Main Text

pg 65VERGIL, AENEID 3

  • Editor’s Note Link 1    Postquam res Asiae Priamique euertere gentem
  • Link 2immeritam uisum superis, ceciditque superbum
  • Link 3Ilium et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troia,
  • Link 4diuersa exilia et desertas quaerere terras
  • Editor’s Note Link 5auguriis agimur diuum, classemque sub ipsa
  • Link 6Antandro et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae,
  • Link 7incerti quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur,
  • Editor’s Note8contrahimusque uiros. uix prima inceperat aestas
  • Link 9et pater Anchises dare fatis uela iubebat.
  • Editor’s Note Link 10litora cum patriae lacrimans portusque relinquo
  • Link 11et campos ubi Troia fuit, feror exul in altum
  • Link 12cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis.
  • Editor’s Note13    Terra procul uastis colitur Mauortia campis
  • Link 14(Thraces arant) acri quondam regnata Lycurgo,
  • Editor’s Note Link 15hospitium antiquum Troiae sociique penates
  • Editor’s Note16dum fortuna fuit. feror huc et litore curuo
  • 17moenia prima loco fatis ingressus iniquis
  • Link 18Aeneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo.
  • Editor’s Note19sacra Dionaeae matri diuisque ferebam
  • Link 20auspicibus coeptorum operum, superoque nitentem
  • 21caelicolum regi mactabam in litore taurum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 22forte fuit iuxta tumulus, quo cornea summo
  • 23uirgulta et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 24accessi uiridemque ab humo conuellere siluam
  • Link 25conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras,
  • Link 26horrendum et dictu uideo mirabile monstrum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 27nam quae prima solo ruptis radicibus arbos
  • Link 28uellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae
  • Editor’s Note29et terram tabo maculant. mihi frigidus horror
  • Link 30membra quatit gelidusque coit formidine sanguis.
  • Editor’s Note31rursus et alterius lentum conuellere uimen
  • Link 32insequor et causas penitus temptare latentis;
  • 33ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 34multa mouens animo Nymphas uenerabar agrestis
  • Link 35Gradiuumque patrem, Geticis qui praesidet aruis,
  • Link 36rite secundarent uisus omenque leuarent.
  • Editor’s Note Link 37tertia sed postquam maiore hastilia nisu
  • pg 66 Link 38adgredior genibusque aduersae obluctor harenae,
  • Editor’s Note Link 39(eloquar an sileam?) gemitus lacrimabilis imo
  • 40auditur tumulo et uox reddita fertur ad auris:
  • Editor’s Note41'quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? iam parce sepulto,
  • Link 42parce pias scelerare manus. non me tibi Troia
  • Link 43externum tulit aut cruor hic de stipite manat.
  • Editor’s Note Link 44heu fuge crudelis terras, fuge litus auarum:
  • Link 45nam Polydorus ego. hic confixum ferrea texit
  • Link 46telorum seges et iaculis increuit acutis.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 47tum uero ancipiti mentem formidine pressus
  • 48obstipui steteruntque comae et uox faucibus haesit.
  • Editor’s Note49    Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno
  • Link 50infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum
  • 51Threicio regi, cum iam diffideret armis
  • Link 52Dardaniae cingique urbem obsidione uideret.
  • Editor’s Note Link 53ille, ut opes fractae Teucrum et Fortuna recessit,
  • Link 54res Agamemnonias uictriciaque arma secutus
  • Link 55fas omne abrumpit: Polydorum obtruncat, et auro
  • Editor’s Note56ui potitur. quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
  • Editor’s Note Link 57auri sacra fames! postquam pauor ossa reliquit,
  • 58delectos populi ad proceres primumque parentem
  • 59monstra deum refero, et quae sit sententia posco.
  • Editor’s Note Link 60omnibus idem animus, scelerata excedere terra,
  • Link 61linqui pollutum hospitium et dare classibus Austros.
  • Editor’s Note Link 62ergo instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens
  • Link 63aggeritur tumulo tellus; stant Manibus arae
  • Link 64caeruleis maestae uittis atraque cupresso,
  • 65et circum Iliades crinem de more solutae;
  • Editor’s Note Link 66inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte
  • 67sanguinis et sacri pateras, animamque sepulcro
  • Link 68condimus et magna supremum uoce ciemus.
  • Editor’s Note69    Inde ubi prima fides pelago placataque uenti
  • Link 70dant maria et lenis crepitans uocat Auster in altum,
  • Link 71deducunt socii naues et litora complent;
  • Link 72prouehimur portu, terraeque urbesque recedunt.
  • Editor’s Note Link 73sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus
  • Link 74Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo,
  • 75quam pius arquitenens oras et litora circum
  • Link 76errantem Mycono e celsa Gyaroque reuinxit
  • Link 77immotamque coli dedit et contemnere uentos.
  • pg 67Editor’s Note Link 78huc feror, haec fessos tuto placidissima portu
  • 79accipit; egressi ueneramur Apollinis urbem.
  • Editor’s Note Link 80rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos,
  • Link 81uittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro
  • 82occurrit: ueterem Anchisen agnouit amicum.
  • Link 83iungimus hospitio dextras et tecta subimus.
  • Editor’s Note84    Templa dei saxo uenerabar structa uetusto:
  • Editor’s Note85'da propriam, Thymbraee, domum; da moenia fessis
  • Link 86et genus et mansuram urbem; serua altera Troiae
  • Link 87Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli.
  • 88quem sequimur? quoue ire iubes? ubi ponere sedes?
  • Link 89da, pater, augurium atque animis inlabere nostris.'
  • Editor’s Note90uix ea fatus eram: tremere omnia uisa repente,
  • 91liminaque laurusque dei, totusque moueri
  • Link 92mons circum et mugire adytis cortina reclusis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 93summissi petimus terram et uox fertur ad auris:
  • Editor’s Note Link 94'Dardanidae duri, quae uos a stirpe parentum
  • 95prima tulit tellus, eadem uos ubere laeto
  • Link 96accipiet reduces. antiquam exquirite matrem.
  • Editor’s Note97hic domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris
  • Link 98et nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis.'
  • Editor’s Note99haec Phoebus; mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu
  • 100laetitia, et cuncti quae sint ea moenia quaerunt,
  • 101quo Phoebus uocet errantes iubeatque reuerti.
  • Editor’s Note Link 102tum genitor ueterum uoluens monumenta uirorum
  • Link 103'audite, o proceres,' ait 'et spes discite uestras.
  • Editor’s Note104Creta Iouis magni medio iacet insula ponto,
  • Link 105mons Idaeus ubi et gentis cunabula nostrae.
  • Link 106centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna,
  • Editor’s Note Link 107maximus unde pater, si rite audita recordor,
  • Link 108Teucrus Rhoeteas primum est aduectus in oras,
  • Link 109optauitque locum regno. nondum Ilium et arces
  • Link 110Pergameae steterant; habitabant uallibus imis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 111hinc mater cultrix Cybeli Corybantiaque aera
  • 112Idaeumque nemus, hinc fida silentia sacris
  • Link 113et iuncti currum dominae subiere leones.
  • Editor’s Note Link 114ergo agite et diuum ducunt qua iussa sequamur;
  • 115placemus uentos et Cnosia regna petamus.
  • Link 116nec longo distant cursu: modo Iuppiter adsit,
  • Link 117tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris.'
  • pg 68Editor’s Note118sic fatus meritos aris mactauit honores,
  • Link 119taurum Neptuno, taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo,
  • Link 120nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam.
  • Editor’s Note Link 121    Fama uolat pulsum regnis cessisse paternis
  • 122Idomenea ducem, desertaque litora Cretae:
  • Link 123hoste uacare domum sedesque astare relictas.
  • Editor’s Note Link 124linquimus Ortygiae portus pelagoque uolamus
  • Link 125bacchatamque iugis Naxon uiridemque Donusam,
  • Link 126Olearon niueamque Paron sparsasque per aequor
  • Link 127Cycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris.
  • Editor’s Note128nauticus exoritur uario certamine clamor:
  • Link 129hortantur socii Cretam proauosque petamus.
  • Link 130prosequitur surgens a puppi uentus euntis,
  • 131et tandem antiquis Curetum adlabimur oris.
  • Editor’s Note132ergo auidus muros optatae molior urbis
  • 133Pergameamque uoco et laetam cognomine gentem
  • Link 134hortor amare focos arcemque attollere tectis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 135    Iamque fere sicco subductae litore puppes,
  • Link 136conubiis aruisque nouis operata iuuentus,
  • Link 137iura domosque dabam, subito cum tabida membris
  • 138corrupto caeli tractu miserandaque uenit
  • Link 139arboribusque satisque lues et letifer annus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 140linquebant dulcis animas aut aegra trahebant
  • Link 141corpora; tum sterilis exurere Sirius agros;
  • Link 142arebant herbae et uictum seges aegra negabat.
  • Editor’s Note Link 143rursus ad oraclum Ortygiae Phoebumque remenso
  • Link 144hortatur pater ire mari ueniamque precari:
  • Link 145quam fessis finem rebus ferat, unde laborum
  • 146temptare auxilium iubeat, quo uertere cursus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 147    Nox erat et terris animalia somnus habebat:
  • 148effigies sacrae diuum Phrygiique penates,
  • 149quos mecum a Troia mediisque ex ignibus urbis
  • Link 150extuleram, uisi ante oculos astare iacentis,
  • Link 151in somnis multo manifesti lumine qua se
  • 152plena per insertas fundebat luna fenestras;
  • 153tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis:
  • Editor’s Note Link 154'quod tibi delato Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est,
  • 155hic canit et tua nos en ultro ad limina mittit.
  • Editor’s Note Link 156nos te Dardania incensa tuaque arma secuti;
  • Link 157nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus aequor;
  • pg 69158idem uenturos tollemus in astra nepotes
  • 159imperiumque urbi dabimus. tu moenia magnis
  • Link 160magna para longumque fugae ne linque laborem.
  • Editor’s Note Link 161mutandae sedes: non haec tibi litora suasit
  • 162Delius aut Cretae iussit considere Apollo.
  • Editor’s Note Link 163est locus—Hesperiam Grai cognomine dicunt—
  • 164terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glaebae.
  • Link 165Oenotri coluere uiri; nunc fama minores
  • 166Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem.
  • Editor’s Note Link 167hae nobis propriae sedes; hinc Dardanus ortus
  • Link 168Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum.
  • Editor’s Note169surge age et haec laetus longaeuo dicta parenti
  • Link 170haud dubitanda refer: Corythum terrasque requirat
  • 171Ausonias: Dictaea negat tibi Iuppiter arua.'
  • Editor’s Note172talibus attonitus uisis et uoce deorum
  • Link 173(nec sopor illud erat, sed coram agnoscere uultus
  • Link 174uelatasque comas praesentiaque ora uidebar;
  • Link 175tum gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor)
  • Link 176corripio e stratis corpus tendoque supinas
  • Link 177ad caelum cum uoce manus et munera libo
  • Link 178intemerata focis. perfecto laetus honore
  • Editor’s Note Link 179Anchisen facio certum remque ordine pando.
  • Link 180agnouit prolem ambiguam geminosque parentis,
  • 181seque nouo ueterum deceptum errore locorum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 182tum memorat: 'nate Iliacis exercite fatis,
  • Link 183sola mihi talis casus Cassandra canebat.
  • Link 184nunc repeto haec generi portendere debita nostro,
  • 185et saepe Hesperiam, saepe Itala regna uocare.
  • 186sed quis ad Hesperiae uenturos litora Teucros
  • 187crederet? aut quem tum uates Cassandra moueret?
  • 188cedamus Phoebo et moniti meliora sequamur.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 189sic ait, et cuncti dicto paremus ouantes.
  • 190hanc quoque deserimus sedem paucisque relictis
  • Link 191uela damus uastumque caua trabe currimus aequor.
  • Editor’s Note192    Postquam altum tenuere rates nec iam amplius ullae
  • Link 193apparent terrae, caelum undique et undique pontus,
  • Link 194tum mihi caeruleus supra caput astitit imber
  • Link 195noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris.
  • Editor’s Note Link 196continuo uenti uoluunt mare magnaque surgunt
  • Link 197aequora: dispersi iactamur gurgite uasto.
  • pg 70 Link 198inuoluere diem nimbi et nox umida caelum
  • Link 199abstulit; ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes:
  • Link 200excutimur cursu et caecis erramus in undis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 201ipse diem noctemque negat discernere caelo
  • 202nec meminisse uiae media Palinurus in unda.
  • Link 203tris adeo incertos caeca caligine soles
  • 204erramus pelago, totidem sine sidere noctes.
  • Editor’s Note Link 205quarto terra die primum se attollere tandem
  • Link 206uisa, aperire procul montis ac uoluere fumum.
  • Link 207uela cadunt; remis insurgimus: haud mora, nautae
  • Link 208adnixi torquent spumas et caerula uerrunt.
  • Editor’s Note Link 209    Seruatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primum
  • Link 210excipiunt. Strophades Graio stant nomine dictae
  • 211insulae Ionio in magno, quas dira Celaeno
  • Link 212Harpyiaeque colunt aliae, Phineia postquam
  • 213clausa domus mensasque metu liquere priores.
  • Editor’s Note Link 214tristius haud illis monstrum, nec saeuior ulla
  • 215pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis.
  • Link 216uirginei uolucrum uultus, foedissima uentris
  • Link 217proluuies uncaeque manus et pallida semper
  • 218ora fame.
  • Editor’s Note219huc ubi delati portus intrauimus, ecce
  • Link 220laeta boum passim campis armenta uidemus
  • Link 221caprigenumque pecus nullo custode per herbas.
  • Link 222inruimus ferro et diuos ipsumque uocamus
  • Link 223in partem praedamque Iouem; tum litore curuo
  • Link 224exstruimusque toros dapibusque epulamur opimis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 225at subitae horrifico lapsu de montibus adsunt
  • Link 226Harpyiae et magnis quatiunt clangoribus alas,
  • Link 227diripiuntque dapes contactuque omnia foedant
  • 228immundo; tum uox taetrum dira inter odorem.
  • Editor’s Note Link 229rursum in secessu longo sub rupe cauata
  • Link 231instruimus mensas arisque reponimus ignem;
  • Link 232rursum ex diuerso caeli caecisque latebris
  • Link 233turba sonans praedam pedibus circumuolat uncis,
  • Editor’s Note Link 234polluit ore dapes. sociis tunc arma capessant
  • 235edico, et dira bellum cum gente gerendum.
  • Link 236haud secus ac iussi faciunt tectosque per herbam
  • Link 237disponunt ensis et scuta latentia condunt.
  • Editor’s Note238ergo ubi delapsae sonitum per curua dedere
  • pg 71239litora, dat signum specula Misenus ab alta
  • Link 240aere cauo. inuadunt socii et noua proelia temptant,
  • 241obscenas pelagi ferro foedare uolucris.
  • Editor’s Note242sed neque uim plumis ullam nec uulnera tergo
  • Link 243accipiunt, celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae
  • Link 244semesam praedam et uestigia foeda relinquunt.
  • Editor’s Note Link 245una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno,
  • Link 246infelix uates, rumpitque hanc pectore uocem;
  • Editor’s Note Link 247'bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque iuuencis,
  • Link 248Laomedontiadae? bellumne inferre paratis
  • 249et patrio Harpyias insontis pellere regno?
  • Editor’s Note Link 250accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta,
  • Link 251quae Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus Apollo
  • 252praedixit; uobis Furiarum ego maxima pando.
  • 253Italiam cursu petitis, uentisque uocatis
  • 254ibitis Italiam, portusque intrare licebit.
  • Editor’s Note255sed non ante datam cingetis moenibus urbem
  • Link 256quam uos dira fames nostraeque iniuria caedis
  • Link 257ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas.'
  • Link 258dixit, et in siluam pennis ablata refugit.
  • Editor’s Note Link 259at sociis subita gelidus formidine sanguis
  • Link 260deriguit; cecidere animi, nec iam amplius armis,
  • Link 261sed uotis precibusque iubent exposcere pacem,
  • 262siue deae seu sint dirae obscenaeque uolucres.
  • Editor’s Note263et pater Anchises passis de litore palmis
  • 264numina magna uocat meritosque indicit honores:
  • Link 265'di, prohibete minas; di, talem auertite casum
  • Editor’s Note266et placidi seruate pios.' tum litore funem
  • Link 267deripere excussosque iubet laxare rudentis.
  • Link 268tendunt uela Noti: fugimus spumantibus undis
  • Link 269qua cursum uentusque gubernatorque uocabat.
  • Editor’s Note Link 270    Iam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos
  • Link 271Dulichiumque Sameque et Neritos ardua saxis.
  • Link 272effugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna,
  • Link 273et terram altricem saeui exsecramur Vlixi.
  • Editor’s Note Link 274mox et Leucatae nimbosa cacumina montis
  • Link 275et formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo.
  • 276hunc petimus fessi et paruae succedimus urbi:
  • Link 277ancora de prora iacitur; stant litore puppes.
  • Editor’s Note Link 278ergo insperata tandem tellure potiti
  • pg 72 Link 279lustramurque Ioui uotisque incendimus aras,
  • Link 280Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis.
  • Link 281exercent patrias oleo labente palaestras
  • Link 282nudati socii: iuuat euasisse tot urbes
  • 283Argolicas mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 284interea magnum sol circumuoluitur annum
  • Link 285et glacialis hiems Aquilonibus asperat undas.
  • Link 286aere cauo clipeum, magni gestamen Abantis,
  • Link 287postibus aduersis figo et rem carmine signo:
  • 288aeneas haec de danais victoribvs arma.
  • Editor’s Note Link 289linquere tum portus iubeo et considere transtris:
  • Link 290certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora uerrunt.
  • Link 291protinus aërias Phaeacum abscondimus arces,
  • Link 292litoraque Epiri legimus, portuque subimus
  • Link 293Chaonio et celsam Buthroti accedimus urbem.
  • Editor’s Note Link 294    Hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat auris,
  • Link 295Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbis
  • Link 296coniugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum,
  • 297et patrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito.
  • Link 298obstipui miroque incensum pectus amore
  • 299compellare uirum et casus cognoscere tantos.
  • Editor’s Note Link 300progredior portu classis et litora linquens,
  • Link 301sollemnis cum forte dapes et tristia dona
  • Link 302ante urbem in luco falsi Simoëntis ad undam
  • 303libabat cineri Andromache manisque uocabat
  • Link 304Hectoreum ad tumulum, uiridi quem caespite inanem
  • Link 305et geminas, causam lacrimis, sacrauerat aras.
  • Editor’s Note306ut me conspexit uenientem et Troia circum
  • 307arma amens uidit, magnis exterrita monstris
  • Link 308deriguit uisu in medio, calor ossa reliquit,
  • Link 309labitur; et longo uix tandem tempore fatur:
  • Editor’s Note Link 310'uerane te facies, uerus mihi nuntius adfers,
  • Link 311nate dea? uiuisne? aut, si lux alma recessit,
  • 312Hector ubi est?' dixit, lacrimasque effudit et omnem
  • Editor’s Note Link 313impleuit clamore locum. uix pauca furenti
  • Link 314subicio et raris turbatus uocibus hisco:
  • Link 315'uiuo equidem uitamque extrema per omnia duco;
  • Link 316ne dubita, nam uera uides.
  • Editor’s Note Link 317heu! quis te casus deiectam coniuge tanto
  • 318excipit, aut quae digna satis fortuna reuisit?
  • pg 73 Link 319Hectoris Andromache, Pyrrhin conubia seruas?'
  • Editor’s Note Link 320deiecit uultum et demissa uoce locuta est:
  • 321'o felix una ante alias Priameia uirgo
  • 322hostilem ad tumulum Troiae sub moenibus altis
  • Link 323iussa mori, quae sortitus non pertulit ullos
  • Link 324nec uictoris eri tetigit captiua cubile.
  • Editor’s Note325nos patria incensa diuersa per aequora uectae
  • Link 326stirpis Achilleae fastus iuuenemque superbum
  • Link 327seruitio enixae tulimus; qui deinde secutus
  • Link 328Ledaeam Hermionen Lacedaemoniosque hymenaeos
  • Link 329me famulo famulamque Heleno transmisit habendam.
  • Editor’s Note Link 330ast illum ereptae magno flammatus amore
  • Link 331coniugis et scelerum Furiis agitatus Orestes
  • Link 332excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras.
  • Editor’s Note Link 333morte Neoptolemi regnorum reddita cessit
  • 334pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos
  • 335Chaoniamque omnem Troiano a Chaone dixit,
  • 336Pergamaque Iliacamque iugis hanc addidit arcem.
  • Editor’s Note337sed tibi qui cursum uenti, quae fata dedere?
  • Link 338aut quisnam ignarum nostris deus appulit oris?
  • Link 339quid puer Ascanius? superatne et uescitur aura?
  • 340quem tibi iam Troia—
  • Link 341ecqua tamen puero est amissae cura parentis?
  • Link 342ecquid in antiquam uirtutem animosque uirilis
  • Link 343et pater Aeneas et auunculus excitat Hector?'
  • Editor’s Note Link 344talia fundebat lacrimans longosque ciebat
  • 345incassum fletus, cum sese a moenibus heros
  • Link 346Priamides multis Helenus comitantibus adfert,
  • 347agnoscitque suos laetusque ad limina ducit,
  • Link 348et multum lacrimas uerba inter singula fundit.
  • Editor’s Note Link 349procedo et paruam Troiam simulataque magnis
  • Link 350Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine riuum
  • Link 351agnosco, Scaeaeque amplector limina portae;
  • Editor’s Note Link 352nec non et Teucri socia simul urbe fruuntur.
  • 353illos porticibus rex accipiebat in amplis:
  • 354aulai medio libabant pocula Bacchi
  • Link 355impositis auro dapibus, paterasque tenebant.
  • Editor’s Note Link 356    Iamque dies alterque dies processit, et aurae
  • Link 357uela uocant tumidoque inflatur carbasus Austro:
  • 358his uatem adgredior dictis ac talia quaeso:
  • pg 74Editor’s Note Link 359'Troiugena, interpres diuum, qui numina Phoebi,
  • Link 360qui tripodas laurusque Clari, qui sidera sentis
  • Link 361et uolucrum linguas et praepetis omina pennae,
  • Editor’s Note Link 362fare age—namque omnis cursum mihi prospera dixit
  • Link 363religio, et cuncti suaserunt numine diui
  • Link 364Italiam petere et terras temptare repostas;
  • Link 365sola nouum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celaeno
  • Link 366prodigium canit et tristis denuntiat iras
  • 367obscenamque famem—quae prima pericula uito?
  • 368quidue sequens tantos possim superare labores?'
  • Editor’s Note Link 369hic Helenus caesis primum de more iuuencis
  • Link 370exorat pacem diuum, uittasque resoluit
  • 371sacrati capitis meque ad tua limina, Phoebe,
  • 372ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit,
  • Link 373atque haec deinde canit diuino ex ore sacerdos:
  • Editor’s Note Link 374    'Nate dea (nam te maioribus ire per altum
  • 375auspiciis manifesta fides; sic fata deum rex
  • Link 376sortitur uoluitque uices, is uertitur ordo),
  • Editor’s Note Link 377pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres
  • Link 378aequora et Ausonio possis considere portu,
  • 379expediam dictis; prohibent nam cetera Parcae
  • 380scire Helenum farique uetat Saturnia Iuno.
  • Editor’s Note Link 381    Principio Italiam, quam tu iam rere propinquam
  • Link 382uicinosque, ignare, paras inuadere portus,
  • Link 383longa procul longis uia diuidit inuia terris.
  • Editor’s Note Link 384ante et Trinacria lentandus remus in unda
  • Link 385et salis Ausonii lustrandum nauibus aequor
  • Link 386infernique lacus Aeaeaeque insula Circae,
  • Link 387quam tuta possis urbem componere terra.
  • Editor’s Note Link 388signa tibi dicam, tu condita mente teneto:
  • Link 389cum tibi sollicito secreti ad fluminis undam
  • Link 390litoreis ingens inuenta sub ilicibus sus
  • Link 391triginta capitum fetus enixa iacebit,
  • 392alba solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati,
  • Link 393is locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 394nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros:
  • Link 395fata uiam inuenient aderitque uocatus Apollo.
  • Editor’s Note396    Has autem terras Italique hanc litoris oram,
  • Link 397proxima quae nostri perfunditur aequoris aestu,
  • Link 398effuge: cuncta malis habitantur moenia Grais.
  • pg 75Editor’s Note Link 399hic et Narycii posuerunt moenia Locri,
  • Link 400et Sallentinos obsedit milite campos
  • Link 401Lyctius Idomeneus; hic illa ducis Meliboei
  • Link 402parua Philoctetae subnixa Petelia muro.
  • Editor’s Note Link 403quin ubi transmissae steterint trans aequora classes
  • 404et positis aris iam uota in litore solues,
  • Link 405purpureo uelare comas adopertus amictu,
  • 406ne qua inter sanctos ignis in honore deorum
  • Link 407hostilis facies occurrat et omina turbet.
  • 408hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto;
  • Link 409hac casti maneant in religione nepotes.
  • Editor’s Note Link 410ast ubi digressum Siculae te admouerit orae
  • Link 411uentus et angusti rarescent claustra Pelori,
  • Link 412laeua tibi tellus et longo laeua petantur
  • Link 413aequora circuitu; dextrum fuge litus et undas.
  • Editor’s Note Link 414haec loca ui quondam et uasta conuulsa ruina
  • Link 415(tantum aeui longinqua ualet mutare uetustas)
  • 416dissiluisse ferunt; cum protinus utraque tellus
  • Link 417una foret, uenit medio ui pontus et undis
  • Link 418Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit, aruaque et urbes
  • Link 419limite diductas angusto interluit aestu.
  • Editor’s Note Link 420dextrum Scylla latus, laeuum implacata Charybdis
  • Link 421obsidet atque imo barathri ter gurgite uastos
  • Link 422sorbet in abruptum fluctus rursusque sub auras
  • Link 423erigit alternos, et sidera uerberat unda.
  • Editor’s Note Link 424at Scyllam caecis cohibet spelunca latebris
  • Link 425ora exsertantem et nauis in saxa trahentem.
  • Editor’s Note426prima hominis facies et pulchro pectore uirgo
  • Link 427pube tenus, postrema immani corpore pistrix
  • 428delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 429praestat Trinacrii metas lustrare Pachyni
  • Link 430cessantem, longos et circumflectere cursus,
  • 431quam semel informem uasto uidisse sub antro
  • Link 432Scyllam et caeruleis canibus resonantia saxa.
  • Editor’s Note Link 433    Praeterea, si qua est Heleno prudentia uati,
  • 434si qua fides, animum si ueris implet Apollo,
  • 435unum illud tibi, nate dea, proque omnibus unum
  • Link 436praedicam et repetens iterumque iterumque monebo:
  • 437Iunonis magnae primum prece numen adora,
  • Link 438Iunoni cane uota libens dominamque potentem
  • pg 76 Link 439supplicibus supera donis; sic denique uictor
  • Link 440Trinacria finis Italos mittere relicta.
  • Editor’s Note Link 441huc ubi delatus Cumaeam accesseris urbem
  • 442diuinosque lacus et Auerna sonantia siluis,
  • Link 443insanam uatem aspicies quae rupe sub ima
  • Link 444fata canit foliisque notas et nomina mandat.
  • Editor’s Note445quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina uirgo
  • Link 446digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit:
  • Link 447illa manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt.
  • Editor’s Note Link 448uerum eadem, uerso tenuis cum cardine uentus
  • Link 449impulit et teneras turbauit ianua frondes,
  • 450numquam deinde cauo uolitantia prendere saxo
  • 451nec reuocare situs aut iungere carmina curat:
  • Link 452inconsulti abeunt sedemque odere Sibyllae.
  • Editor’s Note Link 453hic tibi ne qua morae fuerint dispendia tanti,
  • Link 454quamuis increpitent socii et ui cursus in altum
  • Link 455uela uocet possisque sinus implere secundos,
  • 456quin adeas uatem precibusque oracula poscas
  • 457ipsa canat uocemque uolens atque ora resoluat.
  • Editor’s Note458illa tibi Italiae populos uenturaque bella
  • 459et quo quemque modo fugiasque ferasque laborem
  • Link 460expediet, cursusque dabit uenerata sacerdos.
  • Editor’s Note461haec sunt quae nostra liceat te uoce moneri.
  • 462uade age et ingentem factis fer ad aethera Troiam.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 463    Quae postquam uates sic ore effatus amico est,
  • Link 464dona dehinc auro grauia ac secto elephanto
  • Link 465imperat ad nauis ferri, stipatque carinis
  • Link 466ingens argentum Dodonaeosque lebetas,
  • Link 467loricam consertam hamis auroque trilicem,
  • Link 468et conum insignis galeae cristasque comantis,
  • Link 469arma Neoptolemi. sunt et sua dona parenti.
  • Link 470addit equos, additque duces,
  • Link 471remigium supplet, socios simul instruit armis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 472interea classem uelis aptare iubebat
  • Link 473Anchises, fieret uento mora ne qua ferenti.
  • 474quem Phoebi interpres multo compellat honore:
  • Editor’s Note Link 475'coniugio, Anchisa, Veneris dignate superbo,
  • Link 476cura deum, bis Pergameis erepte ruinis,
  • Link 477ecce tibi Ausoniae tellus: hanc arripe uelis.
  • Link 478et tamen hanc pelago praeterlabare necesse est:
  • pg 77 Link 479Ausoniae pars illa procul quam pandit Apollo.
  • Link 480uade,' ait 'o felix nati pietate. quid ultra
  • Link 481prouehor et fando surgentis demoror Austros?'
  • Editor’s Note Link 482nec minus Andromache digressu maesta supremo
  • Link 483fert picturatas auri subtemine uestis
  • Link 484et Phrygiam Ascanio chlamydem (nec cedit honore),
  • Link 485textilibusque onerat donis, ac talia fatur:
  • Editor’s Note486'accipe et haec, manuum tibi quae monumenta mearum
  • 487sint, puer, et longum Andromachae testentur amorem,
  • Link 488coniugis Hectoreae. cape dona extrema tuorum,
  • Link 489o mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago.
  • Link 490sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat;
  • Link 491et nunc aequali tecum pubesceret aeuo.'
  • Editor’s Note492hos ego digrediens lacrimis adfabar obortis:
  • 493'uiuite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta
  • Link 494iam sua; nos alia ex aliis in fata uocamur.
  • Editor’s Note Link 495uobis parta quies: nullum maris aequor arandum,
  • Link 496arua neque Ausoniae semper cedentia retro
  • Link 497quaerenda. effigiem Xanthi Troiamque uidetis
  • 498quam uestrae fecere manus, melioribus, opto,
  • Link 499auspiciis, et quae fuerit minus obuia Grais.
  • Editor’s Note Link 500si quando Thybrim uicinaque Thybridis arua
  • Link 501intraro gentique meae data moenia cernam,
  • Link 502cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos,
  • Link 503Epiro Hesperiam (quibus idem Dardanus auctor
  • Link 504atque idem casus), unam faciemus utramque
  • Link 505Troiam animis: maneat nostros ea cura nepotes.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 506    Prouehimur pelago uicina Ceraunia iuxta,
  • Link 507unde iter Italiam cursusque breuissimus undis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 508sol ruit interea et montes umbrantur opaci:
  • Link 509sternimur optatae gremio telluris ad undam
  • 510sortiti remos passimque in litore sicco
  • Link 511corpora curamus; fessos sopor inrigat artus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 512necdum orbem medium Nox Horis acta subibat:
  • Link 513haud segnis strato surgit Palinurus et omnis
  • Link 514explorat uentos atque auribus aëra captat;
  • Editor’s Note Link 515sidera cuncta notat tacito labentia caelo,
  • Link 516Arcturum pluuiasque Hyadas geminosque Triones,
  • Link 517armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona.
