the text as it stands does not adequately represent the Greek and would be barely intelligible without it; if omnibus is right, unguentis has not the epithet which is needed to correspond to γυναικείων‎ and contrast with uilia.
  Berenice's taste for cosmetics was well known and her patronage assisted the development of the perfumery trade in Alexandria (Athen. xv. 689a): her name is appropriately perpetuated in the word 'varnish'—though that word (βερνίκη‎ in late Greek, ver(o)nice in late Latin) is probably derived from it at one remove, through the name of a town called after her.
Editor’s Note
77. quicum : i.e. cum quo (uertice); see on 2. 2. The old ablative form qui (originally instrumental; see on 116. 3) serves for all genders; Virgil uses it as feminine, Aen. xi. 822. una goes closely with quicum, 'in company with which'.
Critical Apparatus
78 una V: nuptae Morel
Critical Apparatus
uilia Lobel: mil(l)ia V
Critical Apparatus
79 quas Calph.: quem V (quem al. quam R)
Editor’s Note
79. The coma calls upon brides to make an offering to her, on their wedding-day, of the perfumes which she was denied in her earthly existence.
Editor’s Note
optato … lumine either 'with its longed-for light' or 'on the longed-for day'; for optatus in this connexion cf. 64. 31.
Critical Apparatus
80 prius B. Guarinus et Pall.: post V
Critical Apparatus
uno animus V: corr. θ‎
Editor’s Note
80. unanimis : 'loving'; see on 9. 4.
Editor’s Note
80 f. non prius … tradite : non, for the normal ne, with an imperative occurs first here; in this case it can be justified as being attached closely to prius (see Kühn.–Steg. i. 203), but cf. non siris below (91).
Critical Apparatus
81 retecta V: corr. η‎
Critical Apparatus
82 quam V: quin Lachmann (seruato in u. 80 post)
Editor’s Note
82. libet implies that the coma is now a divinity.
Editor’s Note
onyx is not the precious stone of that name but a yellow marble which was used for perfume-jars (Pliny, N.H. xxxvi. 60 '(onyx) quem cauant et ad uasa unguentaria quoniam optime seruare incorrupta dicatur'); cf. Hor. Od. iv. 12. 17 'nardi paruus onyx', Prop. ii. 13. 30 'Syrio munere plenus onyx'.
Critical Apparatus
83 colitis] queritis R
Editor’s Note
83. quae : the antecedent is contained in uester: the construction is common, e.g. Cic. Vat. 29 'nostra acta quos tyrannos uocas'. cf. 64. 369.
Editor’s Note
colitis … iura : observe the code (see on 102. 3) of marriage; cf. Ov. Met. vii. 715 'iura iugalia'. Propertius has the opposite, iv. 5. 28 'frange et damnosae iura pudicitiae'.
Critical Apparatus
85 leuis bibat dona V: corr. 1472
Editor’s Note
85. irrita is proleptic: 'may the light dust drink up her wicked offering so that it is of no effect'.
Critical Apparatus
86 indignatis O, indigetis G, indigetis al. indignis al. indignatis R
Critical Apparatus
87 nostras V: corr. θ‎
Editor’s Note
87. sed magis : 'but instead'; see on 73. 4.
Editor’s Note
89. The coma closes with an appeal to Berenice herself.
Editor’s Note
90. festis luminibus : 'on holy days'.
Critical Apparatus
91 sanguinis V: corr. Bentley
Critical Apparatus
siris Lachmann (siueris iam Scaliger): uestris V
Critical Apparatus
tuam Auantius: tuum V
Editor’s Note
91. unguinis : the archaic unguen provides a convenient substitute for unguentum; V's sanguinis introduces an idea (cf. 34) which is irrelevant here.
Editor’s Note
non siris : for the rare use of non for ne with the perfect subjunctive in a prohibition, cf. Ov. A.A. i. 389 'aut non temptaris aut perfice'. non occasionally appears with a jussive present subjunctive both in verse and in prose: e.g. Cic. Clu. 155 'a legibus non recedamus' (see Kühn.–Steg. i. 192).
Editor’s Note
siris is not a contracted form of siueris but an s-aorist optative formation, parallel to faxis, from the stem si- of sino, -s- between vowels, by the development normal in early Latin, becoming -r-: the archaic form is found in Plautus and in old formulae in Livy. See on 18 iuerint.
Editor’s Note
tuam me : 'I who belong to you': the monosyllabic ending gives emphasis to the unusual combination.
Critical Apparatus
92 effice V: corr. θ‎
Editor’s Note
92 ff. The reading of V, sidera cur iterent, can be translated: 'by your lavish gifts give the stars cause to repeat "would that I might become a royal lock; then let Orion shine next to Aquarius" '; effice cur, though it is not found elsewhere, may be justified by Ovid's aut amet aut faciat cur ego semper amem (Am. i. 3. 2). The other stars are represented as being jealous of the coma's privileges. But while their envy may be intelligible, the pointless irresponsibility of 1. 94 is not; a general upheaval in heaven in which the constellations changed their places would not assist them to acquire the coma's peculiar status. With Lachmann's corruerint, the whole is spoken by the coma: 'Treat me to lavish gifts. May the stars crash. Let me become a royal lock (again) and let Orion shine next to Aquarius.' The desire to return to her old life has already been suggested in 75 (though the absence of the essential 'again' here is difficult; hence Markland proposed iterum for utinam), but the impious wish for a heavenly cataclysm comes strangely from the coma which has had misgivings about uttering even the cautious sentiments of 75–76 and, even if that wish were granted, the fulfilment of her desire would not follow. If either text is what Catullus wrote, he seems to have been writing without having a clear picture in his mind. The Greek is unfortunately missing; perhaps Catullus misrepresented his original here as he seems to have done at 77–78.
Editor’s Note
92. affice muneribus : a prosaic phrase: cf. Cic. Fam. ii. 3. 2, Nepos, Ages. 3. 3.
Editor’s Note
Hydrochoi may represent a Greek dative 'Υδροχοεῖ‎, corresponding to a nominative 'Υδροχοεν́ς‎, but the usual form of the name is 'Υδροχόος‎ and Callimachus seems to have had 'Υδροχόος‎, in the nominative, here. To take Hydrochoi as genitive (of Hydrochous) involves the unparalleled graecism of giving proximus the construction of Callimachus' γείτων‎.
Critical Apparatus
93 corruerint Lachmann, cur retinent? Pontanus: cur iterent V
Critical Apparatus
94 id rochoi V: corr. 1472
Editor’s Note
94. fulgeret : present subjunctive from fulgerare, an old form of fulgurare.
Editor’s Note
Oarion : Callimachus has the form Ὠαρῐ̔ων‎ for the usual Ὠαρῐ̔ων‎ at Hymn 3. 265.
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