  • Editor’s Note Link 518postquam cuncta uidet caelo constare sereno,
  • pg 78 Link 519dat clarum e puppi signum; nos castra mouemus
  • Link 520temptamusque uiam et uelorum pandimus alas.
  • Editor’s Note Link 521    Iamque rubescebat stellis Aurora fugatis
  • Link 522cum procul obscuros collis humilemque uidemus
  • Editor’s Note523Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates,
  • Link 524Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant.
  • Editor’s Note525tum pater Anchises magnum cratera corona
  • Link 526induit impleuitque mero, diuosque uocauit
  • 527stans celsa in puppi:
  • Editor’s Note528'di maris et terrae tempestatumque potentes,
  • Link 529ferte uiam uento facilem et spirate secundi.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 530crebrescunt optatae aurae portusque patescit
  • Link 531iam propior, templumque apparet in arce Mineruae;
  • Link 532uela legunt socii et proras ad litora torquent.
  • Editor’s Note Link 533portus ab Euroo fluctu curuatus in arcum,
  • Editor’s Note Link 534obiectae salsa spumant aspargine cautes,
  • Link 535ipse latet: gemino demittunt bracchia muro
  • Link 536turriti scopuli refugitque ab litore templum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 537quattuor hic, primum omen, equos in gramine uidi
  • Link 538tondentis campum late, candore niuali.
  • Editor’s Note Link 539et pater Anchises 'bellum, o terra hospita, portas:
  • Link 540bello armantur equi; bellum haec armenta minantur.
  • Link 541sed tamen idem olim curru succedere sueti
  • Link 542quadrupedes et frena iugo concordia ferre:
  • Editor’s Note543spes et pacis' ait. tum numina sancta precamur
  • Link 544Palladis armisonae, quae prima accepit ouantes,
  • Link 545et capita ante aras Phrygio uelamur amictu,
  • 546praeceptisque Heleni dederat quae maxima rite
  • Link 547Iunoni Argiuae iussos adolemus honores.
  • Editor’s Note548    Haud mora, continuo perfectis ordine uotis
  • Link 549cornua uelatarum obuertimus antemnarum,
  • Link 550Graiugenumque domos suspectaque linquimus arua.
  • Editor’s Note Link 551hinc sinus Herculei (si uera est fama) Tarenti
  • Link 552cernitur; attollit se diua Lacinia contra
  • Editor’s Note Link 553Caulonisque arces et nauifragum Scylaceum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 554tum procul e fluctu Trinacria cernitur Aetna,
  • 555et gemitum ingentem pelagi pulsataque saxa
  • Link 556audimus longe fractasque ad litora uoces,
  • Link 557exsultantque uada atque aestu miscentur harenae.
  • Editor’s Note Link 558et pater Anchises 'nimirum haec illa Charybdis:
  • pg 79 Link 559hos Helenus scopulos, haec saxa horrenda canebat.
  • 560eripite, o socii, pariterque insurgite remis.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 561haud minus ac iussi faciunt, primusque tridentem
  • 562contorsit laeuas proram Palinurus ad undas;
  • Link 563laeuam cuncta cohors remis uentisque petiuit.
  • Editor’s Note564tollimur in caelum curuato gurgite et idem
  • Link 565subducta ad Manis imos desedimus unda.
  • Link 566ter scopuli clamorem inter caua saxa dedere;
  • Link 567ter spumam elisam et rorantia uidimus astra.
  • Editor’s Note568interea fessos uentus cum sole reliquit
  • Link 569ignarique uiae Cyclopum adlabimur oris.
  • Editor’s Note Link 570    Portus ab accessu uentorum immotus et ingens
  • Link 571ipse; sed horrificis iuxta tonat Aetna ruinis,
  • Editor’s Note Link 572interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem
  • Link 573turbine fumantem piceo et candente fauilla,
  • Link 574attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit;
  • Link 575interdum scopulos auulsaque uiscera montis
  • Link 576erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
  • Link 577cum gemitu glomerat fundoque exaestuat imo.
  • Editor’s Note Link 578fama est Enceladi semustum fulmine corpus
  • Link 579urgeri mole hac, ingentemque insuper Aetnam
  • Link 580impositam ruptis flammam exspirare caminis,
  • Link 581et fessum quotiens mutet latus, intremere omnem
  • Link 582murmure Trinacriam et caelum subtexere fumo.
  • Editor’s Note583noctem illam tecti siluis immania monstra
  • Link 584perferimus, nec quae sonitum det causa uidemus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 585nam neque erant astrorum ignes nec lucidus aethra
  • Link 586siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila caelo,
  • 587et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat.
  • Editor’s Note Link 588    Postera iamque dies primo surgebat Eoo
  • 589umentemque Aurora polo dimouerat umbram,
  • Editor’s Note Link 590cum subito e siluis macie confecta suprema
  • Link 591ignoti noua forma uiri miserandaque cultu
  • Link 592procedit supplexque manus ad litora tendit.
  • Editor’s Note Link 593respicimus: dira inluuies immissaque barba,
  • Link 594consertum tegimen spinis; at cetera Graius,
  • 595et quondam patriis ad Troiam missus in armis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 596isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troia uidit
  • Link 597arma procul, paulum aspectu conterritus haesit
  • Link 598continuitque gradum; mox sese ad litora praeceps
  • pg 80Editor’s Note Link 599cum fletu precibusque tulit: 'per sidera testor,
  • Link 600per superos atque hoc caeli spirabile lumen,
  • Link 601tollite me, Teucri. quascumque abducite terras:
  • Editor’s Note Link 602hoc sat erit. scio me Danais e classibus unum
  • Link 603et bello Iliacos fateor petiisse penatis.
  • 604pro quo, si sceleris tanta est iniuria nostri,
  • 605spargite me in fluctus uastoque immergite ponto:
  • 606si pereo, hominum manibus periisse iuuabit.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 607dixerat et genua amplexus genibusque uolutans
  • 608haerebat. qui sit fari, quo sanguine cretus,
  • 609hortamur, quae deinde agitet fortuna fateri.
  • Editor’s Note610ipse pater dextram Anchises haud multa moratus
  • Link 611dat iuueni atque animum praesenti pignore firmat.
  • Link 612ille haec deposita tandem formidine fatur:
  • Editor’s Note613'sum patria ex Ithaca, comes infelicis Vlixi,
  • Link 614nomine Achaemenides, Troiam genitore Adamasto
  • Link 615paupere (mansissetque utinam fortuna!) profectus.
  • Editor’s Note Link 616hic me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt,
  • 617immemores socii uasto Cyclopis in antro
  • Editor’s Note618deseruere. domus sanie dapibusque cruentis,
  • Link 619intus opaca, ingens. ipse arduus, altaque pulsat
  • Link 620sidera: di talem terris auertite pestem!
  • Editor’s Note621nec uisu facilis nec dictu adfabilis ulli,
  • Link 622uisceribus miserorum et sanguine uescitur atro.
  • Editor’s Note623uidi egomet duo de numero cum corpora nostro
  • Link 624prensa manu magna medio resupinus in antro
  • Link 625frangeret ad saxum, sanieque aspersa natarent
  • Link 626limina; uidi atro cum membra fluentia tabo
  • 627manderet et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus,
  • Link 628haud impune quidem, nec talia passus Vlixes
  • Link 629oblitusue sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto.
  • Editor’s Note630nam simul expletus dapibus uinoque sepultus
  • Link 631ceruicem inflexam posuit iacuitque per antrum
  • Link 632immensus saniem eructans et frusta cruento
  • 633per somnum commixta mero, nos magna precati
  • Link 634numina sortitique uices una undique circum
  • 635fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto
  • Link 636ingens quod torua solum sub fronte latebat,
  • Link 637Argolici clipei aut Phoebeae lampadis instar,
  • Link 638et tandem laeti sociorum ulciscimur umbras.
  • pg 81Editor’s Note639sed fugite, o miseri, fugite atque ab litore funem
  • Link 640rumpite.
  • Link 641nam qualis quantusque cauo Polyphemus in antro
  • 642lanigeras claudit pecudes atque ubera pressat,
  • 643centum alii curua haec habitant ad litora uulgo
  • Link 644infandi Cyclopes et altis montibus errant.
  • Editor’s Note Link 645tertia iam lunae se cornua lumine complent
  • Link 646cum uitam in siluis inter deserta ferarum
  • 647lustra domosque traho uastosque ab rupe Cyclopas
  • Link 648prospicio sonitumque pedum uocemque tremesco.
  • Editor’s Note Link 649uictum infelicem, bacas lapidosaque corna,
  • Link 650dant rami, et uulsis pascunt radicibus herbae.
  • Editor’s Note Link 651omnia conlustrans hanc primum ad litora classem
  • 652conspexi uenientem. huic me, quaecumque fuisset,
  • Link 653addixi: satis est gentem effugisse nefandam.
  • 654uos animam hanc potius quocumque absumite leto.'
  • Editor’s Note Link 655    Vix ea fatus erat summo cum monte uidemus
  • Link 656ipsum inter pecudes uasta se mole mouentem
  • Link 657pastorem Polyphemum et litora nota petentem:
  • Link 658monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum.
  • Editor’s Note Link 659trunca manum pinus regit et uestigia firmat;
  • Link 660lanigerae comitantur oues: ea sola uoluptas
  • Link 661solamenque mali.
  • Editor’s Note662postquam altos tetigit fluctus et ad aequora uenit,
  • Link 663luminis effossi fluidum lauit inde cruorem
  • Link 664dentibus infrendens gemitu, graditurque per aequor
  • Link 665iam medium, necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit.
  • Editor’s Note666nos procul inde fugam trepidi celerare recepto
  • Link 667supplice sic merito tacitique incidere funem,
  • Link 668uertimus et proni certantibus aequora remis.
  • Link 669sensit, et ad sonitum uocis uestigia torsit.
  • Editor’s Note Link 670uerum ubi nulla datur dextra adfectare potestas
  • 671nec potis Ionios fluctus aequare sequendo,
  • 672clamorem immensum tollit, quo pontus et omnes
  • Link 673intremuere undae, penitusque exterrita tellus
  • Link 674Italiae curuisque immugiit Aetna cauernis.
  • Editor’s Note675at genus e siluis Cyclopum et montibus altis
  • Link 676excitum ruit ad portus et litora complent.
  • 677cernimus astantis nequiquam lumine toruo,
  • Link 678Aetnaeos fratres caelo capita alta ferentis,
  • pg 82 Link 679concilium horrendum, quales cum uertice celso
  • Link 680aëriae quercus aut coniferae cyparissi
  • Link 681constiterunt, silua alta Iouis lucusue Dianae.
  • Editor’s Note Link 682praecipitis metus acer agit quocumque rudentis
  • Link 683excutere et uentis intendere uela secundis.
  • Editor’s Note684contra iussa monent Heleni, Scyllamque Charybdinque
  • Link 685inter, utrimque uiam leti discrimine paruo,
  • Link 686ni teneam cursus: certum est dare lintea retro.
  • Editor’s Note687ecce autem Boreas angusta ab sede Pelori
  • Link 688missus adest; uiuo praeteruehor ostia saxo
  • Link 689Pantagiae Megarosque sinus Thapsumque iacentem.
  • Link 690talia monstrabat relegens errata retrorsus
  • Link 691litora Achaemenides, comes infelicis Vlixi.
  • Editor’s Note Link 692    Sicanio praetenta sinu iacet insula contra
  • Link 693Plemyrium undosum; nomen dixere priores
  • Link 694Ortygiam. Alpheum fama est huc Elidis amnem
  • Link 695occultas egisse uias subter mare, qui nunc
  • Link 696ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis.
  • Editor’s Note697iussi numina magna loci ueneramur, et inde
  • Link 698exsupero praepingue solum stagnantis Helori.
  • Editor’s Note Link 699hinc altas cautes proiectaque saxa Pachyni
  • Link 700radimus, et fatis numquam concessa moueri
  • Link 701apparet Camerina procul campique Geloi.
  • Link 702[immanisque Gela fluuii cognomine dicta]
  • Editor’s Note Link 703arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe
  • Link 704moenia, magnanimum quondam generator equorum;
  • Link 705teque datis linquo uentis, palmosa Selinus,
  • Link 706et uada dura lego saxis Lilybeia caecis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 707hinc Drepani me portus et inlaetabilis ora
  • Link 708accipit. hic pelagi tot tempestatibus actus
  • Link 709heu, genitorem, omnis curae casusque leuamen,
  • Link 710amitto Anchisen. hic me, pater optime, fessum
  • 711deseris, heu, tantis nequiquam erepte periclis.
  • Editor’s Note Link 712nec uates Helenus, cum multa horrenda moneret,
  • 713hos mihi praedixit luctus, non dira Celaeno.
  • Editor’s Note Link 714hic labor extremus, longarum haec meta uiarum,
  • 715hinc me digressum uestris deus appulit oris.
  • Editor’s Note Link 716    Sic pater Aeneas intentis omnibus unus
  • 717fata renarrabat diuum cursusque docebat.
  • Link 718conticuit tandem factoque hic fine quieuit.

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
1–12 Departure from the Troad
All bar the opening two lines of Book 2 are narrated by Aeneas to Dido and the mix of Phoenicians and Trojans present at the feast in her palace. Book 3 continues his narrative, uninterrupted until his closing silence is signalled in the final three verses (716–18). On the narrative of Book 2, see Introduction, pp. 12–13; it ends with the coming of dawn after the terrible night in which Troy has fallen. Aeneas, having encountered only the ghost of his wife Creusa on his return to the city, leaves once more, and finds that a significant number of refugees have gathered, ready to follow him into exile. At last, he says, he yields, and, raising his father on his shoulder, he heads for the hills (cessi et sublato montis genitore petiui, 804).
Dido's request at 1.753–5 was that her guest tell 'from the very beginning the trickery of the Greeks, the misfortunes of your people and your own wanderings' (a prima … origine … insidias … Danaum casusque tuorum erroresque tuos). Book 3 turns to the final part of the request, but verses 1–5 begin with a summary of the events of Book 2; the opening paragraph then briefly describes what happens before they leave the Troad (5–8), before culminating in yet another departure from Troy (10–12). Odysseus also narrates twice his leaving of Troy, but briefly in adjacent lines (Od. 9.38–9), and both times in unemotional participial phrases: '… the careworn return Zeus imposed on me departing from Troy (ἀπὸ Τροίηθεν ἰόντι‎). The wind bearing me from Ilion (Ἰλιόθεν με φέρων ἄνεμος‎) took me to the Cicones.'
Editor’s Note
1–5 Postquam: a traditional opening to an epic book. Odyssey 2, 8, 17 begin with ῏Ημος‎ ('when', introducing the arrival of dawn in each case), and two books within Odysseus' narrative (11 and 12) with Αὐτὰρ ἐπει‎́ ('but when'; so too Iliad 3, 15; similar is 20.1). More significant may be that Postquam itself starts what seems to have been the first line of the third book of Ennius' Annales (fr. 137 Skutsch) Postquam lumina sis oculis bonus Ancus reliquit ('after noble Ancus left the light with his eyes'). Silius too begins his third book with Postquam. The word occurs eight times in Book 3, more than any other book of the poem: narrative sequence is an important element here (cf. 192 n.).
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euertere … uisum <est> superis, ceciditque … et … fumat: A sequence of three verbs describes the fall. euertere has been used to mark the responsibility of the gods in Venus' words at 2.602–3 inclementia diuum | has euertit opes sternitque a culmine Troiam ('the harshness of the gods overturns this empire and throws Troy down from its height'); as V. uses the verb of felling trees at 11.136, Geo. 1.256, 2.208, it also recalls the simile of the uprooted mountain ash with which Aeneas ends his vision of the gods destroying the city (2.626–31). (oc)casus is used of the city's fall at 2.432, 507. After the divine decision and the climactic event, fumat expresses the ongoing result (as when smoke is still visible at verse 823 of Euripides' Hecuba, a play that is the major source for 13–68).
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res Asiae Priamique … gentem: Troy is presented first as the capital of an Asian empire (OLD res 16) and then through its royal family, who have played a large part in Aeneas' account in Book 2 (in addition to 453–558, the scenes in the palace, he has told of Hector's ghost at 268–97 and of Cassandra at 403–15). He is just about to leave Asia.
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immeritam is given extra weight by the enjambment*. Aeneas brings out the way that not everything determined by the gods is deserved by mortals; but the epithet may also evoke the ongoing debate about the culpability of the Trojans in the Iliad (see, e.g., 13.622–7).
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superbum: 'lofty' (OLD 1c): the sense of height contrasts with humo (3). The epithet is commonly negative ('arrogant'), but also used more positively ('magnificent'), e.g. in the description of Aeneas' shield, for the doorposts of the temple of Palatine Apollo (8.721). Fowler (2000: 49–50) suggests that both connotations are present here, with the poet, or rather the gods, seeing the pride that comes before the fall: the Greek equivalent ὑπερφίαλος‎ is used of the Trojans by Athena and Poseidon at Iliad 21.414 and 459.
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Ilium … Troia: the grandeur of the city is symbolized by the co-existence of two equally famous names, a fact with which poets liked to play through such juxtapositions (2.624–5 omne … uisum considere in ignis | Ilium et ex imo uerti Neptunia Troia 'All Ilium seemed to sink into fire and Neptune's Troy to be overturned from its foundation', pointedly echoed here; Hor. Odes 1.10.14–15; Prop. 3.1.31–2).
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omnis humo fumat: 'was entirely smoking from the ground'. Each word contributes to the picture of utter destruction: the whole city has been levelled to the ground and reduced to smoke. For the present tense we may compare Venus' vivid appeal at 10.45–6 per euersae … fumantia Troiae | excidia ('by the smoking ruins of overturned Troy'), and for the combination of present and past after postquam, cf. 192, and Ecl. 1.30 postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit ('once Amaryllis was caring for me and Galatea had left'). The ancient commentator Probus thought that fumat was syncopated* from fumauit, but this seems far-fetched when the form is easily understood as a present. Aeneas will threaten to burn Latinus' city to the ground at 12.569 aequa solo fumantia culmina ponam.
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Neptunia: Neptune (and Apollo) built Troy's walls, only to be defrauded of payment by the then king Laomedon: hence his comment towards the end of the voyage, 5.810–11 cuperem cum uertere ab imo | structa meis manibus periurae moenia Troiae, 'though I wanted to overturn the walls of perjured Troy that had been constructed by my hands'; Venus describes this scene of destruction at 2.610–12.
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diuersa: they do not 'seek' exile 'in various places' so best taken as 'distant' (12.621; OLD 4), though V. may have chosen the epithet to hint at the different outcomes for different groups.
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exilia: cf. 11. Anchises has refused to countenance exile at 2.638; but at 2.780–2 Creusa's ghost foretells longa exsilia and a distant destination described in riddling terms, and by 2.798 it is the purpose of the gathering band (collectam exilio).
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desertas … terras: the theme reappears several times in Book 3, notably at 121–3 where excitement at a Trojan return to Crete is raised by the rumour that Idomeneus has abandoned his kingdom (deserta … litora, sedes … relictas). The fact that Latium is far from deserted will prove problematic in the second half of the poem, notably at 7.475–510 where Iulus shoots a stag, which turns out to be a domesticated animal and thus causes the initial conflict. However, the participle has a general validity, in the manner of an oracle: Latium was 'left' by the Trojans' ancestor Dardanus (so Servius; cf. 167).
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quaerere … agimur: 'we are driven to seek'. The same infinitive appears after agere also at 7.393, rudentis excutere at 682–3: see J. Penney in Adams & Mayer 1999: 254.
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auguriis … diuum: 'by omens from the gods'. This refers to the instructions and portents Aeneas has received in Book 2 (see Introduction, pp. 12–13): in particular Aeneas recalls his father's words uestrum hoc augurium (703), addressed to the di patrii. But the present tense also allows for further portents in the period before they actually set sail: 4.345–6 imply contact with oracles in Asia.
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5–8 classem: the building of the fleet is treated at greater length in Book 9 (77–122): Cybele (111 n.) is there revealed to have allowed Aeneas to cut down her sacred grove on Ida (she retains his wife Creusa in Asia, 2.788, perhaps as recompense); Turnus' attack on the boats becomes the moment when (as Jupiter had promised) they turn to sea-nymphs.
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sub ipsa | Antandro 'under the very walls of Antandros': within the single place-name V. combines realism and mythography. Antandros was a ship-building town, on the coast but close to Ida and its supplies of timber and pitch (Thuc. 4.52.3; Xen. Hell. 1.1.25, 2.1.10; Geo. 3.450, 4.41); as it stood some 40 miles south-east of Troy it was unlikely to be visited by Greeks returning home. The geographer Pomponius Mela (1.92) reports, as an alternative to derivation from the island of Andros, a story that Ascanius ruled in the area and gave up the town as a ransom when he was captured by the Greeks; the town gained its name from ἀντ‎̓ ἀνδρὸς‎ 'in place of the man'. The same derivation is given by Servius, but linked to a ransom for Polydorus, who will be prominent in V.'s next episode. Neither of these fits the narrative of the Aeneid, but passing evocation of rejected stories is part of the learned poet's style.
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montibus Idae: the first of seven mountains in the book, culminating in the biggest, Etna, which will dominate the final major episode.
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incerti stands in apposition* to the unexpressed subject of molimur and on it depend the two indirect questions ('uncertain where the fates are bearing us, where it is granted that we settle'). It begins the book on a note of suspense, and is nicely at odds with the fixity implied by fata (Introduction, pp. 35–8). At 5.2 in his departure from Carthage, a city then lit by flames, he is by contrast certus iter ('certain in his route').
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contrahimusque uiros: the phrase again reprises the end of Book 2: at 796–800, Aeneas is amazed by the number of people who have collected at the temple of Ceres along with the members of his household.
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8–9 uix prima inceperat aestas, | et: V. frequently co-ordinates uix + pluperfect with et (5.857, 6.498) or que (2.692; similarly 11.296) or no conjunction at all (3.90, 10.659, 12.650), instead of inverted cum. The start of summer is of course the expected time to begin sailing (Hesiod, Works & Days 678–82; Ov. Fast. 4.131–2; Apul. Met. 11.5.5, 11.16.5–17). The book begins with a precise marker of time; such details will recur (notably at 284), but without the precision to match Dido's reference to septima aestas at 1.755–6. prima initiates the Trojans' travels (523 n.).
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pater Anchises: the combination is repeated eleven times in the poem: he is paterfamilias, head of the household, and thus takes command; but at other times Aeneas leads (Introduction, pp. 41–2).
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iubebat may be taken as inceptive imperfect ('began to order'): as in the parallel usage at 472 reluctance to leave may be implied.
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dare fatis uela: the expected dative after uela dare is uentis (as at 4.546, 8.707–8). As in the words quo fata ferant (7), Aeneas marks his departure as something portentous, dependent on the will of Jupiter and not the whim of the winds.
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10–12 cum … relinquo: editors have this as a continuation of the previous sentence; but the reader does not look for a further temporal clause after uix … et (cf. Williams 1983: 271). On the other hand, this clause, looking back, makes a good setting for the movement of the exile at the start of his long voyage, out onto the open sea, accompanied by his people and the gods: 'When in tears I leave the shores of my homeland and the harbours, and the plains where Troy once was, I am carried onto the deep, an exile, along with my comrades and my son, the gods of the household and the Olympian gods.'
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patriae lacrimans: both words bring out the emotion of the departure, especially for Dido and the Carthaginians, also forced to leave their patria (1.357: P). Jason weeps as he leaves his homeland at Apollonius, Arg. 1.535, and according to Servius (ad loc.) Naevius had the wives (sic) of Aeneas and Anchises weeping as they left Troy.
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campos ubi Troia fuit, feror … in altum: as in verse 3 (humo) Troy is figured as flat (see Introduction, p. 40), and in choosing altum ('the deep' or 'the high <sea>') rather than e.g. aequor V. reprises the contrast between what Aeneas leaves and where he heads (n.b. montis at 2.804, hinting at Rome as well as the immediate destination of Ida). fuit recalls the words of Panthus to Aeneas, announcing the end of Troy (2.325: fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium): the perfect tense of esse regularly implies 'is no more'.
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feror once more reworks fata ferant (7).
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cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis: a line that looks magnificently back and forward, back to Pyrrhus' words when he releases Roman captives in Book 6 of Ennius' Annales (fr. 190 Sk.: dono—ducite—doque uolentibus cum magnis dis; 'I grant—do take them—and give them with the good grace of the great gods'), and ahead to 8.679 [R], where it is Augustus at the battle of Actium who is accompanied by 'the senators and people, the Penates and the great gods': the religious aspect remains the same, but the more intimate 'comrades and son' have grown to the full identity of Rome, senatus populusque Romanorum (or SPQR, as drain covers in the city still attest). In the Ennian line cum means 'with the support of', as it must also at 8.679; but Aeneas has with him his comrades and son, the penates too (1.68, 378; 2.293, 717, 747; 3.148), and presumably also the magni di: but what does that phrase signify? The balanced phrasing of the line implies that they are to be taken as separate from the Penates, hence perhaps the Olympian deities (Servius lists Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Mercury), accompanying Aeneas most famously in the form of the fire of Vesta and the Palladium, the image of Pallas Athena. There are complications, however. Varro (cited by Probus on Ecl. 6.31) reports three altar bases in the middle of the Circus dedicated to di magni, di potentes, di <ualentes>; these evoke the Θεοὶ Μεγάλοι‎, who had a famous shrine on Samothrace, an Aegean island north-west of Troy (S. G. Cole, Theoi Megaloi: The Cult of the Great Gods at Samothrace, Leiden, 1984). Macrobius (Sat. 3.4.9) and Servius (1.378) give Greek equivalents for all three phrases (θεοὺς μεγάλους, θεοὺς δυνατούς, θεοὺς χρηστούς‎), and report that Cassius Hemina identified these Samothracian gods as the Penates. Moreover, the Penates are themselves described as magni at Aen. 9.258 (and perhaps 3.160). Varro (Ling. Lat. 5.58–9) links the di magni with Samothrace, but identifies them as Caelum et Terra ('Sky and Earth'). He also notes the common belief (attributed to him by Servius on 3.12) that they are Castor and Pollux, to whom offerings were made there by shipwrecked sailors: this pair would certainly be apt deities for Aeneas to carry with him on his voyage, and the ancient statues in the temple of the Penates on the Velia suggest them in their youth and military garb (Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.68.1–2; Augustus had the temple restored, R.G. 19.2; a surviving panel from the Ara Pacis apparently depicts them). Dionysius gives the fullest account, and one that is compatible with Vergil's (1.67–9, 2.66): the holy objects transported to Italy by Aeneas were the images of the Great Gods and the Palladium, previously brought to the Troad by Dardanus, when he migrated from Samothrace (as Latinus will recall at Aen. 7.207–8), after founding the temple. V.'s brevity thus opens up a host of meanings; and (as Horsfall points out) the phrase neatly marks the journey from the Troad (11) to Thrace (13–14), past Samothrace itself. For the spondaic* fifth foot and closing monosyllable, see Introduction, pp. 46, 49.
Editor’s Note
13–68 Thrace
Immediately on landing in Thrace, Aeneas sets to work on a new city for the Trojan refugees, the first of five occasions in the Aeneid on which he works on new settlements (3.132–4: Pergamea; 4.260: Carthage; 5.755–7: Segesta; 7.157–9: the camp at the mouth of the Tiber); after the action of the poem is finished, he will build another city in Italy, Lavinium. His city-building in Thrace is aborted after a blood-curdling encounter with the speaking body of his buried cousin Polydorus.
In one of a number of evocations of Greek tragedy in the Aeneid (see Introduction), Vergil here makes striking use of the prologue of Euripides' revenge play Hecuba, in which Polydorus' ghost appears and tells the same story of his murder by the local king Polymestor as Aeneas does here (49–57): G(a). There was a Latin version by Ennius, which survives only in fragments (171–84 Jocelyn); for an English translation see Warmington's Loeb (1.290–9). Similarity and difference characterize the intertextual* play. The Euripidean story of Polydorus and Polymestor, implanted in the Aeneas legend by V., allows Aeneas to appeal to Dido's ready sympathy by exploiting the similar saga of gold-induced impiety, told him by his disguised mother Venus at 1.343–64 (P), which Dido has suffered when her husband Sychaeus was murdered at an altar by her brother Pygmalion. (The link here suggests that the underground concealment of the treasure (1.358–9) is borrowed from Eur. Hec. 1002.) Through Pygmalion's furor for gold and the Thracian king's violation of hospitality, both tales powerfully embody the fundamental theme of impiety.
A key point of difference is that in the play Polydorus is in two places: his body is being washed along the shore (28–9: cf. Ennius, Hec. fr. 179 Jocelyn undantem salum) while his spirit is hovering above his captive mother's tent (30–2: the actor probably appeared above the stage building). In the Aeneid Polydorus is neither on the sea nor in the air: he lies covered in an overgrown mound. (As in the plays V.'s Polydorus has not been duly buried: the word sepulto in 41 has bitterly ironical overtones.) Missing from the Aeneid episode is the figure of Hecuba, who will be confronted with the corpse (Hec. 679–720) and react with utter horror and vengeful violence towards Polymestor (1035–55). In Aeneas' version pious ritual ends the story. He presents Dido with a tale of inhuman abuse of hospitality; she will not abuse hospitality (n.b. 4.600–6), but she will end up seeking vengeance (4.615–29).
Another difference is geographical. Euripides' Polydorus was killed on the Thracian Chersonese north of the Hellespont, the narrow channel (bridged by Xerxes and swum by Leander and Lord Byron) that parts Europe from Asia (see Map 2). It is a liminal location eminently suitable for an exploration of Greek and barbarian behaviour. But since the smoke of Troy is visible from there (Hec. 823), it would be too close for a sensible creation of a new Trojan city. Vergil is unspecific about where Aeneas starts building. In line with the legend (Lycophron 1236, Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.49.4, Livy 1.1.4), he comes to Thrace, and calls the city he founds Aeneadae (18). There was a city Aenus at the mouth of the river Hebrus: in addition to the similarity of the name (though Servius writes on 17 that it was derived from a companion of Odysseus), Pliny (Nat. 4.43) tells us that Polydorus' tumulus was here. Though Aenus is referred to by Homer (Il. 4.520) and so would have existed before the arrival of Aeneas, another city called Aeneia is too far to the west to be a likely candidate (but see Erskine 2001: 93–8 and Hornblower on Lycophron 1236).
The ceremony in which the Trojans accord Polydorus proper burial combines Greek and Roman elements (Bailey 1935: 59–60, 290–1). The offerings of milk and blood sacrifices (66–7) look forward to the honours paid to Anchises on the anniversary of his death (5.77–8) and are suggestive of Greek hero cult (Panoussi 2009: 160–4). Though the shortest of the poem's funeral scenes (cf. 5.72–103 (commemoration of Anchises' death), 6.212–35 (Misenus), 11.139–81 (Pallas)), it is substantial enough to serve as a pious correction of the perfunctory reference at Eur. Hec. 894–7.
Editor’s Note
13–14 procul: 'at a distance'; Servius points out that the word can mean either satis longe ('rather far') or 'not very far'. Aenus is some 130 miles from Antandros, but subsequently the Trojans have travelled much farther.
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uastis … campis: ablative of quality (G&L §400) or description ('a country of vast plains'), or ablative of place where ('is inhabited/tilled on its vast plains').
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colitur means both 'is inhabited' and, in view of the ploughing mentioned in the following line, 'is tilled'; for the fertility of Thrace, cf. Iliad 9.71–2, 11.222, 20.485, and esp. Eur. Hec. 8–9 (G(a)).
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Mauortia: Mauors is a poetic form of Mars, the god of war; Ares, his Greek equivalent, was traditionally of Thracian origin (see Janko on Iliad 13.301–3; cf. Od. 8.361). In the Iliad he is on the side of the Trojans in the Trojan War, even fighting for them in Book 5; but if this fact offers any consolation to Aeneas, he is soon to be disabused: the god rather prefigures the role of spears in the episode.
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Thracĕs: a Greek nominative plural.
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regnata 'ruled over': V. uses the previously intransitive verb regno in the passive (6.770, 793).
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acri … Lycurgo: dative of the agent. The name evokes impiety and tragedy. Homer (Il. 6.130–40) says that for attacking the nurses of Dionysus Lycurgus was first blinded by Zeus and then died. We also know of two lost plays of Aeschylus about Lycurgus (Edonians, i.e. maenads, and the satyr-play Lycurgus) and a Latin Lycurgus by Naevius. These apparently told how he resisted the introduction of the worship of Dionysus into Thrace, and was led by a mad vision of the hated vine to attack his own son: violence against plants/people is a feature of V.'s episode too (S. Casali, 'La vite dietro il mirto: Lycurgus, Polydorus e la violazione delle piante in Eneide 3', SIFC 4.3 (2005), 233–50).
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15–16 hospitium antiquum Troiae sociique penates: 'of old a place friendly to Troy with allied tutelary* gods': hospitium (83 n.) has a local meaning here. The Thracians are allies of the Trojans in Homer (Il. 2.844–5). Here the Thracian king links himself with Agamemnon when he realizes that the Trojans are finished (53–4). The Penates of Troy are of course travelling with Aeneas (12, 148).
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dum fortuna fuit: a précis of Eur. Hec. 16–18 (G(a)). dum (= while) with a past tense means 'exactly as long as (and no longer)': the Thracian king is a fair-weather friend; cf. Ennius, fr. 351 (Jocelyn) amicus certus in re incerta cernitur, which has been taken by some scholars as a line of the Hecuba referring to Polymestor.
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16–18 feror huc: after description of the destination, Aeneas moves on to narrate the Trojans' arrival, a pattern that recurs across the book: p. 31.
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moenia prima loco: prima marks the start of the building, but also that these are Aeneas' 'first walls'. Here we have a statement of the city-building theme established at 1.7 altae moenia Romae.
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fatis ingressus iniquis: 'entering <on a venture> to which the fates were ill-disposed'. Fatis iniquis, a pointer to what ensues, may be regarded grammatically as an ablative of attendant circumstances.
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Aeneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo: fingo is regularly used of coining a name: OLD 6b. For a discussion of whether the city was Aeneia in Chalcidice or Aenus at the mouth of the Hebrus, see 13–68 n. The interlaced word order helps to convey the identity of Aeneas' name with the one he gives his city. The phrasing recalls Jupiter's prophecy of the foundation of Rome at 1.276–7 Romulus … condet | moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet ('Romulus shall found a city and call them Romans from his own name'): on the one hand this must not be the place, but on the other Aeneas provides a model for his descendant.
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19–21 sacra: the first of many instances within the book where Aeneas brings out his religious commitment.
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Dionaeae matri: Aeneas' mother, Venus, daughter (by Jupiter) of Dione, child of Oceanus and Tethys: cf. Iliad 5.370–1. Elsewhere in Latin Dione is used for Venus herself (Cat. 56.6, Cicero, de Natura Deorum 3.59).
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diuis … auspicibus coeptorum operum: 'to the gods who are the supporters (auspex, OLD 3) of work <newly> begun'. According to Servius 'the gods who preside over new undertakings' are Jupiter (cf. 9.625), the god of the citadel, Apollo, the god of prophecy, and Liber (= Bacchus), the god of liberty.
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supero … caelicolum regi: lit. 'to the king above of the heaven-dwellers': an elevated periphrasis for Jupiter, well adapted to the sacrificial context. caelicolum uses the shorter ending of the first declension genitive plural; from Ennius on it is the normal poetic form.
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nitentem … taurum: 'a sleek bull', i.e. one gleaming with health. There is an odd notion, deriving from Servius and Macrobius (Sat. 3.10.3–4), that the subsequent prodigy occurs because Aeneas had sacrificed an inappropriate victim to Jupiter: see Dyson 2001: 29–35. But bulls are regularly sacrificed to Jupiter elsewhere, e.g. Geo. 2.146–7, Ovid, Met. 4.756, Fasti 1.579, and the pious hero is proceeding with due religious propriety.
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22–68 The violation of trees and subsequent punishment is a repeated motif in Hellenistic* poetry: Callimachus, Hymn 6.24–115: Erysichthon; Apollonius, Arg. 2.469–89: the son of Paraebius; Nicander, fr. 41: Dryope. The first and last of these myths recur in Ovid's Metamorphoses (8.739–878: Erysicthon; 9.336–93: Dryope). Erysicthon and the father of Paraebius ignore warnings given to protect the nymph who lives in the tree; Dryope innocently picks lotus flowers to give to her son, not realizing that she is attacking Lotis herself, who has been transformed into the tree in escaping from Priapus. Ovid bases his Dryope narrative on this passage: as well as motifs and diction (e.g. guttae of blood 28/9.344; horror, 29/9.345; conuellere, 31/9.351; lentus 31/9.353) he imitates Vergil's structure (personal witness followed by history of the hidden individual), as does Dante in Inferno, Canto 13, which has clear allusions* to both episodes (Durling & Martinez 1996, ad loc.). Blood and sound also come from a plant at Argonautica 3.846–66, when Medea gathers sap from the root of the 'Prometheion', which looks like fresh-cut flesh: as Hunter puts it (1993: 173), 'what brings safety in the Argonautica (Medea's potion) is rejected in the Aeneid.… from such a vision Aeneas and his men must flee'. But we should also note that the Trojans flee unharmed, protected perhaps by their piety and their sense of due process (58–9) as well as their innocence. R. Thomas, 'Tree violation and ambivalence in Virgil', TAPhA 118 (1988), 261–73, points out links with 12.766–87 (S), where the Trojans are not punished for cutting down a wild olive sacred to Faunus that might have obstructed their movements in battle. In response to Turnus' prayer to Faunus the stump holds fast Aeneas' spear; but Venus plucks it out. Both passages begin with forte (22/12.766); note also e.g. accessi(t) 24/12.787; uellitur 28/ reuellit 12.787; lentus, 31/12.773, 781; conuellere, 31/12.774; obluctor 38/luctans 12.781. Unlike Thomas, we would stress the contrasts: though the greater god still protects them, the Trojans are neither pious nor innocent in Book 12.
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22–3 forte: Aeneas says that the mound just happened (forte) to be close by; but the wood-gathering necessary for the decking of the altars leads into the portent in a way that seems more than mere chance (cf. 6.179–211, where Aeneas is led to the Golden Bough while collecting wood for Misenus' funeral pyre).
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tumulus, as Servius points out, can mean both a natural and a burial mound (OLD 1, 2).
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quo … summo: 'on the top of which'. The absence of a verb in this relative clause may add to the impression of a dense and impenetrable bristle of shoots.
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cornea … | uirgulta <sunt> et densis hastibilus horrida myrtus: 'cornel bushes and a myrtle bristling with close-packed shafts'. Both plants were used for making spears: Geo. 2.447–8: myrtus ualidis hastilibus et bona bello | cornus ('myrtle is good for strong spear-shafts and cornel for war'), Aen. 7.817 pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum ('pastoral myrtle with a spear point fixed on'). The spear metaphor evokes the spiky growth of the myrtle, but the shafts will before long prove to contain their literal meaning. Myrtle is also relevant here as the plant sacred to Venus: cf. 5.72 uelat materna tempora myrto (Aeneas 'covers his brow with his mother's myrtle'); Pliny, Nat. 12.3, 15.120; and various passages in Ovid where it symbolizes love elegy* (Amores 1.1.29, 3.1.34) or is carried by the goddess (Ars 3.53, Fasti 4.15). For the breathy alliteration here cf. Aen. 10.178 (horrentibus hastis) and 11.601–2 (hastis | horret). Coo (MD 59 (2007), 196) notes the proleptic* force of horrida: emotional horror quickly follows (26, 29).
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24–6 uiridem … siluam: 'verdant undergrowth' (Geo. 1.76, 152); but siluam is used of the forest of spears in Aeneas' shield at 10.887, a much-imitated image (cf. Lucan 6.205, Stat. Theb. 5.533, Silius 4.619). uiridem coupled with frondentibus in 25 suggests healthy growth, an impression soon to be horrifically subverted.
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ab humo: prepositions of motion are normally (as at 3) not used with humus, but V. writes ab humo also at 5.452, and later writers sometimes follow his lead.
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tegerem ut: the postponement* of subordinating conjunctions such as ut from the head of their clause is fairly common (see Introduction, pp. 50–1); it is especially striking when the verb precedes, and V. is not averse to this effect: Aen. 11.161, 796, 856, 12.555.
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horrendum et dictu uideo mirabile monstrum: the interlacing of the word order here—horrendum agrees with monstrum and the ablative supine dictu must be taken with mirabile ('wondrous to relate': see G&L §436)—is expressive, and adds emphasis to the mind-numbing impression that the portent made on the narrator. There is a leap from the sequence of historic* verbs to the vivid present of uideo, and the resonantly nasal* ms and ns add to the effect. A monstrum is an inexplicable phenomenon; it can be favourable (as at Aen. 2.680, the flame on Ascanius' head), or neutral (3.307), or horrific, as often in this paradoxographical* book, e.g. when the words monstrum horrendum are used again of the Cyclops (658). dictu may remind us that Aeneas is recounting these events at Dido's banquet.
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27–9 quae prima … huic: as frequently in Latin, both in prose and poetry, when the relative clause launches a sentence, its antecedent (prima arbos) is taken into the clause, if necessary adapting its case to its new position. huic refers to the tree and might be classed as 'dative of the thing concerned' or 'dative of disadvantage': 'in the case of' or 'from the first tree'.
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ruptis radicibus: 'an admirable rending, ripping alliteration' (Horsfall).
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atro liquuntur sanguine guttae: 'there trickle drops of black blood' (ablative of material). For blood flowing from plants, see 22–68 n., and Ovid, Met. 2.360, where Clymene pulls off branches as she tries to stop her daughters, the sisters of Phaethon, turning into poplars. atro sanguine (repeated in 33 and 622) nods to Homer's μέλαν αἷμα‎ (Il. 4.149); cf. Ennius fr. 297 Jocelyn tabo sanie et sanguine atro ('pus, gore and black blood'), Geo. 3.221, Livy 38.21.9: in all these instances it is used of the dead.
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terram tabo maculant: a grisly echo of the self-castration of Attis in Catullus 63.7 recente terrae sola sanguine maculans ('spotting [or defiling] the surface of the earth with fresh blood'). More gore will appear in the caves of Polyphemus (618–27) and Cacus (8.197).
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29–30 mihi: possessive dative ('my limbs … my blood').
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frigidus … gelidus: horror and fear are associated with cold in ancient as in modern thought from Homer on (e.g. 'chilling fear' at Il. 9.2). Aristotle states that 'coldness accompanies fear' (Part. An. 2.650b28); and at 3.290–1 Lucretius follows two lines on the heat of anger in the mind with est et frigida multa, comes formidinis, aura, | quae ciet horrorem membris et concitat artus ('there is also a great chill wind, companion of fear, which rouses horror in the body and shakes the limbs').
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coit formidine sanguis: For the congealing of the blood, cf. 259, 10.452, 12.905. The phrase is cited by Isidore of Seville, at Etymologiae 10.102, as evidence to back up his claim timor sanguinem gelat, qui coactus gignit formidinem ('fear freezes the blood, and when that congeals it produces dread'). Quintilian, the teacher of rhetoric (c. ad 35–100), at 8.3.70 cites 69–70 to show how descriptive detail creates vividness: contingit … claritas etiam ex accidentibus ('vividness can be obtained also by describing the incidental features of a situation').
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31–3 rursus et alterius lentum conuellere uimen: 'again to pull up the tough shoot of a second <tree> too'. The first three words stress the repetition of the action. et alterius is replicated at the same position in 33, et comes second in all three lines, and sequitur (33) follows on from insequor (32): the idea of identical consequences is driven home. lentum here combines the meanings of 'pliant', 'tough', and 'clinging' (OLD 1, 2, 3): the shoot will not break; it has to be pulled out of the mound.
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conuellere … insequor et … temptare: 'I press on to tear up and to investigate' (OLD tempto, 2); for the bold use of infinitives cf. 4–5 quaerere … agimur. Aeneas understandably needs to find out the causes of the portent. Adler 2003: 282–4 represents him as a sceptical inquirer, eager to find out 'the deeply hidden causes' but disabled by his fearful reaction and retreating into conventional piety.
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causas penitus temptare latentis: a reworking of Lucretius, who at 1.145 promises to enable the reader to 'perceive things deeply hidden' (res … occultas penitus conuisere). At Geo. 2.490 felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas ('blessed is the man who can recognize the causes of things') V. has saluted the natural philosopher; but causae can be not only scientific explanations, but also the stories that explain origins (e.g. in the incipit* at Ovid, Fasti 1.1, Tempora cum causis, 'The times of the year and the stories behind them'); the tale of Polydorus is far from scientific, and at odds with Lucretius' Epicureanism, which stresses the non-existence of ghosts.
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34–6 multa mouens animo: modelled, in alliteration as well as sense, on Odyssey 1.427 πολλὰ φρεσὶ μερμηρίζων‎, 'turning over much in his thoughts' (Harrison on Aen. 10.890, where the formula* is repeated). Nymphas uenerabar agrestis: there is no doubt some inceptive force in this imperfect ('I began to worship') but the tense also implies that he continues to pray as he acts. The Elder Cato (Agr. 139) and Ovid (Fasti 4.753–5) suggest prayers designed to escape the offence of cutting sacred trees. The wood-nymphs (Dryads or Hamadryads) could clearly be helpful with this particular situation.
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Gradiuum … patrem: Mars is appealed to, as the local god (13 n.). The origin of the name Grādiuus is uncertain. Despite the a (long save at Ovid, Met. 6.427), Latin writers regularly connect it with grădior ('the marching god'): so Servius here, and Festus 97 a gradiendo in bella.
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Geticis: the Getae lived in northern Thrace.
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qui … praesidet is a conventional Roman usage to identify tutelary* deities: cf. Cicero, Verr. 5.188, Livy 38.51.8 deos qui Capitolio atque arci praesident; Hickson 1993: 38–9.
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rite: 'with due response to prayer' (OLD 1b).
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secundarent … leuarent: 'grant a favourable outcome to what I had seen and lighten the omen'. For secundare cf. secundus of winds (529 n). The subjunctives are used after the idea of praying present in uenerabar (OLD 1b). The technical name for the internal rhyme of secundarent and leuarent is 'leonine': other instances involving verbs come at 344, 5.853, 10.756. The effect here adds a sense of ritual to Aeneas' prayer.
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37–8 tertia marks the third, climactic assault upon the shrubs. Effortfulness is conveyed by the words maiore … nisu, adgredior, aduersae and obluctor, as well as by the hero's posture, on his knees straining against the sand. The elisions at the caesura in the third and fourth feet of 38 (genibusqu(e) aduers(ae) obluctor) add to the effect.
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hastilia may be poetic plural*, or Aeneas may be pulling at a collection of stalks.
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39–40 eloquar an sileam: Servius comments with a fine appreciation: parenthesis ad miraculum posita, qua magnitudinem monstri ostendit. et bene auditorem attentum uult facere ('a miraculously well-placed parenthesis through which he conveys the greatness of the portent. And he wants to make his auditor thoroughly attentive.'). As at 26, we are reminded that Aeneas is narrating these events (Williams 1983: 274). Under such circumstances silence is not an option. Again the phrasing evokes Greek tragedy: for the antithesis* speech vs silence Horsfall directs us to Eur. Ion 758, Andr. 679, I.T. 938, Orest. 1539–40.
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lacrimabilis: 'tearful' (OLD 2) or 'worthy of tears' (OLD 1)? asks Servius. No doubt both. Adjectives ending in -bilis are usually passive (i.e. 'to be cried over') but for the active sense cf. e.g. Aen. 10.481 penetrabile telum ('a weapon that can pierce'); and Horace uses illacrimabilis as an epithet for Pluto, god of the underworld, 'who cannot cry' (Odes 2.14.6), as well as in a passive sense ('unwept') at 4.9.26. The word is a concealed stage direction, letting us know the emotional register in which Aeneas will deliver Polydorus' speech.
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uox reddita: a voice in answer to Aeneas' attack on the mound.
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fertur ad auris: a frequent phrase, but here the sound 'is carried to' Aeneas' ears not in normal conversation but from the depths of the mound.
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41–3 miserum: supply me (and likewise mihi with sepulto, me with confixum, 45 n.). Though the epithet is regularly applied to the dead, here it is no cliché: Polydorus, his shade, and his corpse have undergone the utmost misery.
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Aenea: the normal form of the Greek vocative. The horror of the unknowing assault on the corpse is increased by the expression of familiarity.
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iam parce sepulto, | parce pias scelerare manus: parce is constructed first with a dative ('spare a buried man'), then with an infinitive ('refrain from desecrating'), a mainly poetic usage: cf. Cat. 64.146 nihil promittere parcunt ('there is nothing they refrain from promising'), Lucr. 2.680, Hor. Odes 3.8.26. Ovid removes the linguistic complexity when he echoes the phrasing laceras … parce … parce at Met. 2.361–2, as the sisters of Phaethon react to their mother's desperate assault (28 n.): 'parce, precor, mater,' quaecumque est saucia clamat, | 'parce, precor: nostrum laceratur in arbore corpus' (' "Spare me, mother, I pray," whichever is wounded cries out, "spare me: my body is torn in the form of the tree" ').
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iam = tandem: Aeneas has been making his third assault on the mound; now at last he should stop.
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sepulto: there is a bitter irony here (13–68 n.): Polydorus has not been granted burial; on the contrary he has suffered a hideous perversion of it. The Trojans will rectify this at 62–8: note the echoing sepulcro at the end of 67.
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pias … manus: Aeneas' Polydorus knows his Aeneas, reinforces the image being given to Dido, and exculpates his relative.
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non me tibi Troia: Polydorus' first use of the first person is negated, but he then shows his closeness to Aeneas with the juxtaposed pronouns. For the unusual rhythm, see Introduction, p. 49.
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non … tibi … externum: 'not a stranger to you'. Both Polydorus and Aeneas were members of the Trojan royal family and the reference here is to their shared ancestry, as well as their shared nationality.
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tulit: 'produced me': a pointed reference to birth in the voice of a dead man.
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aut cruor hic de stipite manat: the non that began the sentence is picked up again and taken with de stipite: 'nor is it from the trunk of a tree that this blood is welling'. This oddly phrased sentence suggests the confused anguish of the ghost.
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44–6 fuge … fuge: the placing of these urgent repeated imperatives leads to a dramatic clash between ictus* and accent*: cf. 639. Polydorus repeats the earlier ghostly instruction to Aeneas, Hector's fuge at 2.289, and re-establishes from 1.2 (fato profugus) a programme* for a book in which Aeneas will repeatedly hurry away (Introduction, p. 39).
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crudelis … auarum: Aeneas' narration will soon explain what these mean (49, 55–7). The Trojans are to avoid places marked by cruelty and greed, as well as monstra.
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nam Polydorus ego: supply sum, often omitted when subject and complement are present (again at 60, e.g.). At last he speaks directly of himself without a negative, but the fine simplicity of the self-identification is complicated by the elision of ego before hic, all the more marked over a strong pause in sense. Polydorus then elides himself completely in his final sentence, by leaving me to be understood again, with confixum (45).
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iaculis … acutis is an ablative of description or material (cf. Ecl. 5.39 spinis surgit paliurus acutis 'the thorn with its sharp spikes rises up', Geo. 2.362 nouis adolescit frondibus aetas 'their youthful life matures with fresh leaves'). The metaphor of the iron crop of weapons is a favourite one of V.'s (Williams cites 7.526, 11.601–2, 12.663–4, Geo. 2.142), but here we have no metaphor. Polydorus was pierced and killed by a volley of iron-tipped spears; the myrtle and cornel shafts have taken root in his body and started growing. Around them wind and waves have created a mound.
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47–8 ancipiti … formidine: perhaps best translated as a hendiadys* 'uncertainty and fear'
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mentem … pressus: 'oppressed in my mind': mentem is accusative of the part of the body affected (G&L §338; Woodcock §19): it was the mind that was put under pressure, so it remains in the accusative even when the verb is in the passive. premere is regularly used of emotional pressure (OLD 8a).
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obstipui steteruntque comae et uox faucibus haesit: this line also occurs at 2.774 when Aeneas sees the ghost of his wife Creusa. A variant beginning arrectaeque horrore comae appears at 4.280, when Mercury forcefully reminds him to pursue his mission (and also at 12.868). There is a fine pathos in the fact that the very line that Aeneas twice uses of his own extreme emotion in his speech to Dido will be echoed when the poet tells us that he experienced the same feeling at the moment when he resolved to leave her.
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com(ae) et: the elision may express the voice sticking in the throat (cf. Austin on 2.774); and the effect may be enhanced by the fact that et uox is a spondee* consisting of two monosyllables, an unusual pattern for this foot.
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stetĕrunt: see Introduction, p. 48.
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49–52 Having used Polydorus' voice to address himself, Aeneas narrates in his own words the story told by the Euripidean Polydorus [G(a)]; it is as if, like V.'s reader, he had access to the tragedy.
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hunc Polydorum: the narration starts in a naturalistic way, picking up on the just-mentioned name.
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quondam 'once upon a time' reinforces the story-telling mode.
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auri … cum pondere magno = Hec. 10: Priam's aim was that if Troy fell, his surviving children should have plenty to live on (11–12).
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infelix Priamus: the epithet is applied seven times in the poem to the listening Dido. Priam has died as his city burns; Dido's death will be marked by a simile imagining the burning of Carthage (4.670–1).
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mandarat = mandauerat (syncope*); with furtim a precise equivalent to Euripides' ὑπεξέπεμψεν‎ (14).
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alendum 'to be brought up': the gerundive expresses purpose after the verb of sending (G&L 430). Cf. Hecuba 20 and Polymestor's account at 1133–4 [G(c)].
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Threicio regi: Thrēĭcĭus provides a metrically tractable alternative to Thrācĭus. Aeneas manages the narrative without naming Polymestor. He thus implies his unwillingness to distinguish the villain, and avoids the potential confusion of Polydorus and Polymestor. Servius suggests that to use the expression 'Thracian king' emphasizes the cruelty of the area: from here came the kings Diomedes, the owner of horses which fed on human flesh, Lycurgus, the opponent of Bacchus (14 n.), and Tereus, who raped his sister-in-law and cut out her tongue (Ovid, Met. 6.424–562).
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Dardaniae: Troy, named after Dardanus, an ancestor of Priam and Aeneas (94 n.).
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53–6 ille marks the change of subject from Priam to Polymestor.
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ut opes fractae: 'When the might of the Trojans was shattered': supply sunt (cf. e.g. 2, 65, 90, 495).
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Teucrum: genitive plural, alternative to Teucrorum (which V. also uses freely). Teucri is by far the commonest of V.'s synonyms for the Trojans.
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res Agamemnonias: 'the interests of Agamemnon' (OLD res 13). At Hec. 1175–7 Polymestor claims to Agamnenon that his killing of Polydorus was promoting the Greek king's interests (σπεύδων χάριν … τὴν σήν‎).
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uictricia… arma: the earliest extant instance of the originally feminine uictrix applied to a neuter noun (Wackernagel 468).
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fas omne abrumpit: 'he violates all that is right': strong language. Both kinship and hospitality have been violated (Servius). When she sees Polydorus' corpse in Euripides' play (714–20: G(b)), Hecuba laments the loss of basic trust between guest and host (cf. 25–6, 790–2, 803–5).
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obtruncat 'hacks to pieces, butchers' also recalls Hec. 716–20. The verb literally means 'lops off limbs to leave a body like a trunk' (Oakley on Livy 7.26.5); it appears already in a fragment about Medea cited by Cicero at D.N.D. 3.67 (= TrRF adesp. 74.3) puerum interea obtruncat membraque articulatim diuidit ('in the meantime she butchers the child [Apsyrtus] and divides the limbs joint by joint'). The verb recalls the death of Priam (2.663, 557), and Coo (MD 59 (2007), 196–8) suggests that it suits the arboreal theme of the episode.
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auro ui: The first ablative completes the sense of potitur ('takes possession of the gold'; cf. Hec. 25), the second is an ablative of manner ('by force').
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potĭtur: V. has the form also at 4.217; both are scanned with a short i, as already in Ennius (Ann. 71 Skutsch) and in dactylic* poetry after Lucilius; likewise V.'s three instances of another nominally fourth-conjugation form, orĭtur. Williams draws attention to 'the staccato effect of the phrases which conclude the narrative about Polymestor, with three main verbs in nine words, and marked mid-line sense pauses'.
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56–7 quid non mortalia pectora cogis, | auri sacra fames: Aeneas' wording here is echoed elsewhere in Vergil, most famously in the next book: improbe Amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis? (4.412; 10.501–2 has a similar authorial sententia*); but here on Aeneas' lips it has a special significance. It will appeal with great immediacy to Dido, whose husband Sychaeus was singled out for murder by her impious brother because of his wealth (1.343, 349 auri caecus amore). After the personal narrative of 16–48, Polydorus' story in 49–56 does not involve Aeneas and is told with matter-of-fact abruptness. Now he shows his emotional reaction, before describing his dutiful actions in response. At Hecuba 775 Agamemnon expresses similar emotion when he grasps Polymestor's motivation ('O hard-hearted man! Did he lust to take the gold?'). cogere, like other verbs that take infinitives (cf. OLD soleo 2b), is used with an 'internal accusative', functioning as if it were the object of an unexpressed facere (OLD cogo 12): 'what do you not drive the hearts of men <to do>?'.
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sacra, 'accursed' (OLD 2c) develops from a meaning found already in Rome's archaic law code, the Twelve Tables, cited by Servius on 6.609: patronus si clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer esto ('if a patron defrauds a client, let him be accursed [i.e. outlawed]'; Warmington 3.490–1). Statius will use it of the highly polluting Oedipus (Thebaid 2.442).
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57–9 pauor returns us to the emotions of 47–8 before the narrative resumes.
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ossa: synecdoche* for 'body'; it brings out Aeneas' awareness of his physical state as he recovers from his shock (cf. OLD 1e).
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delectos populi ad proceres … refero: already Aeneas acts like a Roman consul referring a matter to the senate ('the leading men chosen from the people'): see pp. 41–3 for such aetiology*. In defining this proto-senate he uses populus, the other official part of the Roman state (senatus populusque Romanorum). For refero so (OLD 7), see e.g. Cicero addressing the senate as consul in his fourth Catilinarian: sed ego institui referre ad vos, patres conscripti, … et de facto quid iudicetis et de poena quid censeatis (Cat. 4.6: 'I have decided to refer to you, senators, … the questions of what you think about the deed and what you judge about the punishment').
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monstra deum 'portents sent by [lit. of] the gods': reports of supernatural phenomena were a regular part of senatorial business, and the histories of Livy and Tacitus are full of lists of prodigies (D. S. Levene, Religion in Livy (Leiden, 1993), 38–77; Feeney in Rüpke 2011: 140–1). The alternative genitive plural (which we can trace back to Naevius) is also found at 215, 375, 476 in Book 3; likewise diuum at 5, 114, 148, 359, 370, 717.
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primum… parentem 'my father first of all': as the senior figure in the party Anchises is consulted first, just like the princeps senatus (OLD princeps 4a; normally the senior consular) in the senate. The heavy alliteration of ps in 57–8 may suggest the purposeful energy in the now pauor-free Aeneas.
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quae sit sententia: again the standard language of senatorial business: cf. e.g. Cic. Cat. 1.9 sententiam rogo, and OLD rogo 4.
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60–1 omnibus idem animus (supply est, 45 n.): lit. 'all had the same mind' (but compare the English idiom 'all were of the same mind') leading on to the infinitives excedere, linqui, dare in apposition*.
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scelerata … terra: 'from the land of crime'.
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linqui 'to be left': in such lists of infinitives V. sometimes varies between active and passive, e.g. at 7.468–9 iubet arma parari, | tutari Italiam, detrudere finibus hostem ('he orders arms to be prepared, to protect Italy, to drive the enemy from its bounds'); 11.83–4; and perhaps Ecl. 6.85–6 cogere … ouis stabulis numerumque referri | iussit … Vesper ('Evening gave orders to collect sheep in folds and the number to be counted'; but part of the manuscript tradition reads referre). Here he could easily have written linquere (found in some late MSS) and thus avoided, as he generally prefers, a spondaic* word at the start of the line; but the emphatic and impersonal usage gives an appropriate stress to the concept of leaving.
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pollutum hospitium: '(the site of) polluted guest-friendship' (see 15, and OLD 3 for hospitium used of a place). pollutum stresses the religious dimension of the violation of hospitality. See also 83.
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dare classibus Austros: as Williams well remarks (following the ancient commentator Donatus), 'this inversion of the more obvious phrasing, as in uentis uela dare [cf. 9 n.], personifies the fleet as impatient to leave, waiting to be given its winds.' He compares 4.417 uocat iam carbasus auras ('the canvas sail now summons the breezes'). Austros, literally 'South Winds', stands by synecdoche* for the winds generally: South Winds would in fact not be helpful to them as they sail south from the north coast of the Aegean.
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classibus: like other collective nouns, such as populus (e.g. at Ovid, Her. 12.45, Met. 6.179) and examen (Ecl. 7.13), classis is sometimes used in the plural without true plural sense: so again at 157, 7.436.
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62–5 instauramus: 'we begin again': OLD 1 gives the meaning 'start afresh (a ceremony which has been wrongly performed or interrupted)'. Though the burial process that Polydorus has undergone as Polymestor's victim is an horrific perversion, and the accumulation of the mound has happened by chance, he lies beneath the ground (sepulto 41) and it is on the original site that the Trojans heap up the new one.
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Polydoro: 'for Polydorus', dative of advantage.
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ingens: a favourite word of Vergil: Henry (n. at 118) calls it 'our author's maid of all work'. Here, as elsewhere (see O'Hara 1996 on Geo. 2.131), it may play on the etymological senses 'native' or 'natural'.
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tumulo: local ablative, 'over the mound', or perhaps a purposive dative 'for [i.e. to produce] a mound'.
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stant: the present matches the rest of the verbs in 62–8, but may also hint at the continuing presence of the altars, like the mound and the cypress trees.
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Manibus: 'the departed spirit' of Polydorus: for the setting up of altars for the dead cf. 304–5 (Hector) and 5.99–101 (Anchises).
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caeruleis … uittis: either an associative ablative 'with dark bands' or instrumental with maestae '<made to appear mournful> by dark bands'. caeruleus covers a range of colour from the blue of the sky and the sea to the glossy greenish-blue of snakes. In this funereal context it means 'dark-coloured' (OLD 1, 2, 4, 9); thus Servius writes that the ancients understood caeruleum as nigrum.
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atraque cupresso: with its dark foliage, the cypress is the tree of death: cf. 6.216–17 (Misenus' funeral) and Watson on Horace, Epodes 5.18.
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et circum Iliades crinem de more solutae 'around them are the women of Troy, their hair flowing free after the custom': an expanded version appears at 11.34–5 (the funeral of Pallas), where sunt is to be supplied, as here. The combination of Iliades ('women of Troy') and lamentation shows that we are still in the world of Greek tragedy, specifically Euripides' two great plays of lament, Hecuba and The Trojan Women; cf. also Iliad 24.699–776. crinem is an accusative of the part of the body affected (47 n.).
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66–8 inferimus: 'we offer': the word is a technical term: cf. inferiae ('offerings to the dead'), which could include wine, honey, perfume, and flowers, as well as the milk and sacrificial blood offered here: cf. e.g. 5.77–9, Prop. 4.7.32–4, Aesch. Pers. 611, Soph. El. 894–6.
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sanguinis et sacri pateras 'and dishes of the blood of sacrificial victims': for the use of sacer in this sense, cf. 5.78, 333, Geo. 4.542.
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sepulcro | condimus: cf. 6.152 conde sepulcro.
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magna supremum uoce ciemus: this was a regular procedure at Roman funerals: cf. 6.506 magna Manis ter uoce uocaui (Aeneas to Deiphobus: 'with a loud cry I called three times on your Manes'), Propertius 1.17.23 illa meum extremo clamasset puluere nomen ('she would have called my name over the final dust and ashes').
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69–120 Delos
When the weather is calm, the Trojans set sail again, southward across the Aegean Sea (Map 2), to Delos, birthplace of Apollo, where they do not try to settle, but receive a prophecy (94–8), which Anchises interprets as an instruction to sail on to Crete, the island that marks the southern edge of the Aegean. Though a small island, Delos was from the eighth century a major sanctuary and from the third to the first a key trading port (and slave market). Vergil exploits the presence of Apollo, and the rich literary tradition about the island. After the Polydorus episode, based on a Euripidean tragedy, V. turns to the third-century Alexandrian* poet Callimachus as his model, exploiting in turn the Hymns to Delos (4: L), Apollo (2: J) and Zeus (1: I): see on 73–7, 90–2, and 103–17, and Introduction, pp. 25–6 for some background.
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69–72 ubi prima: 'as soon as', a frequent combination in a variety of genres, especially narrative and didactic*. It here marks a new beginning.
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fides pelago: a surprising phrase: confidence in the sea is not normally expressed by sailors: contrast Palinurus' words at 5.850–1 fallacibus auris | et caeli totiens deceptus fraude sereni ('so often deceived by deceptive winds and the delusion of a clear sky'), and si qua fides uentis, Zephyro date carbasa nautae ('if you have any confidence in the winds, set your canvas for the West Wind, sailors') at Ovid, Fasti 6.715. By choosing fides rather than the expected quies (cf. inde ubi prima quies, of night, at 8.407), V. evokes the thoughts of the crew, as more explicitly of Palinurus at 513–19.
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pelago … uenti … maria … Auster … altum: the alternation of sea and wind represents effectively the combination that dominates the sailor's life.
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placata … uenti dant maria: 'the winds provide calmed seas', a predicative* use of the participle.
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lenis crepitans … Auster: the wind is smooth, but blowing enough to make rigging creak or waves sound, and thus to carry ships along at a good pace. Auster is again generic here (61 n.): Ovid corrects with the phrase utilibus uentis at Met. 13.630 (T(a)). It is not habitually a gentle wind (as Zephyrus is: 120); having crossed the Mediterranean, it regularly brings rain (e.g. Geo. 1.462 umidus ('dank'), 3.278 unde nigerrimus Auster | nascitur et pluuio contristat frigore caelum ('whence the very black South Wind originates and makes the sky gloomy with rain and cold'); Ovid, Met. 13.725 imbrifer [T(c)]) and can be alarming or destructive (Aen. 2.111 terruit, 6.336 obruit). The epithets thus matter, as in the Elder Cato's inde omnem classem uentus auster lenis fert (Orat. fr. 29: 'from there the wind, a gentle southerly, carries the whole fleet'), and in the very similar passage at 5.763–4 placidi strauerunt aequora uenti | creber et aspirans rursus uocat Auster in altum ('the calm winds settled the sea and a frequent blowing South Wind summons them to the deep'). That passage also has adjective and participle baldly placed with a single substantive*; for this rare combination, see e.g. Geo. 3.28–9 magnum … fluentem | Nilum ('big-flowing Nile'); 1.163 tarda … uoluentia plaustra ('slow rolling wagons').
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uocat: 'summons', i.e. attracts (OLD 2b): cf. 8.711–13 Nilum | … uocantem | caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque flumina uictos; 2.338.
Editor’s Note
deducunt socii naues: ancient boats were typically brought up on to a beach when not sailing; here they are hauled down again, and the Trojans throng the shore, preparing to depart.
Editor’s Note
terraeque urbesque recedunt: Latin poets love to evoke the phenomenon by which to the individual on a smooth-sailing boat it is the land that seems to move: so Lucretius at 4.387–9 describes the way the mind is deceived by perception, qua uehimur naui, fertur, cum stare uidetur … et fugere ad puppim colles campique uidentur ('the ship on which we are travelling moves when it seems to stand, … and hills and plains seem to fly astern'). This leads on pointedly to Delos, the island that once (according to myth) literally floated across the Aegean.
Editor’s Note
73–7 sacra: Delos is not indicated by name (until Ortygiae, 124, at the moment of departure), but it is the most prominent sacred island of the Aegean (described as 'holy' in the first words of Callimachus' Hymn to Delos, 4.1 τὴν ἱερήν‎), and the reference to Apollo in 75–6 confirms the identity. mari medio may call to mind the way that the island is in the middle of the Cyclades ('the encircling islands': 127 n.).
Editor’s Note
colitur: 'is inhabited', as in 13, but here (like coli, 77) also 'is venerated' (OLD 6; cf. ueneramur, 79): in his insightful essay, from which we draw much, Barchiesi observes (1994: 439 n. 4) that this points to the Callimachean hymn, as well as the predictions of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (e.g. 88).
Editor’s Note
gratissima … Nerĕĭdum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo: a tease before the confirmation that this is Apollo's island, but echoing Pindar's phrasing at fr. 33c.2 [E]. The Nereids are sea nymphs, daughters of Nereus and Doris, whose name is used as a metonym* for the sea at Ecl. 10.5: any island may be of delight to marine deities. According to Strabo (8.6.14), Poseidon (the Greek equivalent of Neptune, and Olympian god of the sea) exchanged Delos for another island, while the mythographer Hyginus (Fab. 140) has him taking Latona to Delos when she is about to give birth to Apollo and Diana; more significant for V. may be that Poseidon's prophetic words from the Iliad will be heard reworked by Apollo in 97–8. Moreover he combines allusion* to two parts of Callimachus' Hymn 4: 17 on the senior pair of sea gods, Oceanus and Tethys, as visited by islands, and 268–70, the prophecy that Delos will be more beloved than any other land to any god, including the Isthmus of Corinth to Poseidon [L(d)]. The line (repeated in full at verse 474 by the Vergilian imitator who wrote the short epic Ciris) is one of those V. uses to create a striking recall of Greek diction and metre, with two Greek names (Nereidum, Aegaeo), and two instances of hiatus* (mātrī ēt, Nēptūnō Book 3: cf. Ecl. 7.53); it is not only a spondeiazon, but every foot bar the first is spondaic* (every foot bar the second at 7.634). For similar combinations of Greek names and metrical anomalies, cf. Ecl. 2.24 Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeō Ărăcȳnthō; Geo. 1.221 ante tib(i) Book 3 Ātlāntĭdĕs ābscōndāntŭr; 1.437 Book 3 [Glaucoque Wagner] ēt Pănŏpea˘e ĕt Īnōō Book 3 Aen. 1.617 tune ille Aeneas quem Dārdănĭō Book 3
Editor’s Note
pius: here means 'showing due respect to his birthplace and his mother', and implies that Aeneas too should respect the oracular instruction to seek out his motherland (96): the nineteen other instances of the form pius refer to Aeneas (including two where he applies it to himself: 1.378, 10.826). The equation between Aeneas and Apollo will be strengthened in the simile describing the hero's youthfully divine beauty at 4.141–50: there Apollo is imagined visiting 'maternal Delos' for a festival; on this visit sacrifice is delayed until the very end (118–20).
Editor’s Note
arquitenens: the compound ('bowholder', equivalent of the Greek τοξοφόρος‎, used of Apollo at Hom. Hymn 3.13) is first used of Apollo (and his sister Diana) by Naevius in his epic Bellum Punicum, cited by Macrobius (Sat. 6.5.8). Apollo will repeatedly appear in the narrative as far as 479, mainly as the oracular god; but his bow may remind us not only of his filial piety in using it to protect his mother (Miller 2009: 104) but also of Iliad 1, where he supports his priest Chryses, dishonoured by Agamemnon, and attacks the Greek army with plague arrows. Chryses significantly addresses Apollo as 'god of the silver bow' (Il. 1.37); the similar title here anticipates the plague that strikes the Trojans on Crete.
Editor’s Note
oras et litora circum: 'round coasts and shores', anastrophe*: poets often find it convenient to place disyllabic prepositions after their nouns; V. has fourteen other instances with circum, and uses the licence also with contra, inter (685), iuxta (506), penes, propter, supra, and subter, e.g. in the similar 12.532 lora et iuga subter.
Editor’s Note
errantem: Delos, first wandering, then settled, evokes the Trojans themselves (errantes, 101: see Miller 2009: 105 for further such points). In the Homeric Hymn to Apollo the island is not floating, but fears being sunk through Apollo's disdain (3.70–8); V.'s account here is based on Pindar, Hymns fr. 33 [E], and Callimachus, Hymn 4.35–54, 191–5 [L].
Editor’s Note
Mycono e celsa Gyaroque: the adjective may be taken ἀπὸ κοινοῦ‎* (i.e. 'in common' with each noun), but neither Myconos, a slightly larger island immediately east of Delos, nor Gyarus is especially 'high' (Myconos rises to 341 metres, Gyaros to 489), a point on which Ovid corrects Vergil by applying the epithet humilis to Myconos at Met. 7.463. Gyaros lies west-north-west, much further away, beyond both Rheneia and Syros (west) and Tenos (north); it is barren and essentially uninhabited, but was treated as a grim place of exile under the emperors. Though Cicero (Att. 5.12) talks of landing there on his way to Delos in 51 bc, Vergil may have chosen the names for their obscurity, to contrast with Delos, in Greek literally 'visible', even when not named. celsa perhaps figures the two neighbouring islands as pillars to which Delos is attached (cf. Pindar, fr. 33d.5–9: E).
Editor’s Note
immotam: 'stationary', in contrast to errantem, but also 'unaffected by earthquakes', a tradition mentioned by several authors (Pindar, fr. 33c.4: E; Call. H. 4.306 ἀσφαλὲς οὖδας‎, 'firm ground'), usually when they are describing just such an event (Herodotus 6.98.3, Thucydides 2.8.3; cf. 90–2). Statius evokes this (and with times inverts contemnere uentos) in the closing lines of a simile describing a storm created by Neptune in the Aegean (Theb. 3.437–9: 'the Cyclades resist uncertainly, their roots quaking; even you, Delos, fear to be torn from your Myconos and Gyaros, and you call on the promise of your great nursling [Apollo]'):
  •                     dubiae motis radicibus obstant
  • Cyclades; ipsa tua Mycono Gyaroque reuelli,
  • Dele, times magnique fidem testaris alumni.
Editor’s Note
78–9 huc: marks the return to narrative at the end of the short digression. As often, the preceding ecphrasis* covers the time of the journey: cf. 13–16, 210–19, 1.159–70. The varied anaphora* huc … haec creates a hymnic effect appropriate to Delos, backed up by the continued praise of the island (tuto placidissima portu: the phrase implies the relief of a safe landing).
Editor’s Note
fessos: the first of eight instances of the adjective in this book (85, 145, 276, 511, 568, 581, 710). All bar that at 581 (of the giant Enceladus) are applied to the Trojans, their circumstances, or Aeneas himself, wearied by sea travel, or their tribulations in general (145, 710).
Editor’s Note
accipit: 'receives as a visitor', OLD 12b; so, of places, also at 96, 708 (plus excipiunt at 210); and, of a deity, at 544.
Editor’s Note
80–3 Anius: son of Apollo, and revered as the founder of Delos. He, or rather his daughters, who had the power to turn what they touched into wheat, wine, and olive oil, play a part in the Trojan cycle, either helping the hungry Greek army (Cypria fr. 26 West; Lycophron 570–83) or refusing to do so (Ovid, Met. 13.652–74, where they escape by turning into doves). Aeneas passes over this fantastic story.
Editor’s Note
rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos: the phrasing calls to mind both Jupiter (diuum pater atque hominum rex, 2.648) and Augustus, who ruled the empire (though the poets do not apply the term rex and its cognates directly to him before the later works of Ovid), dedicated the temple on the Palatine, and as quindecimuir functioned as a priest of Apollo (Miller 2009: 242). Anius is not only described as sacerdos; he is dressed as a priest of Apollo too, as the uittae ('headband') and laurel of 81 show. The sanctity of Delos continues to be revealed.
Editor’s Note
sacra redimitus tempora lauro: like other verbs that describe what a person does to their own body, redimire can be used in the passive (especially in the participle) with a 'retained' accusative, equivalent to that accompanying the active voice ('I encircle x with': OLD 1). Laurel is the plant sacred to Apollo, and thus worn by his worshippers: for an aetiology*, see Ovid, Met. 1.452–567, who ends his account of Apollo's thwarted rape of the nymph Daphne with the god's prophecy of how the transformed maiden will stand outside the door of Augustus.
Editor’s Note
ueterem Anchisen agnouit amicum: the friendship is not explained, but at 117 Anchises shows knowledge of the southern Aegean, and his earlier travels have made him a friend of the Arcadian Evander too (8.155–68). Anchisen is the Greek accusative, the form always used in Latin dactylic* verse (Housman, CP 2.823–5).
Editor’s Note
iungimus … dextras: a simple but significant gesture of affection in the Aeneid (Wills 1996: 204–5).
Editor’s Note
hospitio: 'in guest-friendship': both Anius as host and the Trojans as guests are hospites. Contrast hospitium of Thrace at 15: there proper behaviour is overturned (55); on Delos it is maintained. Hospitality is a major theme of the enclosing Dido episode and there is considerable irony in the fact that in the queen's view Aeneas will violate it. Ovid remarks that 'he has the reputation of piety, yet as a guest he provided both a sword and the cause of your death, Dido' (Ars 3.39–40). For a finely calibrated response to Aeneas' possible abuse of hospitality, see R. K. Gibson, 'Aeneas as hospes in Vergil, Aeneid 1 and 4', CQ 49 (1999), 184–202.
Editor’s Note
84–120 Those intending to found new cities regularly consulted the oracle at Delphi (so e.g. the people of Thera are advised by Delphi to send a colony out under Battus to Cyrene in Libya at Herodotus 4.151–7; Cadmus before founding Thebes at Ovid, Met. 3.8–13; Parke & Wormell 1956: 1.49–81, Fontenrose 1978: 120–3, 137–44), and Latin narratives report many other consultations (94–6 n.). Delos is not normally an oracular shrine (though the island hopes for this status in bargaining with Leto at Hom. Hymn 3.81: see Richardson (Cambridge, 2010) ad loc., Miller 2009: 107–8), but V. uses the presence of Apollo on one of the islands traditionally visited by Aeneas (Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.50.1) to introduce the oracular theme (which will be continued in the episodes on Crete and the Strophades, with Helenus, at Cumae in Book 6, and through Latinus' incubation at 7.81–106).
Editor’s Note
84 Aeneas, having entered the palace of Anius in 83, is suddenly addressing the god in his temple. There is apparently a gap between the paragraphs, which Ovid's narrative (Met. 13.638–77: cf. T) pointedly fills with dinner, conversation, and a night's sleep. Macrobius (Sat. 3.6.1–4) thinks V. evokes an altar of Apollo Genetor (mentioned by the scholar Cloatius Verus), where the god was worshipped with prayer, but no sacrifice.
Editor’s Note
templa dei saxo … structa uetusto: The poem celebrates temples both old (2.713) and new (1.446–51, implicitly 8.720); but Macrobius (Sat. 3.6.6–8) argues that the description rather brings out the 'long-lasting stability of the rock, i.e. the island' (cf. 77). templa is poetic plural*, as is shown by the singular dei and the following event: see Williams on 307, and 5.98.
Editor’s Note
85–9 da: like the Greek equivalent δός‎, a common opening of prayers (Harrison on 10.421), but in this address to the prophetic god, asking for information (88), best taken as 'reveal' (OLD 28), rather than as 'grant' (OLD 3), the sense that it clearly has in da augurium (89), the culminating request for a sign.
Editor’s Note
propriam … domum: 'a home of our own', as the similar phrasing at 167 confirms: hae nobis propriae sedes. But proprius also carries the connotation 'in perpetuity' (OLD 1), and this leads on well to mansuram urbem.
Editor’s Note
Thymbraee: Aeneas characterizes Apollo as a fellow Trojan, the god with a temple at Thymbra, close to Troy. On such captationes beneuolentiae* (attempts to gain favour) in the Aeneid, see S. J. Harrison, CQ 34 (1984), 488.
Editor’s Note
moenia … et genus et mansuram urbem: moenia often stands for a city by synecdoche* (17, 100, 1.7, e.g.), but here Aeneas seems to think of the walls, then the inhabitants, before combining them in urbem. mansuram ('destined to last', 'enduring') may be read with all three nouns (ἀπὸ κοινοῦ‎*).
Editor’s Note
serua altera Troiae | Pergama, rēliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli: in providing guidance on their goal, Apollo will preserve the remnants of the Trojan people left after the destruction wrought by Achilles and the other Greeks (for the genitive after reliquiae, see OLD 1c): the whole phrase reliquias … Achilli is in apposition* to Troas at 1.30, and reliquias Danaum to nos when Aeneas thanks Dido for her compassion at 1.598. It is thus clear that altera Troiae Pergama does not refer to the new city ('a second Troy'), but metaphorically to the city's other 'citadel'—its surviving people (as Pergama again at 8.37): the sentiment that men, not walls, make a city can be traced back to Alcaeus fr. 112.10, Sophocles, O.T. 56–7, and the words of Nicias at Thucydides 7.77.7. If we can trust the capital manuscripts, V. prefers the second-declension genitive Achilli on four occasions; once (12.352) they have the third-declension form Achillis; and at 2.476 and 1.30 (where R produces the easy assimilation immitis Achillis) they are divided. V. always uses Vlixi (273 n.).
Editor’s Note
quem sequimur? 'who is it that we are following?', but perhaps with the implication 'whom are we to follow?'; for indicative in deliberative* questions, cf. 367, Fordyce on 7.359, Tarrant on 12.637 quid ago? Deliberative questions are classically answered by jussives*, and Apollo's response does include the command exquirite matrem (as if answering 'whom are we to follow'); but he also provides information: it is Aeneas' house that will dominate (97), not another's. Here then is a divine resolution of the question 'who is in charge?' that is provoked by the events of Book 2 and the underlying contradiction between Anchises … iubebat (9: see n.) and Aeneadas (18). It is with some irony then that Anchises takes the lead in responding to the oracle (102–20)—and reads it mistakenly.
Editor’s Note
pater: an honorific title for any god, not common for Apollo in comparison with Jupiter, Bacchus, and Mars, but used for him also at 11.789. The phrasing echoes Anchises' appeal to Jupiter at 2.691, da deinde auxilium, pater, and perhaps evokes Apollo Γενέτωρ‎ ('the father'): 84 n.
Editor’s Note
90–2 uix ea fatus eram: as ancient texts had no equivalent to inverted commas, the end of speech is often marked (90, 118, 344), and in a way that can seem excessive in a modern, punctuated text (189, 258, 312, 463, 607); but in this instance the addition of uix makes the sentence look ahead: see 8–9 n., 655. Though freer than some other poets in using parts of is, in the plural V. has only ea (27 times, including 3.100, 655) and eos (twice).
Editor’s Note
tremere omnia uisa <sunt> repente: the shaking immediately succeeds the speech in the text as in the narrative. The address to Phoebus provokes an epiphany*, expressed through a reworking of the opening lines of Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo (J; see Heyworth 1993 for more details): there too the whole shrine shakes (2), and the laurel (1), as a sign of the god's imminent arrival. repente reproduces ἐξαπίνης‎ ('suddenly', 5). uisa allows the earthquake to be read as an illusion, if we wish. It also marks the allu-sion* (an 'Alexandrian footnote'*): readers have already 'seen' this scene. The dactylic* rhythm helps convey the pace of the action.
Editor’s Note
liminaquē laurusquĕ dei: an imitation of the frequent Homeric treatment of the equivalent Greek enclitic* τε‎ … τε‎. In all bar two cases V. has the lengthening before words beginning with two consonants (e.g. 4.146 Cretesquē Dryopesquĕ); the two exceptions (here and at 12.363 Chloreaquē Sybarimquĕ) recall another aspect of Η‎omeric practice, which occasionally lengthens short syllables before λ‎ (= l) and σ‎ (= s): see West 1982: 15–16, 38 (and for stylistic discussion of V.'s imitations, Wills 1996: 376–7, 380). Lucan inverts the phrasing to signal a false prophecy at 5.154–5 nulloque horrore comarum | excussae laurus immotaque limina templi ('the laurels were shaken by no trembling of the foliage and the doorway of the temple was unmoved').
Editor’s Note
laurus … mons circum … cortina: the laurel is more often associated with Delphi (Hom. Hymn 3.396; Callimachus, Iambi fr. 194.26–36) than Delos, where it was the palm and the olive-tree that were famous, as the trunks grasped by Leto in labour (Hom. Hymn 3.117, Theognis 5–6, Callimachus, Hymn 4.210, 262; but Euripides includes a laurel: I.T. 1100, Hecuba 459, Ion 919). The sense that we have suddenly been transported to another Apolline site is then strengthened by mons; this must be the 112 metres high Mount Cynthus on Delos; but that merely slopes up from the sacred area, whereas Delphi is surrounded by the spurs of Parnassus. And the cortina, a cauldron attached to a tripod, is a conventional part of the equipment of the Pythia, the priestess at Delphi (Parke & Wormell 1956: 1.24–6; Bonnechere in Ogden 2010: 155; Euripides, Ι.Τ‎. 976, Orestes 329; Lucretius 1.739 [cited on 360]; Ovid, Met. 15.635; OLD s.v. cortina 1b). She or Apollo is represented sitting on it (Berlin Antikenmuseen F 2538 = Beazley 217214, reproduced by Fontenrose 1978: 205; Euripides, I.T. 1253, Orestes 956); here it amplifies the noise the Trojans hear (the onomatopoeic* mūgire); but one may suspect that at some periods it was used to produce hallucinatory fumes as part of the ritual of consultation.
Editor’s Note
adytis … reclūsis: the sanctuary within the temple opens up to reveal the god. Callimachus, Hymn 2.6–7 instructs the doors to open automatically (the attendants would take care not to be seen on such an occasion); Vergil shows the result.
Editor’s Note
93 summissi petimus terram: the participle shows that the Trojans are forced down to the ground in terrified supplication (Lucr. 1.92 muta metu terram genibus summissa petebat, 'dumb with fear Iphianassa sank to her knees, seeking the ground'). But petimus terram also reprises Aeneas' request; and Apollo will offer not only a land (tellus, 95), but the earth itself (97–8).
Editor’s Note
uox fertur ad auris: haec Phoebus in 99 confirms that it is Apollo who speaks, but the mechanics of the revelation are left obscure: cf. 9.112–17, Ovid, Met. 3.96–7; contrast the vivid account of the Sibyl's possession at 6.77–101.
Editor’s Note
94–6 Dardanidae duri: the pronouncement begins with a significant word, and an example of alliteration, which will recur. In addressing the Trojans as descendants of Dardanus, Apollo gives them a clue about the origin they are to seek (167; so Macrobius, Som. 1.7.7–8); Anchises will think of them rather as Teucri (108). duri points to the need for endurance and the hardiness of the male band who will finally reach Latium: see McGushin, AJPh 85 (1964), 225–53.
Editor’s Note
quae uos a stirpe parentum | prima tulit tellus, eadem uos ubere laeto | accipiet … matrem: after the masculine duri and the paternal 'from the stock of your forefathers' the promised land is repeatedly figured as a mother, giving birth (tulit) and welcoming with a breast (ubere: OLD 1, 2): Keith 2000: 46–8. When Aeneas travels up the Tiber in Book 8, he finds a huge white sow, as the river-god promises in a dream, with thirty young around her udders (albi circum ubera nati, 8.45); but the prophecy will also be fulfilled by the sustaining 'fertility' of Latium (1.531, 2.781–2)—the poet exploits the sense of uber he has developed in the Georgics (see Mynors on 2.275). Such ambiguous indirectness is typical of the language of oracles, especially in literature: at Pindar, Pyth. 4.6–8 Apollo is cited as telling Battus to found Cyrene 'on a bright shining breast'; Anth. Pal. 14.66 plays on 'mother', and so do Livy 1.56.4–13 (mater = Terra), Ovid. Met. 1.367–402 (ossa parentis = clods of earth), and Fasti 4.259 mater abest; matrem iubeo, Romane, requiras, 'mother is missing; I bid you look for mother, Roman' (Apollo solves this riddle from the Sibylline books at 263–4, pointing them towards Cybele, the mother of the gods): 'motherland' turns out to be the correct interpretation, but Anchises will first try a solution that involves Cybele.
Editor’s Note
97–8 At Iliad 20.290 Achilles is about to kill Aeneas, until Poseidon intervenes and saves him, drawing attention to his piety towards the gods (298–9). He says that Apollo will not save Aeneas, despite his encouragement to fight (79–111), and that Zeus, who previously favoured the race of Dardanus (304), now hates the race of Priam, before concluding (307–8: there is a Romanizing variant γένος πάντεσσιν ἀνάξει‎ in 307, found in the geographer Strabo, 13.1.53):
  • νῦν δὲ δὴ Αἰνείαο βίη Τρώεσσιν ἀνάξει
  • καὶ παίδων παῖδες, τοί κεν μετόπισθε γένωνται‎.
But now the might/race of Aeneas is going to rule the Trojans/everyone, and his sons' sons, who will come hereafter.
V. keeps the shape of the lines in rendering the Romanizing version into Latin. In nati natorum he inverts the word order of the Homeric polyptoton* παίδων παῖδες‎, but produces an equally spondaic* equivalent and amplifies it with nascentur; and he introduces his own similar word-play in 97 with the pair domus … dominabitur. He changes the initial temporal adverb to a local one (hic) to suit the new context, and significantly adds et before the relative clause so that the prophesied supremacy continues into the ongoing future. At the same time we hear echoes of 1.284–5 domus Assaraci … uictis dominabitur Argis (Jupiter's announcement of Roman conquest and domination of Greece) and even 2.327 incensa Danai dominantur in urbe, the words of Apollo's priest Panthus (on this and other ramifications see Miller 2009: 108–15); the verb will recur in later prophecies (6.766, 7.70). As in Book 1, it is the god who imposes an empire; Aeneas has simply asked for a home, generalized into a city for his band of migrants: the move from domus to dominabitur should shock.
Editor’s Note
99–101 haec Phoebus: verbs of speech are (save for esse) the most commonly omitted.
Editor’s Note
mixto … tumultu: literally 'with confusion mixed in', equivalent to mixta tumultu, as at 2.609 mixto … undantem puluere fumum ('smoke swirling mixed with dust').
Editor’s Note
laetitia: the enjambment* and the word order are expressive, with joy only now emerging from the hubbub (which is then evoked by the repetitions of cuncti quaequaerunt as everyone talks at once). Throughout the book pleasure regularly alternates with exhaustion (cf. 78, fessos): see 133, 169, 178, 347, 524 for laetus applied to Trojans.
Editor’s Note
sint: after the historic* present (quaerunt) Latin allows either primary or historic subjunctive: the former is normal in Caesar, e.g., and Vergil (e.g. 608–9).
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quo Phoebus uocet errantes iubeatque reuerti: like many oracles this raises questions as much as answering them. The Trojans essentially repeat Aeneas' quo ire iubes? (88). The one new detail is saved till last: from reduces and matrem (96) they understand that their journey is in some sense a 'return'; but errantes, while meaning 'us who wander', also hints at the error they are about to make (errore, 181).
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102–3 genitor: Anchises, as the senior member of the group, is the obvious intrepreter of Apollo's words, but in reviewing what he knows of his people's ancestry, described in a sonorous and weighty verse, he follows the wrong line.
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uoluens monumenta: 'pondering the traditions', but monumenta are frequently written texts (OLD 4, 5) and uoluere (OLD 10) and its compound are used for unrolling scrolls, so there is also a passing image of Anchises engaged in archival research.
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proceres: the leaders among the migrants: cf. 58.
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spes discite uestras: 'learn what you may hope for': Servius' comments bring out the way that uestras (rather than nostras) hints at Anchises' impending death.
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104–6 Creta: announcement of the next stage on the Trojans' route, described in advance, including the further detail at 121–3 (contrast 13–16, 73–7, where the ecphrases* come while they are at sea). V. apparently innovates in including the island on the itinerary. He saves till later books dark tales associated with Minos (Armstrong 2002): the Labyrinth in a simile at 5.588–91, Daedalus and Icarus, Pasiphae and the Minotaur at 6.14–33; the abandoned Ariadne of Catullus 64 is a prototype for Dido in Book 4. More significant here is the association of Crete with trickery and deceit (deceptum, 181). This goes back to the lying tales of Odysseus, who repeatedly claims to be a Cretan traveller (Od. 13.256, 14.199, 19.172–81), and is encapsulated in the paradox of the Cretan Epimenides, 'Cretans are always liars', cited by Callimachus, in his Hymn to Zeus (1.8: I(a)), a text to which we are directed by V.'s next word.
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Iouis magni: the phrase is a significant addition to Vergil's Homeric model here: Κρήτη τις γαῖʼ ἔστι, μεσῶι ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντωι‎ (Od. 19.172, 'Crete is a land in the middle of the wine-dark sea'). At 2.647–9, when Anchises at first refuses to leave Troy, he focuses on his crippling by Jupiter (the punishment for sex with Venus); he then appeals to Iuppiter omnipotens to confirm the omen of the unburning flame on Iulus' head (2.689–91): the lover of Venus is used to thinking in grand terms. But magni (reprised in magnas, 106) does not pick up anything in Apollo's words. Moreover, though Jupiter was strongly associated with Crete, his birthplace was disputed: the opening of Callimachus' Hymn provides a pattern for the debate about the origin of the Trojans.
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mons Idaeus: recalls 'in the Idaean mountains' at Call. H. 1.6, 51 [I]. The presence of a Mount Ida on Crete and in the hinterland of Troy (6, 112) underpins the narrative of Trojan migration.
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cunabula: the key word of Anchises' misinterpretation: a cradle is not a mother, and in the Callimachean hymn Zeus is an infant on Crete (with direct reference to his cradle at 48), but was born in Arcadia (see on 170–1).
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centum urbes … magnas, uberrima regna: Anchises now begins to respond to precise details of the prophecy, first ubere. 'Hundred-citied Crete' is a Homeric phrase (Il. 2.649), and it is described as 'fertile' (πίειρα‎) at Od. 19.173; the hundred cities imply fertility, and the point is enhanced by magnas (they are thriving), and then by the implied link between urbes and uber.
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habitant: the subject is implied: 'people', 'the Cretans' (similarly habitabant, referring to the proto-Trojans, at 110).
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107–10 maximus … pater: prima tellus invites the Trojans to look for the origin of their earliest ancestor; Anchises thinks of Teucer, but according to Servius (perhaps simply deducing from V.'s narrative) Dardanus was older. Traditions about the two are confused; each is said to have married the other's daughter, e.g. (Servius; Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.62.1), and thus to have combined the two blood-lines; so the error is understandable. (Hardy 1996 argues that Anchises focuses on Batea, daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus, and thus the mother the Trojans seek; but though she appears in person at Dion. Hal. 1.62.1, no Latin writer mentions her, and there is no clear pointer to her here.)
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si rite audita recordor: there is irony here: Anchises' memory is not obviously at fault, but his interpretation is. audita (like audite, 103) may remind us that Aeneas is narrating to an audience.
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Teucrus Rhoeteas primum est aduectus in oras: Anchises' account is the same as one of two versions given by Servius; the other has Teucer as the son of a Scamander who migrated from Crete, whereas Dion. Hal. 1.61.5 reports that he came from Attica. Rhoeteum is at the eastern end of the long shallow bay on the Hellespont, north of Troy. Teucer is not known to have had a particular connexion, so the epithet Rhoeteas functions as a synecdoche* for the Troad. As Apollonius uses the Greek equivalent, when the Argo passes Troy (Arg. 1.929), it also conjures up the tradition of the epic voyage: Teucer was a proto-Aeneas, travelling in the opposite direction (cf. 1.1–3; Nelis 31). Τ‎eucrus is an alternative nominative, the Latin equivalent to Greek Τεῦκρος‎, found only here.
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nondum Ilium et arces | Pergameae steterant; habitabant uallibus imis: this imitates the shape, but inverts the topography, of Aeneas' words in vaunting his distinguished ancestry to Achilles at Iliad 20.216–18:
  • κτίσσε δὲ Δαρδανίην, ἐπεὶ οὔπω Ἴλιος ἱρή
  • ἐν πεδίῳ πεπόλιστο πόλις μερόπων ἀνθρώπων,
  • ἀλλ᾽ ἔθ᾽ ὑπωρείας ᾤκεον πολυπίδακος Ἴδης‎.
('Dardanus founded Dardania, when holy Ilium had not yet been founded in the plain as a city of mortal men, but they still inhabited the slopes of Ida with its many springs.') The allusion* helps clarify that steterant = 'had been made to stand/established' (OLD 13–15). Such concern with the pre-history of a city will recur in Book 8 (especially 337–68).
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111–13 hinc seems to have two common, but normally separate functions, causal ('it is for this reason that') and geographical ('from here, i.e. Crete').
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mater cultrix Cybeli: the paternal Anchises, having begun with the pater (107), moves on to the mater, Cybĕle (or Cybēbe), identified with Rhea, mother of Jupiter, Neptune, Dis, Juno, and Ceres; but she is less present in Crete than in the Troad, and though her trees have formed the boats on which the Trojans sail (5 n.), she will follow them to Rome much later (Ovid, Fasti 4.255–70). Cybelus is a mountain in Phrygia where she had a shrine (Servius).
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Corybantiaque aera | Idaeumque nemūs: a first allusion* to Catullus 63 (Idae … nemora, 52; cf. 113), and further allusions to Callimachus' Hymn to Zeus [I(b)]: the Idaean woods belong on Mount Ida, where Zeus was brought up (H. 1.51), protected from his father Cronus (1.53–4) by the clanging of the armour of the Curetes (1.52; cf. 131) and the Corybantes (1.46). Lucretius reports the myth, with typical scepticism, at 2.633–9 (n.b. pulsarent aeribus aera at 2.637), though without naming the Corybantes; both groups appear when the chorus describe the noisy dance around the infant god at Euripides, Bacchae 120–5; and the Argonauts set up a similar rite for the 'Idaean Mother' (Apollonius 1.1117–39), but in Phrygia, where the Trojans have come from. For nemūs, see Introduction, p. 45.
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fida silentia sacris: 'conscientious silence for the sacred rites': commentators associate this with Horace, Odes 3.2.25–6 est et fideli tuta silentio | merces, itself an embellishment of Simonides fr. 582 ἔστι καὶ σιγᾶς ἀκίνδυνον γέρας‎ ('there is an unassailable reward for silence too'), reported by Plutarch as a saying of Augustus. Horace's point is different, whatever it is (see Nisbet & Rudd 2004 for discussion), but both poets are surely complimenting their patron in asserting formal silence as essential to the Roman/Trojan way of life.
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iuncti currum dominae subiere leones: V. reworks a scene from Catullus' Hymn to Cybĕle/Cybēbe, in which 'the mistress of Dindymus' looses one of the lions from her chariot to chase Attis back under her control: 63.76 iuncta iuga resoluens Cybele leonibus, 91 dea Cybebe, dea domina Dindymi; cf. also Lucretius 2.601 in curru bii-ugos agitare leones ('on her chariot drives a yoked pair of lions'). Anchises' aetiology* has moved on from cult to story-telling or iconography*: Teucer's coming from Crete made Cybele's lions part of Trojan (and hence Roman) myth.
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114–17 ergo agite: a vigorous call to action, leading from explanatory observations (here, 5.58, Geo. 1.63) or change of circumstances (2.707).
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diuum ducunt qua iussa sequamur: even now that the Trojans have a plan to pursue they are still the object of the gods' direction. sequamur suggests an answer to quem sequimur? (88), but the Trojans are about to follow the misguided instructions of the wrong leader. Aeneas and his listeners (and Vergil and his readers) also head on the route determined by Anchises' reading of the gods' orders.
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Cnosia regna: after the calming good sense of placemus uentos (an instruction fulfilled in 118–20), this introduces a disquieting note: Crete has been the seat of kingdoms before, notably that of Minos, and his unfortunate and bestial family, instantly evoked by reference to Cnossos (104, 121–2 nn.). The Trojans are not far from such a world (nec longo distant cursu): this is a route best not taken.
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modo Iuppiter adsit: 'provided Jupiter is with us', i.e., on the most basic level, 'if the weather is kind to us': Jupiter replaces Poseidon from Achilles' analogous lines when he is thinking of returning home at Iliad 9.362–3. For the final time Anchises' words remind us of the Callimachean hymn: though Jupiter may be present in Crete, it is still not his or the Trojans' motherland.
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tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris: just as Crete has been described in advance (104), here the expected time of arrival is given.
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118–20 meritos aris mactauit honores: 'he made the deserved sacrifices (OLD honor 2b) on the altars': Apollo, who has given the requested prophecy, and Neptune, whose words from Iliad 20.307–8 he retransmits, already deserve their offerings; Storm and the West Winds are rewarded in hopeful anticipation. In addition, Neptune is a god that seafarers should keep in good humour, as is shown by 1.124–56 and 5.779–826; and the Argonauts sacrifice to Apollo, asking for a fair voyage at Apollonius 1.402–24. aris is presumably a real plural: sacrifices are made outside the shrine of each deity.
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taurum Neptuno, taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo: a reworking of Iliad 11.728 ταῦρον δ᾽ Ἀλϕειῶι, ταῦρον δὲ Ποσειδάωνι‎ ('a bull to Alpheus, and a bull to Poseidon'). The episode on Delos ends, as it began, with Neptune (74) and Apollo (75), with sacra, and with another nod to hymnic style in the encomiastic* epithet, the anaphora*, and the echo of Du-Stil* in the mannered initial alliteration of taurum …, taurum tibi and in the apostrophe* to Apollo (cf. 6.251 tibi, Proserpina, uaccam [a cow for you, Proserpina], and 8.84 tibi enim, tibi, maxima Iuno, as Aeneas sacrifices the white sow).
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nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam: the Olympian gods are granted bulls, grand offerings; lesser ones for the weather deities, a black ewe for the deity to be kept at a distance (cf. 6.249), a white one for the fair winds that are sought for the voyage (Homer has a similar pair for Earth and Sun at Il. 3.103–4).
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121–46 The voyage to Crete and the settlement there
There is warm encouragement to find a new home in Crete (Map 2): first news of the expulsion of king Idomeneus and then a fair voyage through the famously dangerous Cyclades (Horace, Odes 1.14.20, Livy 36.43.1) look to be positive omens. But shortly after their new city Pergamea has been established, a plague strikes.
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121–3 Fama uolat: the image of Rumour as flying is repeated in the same words at 7.392, 8.554 (similarly uolans, 11.139; uolitans, 7.104; uolitans pennata, 9.474). All of them are enriched by the full realization of Fama as a personification* at 4.173–97: the swiftest of monsters, growing as she travels, covered in eyes, tongues, ears, as well as feathers, sleeplessly flying through the darkness of night, surveying and terrifying cities from high towers in daylight, tenacious of lies as well as a source of truth: see Hardie 2012: 78–112. V. has fama introducing acc. + inf. clauses on four further occasions in Book 3 (165 [= 1.532], 294, 578, 694 (and on just seven other occasions): the construction, which continues to the end of the sentence here, is well suited to first-person narrative, where it loosely explains how the internal narrator knows something that might simply be revealed by the poet himself. In this case the rumour is accurate, and supports the decision to sail to Crete: Idomeneus, a prominent figure in the Iliad as the king who has led Cretan forces against Troy, has abandoned the kingdom of his grandfather Minos, and there is an invitingly vacant home for the Trojans to take over.
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Idomenēa: equivalent to the Homeric accusative Ἰδομενῆα‎ (e.g. Iliad 2.405; Servius compares Ilionēa, 1.611). Helenus will supply more information at 400–1—Idomeneus has gone to the campi Sallentini of south-eastern Italy; at 11.265 Diomedes is reported as mentioning his uersos penates ('overthrown', or simply 'changed', 'home'). But V./Aeneas leaves it unclear why he has been expelled (pulsum) from Crete: was it thanks to a usurper? to the gods, when he either did (Servius ad loc.) or did not sacrifice his son, the first creature he saw on return home, as he had vowed to Neptune? or to the Cretans, who thought him responsible for incurring a plague (cf. 137–42; Herodotus 7.171)?
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hoste uacare domum sedesque astare relictas: a tautological* doublet, as if the news is so suprising that it needs repetition. hoste (emphasized by position) is a collective singular* (though also reflecting the reference to Idomeneus in particular), and ablative after uacare, 'to be without'. After deserta litora, uacare recalls the aftermath of the Noric plague at Geo. 3.476–7 desertaque regna | pastorum et longe saltus lateque uacantis ('the realms of the shepherds are deserted and the pasture-land empty far and wide': cf. 137–42), and relictas the previous occasion on which Greeks have left a shore empty, at 2.28 desertosque … locos litusque relictum—a snare, as this inviting space will prove a delusion. relictas also brings out the similarity between conqueror and conquered: cf. relinquo (10) for the departure from Troy, and linquimus, starting the very next line.
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124–7 Ortygiae: an alternative name for Delos (literally 'Quail Island'); the Trojans will visit another Ortygia at 692–7.
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uolamus: the ease and speed of Rumour (121) is matched by the Trojans' voyage.
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bacchatamque iugis Naxon: Naxos, a mountainous island, the largest of the Cyclades, south of Delos (and thus in the direction of Crete), was famous as the place where Bacchus found Ariadne after her abandonment by Theseus: this reflects the importance there of Dionysiac cult. V. recalls his use of the participle bacchatus at Geo. 2.487 uirginibus bacchata Lacaenis | Taygeta ('Mount Taygetus, danced over by Spartan maidens'); cf. also bacchantes in Catullus' account of the ecstatic troupe that accompanies the god when he meets Ariadne (64.255). iugis is 'ablative of place where'. Naxon (like Olearon and Paron) is a Greek accusative, equivalent to the Latin -um ending (though feminine in gender). The route from Delos to Crete would most naturally go south between Naxos and the island of Paros to the west; the other two islands mentioned form an east–west chain (see Map 2), and would hardly be passed on the same southerly voyage: V. is more interested in the names than the geography.
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uiridemque Donusam: Donusa is a small island east of Naxos, and not notably fertile, as the epithet might suggest: V. is presumably looking for the contrast with 'snow-white Paros' (Servius implausibly offers, as an alternative, reference to green marble).
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Olearon niueamque Paron: Olearos (spelled Oliaros at Ovid, Met. 7.469; now Antiparos) lies off the west coast of its larger neighbour Paros, which was famous in antiquity for its pure white marble, used for sculpture (1.593): hence niueam (and marmoreamque Paron at Ovid, Met. 7.465), and comparisons such as Horace, Odes 1.19.6 splendentis Pario marmore purius ('shining more spotlessly than Parian marble'.
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sparsas … Cycladăs (third-declension Greek accusative plural): the phrase generalizes the islands named to the whole archipelago of the south-east Aegean. Etymologically Cyclades means 'forming a circle' (Pliny, Nat. Hist. 4.65 circa Delum in orbem sitae, unde et nomen traxere Cyclades, 'organized into a circle round Delos, as a result of which they also gained the name Cyclades'; O'Hara 1996 also cites a Greek equivalent, Callimachus, Hymn 4.198 περιηγέας‎); sparsas plays on an alternative name Sporades ('scattered'), more often used for outlying islands or other groups: cf. Pomponius Mela 2.111, Pliny, Nat. Hist. 4.68. Mention of the Cyclades (and in 291 of Phaeacia = Corcyra) makes for a link with an epigram of Vergil's contemporary Crinagoras of Mitylene (Anth. Pal. 9.559 = 32 G.-P.), in which he prepares to sail to Italy, via the Cyclades and Corcyra, and asks the assistance of Menippus, author of a periplus*; Gow & Page, Garland of Philip 2.243 date this to 27 or 26 bc, just before his participation in an embassy to Augustus. The similarity of the voyages is perhaps due to chance—but Crinagoras, who writes for Marcellus, Augustus' son-in-law, was well connected with the regime.
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et … legimus freta: after the catalogue of islands we come to legimus, the verb of which they are objects; given that freta ('seas') is an object too, we should see this as a mild syllepsis*, first 'skirt' (litoraque Epiri legimus, 292; OLD 7b), then 'traverse' (OLD 7a), i.e. 'sail through'.
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crebris … freta consita terris: 'seas sown [or scattered] with frequent lands': for the phrasing cf. e.g. Livy 33.6.7, ager consitus crebris arboribus ('land planted with many trees'), Curtius 10.1.14 insulam palmetis frequentibus consitam ('an island scattered with many palm-groves'); and for metaphorical usage OLD 1b, as well as Pliny, Nat. Hist. 4.65 cited above (Horsfall 2000 and Conte 2009 see consitae as hinting at Sporades again). For crebri marking the crowding of a number of discrete items in an area cf. also 11.209 crebris conlucent ignibus agri ('the fields shine with numerous fires'). However, consita is a reading found only in a few late MSS; the tradition has concita ('stirred into action'), which is (despite Servius) a very odd way to express the effect of land on water.
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128–31 nauticus … uario certamine clamor: | hortantur socii: in earlier voyages the Trojans have been passively carried by wind and water (feror, 11, 16, 78; prouehimur, 72); here they have a keen urgency in heading to their mistaken destination. uario certamine (ablative of description, or perhaps of cause, with exoritur) suggests a variety of contests as the voyage progresses: between different vessels; now with oar, now under sail (when the following wind rises in 130).
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proauos perhaps hints at the error they are making: they have been told to seek not 'forefathers' but the antiquam matrem (96).
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petamus: either indirect command after hortantur, without expressed ut (as at Cicero, Att. 4.15.10; Caesar, Bell. Gall. 6.33.5, Livy 6.15.10 e.g.), or direct speech, which is rare after hortari; in either case the crews are encouraging each other: 'Let's head for Crete.'
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euntis: supply nos, 'as we proceed'.
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tandem marks the end of the voyage, which is thus made to seem long; so too at 205, 278: Hübner, GB 21 (1995), 102–4 sees the word as a leitmotif of the book.
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antiquis Curetum … oris: 'the ancient shores of the Curetes' standing by hypallage* for 'the shores of the ancient Curetes': these were primitive inhabitants of Crete, who protected the infant Jupiter by conducting a noisy war-dance around his cradle (Callimachus, Hymn 1.52: I(b)); they are regularly associated with the Corybantes (cf. 111; Ovid, Fasti 4.209–10). An etymological link between Creta and Curetes is implied by the placement of the two nouns after the caesura in 129 and 131 (cf. Apollonius, Arg. 2.1233–4).
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132–4 ergo marks the eager building of the city walls as the culmination of the recent narrative: we may see this as going back to the failure in Thrace, and the oracular response on Delos, but the main focus must be on the voyage safely finished: cf. 278 for a similar usage.
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Pergameam: a backward-looking name, taken from Pergama, the citadel of Troy (cf. 87, 110, 336): note arcem, 134. However, like Aeneadae in Thrace (13–68 n.), the name will leave a trace in the historical record, as paucis relictis (190) implies; it will become Pergamum (Velleius Paterculus 1.1.2; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 4.59), towards the western end of the north coast of Crete (Map 2).
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laetam cognomine: apparently expressing this as a fact rather than part of Aeneas' instruction: they take joy in a name that evokes Troy. laetam maintains the general spirit of rejoicing from 100; the intervening journey has been so smooth for once that they have not become fessi. The upbeat tone prepares for the contrasting disaster to follow (n.b. 145); later in the book Aeneas will realize that it is not their destiny to look to the past, as Andromache and Helenus have done (493–9).
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amare focos: on the thematic importance of loving their new homes (focos 'hearths' is a common synecdoche*), see Jenkyns (1998: 432), Fletcher (2014, esp. 1, 105–6), and cf. Aeneas' emotional words to Dido at 4.347 hic amor, haec patria est, describing Italy.
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arcemque attollere tectis: 'and to raise the citadel high with roofs': striking language, not easy to clarify. An arx is an easily defensible highpoint, and attollere is used elsewhere of land masses that raise themselves naturally (the Strophades at 205, the promontory Lacinia at 552, pater Appenninus at 12.703). The Trojans add to the effect. However, tectis does not suggest fortifications, though it might refer to temples, such as that of Juno Moneta, which stood on top of the Arx in Rome (templis would convey this straightforwardly). In a context of city foundation the easiest sense would be 'houses', as at 1.425 pars optare locum tecto ('some choose a place for their house'); but an arx would not be a place for many homes. There is similarly evocative imprecision when Aeneas is building another city at 4.260 fundantem arces ac tecta nouantem: Carthage.
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135–9 iamque fere: 'now … just', a combination that goes back to Ennius (Annales 264 Skutsch), also used by V. at 5.327, 835. The phrase helps the reader to link the sequence of unconjoined main clauses thanks to the implied imminence of the inverted cum-clause (137).
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subductae <erant>: 'had been hauled up' (OLD 1b), the standard term for beaching ships (normal procedure in the ancient world); the verb can be followed either by in + acc. or by a locative expression. Taking the boats out of the water marks the intended move from travel to settlement.
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conubiis aruisque nouis operata iuuentus, | iura domosque dabam: symbolic activities for the new city (and what the poem will not present happening in Aeneas' foundation in Latium). As well as establishing the legal framework, Aeneas allots space for the building of homes, as happened whenever Rome founded new colonies: cf. 5.755–8 (Segesta). The correct scansion here (contrast 319) is probably cōnŭbĭīs rather than cōnūbjīs: see Austin on 1.73, Munro (Cambridge, 1893) on Lucretius 3.776. nouis (to be taken with both conubiis and aruis) and iuuentus bring out the hopes for the future: a new city needs families and fields. operata <erant>: 'were busy with', regularly used of religious activity (which is perhaps to be inferred here, alongside other aspects of marriage and agriculture).
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subito cum: dabam has at last expressly established the sense of continuing activity into which the plague now suddenly breaks: the postponement* of cum puts pointed stress on subito.
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tabida membris | corrupto caeli tractu miserandaque uēnit | … lues: 'from a diseased region of the sky there came a plague, corrupting bodies and deplorable' (though in the Latin the word order begins from the symptoms and only then moves to cause). The introduction of the plague echoes the diction from the start of the long description of the disastrous Noric plague at Georgics 3.478–81:
  • 478hic quondam morbo caeli miseranda coorta est
  • 479tempestas totque autumni incanduit aestu
  • 480et genus omne neci pecudum dedit, omne ferarum,
  • 481corrupitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo.
Here once owing to a sickness in the heavens there arose a deplorable time: it burnt white with all the heat of harvest-time, and sent to death every kind of animal, domestic and wild, and spoilt the drinking pools, and infected the fodder with pestilence.
The existence of that passage (3.474–566) enables V. to cut the account here short: it is only at the end that the disease there infects human beings (membra, 565).
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arboribusque satīsque: the effects of this plague spread to the worlds of Georgics 1 (sown crops) and 2 (trees).
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letifer annus: the heat brings and exacerbates the plague: annus ('season') neatly evokes the fuller details of Geo. 3.479. For letifer see Harrison on 10.170 letifer arcus.
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140–2 Aeneas reprises the sequence of 137–9: the effect on the settlers (implied subject of linquebant); then the baleful weather, and its disastrous effect on agriculture.
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dulcis animas: another echo of Geo. 3, where the dying cattle 'give up their sweet lives' (dulcis animas … reddunt, 495). linquere is used with a noun qualified by dulcis to mark an undesired departure also for Meliboeus forced from his farm at Ecl. 1.3 dulcia linquimus arua and Aeneas driven by the gods to leave Carthage at Aen. 4.281 dulcisque relinquere terras. For the individual leaving life rather than vice versa, Servius compares Terence, Adelphoe 498 animam relinquam.
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sterilīs exurere … agros: 'utterly parched the fields <and made them> infertile'; the adjective is proleptic*, and the infinitive historic*, equivalent here to the imperfects in 140 and 142: it stresses the effect (as does the prefix ex-, and the phrase arebant herbae in 142), and serves V.'s metrical convenience.
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Sirius: the baneful effects of the Dog Star in late July/August is a commonplace, used e.g. to describe Priam's vision of Achilles on the battlefield (Iliad 22.25–31), and the Rutulians' of Aeneas' shield at 10.273–4 Sirius ardor | ille sitim morbosque ferens mortalibus aegris ('the familiar burning of Sirius, bringing thirst and disease for sick mortals'). The context here recalls especially Argonautica 2.516–27 where the farmer-hero Aristaeus is instructed by his father Apollo to move home from Phthia (in northern mainland Greece) to Ceos, one of the Cyclades, in order to help the locals ward off a plague, caused by Sirius' burning of the 'Minoan islands' (2.516–17).
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uictum seges aegra negabat: the failing crops are momentarily personified*: 'sick', like the men (140), and 'saying no' to expectations of sustenance, uictum (literally 'support for life'). The combination uictum negare alludes to Geo. 1.149 uictum Dodona negaret (where Dodona is Jupiter's oracle, as well as symbolizing oak trees at the time when mankind can no longer subsist on acorns); Armstrong (CQ 52 (2002), 324) suggests that this might point to Jupiter as the origin of the plague.
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143–6 rursus ad oraclum Ortygiae Phoebumque: the repetition of the names Ortygia (124) and Phoebus (80, 99, 101) compounds the sense of return explicit in rursus and remenso. Ill fortune forces colonists to return to seek clarification from an oracle already in Herodotus' account of the foundation of Cyrene (4.157). V. has the syncopated* form of oraculum only here, elsewhere the plural (e.g. 456).
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hortatur pater: Anchises takes the plague to be a punishment and a warning; if he has made an error, Apollo's forgiveness (ueniam) and further guidance must be sought. We may contrast the start of the Iliad, where Agamemnon's folly in not returning the daughter of Chryses leads to the plague inflicted by Apollo; but it is Achilles who calls an assembly and suggests the consultation of seers (1.59–67). me is to be supplied as the object of hortatur and the subject of the infinitives.
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remenso | … ire mari: literally 'to go on the sea measured out once again'; there is a synonymous ablative at 2.181 pelagoque remenso, with the same passive use of the past participle of remetior.
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quam … unde … quo: the three indirect questions by a kind of zeugma* extend the sense of precari from 'pray for' to 'ask'.
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quam … finem … ferat: cf. Aeneas' optimistic claim to his shipwrecked followers at 1.199 dabit deus his quoque finem ('a god will put an end to these woes too'), echoed by Venus in her question to Jupiter at 1.241 (quem das finem, rex magne, laborum?), and the moment when Iulus' joke about eating tables marks an end to their toils at 7.118 ea uox audita laborum | prima tulit finem. In the singular finis can be either feminine (as here) or masculine (3.440, 718; and 1.241, just cited).
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fessis: cf. 78, 133 n.
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unde laborum | temptare auxilium iubeat: 'from where he bids us try to get succour for our difficulties': for genitives defining auxilium, see 1.358 uiae, 8.472 belli; Ovid, Rem. 48 uulneris; for tempto so, see OLD 8; for the omission of the object after iubere, cf. 9, 289, 472.
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quo uertere cursus: a brief evocation of the labyrinthine confusion in which the Trojans aptly find themselves on Crete, uncertain which way to turn. Fortunately the Penates will save them from re-treading ground just covered. cursūs is an apt poetic plural*, multiplying the journey to match the labores.
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147–91 The dream prophecy of the Penates
Anchises' advice that Aeneas return to Delos establishes the urgency of the Trojans' plight and his own wisdom in accepting that he may have made an error. V. will play with return to the same place in the case of western Sicily, revisited in Book 5; but here he avoids narrative repetition by the familiar epic device of a warning dream, in this case the appearance of the Penates whose images have accompanied their travels. As is usual in Homer, there is 'a tacit assumption that the sleeper's senses are awake and active' (West on Odyssey 4.795ff., in Heubeck et al.). Aeneas is aware of the illuminating moonlight coming through the windows (151–2) and of the fact that he is asleep in bed (150); and the visitation is seen as happening there: cf. Iliad 2.16–36 (Oneiros in the shape of Nestor appears to Agamemnon), 23.62–102 (the ghost of Patroclus to Achilles), Odyssey 4.795–841 (Athena as Ipthime to Penelope), 6.16–40 (Athena as the daughter of Dymas to Nausicaa). The situation as Aeneas sleeps is similar to the despair of the Argonauts when stranded on the desolate north African coast (Apollonius 4.1232–304); the local nymphs appear to Jason (in a vision rather than a dream: 1308–31) and encourage him to seek for escape from the Syrtes: see Hunter 1993: 174. Closest in the Aeneid is Hector's ghost at 2.268–97 (see 150, 157–60 nn. for citations); others to appear in Aeneas' dreams are Mercury at 4.554–70, Anchises at 5.719–39, the river god Tiber at 8.26–67; Dido sees Sychaeus' ghost at 1.353–9 [P], Turnus the Fury Allecto, in the form of the priestess Calybe, at 7.413–59. Mercury and Sychaeus also advise departure.
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147–53 Nox erat et terris animalia somnus habebat: the phrasing recurs in an expanded form at 8.26–7 (before Tiber visits the initially restless Aeneas) nox erat et terras animalia fessa per omnis | alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat (epithets are given to 'lands', 'sleep', and 'animals', which is further defined by 'the race of birds and of flocks'), and 4.522–7 (where it sets up a contrast: Dido cannot sleep).
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effigies sacrae diuum Phrygiique penates: as effigies immediately implies, these are the images that Aeneas has brought with him, following Hector's instruction: see 12 n. As at 2.293 (cited on 157–60) and 2.717 sacra … patriosque penatis, the que is epexegetic*: it adds a phrase that makes the previous one more precise.
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a Troia: for the use of a preposition with the name of a city, see 595.
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mediisque ex ignibus urbis | extuleram: once more Aeneas recalls the horrors of Book 2, though strictly there (and in the sculptures of the event) it is Anchises who carries the Penates, as Aeneas is still polluted by the blood he has shed (2.717–20).
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uisi <sunt> ante oculos astare iacentis: uisi (which agrees in gender with penates, the nearer of the two subjects) is easily taken as 'seemed' before an infinitive, but there is no infinitive in the similar phrasing when Creusa's ghost appears to Aeneas at 2.773–4 umbra Creusae | uisa mihi ante oculos, so we might render it 'were/was seen' here and in another important parallel, 2.270–1 in somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector | uisus adesse mihi. It is hard to decide whether iacentis is genitive ('lying in sleep', OLD 2b) with an implied mei, or accusative plural ('resting', OLD 9a).
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in somnis: 'in sleep', a common plural in this phrase. However, Servius reports that multi take it as a single word insomnis ('unsleeping'); and some modern scholars have followed this reading; but 173–5 imply that Aeneas was asleep, and the point is confirmed by the frequency of the phrase in dream sequences from the time of Plautus (Curc. 260, Mil. 383) and Ennius (Ann. 212 Skutsch, trag. 51 Jocelyn), as well as in the Aeneid itself (1.353; 2.270; 4.353, 466, 557; 12.908).
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multo manifesti lumine expresses how they appeared in the dream, but also what Aeneas will see when he wakes up: he establishes credibility for the dream and authority for the words he hears by providing this circumstantial and numinous detail.
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qua se | plena per insertas fundebat luna fenestras: the light is given a realistic explanation—but the brightness of the full moon can seem supernatural, and is thus appropriate for the vision. Windows were normally shuttered, and not glazed, in antiquity; insertas thus apparently refers to the construction of the gap within the wall of the house, and the point of the epithet is hard to see. Alternatively we might wonder whether fenestras means 'shutters' (as at Horace, Odes 1.25.1 iunctas fenestras, OLD 1b), but in that case insertas would have to convey the sense 'parted' (cf. Prop. 1.3.31 diuersas praecurrens luna fenestras, 'the moon running past the parted shutters'), but this seems most implausible, as does a suggestion of Servius (followed by Horsfall), that we have a kind of hypallage* = luna inserta per fenestras (cf. Lucretius 2.114–15 solis lumina … inserti fundunt radii per opaca domorum, 'the let-in rays pour the light of the sun through the dark parts of houses'). Is the participle perhaps corrupt? For the unusual sixth foot, consisting of the two monosyllables qua se, cf. 695; unlike that line, this is in other ways metrically straightforward. The unemphatic se carries little stress and so hardly disrupts the normal rhythm at line end.
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adfari … demere: historic* infinitives. For the use of a pair of verbs to introduce speech, cf. e.g. 314, 358 his … adgredior dictis ac talia quaeso.
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154–5 quod: understand id as antecedent, and object of canit.
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tibi delato Ortygiam: 'to you once delivered to Delos'. deferre is 'to carry to a destination' (OLD 1); the past participle is used here with a conditional force, equivalent to a future perfect. Ortygiam is accusative of motion towards, without a preposition, as is normal with names of islands.
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dicturus Apollo est: in promising to give the words that Apollo was going to speak had the dream not anticipated the journey, the Penates comment on the narrative route not taken. In fact, they will not reproduce Apollo's intended words, but speak for themselves, reprising and clarifying the instructions of Hector's ghost and Apollo's oracle.
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canit: 'prophesies' (OLD 8), as at 183, 366, 373, 444, 457, 559 (the frequency is a measure of the prophetic nature of this book).
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tua nos is a significant juxtaposition, bringing out the close relationship between the Penates and Aeneas; the following lines maintain the point (nos te …, nos … sub te; then idem and tu starting consecutive sentences).
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en draws attention to the vivid reality of their appearance; cf. e.g. 5.672, 8.612, 9.7, 11.365.
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ultro stresses the willingness of the god to help: no need for prayers or travel to his special shrine; he speaks through the divinities with easy access to Aeneas. Gods are always potentially present in their sanctuaries or statues, as when Artemis overhears the accidental oath of Cydippe (to marry Acontius) at Callimachus, Aet. fr. 75.22–7; cf. Theocritus, Id. 1.66–9, reworked at Ecl. 10.9–12.
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156–60 The Penates echo the end of the speech of Hector's ghost (2.293–5):
  • sacra suosque tibi commendat Troia penatis;
  • hos cape fatorum comites, his moenia quaere
  • magna pererrato statues quae denique ponto.
The hendiadys* of sacra suosque … penatis is reworked in the introduction to the speech (148); the polyptoton* hos … his is echoed by the anaphora* nos … nos (both referring to the Penates); secuti matches comites; moenia … magna is repeated; pererrato … ponto is turned into permensi classibus aequor. However, in 158–9 the Penates add the prophecies of apotheosis for Aeneas' descendants and imperium for the city.
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nos … nos … idem: as at (e.g.) 541, 564, idem emphatically reprises the subject ('and we too'), here marking the move from past (secuti, permensi <sunt>) to future (tollemus, dabimus). The repeated nos echoes the homeless Meliboeus of Ecl. 1.3–4 (cited in the Introduction, pp. 5–6).
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te Dardania incensa tuaque arma secuti (cf. 54 n.): like Aeneas in 149, they evoke the events of Book 2 with reference to the burning of the city and Aeneas' attempt to fight. However, tua arma is paired with te grammatically, reworking the poem's opening tag Arma uirumque; the phrase points to the future too, when Aeneas' arms will be used again in the second half of the poem, as well as to the military prowess of Rome to be.
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tumidum: 'swollen', 'rising high' (OLD 3), a common epithet for the sea. Though the voyages so far in the book have been smooth, storms will follow, first on the next leg of the long journey (194–204).
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permensi classibus (61 n.)
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aequor: summary of the events of Book 2 is followed by summary of Book 3 itself; the pair of verses recalls et terris iactatus et alto (1.3).
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idem: 'and we too' (541, 564), serving as the pivot round which the speech moves from defeat and exile to glory and empire.
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uenturos: 'future', but as Servius says it gives them current existence; cf. uenientum of the souls of future Romans at 6.755. The word recurs in a similar context, though with a different sense, at 6.789–90 hic Caesar et omnis Iuli | progenies magnum caeli uentura sub axem ('Here are Caesar and all the offspring of Iulus, fated to reach the mighty zenith of heaven').
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tollemus in astra nepotes: Romulus, Julius Caesar, subsequently Augustus and other emperors. Here the prophecy moves to material that will (in chronological, if not textual, terms) be made more precise in Jupiter's speech in Book 1 (286–90): nascetur … Caesar, | imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris | Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo.… uocabitur hic quoque uotis ('Caesar will be born, who will bound the empire with the Ocean, his glory with the stars, Julius, a name descended from great Iulus.… He too will be summoned in prayers'). The stars are a common metonymy* for the home of the gods, but evoke Divus Julius in particular, whose ascent to heaven was symbolized by the appearance of a comet during the funeral games held in 44 bc, a point that Vergil uses to underpin the equivalence of the pastoral hero Daphnis with Caesar (Ecl. 5.51 Daphninque tuum tollemus ad astra, 52, 57; 9.47).
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imperiumque urbi dabimus: as well as 1.287 (just cited) this prefigures/recalls Jupiter's imperium sine fine dedi (1.279). The word will recur prominently in another prophetic passage, Anchises' survey of future Romans in Book 6, especially 781–2 Roma | imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo (under the auspices of Romulus 'Rome shall make its empire match the lands of the earth, its heart Olympus'), 794–5 super et Garamantas et Indos | proferet imperium (Augustus 'will extend the empire beyond the Garamantes and the Indians'). Deification and the stars appear in this speech too: 6.790 (cited above, on uenturos) and 795–805. The urbs to which the Penates will bring empire will turn out to be Rome in the long run, not Lavinium founded by Aeneas.
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tu: after the emphatic nos, this stresses Aeneas' role, to provide the city, and 'not abandon the long toil of migration'—as he will again, for a while, when he settles in Carthage.
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moenia magnis | magna para: for the notion that one might build walls generous enough to contain a great city, compare Ovid, Fasti 3.181–2 moenia iam stabant, populis angusta futuris, | credita sed turbae tum nimis ampla suae ('walls already stood, narrow for the future inhabitants, but then believed too generous for the city's population'). But moenia is also a synecdoche* for the city as a whole (85 n., 1.277, 2.252). magnis may refer to the great descendants of the Trojans, but also to the Penates themselves (as in the parallel passage at 2.294–5, cited at the start of this note): see 12 n. on their identity as magni di. Polyptoton* of words meaning 'big' is found in Homer to mark the heroic death (Il. 16.776 κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί‎, 'He lay majestic in his majesty'; 18.26, of Achilles mourning Patroclus; Od. 24.40); V. applies the usage to a grand future.
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ne linque laborem: leaving Crete does not mean abandoning labour; 'toil cannot be dissevered from glory' (Jenkyns 1998: 436, in a lively reading of the speech).
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161–2 mutandae sedes: the central point of the speech is expressed simply in five heavy syllables: 'your home [and our seats] must be changed': mutandae is gerundive of necessity or obligation, as at 235, 384–5, 495–7. The common metaphorical sense of sedes is picked up in considere ('settle', 162); the more literal application to the Penates' position by hae nobis propriae sedes in 167.
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non haec … litora … aut Cretae: 'not these shores … or in Crete [locative]': the emphatically negated words are placed in each clause; for non … aut beginning adjacent clauses, cf. 42–3.
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163–6 These lines are also found at 1.530–3, where Ilioneus repeats the information provided by the Penates here, in explaining to Dido the presence of Trojan ships on the n. African coast.
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est locus: a standard introduction of a geographical ecphrasis*, found also at 7.563, and seven times in Ovid. But Vergil recalls a particular passage in Book 1 of Ennius' Annales (fr. 20–2 Skutsch, possibly from three consecutive lines): est locus Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant … Saturnia terra … quam Prisci, casci populi, tenuere Latini ('there is place which men used to call Hesperia … the land of Saturn, which the Aboriginal Latins held, an ancient people'); cf. the phrase terra antiqua in apposition* in 164. Saturn's part in the earlier history of Latium will be brought out by Vergil especially in Evander's account at 8.319–29.
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Hesperiam: 'the land of the Evening Star [or West]', as suits the point of view of the Greeks. Aeneas has already heard the name from the ghost of Creusa in her prophecy at 2.781 terram Hesperiam uenies, echoing Apollonius, Arg. 3.311 on Circe's journey to 'the land of evening'. (Horace uses the same name for Spain, likewise west of Italy, at Odes 1.36.4.)
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potens armis atque ubere glaebae: 'powerful in arms and the fertility of the soil'. The second half of the phrase looks back to ubere laeto (95), as the Penates begin to explain the correct solution to Apollo's riddling oracle. But the expression as a whole brings out the duality on which the Romans saw their city's greatness as founded: success in war and productivity in agriculture; so e.g. Georgics 2.143–76 (539–42 n.).
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Oenotri: a name for the inhabitants of the south-eastern parts of Italy, literally 'men of the wine country', from the Greek οἴνος‎ ('wine').
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fama <est>: 121 n. It is perhaps expressive of the limited power of the Penates that they too rely on fama.
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minores | Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem: 'that their descendants have called the race "Italian" from the name of their leader', i.e. Italus (7.178; so too Dionysius Hal. 1.35.1)—just as the Romans will be called after Romulus.
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167–8 propriae sedes: 85 n., 161 n.
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hinc Dardanus ortus confirms a second detail from the oracle, the opening address to the Trojans as Dardanidae (94).
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Iasiusque pater: a comparatively obscure member of the family tree, said to have been the half-brother of Dardanus; both were sons of an Electra, Dardanus fathered by Jupiter, Iasius by Corythus, according to Servius, and both emigrated from Etruria, with Dardanus finally settling in Troy, Iasius in Samothrace (12 n.; cf. 7.206–9). Both the helmsman Palinurus (5.843) and the doctor Iapyx (12.392) are called Iasides ('son of Iasius'), which seems to imply descent from Iasius, even if we imagine that to be the name of the actual father of each. But he is introduced here because of the link with Corythus (170).
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genus a quo principe nostrum: 'from which beginning our race <came>'; the brothers as a pair are treated as the antecedent of a quo principe. The use of nostrum shows the Penates identifying themselves with the people; they recall 94–5 quae uos a stirpe parentum | prima tulit tellus.
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169–71 surge age: 'come, rise', an urgent instruction to rise from bed, but also encouragement to grow into his role as founder of a great people: cf. Ecl. 10.75 surgamus, where V. urges himself to get up from his position as a shepherd sat watching his flocks and to essay something more ambitious in his future work.
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laetus: happy once more, now things are clarified, and a glorious future reasserted: cf. 133, 145, 178. The emotion will be explicitly shared by the people as a group at 189 (ouantes).
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longaeuo dicta parenti | … refer: the new information should be passed immediately to Anchises, as the source of the error (102–17) and of the suggestion that one has been made (143–6). The expression 'long-lived father' helps present him also as a symbol of a senate (a body of senes or patres), to whom Aeneas, as if a magistrate, reports news (cf. 58–9).
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haud dubitanda: 'certain', unlike the typically ambiguous oracle (and the question of Zeus's birthplace: Call. H. 1.5: I(a)).
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Corythum terrasque requirat | Ausonias: 'let him seek out Corythus in the land of Ausonia'. In this hendiadys* the second element is less specific than the first; Ausonias adds yet another name for Italy to the three in 163–6 (compare the discussion in Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.35), one that reproduces a phrase from Apollonius 4.552–3, γαῖαν | Αὐσονίην‎. Corythus (cf. 168 n.) is perhaps to be identified with Cortona, a town on the border of Etruria and Umbria. There is some irony in having Anchises as the subject of requirat: he will never reach the west coast of Italy.
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Dictaea negat tibi Iuppiter arua: 'he denies that the Dictaean [i.e. Cretan] fields are yours', perhaps with the implication that, as 'king of Crete' (Geo. 2.536 Dictaei regis; cf. Geo. 4.152), Jupiter refuses to give up his land to Aeneas. The adjective Dictaea and the conversational aspect to negat once again recall the debate about Zeus's origin in Callimachus, Hymn 1.4–9 [I(a)]; and that passage in fact gives a more accurate pointer than the Penates do to the proper destination of the Trojans: their great city will be built not at Corythus, but on the Palatine, where Aeneas in Book 8 finds Evander and his people, born like Zeus in Arcadia.
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172–8 Aeneas wakes from sleep in realistic excitement at what he has seen and heard; he rises from bed, and with his customary pious diligence prays and makes an offering.
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nec sopor illud erat: based on Odyssey 19.547 οὐκ ὄναρ, ἄλλʼ ὕπαρ ἐσθλόν‎ ('not a dream but a reliable waking vision'; 20.90 is similar), and deliberately paradoxical, i.e. 'that was too vivid for a dream', but the following two and a half verses provide the evidence for crediting the experience: as Aeneas wakes up, he sees what he has been dreaming (coram agnoscere … uidebar).
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uelatasque comas: like Roman priests for a solemn rite (405).
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praesentiaque ora: 'their features face to face' (OLD praesens 1, reinforcing coram), but also 'present to help' (OLD 3), which allows us to refer ora to their mouths.
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gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor: for the sweat that accompanies the awakening from a vivid dream, cf. Turnus after his sleeping encounter with Allecto at 7.458–9: ossaque et artus | perfundit toto proruptus corpore sudor ('sweat bursting out from his whole body drenches his bones and limbs'). Here it seems to provide evidence to Aeneas that his vision was real. Macrobius (Sat. 6.1.50) notes that V. is imitating Ennius here: Ann. 417 Skutsch tunc timido manat ex omni corpore sudor, 'then sweat seeps from all his fearful body' (unfortunately we know nothing of the context); the changes produce a silver* line, neatly ordered amid the confusion of waking.
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tendoque supinas | ad caelum … manus: the standard gesture of prayer (as when we first see Aeneas at 1.93 duplicis tendens ad sidera palmas), addressed ad caelum, Servius suggests, to include Apollo (162) and Jupiter (171) as well as the Penates themselves.
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munera libo | intemerata focis: 'I offer pure sacrifices at the hearth', but perhaps (given that libare is especially used of liquid dedications) 'I pour offerings of unmixed wine'. Servius (on 11.211) notes that the hearth is the 'altar of the Penates'. After the direct manifestation of the divine, 'unadulterated offerings' seem especially important, a point reinforced by the next phrase,
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perfecto laetus honore, in which perfecto stresses the proper completion of the sacrifice (118 n.).
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179–81 Anchisen: 82 n.
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facio certum: a verse equivalent of certiorem facio (which cannot fit into a dactylic* line).
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ordine: 'in order', implying 'in full detail'.
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agnouit prolem ambiguam geminosque parentis: his son has recognized the appearance of the Penates (173); Anchises in turn recognizes how he came to be misled: 'the uncertain line of descent and the double forefathers' (i.e. Teucer and Dardanus) is appropriately expressed through a hendiadys* that looks at the family tree from the bottom first and then the top. There is a model for this realization of the truth of a past prophecy at Odyssey 9.507–16, when Polyphemus recalls the words of the soothsayer Telemus about his blinding.
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nouo ueterum deceptum errore locorum: in trying to ascertain the 'ancient mother' of the Trojans, Anchises mistakenly lighted on the place where Teucer came from long ago rather than the similarly ancient origin of Dardanus. nouo ('recent') amplifies the extent of time past through the contrast with ueterum, and thus excuses his error.
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182–8 Iliacis exercite fatis: Anchises' phrase (repeated at 5.725) condenses the opening lines of the poem, where Aeneas is described as coming from Troy, exiled through fate, and harried on land and sea (1.1–3: Troiae … ab oris, fato profugus, et terris iactatus et alto). Bowra (Harrison (ed.) 1990: 370) noted that exercite also has an implication of 'tested'; the phrase thus contributes to the sense of Aeneas as progressing Stoic hero.
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sola mihi talis casus Cassandra canebat: usually taken as 'Cassandra alone used to prophesy such events to me', but the order might encourage us to take sola with mihi: either 'alone to me' (which would explain the absence of such predictions elsewhere in the tradition) or 'only, I think, Cassandra', taking mihi as an ethic* dative (Geo. 1.45, 3.19; Cic. Cat. 2.10, Mur. 21, 74; Livy 2.29.12; Woodcock §66). Apollo gave Cassandra the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but when she refused him he added the proviso that she never be believed (2.247; Aeschylus, Ag. 1202–13); consequently the Trojans ignored her prognostications of doom for the city (187)—and, Anchises now realizes (nunc repeto), her talk of migration to Italy. nunc repeto also perhaps points to Cassandra's prophecies in Lycophron (West, CQ 33 (1983), 134–5).
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haec generi <illam>
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portendere debita nostro: 'that she foretells this was owed to us'. debita implies 'fated': cf. Aeneas' words at 6.66–7 non indebita posco | regna meis fatis ('I do not seek a kingdom not owed me by my fates'), 7.120 salue, fatis mihi debita tellus ('hail, land owed to me by the fates'). haec refers to the future in Italy revealed by the Penates, as the next clause quickly makes clear.
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saepe Hesperiam, saepe Itala regna uocare: uocare ('to call on') and the anaphora* evoke the ecstatic mode of Cassandra's utterance. The names directly recall 163, 166.
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ad Hesperiae … litora … uates Cassandra: he reflects in a chiastic* pattern on how easy it was to disbelieve Cassandra's words: it was not plausible that Trojans would emigrate to the west, and no one was impressed by Cassandra's prophecies then (unlike now: nunc, 184). For the imperfect subjunctives
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crederet and moueret, see G&L §258–9 ('past potential').
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cedamus Phoebo: i.e. let us do as he wishes; cf. Ecl. 10.69 omnia uincit Amor: et nos cedamus Amori ('Love conquers all; let us too submit to the power of Love').
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moniti meliora sequamur: meliora is the object of both the participle and the main verb: 'having been advised of a better course [lit. better things], let us pursuit it'. See OLD 1b for moneo + double accusative, including examples where a passive form with a personal subject retains a neuter accusative.
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189–91 dicto paremus: cf. Aeneas' words in response to Mercury's second warning, at 4.577 imperioque iterum paremus ouantes.
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ouantes: cf. laetus, 169.
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hanc quoque deserimus sedem: hanc quoque brings out the repetitive theme of departure in the book. The point is reinforced by uela damus in 191: cf. 9 dare … uela iubebat. The Cretan episode ends as it began with participants in the Trojan War abandoning homes in Crete (121–3, esp. 122 deserta litora).
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paucisque relictis implies the continued existence of the settlement that will become the city of Pergamum (133 n.). The Trojans will leave rather more of the party behind at Segesta in Sicily: 5.746–71.
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caua trabe: 'on a hollow ship', singular for plural; trabs, literally 'beam', is used, as often (OLD 4), by synecdoche* for 'boat', as a thing made from timber.
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uastum … currimus aequor: 'we run across the vast sea', accusative of extent, cf. 5.235 aequora curro.
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192–208 The Dark Storm
The joy of escaping from the plague in Crete does not last long: the fleet is soon overwhelmed by the darkness of a thunderstorm. Though the surface of the sea turns into swollen rollers and lightning flashes repeatedly, it is the darkness that troubles them the most: having just learned their destination, for three days they can no longer be sure of their route, or even whether it is night or day. The weather thus rehearses the darkness that afflicts Odysseus' ships as they sail south of the Peloponnese (Od. 9.67–81), and the Argonauts as they leave Crete, at Apollonius 4.1694–714 [N]. But whereas Apollo quickly answers Jason's prayers in the Argonautica, the Trojans will arrive at an island that turns out to be as hellish as the storm, and it will not be till 275 that Apollo appears.
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192–5 postquam recalls the opening word of the book, and takes us on to a new episode (cf. 463, and the famous articulation of Book 4 by the tag At regina in verses 1, 296, 504). These lines are a close imitation of Odyssey 14.301–4 (cited by Macrobius, Sat. 5.3.3; 5.6.1 points to the imitation of the almost identical 12.403–6, with τὴν νῆσον‎, 'the island', for Κρήτην μὲν‎):
  • ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ Κρήτην μὲν ἐλείπομεν, οὐδέ τις ἄλλη
  • ϕαίνετο γαιάων, ἀλλ᾽ οὐρανὸς ἠδὲ θάλασσα,
  • δὴ τότε κυανέην νεϕέλην ἔστησε Κρονίων
  • νηὸς ὕπερ γλαϕυρῆς, ἤχλυσε δὲ πόντος ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς‎.
When we left Crete, and no other lands were visible, but only sky and sea, then the son of Cronos [i.e. Zeus] set a dark blue cloud above the hollow ship, and the sea grew dark beneath it.
They recur in a slightly revised form at 5.8–11 (the changes are underlined):
  • ut pelagus tenuere rates nec iam amplius ulla
  • occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique caelum,
  • olli caeruleus supra caput astitit imber
  • noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris.
In that case, however, the shared wisdom and experience of Palinurus and Aeneas lead to a simple change of course: they head for Sicily, and helpful West Winds begin to blow. The repetition of the lines in almost the same form is itself an imitation of the Odyssean repetition.
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nec iam … | apparent terrae: the disappearance of land presages the disappearance of sky (198) and even sea (200).
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caelum undique et undique pontus: continuation of the postquam clause (as tum in 194 helps the reader to see); apparet e.g. is to be supplied. The chiastic* order throws emphasis on the first and last words (cf. Wills 1996: 392–3; Tibullus 1.1.78 dites despiciam despiciamque famem, 'riches I shall despise and I shall despise hunger') and symbolizes the way the fleet is surrounded by sky and sea.
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mihi (unemphatic, as usual, in second position) provides a possessive sense, which in this case obviously applies to caput ('over my head').
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caeruleus … imber: 'a dark rain-storm'. caeruleus is found of clouds already at Cicero, Aratea fr. 33.204. The adjective was regularly applied to the sea (432 n.), evoking the dark blue reflection of the caelum, with which it is also frequently associated (e.g. Ennius, Ann. 54 Sk. in caerula caeli, Lucretius 1.1090), and from which the word derives (OLD). At Geo. 1.453 caeruleus pluuiam denuntiat V. links the colour with rain—when it is seen on the rising sun. In the darkness and the rain the distinctions between air and water disappear.
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noctem … tenebris: again the first and last words are emphasized, in this case reinforcing one another. nox recurs at 198, 201, 204, and the sense of elemental darkness is compounded by caecis (200), caeca caligine (203).
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196–200 continuo uenti uoluunt mare: though the winds make the sea roll, they play no other part in this storm, in contrast to their dominant role in Book 1 (81–6, 102–3, e.g.). The repetition of sounds in the first three words perhaps evokes the rolling pattern of the water.
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magnaque surgunt | aequora: 'and the surface of the sea rises big': magna is used predicatively*. aequora, though easily taken as a poetic plural*, may suggest the succession of billowing waves.
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dispersi: separation is a real danger for the group that hopes to set up a new city. Unlike in Book 1, however, they will all reach land together.
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gurgite uasto: an echo of 1.118, where shipwrecked sailors are swimming in 'the vast ocean'. Though gurges is not limited to its original sense of whirlpool (see Henry on 1.118 [his 122]), the phrase effectively combines desolation, elemental scale, and the threatening pull of the sea.
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inuoluere diem nimbi et nox umida caelum | abstulit: 'clouds enveloped the light of day and damp night took away the sky [i.e. removed the stars from sight]': read so, the two clauses convey different points, but we will shortly find (201–4) that day and night cannot be distinguished, while the clouds may be identified as the night they have brought (195) along with rain. The equation suggested by the chiastic* expression (verb–object–subject/subject–object–verb) adds to the apt sense of uncertainty.
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ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes: 'there is repeated lightning as the clouds break apart': the repetition of sounds mimics the repetition of the lightning. Ancient meteorology explained lightning as caused by the bursting of clouds: Lucretius 2.214 abrupti nubibus ignes (reworked here), 6.173–203, Ovid, Met. 6.696 exsiliantque cauis elisi nubibus ignes ('and fires leap out squeezed from hollow clouds'), Pliny, Nat. 2.192.
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excutimur cursu et caecis erramus in undis: an obvious source of despair when the fated destination has just been comprehended: cf. the Argonauts at Apollonius 4.1700–1 (N: their despair is increased by their closeness to home). However, the claim 'we are shaken off course' is not borne out by what follows, despite the repetition of erramus in 204; for though the Trojans are not able to see where they are headed, wind and water drive them in the wanted direction, south of the Peloponnese and towards Italy (Map 1); they thus avoid contact with potentially hostile Greek lands (e.g. Menelaus in Sparta, Nestor at Pylos). erramus is strikingly inert as the only active verb of which the Trojans are subject in the passage: so Hutchinson in Günther 2015: 271.
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201–4 ipse … Palinurus: Aeneas' helmsman, here mentioned for the first time, and one of the most important minor figures in Book 3 (513, 562), and the poem as a whole: he is forced overboard by the god Somnus (Sleep) at the end of Book 5, and Aeneas meets his unburied ghost in a poignant scene in the underworld (6.337–83). ipse implies his prowess and experience (also hinted at in meminisse: see Fletcher 2014: 118–19) even for those who have not heard of him previously (i.e. both the Carthaginians in the audience, and the first-time reader).
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negat <se> discernere … nec meminisse uiae: 'he says … that he does not distinguish … nor recall the route'. nec repeats (and does not invert) the negative implication in negat. There is some irony when our first knowledge of the helmsman has him unable to find his way—and the man who will fall overboard is seen media … in unda. Farrell (in Perkell 1999: 98) links Palinurus' incapacity with that of Anchises in leading them to Crete (99–117). V. is likely to be drawing on one of the Argonautic passages from Callimachus' Aetia (fr. 17, esp. 8–9 Harder), where a character (not identified in the fragment) cannot discern the Great Bear for Tiphys, the helmsman, to steer by.
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tris adeo: adeo is used here (as at 7.629 quinque adeo) to strengthen the number it follows ('quite three days'): OLD 8c.
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incertos caeca caligine soles: 'days made uncertain by the blinding darkness', accusative of time throughout which (matched by totidem sine sidere noctes). Word order shows that caeca caligine qualifies incertos. For soles = dies, see OLD 2c, Ecl. 9.51–2 longos … condere soles ('to make long days set'): a striking, but easily comprehensible, synecdoche*.
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205–8 quarto … die: cf. the sequence at 27–37 prima … rursus … tertia sed …; Odyssey 5.388–92 'then for two nights and two days, Odysseus wandered on the water …; but when dawn brought the third day …'; and Palinurus' account of his vain effort to swim to safety, at 6.355–7 tris Notus hibernas immensa per aequora noctes | uexit me uiolentus aqua; uix lumine quarto | prospexi Italiam ('three winter's nights the violent South Wind carried me on the water across the boundless sea; on the fourth day I just managed to spy Italy'): uix emphasizes the feeling of delay there, as
Editor’s Note
tandem does here.
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se attollere: the reflexive form is used of the promontory Lacinia at 552, and of the Appennine mountain range at 12.703 (se attollens pater Appenninus ad auras).
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uisa: just as one of the Sporades 'appeared' (ἐφαάνθη‎, 4.1711: N) to the Argonauts after their journey through the black storm (cf. 210).
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aperire procul montis ac uoluere fumum: 'to reveal mountains far off and to billow out smoke'. To an optimist the smoke might suggest the domestic fires of human habitation (cf. Od. 9.167, 10.149–52), and the possibility of hospitality; rather it implies volcanic activity, a precursor of Etna (caelum subtexere fumo, 582; see 209 n.), and an exhalation from the underworld, as suits the hellish inhabitants (215, 252). aperire echoes Apollonius' use of ἀνέφηνεν‎ ('revealed') in giving the etymology for the island name Anaphe when Apollo shines light on a mountain top to end the Argonauts' voyage through darkness (4.1717–18: N); but for the Trojans the revelation is a delusion (contrast 275).
Editor’s Note
uela cadunt: 'our sails droop' (OLD cado 7d): the wind stops blowing, so they quickly turn to their oars.
Editor’s Note
remis insurgimus: 560 n.: here too there is coincidence of íctus* and accent* in insúrgimus and the following feet.
Editor’s Note
haúd móra, naútae | adnixi torquent: an easy parataxis* (as at 548), which neatly expresses the absence of delay. For the unusual rhythm in the fifth foot, see Introduction, p. 49. The five spondees* of 208 may be expressive of the effort of rowing.
Editor’s Note
caerula uerrunt: 'they sweep the dark blue waters'. uerrere is a common metaphor for rowing (290, 5.778, 6.320; as well as when this whole verse is repeated at 4.583; already at Ennius, Ann. 377 Sk.). The language particularly echoes early lines of Catullus 64 (7 caerula uerrentes … aequora; 13 tortaque remigio spumis incanuit unda, 'and the water, churned up by the oars, grew white with foam'): pointedly, for Catullus too begins to imitate Apollonius' Argonautica here (see e.g. Clare, PCPhS 42 (1996), 60–88). Even as we seem to have entered calmer waters, caerula maintains the language of the dark storm (cf. 194, 211 n.).
Editor’s Note
209–69 The Harpies
The Trojans have been saved from the storm, and they land on an island where there is the welcome sight of unshepherded cattle and goats. But (as Aeneas' introduction of the episode warns us) when they kill some and try to eat, they are repeatedly attacked by the Harpies, a flock of bird-like monsters, one of whom eventually utters a dire prophecy. Anchises prays that the gods alleviate the foreseen disaster, and they hurriedly depart. Though one significant model here is Odyssey 12.260–419, the episode in which his hungry crew eat the Cattle of the Sun, nowhere in the poem is imitation of Argonautica more apparent (2.178–316 [M]: Phineus and the Harpies [212 n.]); see Nelis 32–8, and Harrison, PLLS 5 (1985), 147–62 for fuller discussion of Vergil's integration of these (and other) models.
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209–13 seruatum: though Aeneas (here standing for the whole group) thinks he has been saved after the uncanny darkness of the storm, the land they have reached will prove no less frightening.
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excipiunt: in comparison to the other ancient variant accipiunt ('welcome'), this is appropriately neutral in connotation ('receive'); contrast the instance at 5.40–1, where Acestes' warm welcome of the returning Trojans is shown by the accompanying phrases in gaza laetus agresti | excipit ('he receives us joyfully with rustic riches'). The enjambment* helps express the relief of delayed arrival.
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Strophadum … Strophades: the formality of the repetition marks the etymological point of the lines, which is brought out explicitly in Graio … nomine dictae. Strophadum echoes the analogous genitive plural Σποράδων‎ ('the Scattered Islands'), used of the group that includes Anaphe, where Apollo appears providing light to the Argonauts at Apollonius 4.1711 [N]. Strophades means 'the Turning Islands'; in Apollonius this is glossed* at 2.295–7 [M(c)]: what had previously been the 'Floating Islands' (Πλωταί‎) changed their name, because this is where the sons of Boreas 'turned' from their pursuit of the Harpies. Despite Apollonius' different explanation, the two names are obvious synonyms: the islands move and shift shape, presumably because they are volcanic (206 n.; and cf. Ovid's portubus infidis, Met. 13.710: T(c)). Against this background, stant is a significant choice of diction: like Delos (of which they are a hellish equivalent) the islands are now fixed, and so is their name.
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īnsŭla˘e Ionio in magno: the cretic* sequence of syllables in Book 3 etc. exclude the noun from use in dactylic* poetry, except in the nominative singular (e.g. 3.104, 386, 692), or with some licence, here 'prosodic hiatus' or correption*, a frequent phenomenon in Homeric versification, but rare in Latin. Vergil regularly uses hiatus* in lines with a marked Greek element (Trappes-Lomax, PCPhS 50 (2004), 145–9) such as the names Ionio here and in sub Iliŏ alto at 5.261. The 'Ionian Sea' lies between the Peloponnese and Sicily (see Map 3); mari is understood, hence the neuter form.
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dira Celaeno: the chief Harpy, who will utter a grim prophecy at 247–57. Celaeno derives from κελαινός‎ 'black', suited to the Harpies' original role as personifications* of storm-winds (Odyssey 1.241, 20.77–8, Iliad 16.150; cf. the names Aello, 'Whirlwind' and Ocypete, 'Swiftwing' at Hesiod, Theog. 267), but also used often of the underworld and its inhabitants: the Trojans have not yet fully escaped from the uncanny dark storm of 194–204. There are thirty-five instances of dirus in the whole poem, but Vergil harps on it in this short episode (228, 235, 256, 262; dira Celaeno again in Aeneas' brief recapitulation at 713); the word thus characterizes the ominous horror of the events on the Strophades, and of Celaeno in particular. Moreover, at 252 she describes herself as the 'greatest of the Furies', who are sometimes identified with the Dirae (262 n.).
Editor’s Note
Phīnēĭă postquam | clausa domus: an unusually obvious cross-reference to the tale told in Apollonius, Argonautica 2 [M]. Phineus is there a seer, punished by Zeus for revealing too much of his intention: he has lost his sight, and, every time he tries to eat, the Harpies descend on his home and destroy his meal. Two of the Argonauts, Zetes and Calaïs, sons of Boreas, the North Wind, chase off the Harpies, and only refrain from killing them when they receive an oath from Iris, messenger of Zeus, that they will not trouble Phineus again. He then makes a carefully limited prophecy about the Argo's journey to Colchis, including an encounter with the aggressive Birds of Ares (242 n.), and the unsleeping dragon the Argonauts will find guarding the Golden Fleece. Phineus is thus an important precursor of the theme of partial prophecy that is essential to this book, with its series of revelations, sometimes incomprehensible or misleading, not least the speech of Celaeno at 247–57; cf. also Helenus' speech at 374–462 (and esp. 377–80). As a blind man, Phineus implicitly continues the theme of darkness from the storm (197–204). At Arg. 2.284–99 [M(c)] the Strophades mark the end of the pursuit, as we have seen, but in that text the Harpies then take up residence on Crete (2.299, 434), which V. has used as an implicit link in the progress of the Trojans' voyage. As well as reprising the theme of belatedness from line 1, postquam, emphasized by its postponement* to line end, is the first of several markers of the imitation (cf. priores, 213): Aeneas' voyage comes after the Argo, and V.'s story after Apollonius.
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214–18 tristius haud <est> illis monstrum: tristis ('gloomy', 'grim') is often used of the underworld and its inhabitants (e.g. 4.243 Tartara tristia; 6.315 nauita tristis, of Charon; 6.438 tristique palus inamabilis unda, 'and the unlovely marsh with its dismal waters'), but it is also applied to 'harsh' smells and 'bitter' tastes (OLD 8), which may be relevant given the connexion of the Harpies with food and the smell they leave behind them. On monstrum, see 26 n.
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nec saeuior ulla | pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis: 'nor has any plague or manifestation of divine anger raised itself more savage from the waters of the Styx'. ira is rarely used for those who exact punishment as a result of anger (ThLL ira 365.76–81), but Valerius Flaccus imitates V. by applying it to the Harpies (4.428). V. again evokes both Allecto (pestis at 7.505, and 'to whom grim wars and exhibitions of anger … are a delight', 7.325–6 cui tristia bella | iraeque … cordi), and the Dirae (pestes at 12.845), whose name is derived from deorum irae according to Servius on 2.519 (Harrison, PLLS 5 (1985), 152).
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sese: V. likes the reduplicated form of the reflexive, especially before vowels (also 345, 598). The elision contributes to the apt ugliness of the line with its five sibilants* in five syllables (Stygiis ses(e) ext-), two of them strengthened by the hard t following (as already in pestis).
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uirginei <sunt> uolucrum uultus: the verb 'to be' has to be supplied in each clause of the sentence, as often happens in the brief encapsulation when figures are introduced, e.g. 593–5 (Achaemenides), and 426–8 prima hominis facies et pulchro pectore uirgo | pube tenus, postrema … pistrix, of the similarly monstrous Scylla, also described with emphatic alliteration. Another group of monsters depicted with the faces of maidens and the bodies of birds are the Sirens ('they were partly like birds, and partly like maidens to look at', Ap. Arg. 4.898–9); unlike Odysseus and the Argonauts, Aeneas will only hear a broken echo of their voices (556).
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foedissima uentris | proluuies: though epic does not use words like cacare (cf. Cat. 36.1 cacata charta, 'shitty sheets' on the Annales of Volusius, presumably a hexameter poem), or merda (Horace, Satires 1.8.37), and even stercus, favoured word of the agricultural writers, appears in verse only at Lucretius 2.872, Horace, Epod. 12.11, and occasionally later, V. exploits the ingrained human distaste for excrement. The picture here and in the encounter itself (225–46) is a frightening mixture of realism and mythological fantasy. The Harpies are both malevolent spirits from the underworld, with human faces and voices, and a frighteningly persistent flock of hungry and aggressive seabirds, whose attacks spoil the food they do not take themselves (227, 244).
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uncae … manus: the phrase, reminiscent of χερσὶν ἁρπάγοις‎ ('snatching hands', cited from Sophocles, Phineus, fr. 706 Radt), evokes the predatory nature of the Harpies: V. has it twice of human hands 'hooked' to grasp or pick something (6.360; Geo. 2.365–6), but the adjective is more commonly applied to the clawed feet of birds, notably at 233 pedibus circumuolat uncis (at 5.255, 9.564, 11.723, 12.250 of eagles or hawks seizing prey).
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pallida semper | ora fame: 'faces ever pale with hunger'. pallidus is another epithet regularly used of the inhabitants of the underworld (cf. 1.354 [P]; 8.244–5 regna … pallida; Geo. 1.277 pallidus Orcus; 3.551–2 Stygiis emissa tenebris | pallida Tisiphone). semper evokes the Harpies' eternal nature; and fame resumes their link with food (252 n.). On the 'half-line', see Introduction, p. 51.
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219–24 huc marks the return from the ecphrasis* of 210–18 to the narrated action.
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ecce: though V. occasionally varies his usual placement (the start of the line), this is the only time he puts ecce at the end. The effect of this counter-enjambment* is a striking redirection of attention away from the calm entry into port—but not to the Harpies, rather to the delightful sight of unguarded herds of cattle and goats. However, there is an ominous note even to this, for the scene recalls Thrinacia, the island on which the cattle and sheep of the Sun, Helios, are pastured in the Odyssey (11.108, 12.128–9, 265–6). Despite the warnings of Tiresias and Circe, Odysseus' companions force him to land, and, when contrary winds maroon them for a month, in their hunger and desperation, while he sleeps, they sacrifice and eat some of the cattle. Zeus responds to Helios' anger by sending a storm that destroys all of the crew bar Odysseus himself. Vergil imitates the Odyssey by placing this evocation of Helios' cattle between a storm and a prophecy related to the killing of the cattle (Horsfall on 192–208); but the Trojans do not break a direct injunction and their storm comes first, and is simply unpleasant, not fatal.
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laeta: 'thriving'. The echo of ubere laeto (95) might briefly suggest that the Trojans have found a potential home.
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caprigenumque pecus nullo custode per herbas: a playful variation on a line from Cicero's version of the Hellenistic* poet Aratus (Prognostica fr. 6.1 = Arat. 1098), caprigeni pecoris custos de gurgite uasto: whereas Cicero speaks of the 'guardian of his goat-born flocks', V.'s flock has no herdsman (the potentially pastoral moment is averted); per herbas may also correct 'from the vast sea' (though we know from the Aratean context that that phrase applied to seabirds).
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inruimus ferro: after the famine on Crete (138–42) and the privations of the storm the Trojans are keen to eat, and religious observance for once comes second, almost as an afterthought. But the phrasing suggests the violence of marauders, and for a moment we get an alternative glimpse of the Trojans as an aggressive invading force: cf. 2.757 inruerant Danai (of the Greeks entering Aeneas' house), Ilioneus' denial of such purposes to Dido at 1.527–8 non nos aut ferro Libycos populare penatis | uenimus, aut raptas ad litora uertere praedas ('we have not come either to pillage Libyan homes or to snatch booty and take it back to the shore'), or the accusations of Juno at 10.77–8 quid … Troianos uim ferre Latinis … atque auertere praedas? ('what of the fact that the Trojans inflict violence on the Latins … and take away booty?'); and Putnam 1995: 53–5.
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diuos ipsumque uocamus … Iouem: 'we call on the gods, and especially Jupiter himself': Jupiter is likewise picked out, amid a larger group of deities, at 19–21.
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in partem praedamque: 'to take a share in the prey': hendiadys*. praeda means 'prey' as well as 'booty' (OLD 2, 1); the choice of word, reinforced by repetition at 233, 244, helps maintain the aggressive tone visible in 222. When the equivalent Greek word ἑλώριον‎ occurs at Arg. 2.264, it is used of the food that is 'booty' for the Harpies.
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toros: as usual V. conceives of dining as something done lying down; cf. 1.214 fusique per herbam, when the Trojans eat the deer killed by Aeneas after the storm. Tables are part of the equipment of the feast there (1.216), as again here (231, where it slyly looks ahead to the climactic word of Celaeno's speech, 257).
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225–8 at subit(ae) horrifico lapsu: the positive delights of the feast are suddenly interrupted with another swift and horrific descent of mood, emphasized by the brutal elision.
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Ha̅rpy̅ı̅a̅e̅ the enjambment* gives an element of suspense as the creatures arrive. The meaning of the name is implied by the etymological gloss* diripiunt, placed immediately below: the verb is the Latin equivalent of ἥρπαζον‎ ('they snatched') at Ap. Arg. 2.189 [M(a)]; Ἅρπυιαι‎ ('Harpies'/'Snatchers') starts the previous line. diripiunt may add a play on the Harpies' alternative name Dirae (211 n., and cf. 228).
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contactuque omnia foedant | immundo; tum <est> uox taetrum dira inter odorem: along with the interruption of the feasting and the destruction of the food, there is a simultaneous assault on all the other senses (carrying on from the mainly visual description in 216–18, and clangoribus in 226). The emphatic enjambment* of immundo and the heaping up of pejorative* adjectives stress the inevitable disgust the Trojans feel; for the smell, cf. Apollonius 2.191–2, 229, 272 [M]. tum is best understood as 'in addition' here (OLD 9).
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229–33 rursum in secessu longo sub rupe cauata: the Trojans at first treat this like the attack of a flock of seagulls, unpleasant but not ominous: they have presumably not noticed the maidenly faces or understood the uox as making intelligible utterances. They thus try again, sensibly retreating under an overhang for protection. rursum, repeated at 232, marks the revisiting of both Apollonius' Harpy episode, and the narrative pattern of 24–46 (n.b. 31 rursus), where Aeneas fails twice to understand the significant horror of what is happening, and it takes a third attempt to produce an explanatory voice. At 1.310–12, Aeneas makes sure the fleet is hidden away before he sets off to explore the north African coast:
  • classem in conuexo nemorum sub rupe cauata
  • arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris
  • occulit.
He conceals the fleet in a bowl amid the woods, under a hollowed out crag, encircled by woods and shivering shadows.
The recurrence of the phrase sub rupe cauata in 229 provoked a reader or scribe to add 1.311 to this context too (cf. 8.46, based on 3.393; 10.278 = 9.127; the medieval MSS provide other examples), and the canonical numeration includes it as 230, even though it must be interpolated* (as the great Vergilian editor Ribbeck saw):
  • 229rursum in secessu longo sub rupe cauata
  • 230arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris
  • 231instruimus mensas arisque reponimus ignem.
This is shown by the presence of clausam in MP, the two antique manuscripts available here, as well as some of the ninth-century copies; for clausam has no grammatical reference, and must be drawn from 1.311, where it belongs with classem. The tradition offers the variants clausa (supposedly with rupe—but that already has the epithet cauata) and clausi (in agreement with the first-person plural subject—but for a personal object the verb would not be idiomatic with the sense 'surrounded', rather than 'shut in'): these too are interpolations*, vain attempts by readers to integrate the intrusive verse.
Editor’s Note
caecisque latebris: still the Trojans cannot see what is happening to them (212 n.). We might wonder whether the Harpies are coming from the sky (ex diuerso caeli), the woods (258), or from the underworld (215).
Editor’s Note
turba sonans recalls the noise of 226 (clangoribus) and 228 (uox), and introduces the explicit notion of disorder.
Editor’s Note
praedam: cf. 223.
Editor’s Note
uncis: cf. 217.
Editor’s Note
234–7 arma capessant: V. quite often omits ut when expressing indirect commands, here (as at 10.258) after the magisterial edico (OLD 1b), which then introduces an indirect statement in the following line that is given jussive* force by the presence of the gerundive. arma reprises the first word of the poem, in an order from Aeneas, the man from 1.1; but here arms will prove useless.
Editor’s Note
bellum cum gente gerendum: the formality of the language, enhanced by the incantatory repetitions, associates this skirmish with war more generally, and especially that which the Trojans will fight in Italy: bella gerenda is used in the warnings of Anchises to Aeneas (6.890) and by Turnus at 7.444.
Editor’s Note
haud secus ac iussi faciunt: in this moment of crisis the obedient Trojans are model citizens (as again at 561).
Editor’s Note
scuta latentia condunt: 'they stow their shields so they are concealed', a proleptic* use of the participle.
Editor’s Note
238–41 dedere: even though in seventeen occurrences out of eighteen he places dedere at line end (where the choice is metrically indifferent), V. never uses the form dederunt.
Editor’s Note
dat signum responds to sonitum … dedere like the trumpet blast of one army answering that of another; cf. signum of Allecto's trumpet blast at 7.513, 519, which marks the beginning of the skirmish between Latins and Trojans, repeated at 8.1 when the conflict has extended to Turnus' Rutulians and other local tribes, as well as in the resumption of battle at 11.474 dat signum.
Editor’s Note
Misenus: V. has Aeneas introduce a figure who will be important in Book 6, where his pride in his playing of the trumpet leads him to challenge the sea-god Triton, whose power makes him fall fatally on the rocks (6.164–74); it is while purifying himself by organizing Misenus' funeral that Aeneas comes upon the Golden Bough that enables him to visit the underworld unscathed (6.183–235). (Cf. the introduction of the helmsman Palinurus at 202.)
Editor’s Note
inuadunt: again Aeneas uses aggressive language of his men's actions: this is an attack, not merely self-defence; cf. the use of the verb of the Greeks in Troy, at 2.265 inuadunt urbem, 414; and of the Rutulians attacking the Trojan camp at 9.147, 567.
Editor’s Note
noua proelia temptant: though this is a 'strange' form of conflict (OLD nouus 2), and new for the Trojans, the epithet invites the contrary reader to notice that the deployment of swords against Harpies was a feature of the Boreads' pursuit at Arg. 2.273–85. Like edico at 235, temptant is used with two different constructions, first the substantival* object, and then an infinitive in apposition, explaining how the battles—with birds, not Greeks—are new.
Editor’s Note
foedare: 'to mutilate' (OLD 3), but equating the Trojans to the 'polluting' Harpies (216, 227, 244): so Panoussi 2009: 86–7.
Editor’s Note
obscenas pelagi … uolucris: 'repulsive birds of the sea': the adjective implies ill omen, but also what should not appear on stage (ob-scaenus: cf. Varro, Ling. Lat. 7.96)—or in epic; it thus encourages us to think of the birds' excrement. pelagi fits the accounts according to which the Harpies were descended from Pontos or Neptune (Hesiod, Theogony 265–9; Servius); but the realistic element seems as important here—for a final time Aeneas presents them as a flock of seabirds such as one might in reality encounter on an uninhabited island.
Editor’s Note
242–4 sed neque uim plumis ullam nec uulnera tergo | accipiunt: the delusion is quickly exposed—there is nothing natural here: parallels for such invulnerability can be found in the Earth-born Antaeus, whom Hercules has to hold away from the earth to crush (Ovid, Ibis 393–5; Lucan 4.589–655), and Talos, the bronze giant of Crete killed by Medea's witchcraft (Arg. 4.1638–89); the Stymphalian Birds, dealt with in one of Hercules' Labours, are sometimes represented as having metal feathers; so too those encountered by the Argonauts in the Black Sea (Apollonius 2.1047–88). But the Trojans do not have to defeat these monsters—departure and prayer will achieve their purpose—so a closer analogy may lie in the personifications* Aeneas encounters at the entrance to the underworld (6.290–4): they are mere shapes without body; though he draws his sword, the Sibyl warns him it is useless, and his pietas allows him to pass them by. Latin poets are happy to match neque with nec (e.g. 2.197, 8.316, 11.70, 12.903); and they prefer to use neque after an opening monosyllable in order to secure a dactyl* in the first foot of the line: of the thirty-four times V. uses neque before a consonant in Mynors' OCT, fourteen are at 1s; whereas he has the far commoner nec only twice in this position.
Editor’s Note
celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae: 'and flying away with a swift escape up to the stars'. sidera (cf. Arg. 2.300 [M(c)]) gives an elemental note, before the next verse returns us to the mundane horrors they leave behind—half-eaten food and excrement.
Editor’s Note
245–6 una … Celaeno: 'one <of them>, Celaeno' or 'Celaeno alone': una focuses attention on the speaker as unus does at 716. Her perch on a rock is natural for a bird, and suited to her address of the people. Williams brings out the appropriateness of the slowing spondees* in this and the next line to introduce Celaeno's 'grim prophecy'.
Editor’s Note
infelix uates recalls Agamemnon's μάντι κακῶν‎ at Iliad 1.106 (of Calchas), but whereas that means 'seer of miseries', the application of infelix to Celaeno evokes the greater range of misfortune involved in encountering the Harpies.
Editor’s Note
rumpit … hanc pectore uocem: 'she belches this speech from her chest'; see OLD rumpo 5b for the transitive use to describe speech, developed by V. (see Austin on 2.129). The violence of the utterance is likewise stressed at 11.376–7 exarsit … uiolentia Turni; | dat gemitum rumpitque has imo pectore uoces ('the violence of Turnus blazed up; he gives a groan and brings up these words from the depths of his chest').
Editor’s Note
247–9 bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque iuuencis: 'Is there war too to promote' (OLD 4; or perhaps, with an ironical twist, 'in return for': OLD 10) 'the slaughter of cattle and the killing of steers.' We have punctuated this as a separate sentence, rather than a mere anticipation of bellumne inferre paratis in 248, partly because est is easily supplied and the sense feels complete in an unpunctuated text; but also because it brings out the reputation of the Trojans as aggressors. Paris stole Helen (and property: Iliad 3.70) from Menelaus, and the people fought to protect what he had taken; now they are fighting over the cattle they have killed though they did not own them: cf. the wounding of Silvia's stag by Ascanius, which is the immediate cause of conflict between Trojans and Latins (7.475–510). The next question also looks ahead.
Editor’s Note
Laomedontiadae: 'people of Laomedon', the father of Priam. Because of Laomedon's breaking of his promises to reward Apollo and Poseidon for building the walls of Troy (Iliad 21.441–52; Horace, Odes 3.3.21–2) and Hercules for killing a sea-monster (Hyginus, Fab. 89.3–5), he is used by V. as a symbol of Troy in contexts where lying or punishment is in mind, e.g. at 4.542 Laomedonteae … periuria gentis, and Geo. 1.501–2 satis iam pridem sanguine nostro | Laomedonteae luimus periuria Troiae ('we [i.e. the Romans] have long now paid enough with our blood for the perjuries of Laomedon's Troy').
Editor’s Note
bellumne inferre paratis: similar phrasing recurs in the second half of the poem to describe Trojan (11.250: the envoys reveal to Diomedes qui bellum intulerint), and Roman aggression (7.604 Getis inferre manu lacrimabile bellum | … parant: the Gates of War are opened when 'they prepare to carry tear-bringing war with force against the Getae'). Wills (1996: 64) notes too the echo of bellum … bellum in the Sibyl's prophetic speech at 6.86 bella, horrida bella, which reflects the way that Celaeno figures the current attack as a precursor to the invasion of Italy (cf. 222–3).
Editor’s Note
patrio Harpyias insontis pellere regno: patrio ('ancestral') is a tendentious claim, given that in Apollonius (2.284–300: M(c)) the Harpies' association with the Strophades is the accidental end of their chase by the sons of Boreas (Hyginus, Fab. 14.18 follows V.). Again V. seems to look ahead: Celaeno's words foreshadow the Rutulian reaction to the coming of the Trojans to Latium, as expressed at 12.236–7 nos patria amissa dominis parere superbis | cogemur, qui nunc lenti consedimus aruis ('when our homeland is lost we shall be forced to obey haughty masters, we who are now settled peacefully in our fields'): cf. p. 6.
Editor’s Note
250–4 accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta: ergo is normally first word in its clause—forty-seven out of fifty-five times in V.—but occasionally he places it second, third, or even fourth (6.456). Both animis and haec mea dicta are to be taken ἀπὸ κοινοῦ‎*, i.e. in both clauses. The importance of the announcement is conveyed by the formal insistence on attention, as when the same line is repeated by Jupiter requiring divine non-interference in the battle (10.104: see Harrison ad loc. for further parallels).
Editor’s Note
Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus Apollo: cf. Ap. Arg. 2.180–2 [M(a)], where it is Apollo who has granted the power of prophecy to Phineus and Zeus who is concerned to limit what may be foretold. Macrobius, Sat. 5.22.11–14 finds a source in two passages of Aeschylus (Eum. 19, fr. 86 TrGF) for the notion 'that Apollo prophesies what Jupiter has said to him'. V. may hint at versions in which the oracle of Zeus at Dodona (Varro, cited by Servius on 256) or Cassandra, taught by Apollo, is the source of the prophecy Celaeno utters.
Editor’s Note
Furiarum ego maxima: confirmation that Celaeno is a chthonic* power, this is recalled at 6.605–6, in the Sibyl's account of the punishments in Tartarus: Furiarum maxima iuxta | accubat et manibus prohibet contingere mensas ('the greatest of the Furies lies nearby and prevents them touching the tables with their hands'), an activity that corresponds both to the Harpies' repeated disruption of the Trojans' meal and to the punishing hunger she prophesies. See Panoussi 2009: 83–90 for further discussion of the equation.
Editor’s Note
Italiam cursu petitis, uentisque uocatis | ibitis Italiam: 'Italy you seek on your voyage, and with the winds you have summoned you will reach Italy.' After ibitis, Italiam is accusative of motion towards, imitating archaic* usage with the names of countries (see Penney in Adams & Mayer 1999: 261). Modern editors generally put a strong stop after uentisque uocatis, but the phrase extends the previous clause awkwardly, as it does not form a proper pair with cursu. With punctuation after petitis the two clauses are balanced; and uocatis is echoed at 395 aderitque uocatus Apollo in a matching announcement of Trojan success. In displaying knowledge of the winds, Celaeno perhaps evokes the Harpies' old Greek identity as wind deities (211 n.). Mention of Italy confirms the prophecy of the Penates (166), and establishes the speaker's reliability before the grim revelation that follows.
Editor’s Note
255–8 'But you shall not be granted a city and surround it with walls until terrible hunger and the harm done in slaughtering us forces you to gnaw your tables and eat them up.' As people do not eat tables, this might be taken as an adynaton*: the city will never be founded (cf. the witches' apparition at Macbeth IV.i.91–3 'Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until | Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill | Shall come against him', and Macbeth's response 'That will never be.'). Read so, these lines and the phrasing of 254 may help explain how Dido (and perhaps even Aeneas) come to believe that the Trojans are not fated to wall a city in Italy: they reach Italy and enter a port, at 521–47; but if they are never to be given their own city, why not stay in Carthage? Alternatively the lines might function as a prophecy of hunger so grim that the foundation will be a goal reached only with regret. However, the omen turns out to be a riddle with a paradoxical solution (266 n.), such as is common in stories of city foundations (Horsfall, Vergilius 35 (1989), 11–13). The omen is a traditional part of the Aeneas legend, mentioned by Cassandra at Lycophron 1250–2 'There he will find a food-laden table, which will be eaten later by his companions; this will remind him of old oracles' (Hornblower's translation), Varro (cited by Servius), Dionysius Hal. Rom. 1.55, Strabo 13.1.53. Attributing the prophecy to Celaeno is apparently a Vergilian innovation, and one that adds to the dread as well as exploiting the Harpies' association with hunger.
Editor’s Note
non ante … quam: the standard Latin way of expressing 'not until'. āntĕquām has to be separated into its constituent parts in dactylic* verse, as it sometimes is in prose.
Editor’s Note
nostraeque iniuria caedis: genitive of definition, explaining what the injury consists in (Woodcock §72.5); cf. 1.27 spretaeque iniuria formae ('the wrong done by the spurning of <Juno's> beauty'). Celaeno seems to collapse into one offence the killing of the cattle (caede boum, 247) and the assault on the Harpies themselves (241; but note 242–3).
Editor’s Note
subigat: the subjunctive is prospective (cf. 384–7, and Cat. 64.188–91), but perhaps also helps distance the hypothetical possibility, as in other adynata*, e.g. Ecl. 1.59–63 (for other examples see H. V. Canter, 'The figure ἀδύνατον‎ in Greek and Latin poetry', AJPh 51 (1930), 32–41, esp. 33–4).
Editor’s Note
mālis absumere mensas: 'with your jaws to consume tables': the horrifying surprise is kept to the climactic final word. The addition of malis stresses the physical consumption of the tables (as at Geo. 3.268, where the mares of Glaucus 'consumed his limbs with their jaws', malis membra absumpsere). The word recurs at 7.114 when the omen is fulfilled (see on 265).
Editor’s Note
in siluam pennis ablata refugit: monstrous as her prophecy is, as Celaeno departs, she becomes a bird once more, flying off into the trees; the flying departure is like that of Iris at Argonautica 2.300, after her oath to the Boreads.
Editor’s Note
259–62 at sociis subita gelidus formidine sanguis | deriguit: in the Polydorus episode, it was Aeneas himself whose blood was frozen by the horror (gelidusque coit formidine sanguis, 30); here the whole group is affected.
Editor’s Note
nec iam amplius armis, | sed uotis precibusque iubent exposcere pacem: 'and now no more with arms, but with vows and prayers they bid us entreat peace': the Trojans see that not fighting, but religion is appropriate for dealing with such a monstrum, and the phrasing they use is almost a religious formula*: cf. 370, 4.56–7 pacemque per aras | exquirunt, Livy 1.16.3 pacem precibus exposcunt (and Ogilvie ad loc.). The sentence provides an instance of zeugma*: the sense shifts after armis, which are not normally used when requesting peace. Servius suggests that we supply usi sunt in the first clause, Williams petere salutem; but the sense is clear and a decision is not needed.
Editor’s Note
siue deae seu sint dirae: a complex play on the identity of the Harpies. dirae will turn out to be an epithet joined to uolucres and matching obscenae; but first, in its opening syllable, it hints at the prayer formula* si deus, si dea es (Cato, Agr. 139, and the discussion by Hickson 1993: 41–3). However, Dirae ('the Dread Ones' or 'Curses') is also an alternative name for the Furies (4.473, 610; 7.324, and Horsfall ad loc.), or for related powers who assist Jupiter and presage disaster (Tarrant on 12.845–52; n.b. obscenae uolucres at 12.876); and it is used as a name for the Harpies in Valerius Flaccus' account of the Phineus episode (Arg. 4.423–636) at 586 saeuae … Dirae. There is a similar effect at 1.293, where the Dirae seem to be the negative images of dis-order, opposed to Fides et Vesta, and 'shut in by tight-fitting iron constructions' (ferro et compagibus artis | claudentur)—and then the words Belli portae are added, and dirae becomes an adjective ('grim gates of War'); see also 211, 215 nn. The sentence thus suggests as alternatives to 'goddesses' that they may be gods, or infernal deities—or unpleasant sea-birds. But as Servius notes, birds were habitually seen as conveyers of omens in the ancient world, to such an extent that in both Greek (Aristophanes, Birds 719–21, and N. Dunbar (Oxford, 1995), ad loc.) and Latin (OLD auis 3b) 'bird' can be used to mean 'portent'. sint marks the conditional clause as part of the indirect speech, after iubent.
Editor’s Note
263–6 pater Anchises: Aeneas has taken the lead at 234–7 in mistakenly ordering the use of arms, so it is appropriate that Anchises takes the lead in praying now, though leadership and religious activity are each split between the two of them over the book as a whole (see Introduction, pp. 41–2): one might compare the Cretan episode, where it is Aeneas who has the dream of the Penates that corrects Anchises' misinterpretation of Apollo's oracle.
Editor’s Note
passis … palmis: the usual gesture in prayer, as when Aeneas supplicates the gods in the storm at 1.93 duplicis tendens ad sidera palmas ('stretching both hands towards the stars') or at 2.688 caelo palmas cum uoce tetendit, when Anchises thanks Jupiter for the omen that signified approval for departure from Troy. Though V. nowhere else has palmas pandere, he uses the verb of spreading wings (Geo. 1.398) and sails (520).
Editor’s Note
numina magna uocat: the appeal is not to the Harpies themselves, but to the Olympians in general (di … di, 265), especially Jupiter and Apollo, whose words have been conveyed (251–2), and who both appear in the next paragraph (275, 279); in offering encouragement in the face of Celaeno's threat at 394–5 Helenus mentions the invocation of Apollo in particular.
Editor’s Note
meritosque indicit honores: in this moment of crisis there is no lingering to make sacrifice (delayed till 279–88, and then 7.120–47), and Aeneas conveys the hurry in his narrative by not repeating his father's formal vows, but simply indicating that they were made: contrast the sacrifices actually performed on departure from Crete at 118 meritos aris mactauit honores. Here Servius glosses* meritos with congruos 'suitable', but it is hard to exclude the sense 'deserved', whether that is read as a conditional use ('if deserved') or an anticipation that the prayers will be successful—as indeed they will.
Editor’s Note
placidi is effectively part of the imperative: 'be mild'. The close association of placidus and pax (e.g. 1.249, 7.46, 8.325; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 5.48; Lucretius 1.40, 5.1154–5, 6.73) links this to exposcere pacem in 261, so that it becomes a ritual request for the pax deorum, the peaceful and supportive relationship that the Romans sought with their divinities (see 370, and e.g. Oakley on Livy 6.1.12 neque inuenta pace deum, 'not having found the gods' blessing'); contrast the ira deum of 215.
Editor’s Note
seruate pios: 'save those who honour you', i.e. by letting them build a city and not undergo the threatened famine. pios economically reminds the god of what those praying have done in the past to earn favour; cf. Turnus' prayer to Faunus and Earth at 12.777–8, colui uestros si semper honores ('if I have consistently honoured your rites'), 6.529–30; and Chryses' prayer to Apollo at Iliad 1.39–41 'if ever I have roofed over a fine temple for you, or burnt the fat thighs of bulls or goats, fulfil this prayer of mine'. Servius compares 7.21, where Neptune ensures that the pii Troes sail safely past Circe's island. See Akbar Khan, Prometheus 22 (1996), 131–44 for further discussion of Trojan piety here. Anchises' prayer will prove efficacious (cf. Helenus at 394–5): though Celaeno's threats come true, Jupiter (7.110) ensures it is achieved through a temporary shortage of wheat, and a joke by Ascanius (7.116 heus, etiam mensas consumimus? 'hey, are we eating our tables too?') when the Trojan leaders eat the flatbreads on which they have spread their food soon after arrival in Latium. Aeneas immediately spots the fulfilment of the omen and recognizes that they have found their patria (122). He attributes the prophecy to Anchises himself, with no mention of the Harpies. This silence seems odd, and might be regarded as a symptom of the poem's lack of finish or a deliberate inconsistency, but some interpretations give it thematic or narrative coherence: Harrison (PLLS 5 (1985), 158–62) sees a pointed removal of sinister associations (365, dictu nefas); and West (CQ 33 (1983), 133–4) points out that Anchises could have received such oracles from Cassandra (182–7). Horsfall on 7.107–47 has further discussion and references.
Editor’s Note
266–9 litore funem | deripere excussosque iubet laxare rudentis: both deripere ('tear away') and excussos ('shaken out') have a hint of violence to them that helps convey the urgency of Anchises' instructions for departure and the voyage. funem refers to the cable that secures the ships to the shore, rudentis to the brails that bind the sail to the yard (so Horsfall) or the sheets that control the setting of the sail: in either case they will be running before the wind.
Editor’s Note
qua cursum uentusque gubernatorque uocabat: no immediate destination having been announced, they sail at the whim of the weather and the guidance of the helmsman; fortunately South Winds are blowing (268) and they head north. Macrobius, Sat. 5.6.3 notes the imitation of Odyssey 11.10 (= 12.152) τὴν δʼ ἄνεμός τε κυβερνήτης τʼ ἴθυνε‎ ('wind and helmsman guided the ship'), which is marked not only by the sense, and by the use of a singular verb with two singular subjects, but also by the rhythm, with the lack of strong caesura in the third or fourth foot (unusual in Latin, common in Greek). From 202 the helmsman of Aeneas' boat is known to be Palinurus; his guiding hand and the use of gubernator looks ahead to his thematically significant role in Book 5 (n.b. 12, 859; revisited at 6.337, 349); though he will be lost overboard, Aeneas takes over competently (5.867–8), unlike Gyas when he angrily throws his cautious helmsman Menoetes overboard during the ship-race (5.159–82, 223–4).
Editor’s Note
270–93 Actium and the west coast of Greece
The fleet heads north up the coast of Greece, past the Ionian Islands (Map 3), including Ithaca, home of Odysseus, the Greek leader who had travelled furthest to reach Troy. Beyond that the Trojans feel that they have escaped their enemies. They cleanse themselves from the pollution of the encounter with the Harpies and offer sacrifices to Jupiter: after tension and chaos comes the relaxed activity of civilized peoples, first with games at Actium—Aeneas anticipates the commemoration of Augustus' naval victory of 31 bc, a victory that will be depicted on the shield made for Aeneas by Vulcan (8.675–708: R). (The equivalent chapter in Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Rom. 1.50) tells of stops on Zacynthus, at Leucas, Actium, and Ambracia; in each case they establish a temple for Aphrodite, with games too on Zacynthus. V. shifts material to give a new aetiological* focus.) Then, at the end of a winter spent in this geographically perplexing safe haven, Aeneas dedicates a shield he had taken from a Greek warrior, and they continue north, eventually arriving at Buthrotum, now Butrint in Albania. While marking progress on the voyage and the passage of time, the section continues the weaving together of Odyssean (270–3) and Argonautic (275–83) material, and takes us from the horrific mythical world of the Harpies to the Actium of Vergil's own day. There are some remarkable moments of Trojan self-assertion: they hold their own games (reminiscent of the Panhellenic Games, such as the Olympics, or those held by Achilles in Iliad 23), and Aeneas dedicates a shield with an inscription that both acknowledges and questions the totality of Greek victory (286–8).
Editor’s Note
270–3 In his account of the Ionian Islands, V. begins with Zacynthos and ends with Ithaca, and its kings Laertes and Odysseus, thus inverting the order of material in the lines with which Odysseus finally reveals himself to the Phaeacian court (Od. 9.19–24):
  • 19εἴμ᾽ Ὀδυσεὺς Λαερτιάδης, ὃς πᾶσι δόλοισιν
  • 20ἀνθρώποισι μέλω, καί μευ κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει.
  • 21ναιετάω δ᾽ Ἰθάκην ἐυδείελον· ἐν δ᾽ ὄρος αὐτῇ
  • 22Νήριτον εἰνοσίϕυλλον, ἀριπρεπές· ἀμϕὶ δὲ νῆσοι
  • 23πολλαὶ ναιετάουσι μάλα σχεδὸν ἀλλήλῃσι,
  • 24Δουλίχιόν τε Σάμη τε καὶ ὑλήεσσα Ζάκυνθος‎.
I am Odysseus, son of Laertes, who am well known to men for all kinds of tricks, and my fame has reached heaven. I dwell in far-visible Ithaca; on it there is a conspicuous mountain, Neritum where the leaves quiver, and round it are many islands very close to one another, Dulichium and Same and wooded Zacynthos.
For Aeneas the culmination (273) is a curse, far from the Homeric hero's proud self-identification. Ovid has a similar list for the journey of his Aeneas (Met. 13.711–12: T(c)).
Editor’s Note
apparet perhaps echoes Odysseus' insistence on visibility in his account of his home.
Editor’s Note
nemorosa Zacynthos exactly matches the sense of the line-ending in Od. 9.24, and though it begins at 4s rather than 3d it reproduces the Homeric anomaly of a short a left light before the double consonant (sd) that makes up the Greek zeta and its Latin equivalent. The ancient name is still used for the southernmost of the major Ionian islands, nearly thirty miles north of the Strophades, and thus naturally the first to be seen by the Trojans.
Editor’s Note
Dulichiumque Sămēqu(e) et Nērĭtŏs ardua saxis: again the names and some of the phrasing are drawn precisely from the model; but the geography is quite unclear, and was already in antiquity. At Iliad 2.626–30 Dulichium is large enough to provide forty ships for the expedition against Troy, whereas Odysseus commands only twelve (2.631–7); he is described there as leader of 'the great-hearted Cephallenians who occupied Ithaca and Neritos of the shimmering leaves, and farmed Crocyleia and rugged Aegilips, and held Zacynthus, and lived around Samos'. V. has adopted the Odyssean form Same and the Iliadic Neritos; by making it feminine (the normal gender for islands in Greek) he seems to treat Neritos as an island (as Iliad 2.632 could imply), but the adjectival phrase ardua saxis is equivalent to τρηχεῖα‎, the epithet given to Aegilips at Iliad 2.633 and Ithaca itself at Od. 9.27. Same (a name now borne by a port) is usually identified as the large island Cephallonia or a town on it. Some have thought that Dulichium also refers to Cephallonia, or part of it; while others (especially W. Dörpfeld) take Same to be the modern Ithaca, and Homer's Ithaca to be Leucas. V. was probably more interested in the allusive* power of the names than the precise geography.
Editor’s Note
effugimus scopulos Ithacae: avoidance of Odyssean places becomes a theme in the book: 291, 639, and repeatedly in the case of Scylla and Charybdis; cf. also Neptune's carrying the fleet past Circe's island at 7.21–4. But there is realism here as well as literary praeteritio*: sailors want to avoid reefs or cliffs!
Editor’s Note
Lāērtia regna: slightly ironic in apposition* to scopulos, but 'the Ithacans gloried in the mountainous poverty of their island' (Horsfall).
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terr(am) altricem recalls Odysseus' description of Ithaca at Od. 9.27 'rugged, but a good nurse of young men (κουροτρόφος‎)'. The elision is followed by another in saeu(i), and contributes to the spondaic* vehemence of the line, culminating in the sibilance* of the final three words.
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saeu(i) exsecramur Vlixi: for the ways in which Aeneas describes Ulysses, see 613 n. The genitive of the name is found in three forms: the third-declension Vlixis, the quadrisyllabic Vlixei (e.g. Horace, Odes 1.6.7), and this form, which V. always uses, as apparently did Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 1.98, 5.46 (though on such orthographical distinctions manuscript traditions are not reliable); cf. Achilli, 87.
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274–7 mox et … | et … aperitur: 'next appear both … and'. Leucas is the northernmost of the group; the central mountains rise to over 1,000 metres.
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formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo: V. has in mind the temple of Apollo on the cliff-top of the southern cape of Leucas: cf. Ovid, Ep. 15.165–6 Phoebus ab excelso quantum patet aspicit aequor: Actiacum populi Leucadiumque uocant ('Apollo looks from high up as far as the sea stretches: men call him Actia(ca)n and Leucadian'; Sappho there proposes to throw herself from this famous 'Lovers' Leap'). formidatus nautis ('feared by sailors') reflects on this position: the temple marks a route sailors would avoid. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that the cult statue carried a warning beacon (Butrica 2001: 297; LIMC 470). When Jason prays to Apollo as the Argonauts pass through their dark storm, the god responds quickly (Apollonius 4.1706–18: N), and provides the shining light of his bow from the island that comes to be called Anaphe (205–6 n.; the god also appears to the Argonauts at 2.674–719: Nelis 61–2). At the equivalent point in the Aeneid the Strophades provide not light, but mountains, smoke, and the chthonic* horror of the Harpies; and it is only now that Apollo appears, aperitur reprising the delusive aperire of 206.
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hunc petimus: hunc must refer to Apollo, but the Apollo of 275 was explicitly not a destination sought by sailors. However, there was another temple of Apollo, at Actium (287 n.; Thucydides 1.29.3, Strabo 7.7.6), on the mainland south of the inlet to the Ambracian Gulf, close to the north of Leucas; and the Trojans will be on the Actia litora at 280. It has been shown that the two names Apollo Leucadius and Apollo Actius are used interchangeably, as if the cult were regarded as one (Butrica 2001; besides Ep. Sapph. 166, just cited, cf. Aelian, de Natura Animalium 11.8 'On Leucas there is an elevated cape where a temple to Apollo is sited, and the worshippers name him "Actian".' See also Miller 2009: 73; and S. Casali, 'Terre mobili. La topografia di Azio', in C. Santini & F. Stok (eds), Hinc Italae gentes (Pisa, 2004), 45–74). It looks as though V. has played with this sense of identity to transport the fleet quickly north. We may compare what Callimachus does at Hymn 1.42–3: having given birth to Zeus, Rhea leaves Thenae in Arcadia and is instantly at Crete, where another Thenae is near to Cnossos.
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fessi: cf. 78.
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paruae succedimus urbi: as a piece of narrative to Dido this works straightforwardly—the Trojans enter a city near the temple; but to a reader with a sense of the geography, this creates another puzzle: there was no more than a small village at Actium. Does V. aggrandize the settlement, or are we to think of another city in the area? Stahl argues that the Trojans are to be imagined as coming up the inland side of Leucas and putting in at the city Leucas (where the island was joined to the mainland by sandbanks over which boats were hauled); Cicero, e.g., halted there (and at Actium) travelling to Italy in 50 bc (Fam. 16.1–9), and this might seem an appropriate place to spend the winter (284). Or are we rather to think of a city on the site of Augustus' foundation at Nicopolis, north of the inlet to the Ambracian Gulf? For this is where the Actian Games (280–2) were held after Augustus re-established them (the earlier version featured in a work of Callimachus on Games: fr. 403); and when Aeneas puts up a commemorative memorial (286–8) a Roman reader might well think of the monuments of Nicopolis. We may admire the poet's ambiguity without feeling it necessary to make a decision.
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ancora de prora iacitur; stant litore puppes: the first clause marks the moment of arrival at the shore ('anchors are tossed from the prow'); the second the ongoing position of the ships ('sterns stand on the shore'). The stress on naval activity fits the proximity of Actium; but the beaching of the ships means there is no hint of a naval battle, nor will there be a ship-race as part of the games—that waits till Book 5 (Goldschmidt 2013: 122–3).
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278–83 ergo introduces what follows the arrival, here after a difficult and threatening journey summed up in the participial phrase in the rest of the verse: cf. 132, where the arrival (tandem … adlabimur) comes in the previous line; and 238, where the ubi clause is equivalent to the participle.
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insperata tandem tellure potiti stresses the eventual arrival at a safe destination after the false hopes of 209–10, 219–21; Odysseus sees γαῖαν ἀελπέα‎ ('unhoped for land') at Od. 5.408, but it takes prayer and enormous effort to reach the shore of Phaeacia. tellure potiti means 'having reached land' (cf. 1.172), but potior regularly implies gaining control of territory, and Stahl (1998: 56–7) sees the phrasing as evoking a moment in the Actium campaign, when Augustus' forces under Agrippa capture the city of Leucas.
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lustramurque Ioui: after the religious and physical pollution of an encounter with the Harpies, the Trojans cleanse themselves ritually. Though V. often uses lustrare metaphorically, to describe the movement of people or light, occasionally as here it has religious force, describing the lustration of fields at Ecl. 5.75, and cleansing from the pollution of death at 6.231. Jupiter has been involved in the pollution on the Strophades (223), and the Trojans know his overarching importance for what they are engaged in (251, 171; 2.689–704). In narrative terms, then, offerings to Jupiter (cf. e.g. 19 for the dative) make good sense; but Jupiter is not a deity present in the area, nor were lustrations in Rome normally associated with his divinity. Lloyd (AJPh 75 (1954), 298) suggested that V. thinks of the censorial lustration of 28 bc, alongside his other evocations of religious events in the years after Actium; however, this does not explain Jupiter's presence here. Zeus is heavily involved in Circe's purification of Medea and Jason for the murder of Medea's brother Apsyrtus (Arg. 4.700–17), but the Trojans have not obviously committed a similar offence. Butrica (2001: 307; cf. Miller 2009: 57–66) suggests there is a link to a papyrus epigram (Supplementum Hellenisticum 982 = D. L. Page, Select Literary Papyri 113 [Loeb]) that salutes Apollo of Actium (1) and Leucas (13), and twice (8, 13) also mentions Zeus, each time equated to Augustus.
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uotisque incendimus aras: 'and we kindle the altars with our promised offerings': cf. 8.285 incensa altaria, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 91 βωμοὶ δώροισι φλέγονται‎ ('the altars are aflame with offerings'). The sacrifice and games is equivalent to what the Argonauts do for Apollo on Anaphe (Apollonius 4.1719–30: N), though there the competition is of insults exchanged between the men and Medea's maidservants.
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Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis: a 'golden line'*, with a celebrated etymological play: Ἀκτιος‎, from which Actia comes, means 'of the shore'; Apollonius has the equivalent gloss* at 1.403–4, when the Argonauts establish on the shore (ἐπάκτιον‎) an altar for Apollo Actios; Propertius repeats the play in his allusive* account of the still unpublished Aeneid at 2.34.61 (see Heyworth, Cynthia 275). celebramus combines both the thronging of the shore (OLD 1) and the religious honouring with games (5.58 laetum cuncti celebremus honorem, 'let us all celebrate a joyful festival'; 5.603 celebrata … sancto certamina patri 'contests held for the holy father' i.e. Anchises); Actia implies that Apollo is the recipient of the games (276 n.).
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exercent patrias … palaestras: patrias reinforces Iliacas: as in the games for the anniversary of Anchises' death (on a larger scale), there is emphasis on ancestral tradition at the same time as the text looks ahead to the Augustan age (cf. e.g. 5.563–76). The line then brings out the complexity of cultural transmission when it ends with the quintessentially Greek notion of the palaestra, here 'styles of wrestling', but regularly referring to the central area of the gymnasium, the symbolic gathering place of Greek manhood, but one that V. has already associated with early Italian society at Geo. 2.531 corporaque agresti nudant praedura palaestra ('and they bare their hardened bodies in rustic wrestling'; this was the life lived by 'the ancient Sabines', by 'Remus and his brother', Geo. 2.532–3).
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nudati: prepared for by the athletes' olive oil in 281. The realistic note is revisited at times in the athletics of Book 5 (e.g. 134–5). The nakedness was presumably a major reason for the exclusion of women from athletic games, despite the encouragement Augustus generally gave to such activities (Suetonius, Aug. 43–5), not least by his foundation of the Actian games at Nicopolis and in Rome.
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mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostis: the Trojans have successfully travelled beyond the lands of all the Greeks who came to Troy. The picture will be complicated in the next episode, however: Buthrotum turns out now to be controlled by Priam's son Helenus, but it had till recently been the home of Neoptolemus, the most savage enemy in Book 2; and Helenus will warn that further 'bad' Greeks lie ahead, in Italy (396–402). Another complexity emerges for the reader whose attention has been caught by the reference to Actium, for the battle featured a famous flight to (temporary) safety through the midst of opposing forces—but by the ships of Cleopatra (Plutarch, Antony 66.5 διὰ μέσου ϕεύγουσαι τῶν μαχομένων‎, 'fleeing through the middle of the combatants'), a surprising analogy for the Trojans (but one that will be revisited by the behaviour of Aeneas and Dido in Book 4).
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284–8 interea could mean 'in the meantime, while the rituals were being prepared and carried out', but is easier to take in the sense 'subsequently', as often in narrative (OLD c), e.g. at 4.129, 10.1 (and Harrison, ad loc.). The Actian Games of Augustus were apparently held on the anniversary of the battle, 2 September; and Aeneas' sequence invites us to see his games as coinciding with this.
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magnum sol circumuoluitur annum: 'the sun is rolling round the long year', i.e. completing its circuit by passing through winter, as the next verse explains. The stately progress of the year is expressed in spondees* (in contrast to the swift moving dactyls* describing the winter sea in 285). circum- governs the accusative annum. Aeneas' narrative is rarely so explicit in marking the passage of time (8 n.); we are presumably to imagine that one winter or more (as well as a summer, 141) has already been spent on Crete.
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magni gestamen Abantis … figo: 'the leader of those who survived the Greeks' destruction of Troy dedicates the archetypal Greek ἀσπίς‎᾽‎, so J. F. Miller, CQ 43 (1993), 447, summing up his persuasive argument for returning to the old view that V. here refers to Abas the son of Lynceus and Hypermestra, acclaimed as the inventor of the shield, and the man who set one up in the temple of Hera in Argos (see also Paschalis 1987: 65); though that Abas belonged to an earlier generation, we may think of a descendant going to Troy with his ancestor's shield. Just as the games look ahead to Book 5, so the dedication is a brief precursor of the trophy Aeneas sets up at 11.5–11 to mark his victory in the previous book over the wicked Etruscan king Mezentius (including a bronze shield among the other, ritually damaged, arms).
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postibus aduersis: 'on the doorposts opposite', i.e. in full view of anyone approaching, and the standard place for such dedications in the Aeneid (2.504, 5.360, 7.183; and at 8.721–2, on the shield, where Augustus fastens up offerings on the temple of Apollo during the triumph after Actium). V. leaves the reader to imagine that the reference is to the temple of Apollo at Actium; but the imprecision may also help evoke the monumental placing at Nicopolis of enormous rams taken from Antony's ships: Suetonius, Aug. 18.2 'So that the memory of his victory at Actium might be more celebrated in the future too, he founded the city of Nicopolis near Actium, established games there every four years, and having increased the size of the old temple of Apollo, he adorned with naval spoils the site of the camp he had used and dedicated it to Neptune and Mars'; Cassius Dio 51.1.2–3 also mentions the enlarged temple at Actium, the Games, and an open shrine to Apollo at Nicopolis. On the archaeology of Nicopolis, see W. M. Murray & P. M. Petsas, Octavian's Campsite Memorial for the Actian War (Philadelphia, 1989).
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rem carmine signo: 'I mark the event [or the facts] with a verse inscription'. The dedicatory inscription has provoked recent attention as a manifestation of the Roman epigraphic habit (e.g. J. Nelis-Clément & D. Nelis, 'Furor epigraphicus: Augustus, the poets, and the inscriptions', in P. P. Liddel & P. A. Low (eds), Inscriptions and their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature (Oxford, 2013), 317–47, at 325–7, with further references). The poem has quasi-sepulchral epigrams at 5.870–1 and 7.1–4, but more like this are the epitaph for Daphnis at Ecl. 5.43–4, and the dedicatory couplets at Tibullus 1.9.83–4 and Propertius 2.14.27–8. The phrasing recalls a verse cited by Herodotus (5.59) from a tripod in Thebes: Ἀμφιτρύων μʼ ἀνέθηκεν ἑλὼν‎ [Meineke: ἐὼν‎ codd.] ἀπὸ Τηλεβοάων‎ ('Amphitryon dedicated me, having seized me from the Teleboeae'): see Hutchinson 2013: 338. As a Latin hexameter, it figures Aeneas as the founder of Roman poetry (epigram, and perhaps also epic) as well as the Roman state.
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aeneas haec de danais victoribvs arma: as often in real inscriptions verbs are to be supplied, e.g. dat and rapta. A line beginning Aeneas and ending arma recalls the Aeneid's opening words (Arma uirumque), and hints at a potential turning of the tables on the Greeks, a repeated theme of the poem (e.g. 1.283–5, 6.836–40). The phrasing perhaps calls to mind paradoxical language such as Cicero, Brutus 254 uincebamur a uicta Graecia ('we [Romans] used to be conquered by conquered Greece', discussing rhetoric), a phrase later imitated by Horace (Sillett 2015: 401–2), at Epistles 2.1.156 Graecia capta ferum uictorem cepit ('captured Greece captured the fierce victor', i.e. Rome was overcome by Greek literary art).
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289–93 linquere tum portus iubeo et considere transtris: a hysteron proteron*: they sit in order to row out of port; cf. 5.136 considunt transtris, intentaque bracchia remis ('they sit on the cross-benches, and their arms are strained on the oars', before the signal is given to start the boat-race). An accusative is easily understood as the subject of the infinitives: cf. 472.
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protinus aërias Phaeacum abscondimus arces: 'quickly we make the cloud-capped [or lofty] citadels of the Phaeacians disappear below the horizon'; cf. Ecl. 9.52 cantando … condere soles ('to make the sun set with my singing'). Scherie, the island of the Phaeacians, who finally escort Odysseus back to Ithaca, was regularly identified with Corfu, ancient Corcyra (implicitly at Apollonius 4.982–92, Tibullus 1.3.3). Though V. clearly intends this, another geographical deception is involved, as the highest mountains of Corfu are in the north, close to Buthrotum (Map 3). But he is more interested in marking the swift passing of a location that has delayed the heroes of earlier epics (Od. 5.452–13.77; Arg. 4.993–1223).
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portuque subimus | Chaonio: i.e. Buthrotum itself. Chaonius is an important epithet to introduce the episode, evoking the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, some distance inland, where the priests interpreted the cooing of doves in the oak trees (cf. Ecl. 9.13; Geo. 1.8, 149; 2.67). Aeneas will not visit Dodona, as he did in the traditions reported by Dionysius (Rom. 1.51.1), who has him meeting Helenus there, and Servius (on 256), citing Varro, who attributed the prophecy about eating tables to Jupiter of Dodona: oracular utterance comes from Helenus himself in Buthrotum (374–462). portu is dative (cf. 8.125 subeunt luco), the normal form for the fourth declension for the Augustan poets, who avoid even mănŭī, which (unlike pōrtŭī, cūrrŭī; cf. 541) is possible in dactylic* verse.
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celsam: the city stands 'on a low hill' (OCD4).
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294–355 Arrival in Buthrotum
Now that they have passed beyond the territory of hostile Greeks (cf. 270–93 n., and 396–402), it is fitting that the Trojans' first extended stay should be in an allied city, with Helenus, son of Priam, who has now taken Andromache, widow of Hector and Neoptolemus, as his wife, and (astonishingly) become ruler of a Greek kingdom. Buthrotum was a city that mattered in the Augustan age: veterans of Julius and Augustus were settled there. Dionysius 1.51.1 says that the presence of the Trojans at Buthrotum is attested by the fact that the hill on which they encamped was called Troia (cf. 302, 349–51); and Servius (on 349) implies the Roman polymath Varro cited similar evidence. V. varies the traditional story by omitting the visit to Dodona (293 n.) and introducing the memorably sad and poignant figure of Andromache from Euripides' eponymous* tragedy [H] and the Trojan Women. This is an episode where it is especially valuable to consider the effect of Aeneas' narrative on Dido, another exile, also widowed by the sacrilegious killing of a husband: is it a model when Andromache casts herself as an ever-mournful uniuira (488 n.), or encouragement rather to embrace a new future? After the emotional reunion of this opening section, Aeneas requests prophetic insight from Helenus and receives it, in a long speech (374–462); the departure from these old friends and reminders of Troy is also emotional and drawn out.
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294–9 Hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat auris: 'Here a rumour of unbelievable events takes possession of our ears'. occupat is a striking metaphor (OLD 3), helping to convey the astonishment of the Trojans as they hear this news. Both the rumour and the events are incredible: whereas English tends to put the adjective with the dependent word in such cases, in Latin the genitive can be the noun left unqualified: cf. 131, Conte 2007: 79–80.
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Prīamiden Helenum: Helenus, a son of Priam (and therefore the brother-in-law ο‎f Hector's wife Andromache), is first mentioned as Πριαμίδης Ἕλενος‎ (i.e. V.'s nomenclature in the nominative) in the Iliad at 6.76: there too the first syllable is long, though it is short in Prĭamus. As well as a warrior (Il. 13.576, 758), he is the most prominent seer on the Trojan side; his prophetic powers are vindicated at Iliad 7.44–57. He has become Andromache's husband after the death of Neoptolemus, as is prophesied at Euripides, Andr. 1243–5 [H(b)].
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coniugio … sceptrisque potitum: lit. 'having taken possession of the marriage and sceptres': coniugio is abstract for concrete coniuge and sceptris is synecdoche* for 'kingdom'.
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Aeacidae Pyrrhi: Pyrrhus was the great-grandson of Aeacus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, conceived when Achilles was hidden on Scyros before the Trojan War. Called Pyrrhus because of his red hair, he also bore the name Neoptolemus ('New-war'): O'Hara 1996: 133. Aeneas has portrayed him as repulsively violent and sacrilegious in his murder of Priam in Book 2 (526–53). After the fall of Troy, Andromache and Helenus became his captives, the former serving as his concubine and bearing him a son and the latter proving helpful to him as a prophet. When he was killed, Helenus gained a part of his kingdom (330–4).
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Andromachen: Greek accusative; cf. Anchisen (82 n.), Priamiden (295), Hermionen (328).
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patrio … marito: 'to a husband of her homeland': Andromache was from Thebe, a city in the southern Troad allied to Troy, which she salutes (in absence) in the first line of Euripides' play [H(a)]. At Iliad 6.414–28 she describes the capture of the city by Achilles during the war and the killing of her family, and then in 429–30 she movingly expresses her total dependence on Hector, her first Trojan husband.
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cessisse: 'had passed (to)' (OLD 15): as Servius points out, a legal term—as a captive in war Andromache has become a piece of property.
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obstipui: here of surprise, as opposed to the horror it expresses in 48.
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miroque incensum pectus amore | compellare: for the infinitive after amor compare a line echoed in 299: Aen. 2.10 si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros ('if you have such desire to learn our fate'), suggestively addressed to Dido.
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300–5 The late placing in this sentence of Andromache, its subject, reflects Aeneas' continuing wonder. Who is this woman offering funeral gifts in a grove? It's Andromache! Andromache laments Hector's death already at the end of Iliad 22 when, poignantly late, she at last discovers the fact (22.437–515), and more formally at 24.723–45. To Vergil's contemporaries, after 23 bc, it is likely that the depiction recalled also the behaviour of Octavia, sister of Augustus, after the death of her son Marcellus (described at 6.860–86): cf. Seneca, Dial. 6.2.4–5:

Through the whole period of her life she put no end to her weeping and groaning, nor did she allow any utterances offering consolation, nor even allow herself to be distracted: intent on one thing and single-mindedly dedicated to it, she was through the rest of her life just as she had been at the funeral, I do not say not daring to rise, but refusing to be comforted, judging it a second bereavement to abandon her tears. She was unwilling to have any image of her beloved son, or to hear any mention of him.

The connexion is enhanced by the story of her weeping and fainting at the Marcellus passage (Servius on Aen. 6.861, Vita Don. §32).
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cum forte: 'at a time when, as it happened': inverted cum to express a 'useful coincidence' (Horsfall).
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sollemnis … dapes: 'ritual', 'customary', or 'annual feasts': the last is a common implication in the poem, as at 5.53 annua uota … sollemnisque … pompas ('annual sacrifices and ritual processions') and 8.102 forte die sollemnem illo rex Arcas honorem | Amphitryoniadae magno diuisque ferebat | ante urbem in luco ('by chance on that day the Arcadian king was bringing the annual offerings to mighty Hercules and the other gods in a grove in front of the city': Aeneas happens to arrive at Rome's future site as Evander is at the Ara Maxima celebrating Hercules' defeat of Cacus).
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tristia dona … libabat: libo can be used both of liquid and solid offerings: at 5.77–9 Aeneas offers wine, milk, sacrificial blood, and flowers at his father's tomb. At Fasti 2.533–634, Ovid describes the main Roman festival for the dead, the Parentalia; he commends small gifts—a garlanded tile, fruit, salt, wheat soaked in wine, a scattering of violets (2.535–40); this culminated in the Caristia on 22 February (631–3 dis generis date tura … et libate dapes, 'give incense to the gods of the family … and offer feasts'). There is a hint of necromancy in Vergil's passage: cf. Aeschylus, Persians (598–842), where the Queen offers libations at the tomb of Darius, her dead husband, while the Chorus summon up his spirit; and his ghost appears. We might think that deliberately barbarian, but in a famous scene from Aeschylus' Libation Bearers, Orestes, Electra, and the Chorus summon up the spirit of Agamemnon (456–509); such scenes are a repeated feature of later epics (e.g. Lucan 6.423–830; Statius, Theb. 4.406–645, and R. Parkes (Oxford, 2012), ad loc.); Ovid tells at Fasti 5.431–44 how during the Lemuria, in May, ghosts were summoned from their tombs to receive beans cast over the worshipper's shoulder. tristia is a transferred epithet (hypallage*) referring both to Andromache and the ritual she is performing: Catullus, in the epigram that describes his visit to his brother's tomb, offers tristes munera ad inferias (101.8: 'gifts at sad funerals').
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ante urbem in luco: the law required burials to take place outside Rome and other cities (hence the collections of tombs on the via Appia and outside towns such as Pompeii and Ostia). Trees were often planted round tombs, but lucus regularly implies a sanctified area, e.g. 8.103 (cited above), 271 hanc aram luco statuit ('he [Hercules] set up this altar in the grove').
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falsi Simoëntis: Aeneas will later discover the name of the river which, in the way of colonists, Andromache and Helenus have named after one of the two rivers of Troy, Simois in the nominative (the other river is Xanthus, 350). However, the surprising addition of falsi ('pretend') seems to imply a criticism of this and other such attempts to replicate Troy.
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cineri: Hector had been cremated at the end of the Iliad, but the urn containing his ashes has been buried beneath a mound (24.791–9) and Andromache will scarcely have been able to bring them to Epirus. cinis is used by synecdoche* for the dead (e.g. 4.552), but again we may find an emptiness in the ritual at the cenotaph.
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manis … uocabat: cf. 66–8.
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uiridi quem caespite inanem: the grammar is uncertain here: quem is an object of sacrauerat, and 'which she had consecrated' makes good sense, but that leaves uiridi caespite and inanem awkwardly separate, when the reader is expecting a verb to complete the sense ('had built as a cenotaph with green turves'); perhaps best therefore to take as a kind of zeugma*. For the use of turf, cf. the altars built by the Rutulians and Trojans at 12.117–19 (aras gramineas). Commemoration of the dead with cenotaphs (lit. 'empty tombs') was customary in the ancient world, but references to the practice in literature tend to emphasize its futility (for example when Aeneas apologizes to the shade of Deiphobus for not burying his body: 6.505–8): inanis means 'futile' (OLD 13) as well as 'empty'. Panoussi (2009: 146–7) remarks that 'the excess and futility of Andromache's actions permeates the passage … with the adjectives falsus (fake) and inanis (empty) … poignantly underscoring the ironic contrast between the individual's desire to dwell in the past and the harsh necessity of adjusting to the future'.
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geminas … aras: why 'twin altars'? Servius suggests that they are to Dis and Proserpina; or that one is for Astyanax; but Book 5 strongly implies that both are for the dead hero himself: first Aeneas mentions a plurality of altars by Anchises' burial mound (5.48 maestasque sacrauimus aras), then at 5.77–8 he gives two vessels of each offering; cf. Ecl. 5.65–6 where two altars and double offerings are promised to the recently deceased and deified Daphnis.
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causam lacrimis: 'the cause of her tears', in apposition to the phrase geminas … aras that encloses it: 537 n. The altars have been constructed as the focal point for her grief because she wishes (like Octavia, discussed above) to continue to weep. causa is used with the dative also at e.g. 4.290, 11.480 causa malis tantis (normalized to the unmetrical mali tanti in some MSS), Propertius 3.13.3 tantis causa … ruinis. The opening scene of Euripides' play is dominated by Andromache's weeping at the altar of Thetis, e.g. Andr. 115–16 'I have come as a suppliant to this statue of the goddess and casting my arms around it I melt away in tears like a trickle dripping from the rocks': this is the end of the only passage of surviving Greek tragedy in elegiac* couplets (103–16). She will cry again at 3.312 and 344, and the tearfulness passes on to Helenus (348) and Aeneas (492).
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306–9 me … et Trōĭă circum | arma: we have here an instance of the 'arms and the man' motif (cf. 288, 469). circum is adverbial, suggesting 'around her', and arma implies the Trojans wearing the recognizable equipment (Aeneas refers to his companions at 347). Contrast the trisyllabic adjective with the disyllabic noun Trōiă. The first a in arma is long by nature as are the a and e in amens and the first i in uidit; with the elision of the second a in arma we have a heavy start to 307 as Andromache struggles to grasp what is happening; and then similarly she struggles to speak in verse 309, which is heavily spondaic* after the first foot.
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magnis … monstris: 'a great marvel': the poetic plural* adds to the sense of wonder. Elsewhere in the book monstrum refers to some of the real and horrifying wonders that Aeneas encounters (blood from a plant, 26, 59; the Harpies, 214; Etna, 583; Polyphemus, 658), but here it denotes the shocking coincidence of meeting a friend in distant parts.
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deriguit …, calor ossa reliquit, | labitur: Andromache stiffens, turns cold, and falls in a faint: as well as the physiological detail of Aeneas' reaction to Polydorus' blood (29–30) this recalls the reaction Homer gives Andromache when she sees the dead Hector being dragged behind Achilles' chariot at Iliad 22.463–7: 'black night covered her eyes and she crashed down and lost consciousness' (466–7). The phrase calor ossa reliquit is used again of Euryalus' mother when she hears of her son's death at 9.475; in the next line she drops her shuttle, like Andromache first hearing the cries from the wall at Iliad 22.448. Those passages are about death—the shock here is that Aeneas, thought dead, is actually alive: the world has been turned upside down.
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longo uix tandem tempore fatur: 'at length after a long gap with difficulty she manages to say': the adverbial expressions are pointedly repetitive in force.
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310–13 uerane te facies, uerus mihi nuntius adfers: 'do you bring yourself to me as a real image, a real messenger?' The nouns facies, nuntius are in apposition* to the unexpressed subject (cf. the nominative adjectives in 362 prospera; 1.314 mater … sese tulit obuia, 2.387–8 Fortuna … ostendit se dextra). Andromache, who has been summoning the ghost of Hector, suddenly finds his cousin before her; little wonder that she asks Aeneas if he is real or a spirit. If he is a ghost, he may bring true news of Hector from the underworld. uerus nuntius alludes to Iliad 22.438, which expresses Andromache's ignorance just after Hector's death: 'no true messenger (ἐτήτυμος ἄγγελος‎) had come and brought her the news'. The repetition uera … uerus, and the brokenness of the following lines, suggest her distress.
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nate dea: 'son of the goddess' i.e. Venus; deā is the ablative of origin usual with such participles (e.g. 608 quo sanguine cretus).
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si lux alma recessit: 'if the life-giving light of day has departed': cf. 600 hoc caeli spirabile lumen. After uiuisne Andromache wonders whether Aeneas is dead; but the lack of personal pronoun leaves open the possibility that she wonders whether she is dead too (she has just fainted).
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Hector ubi est: 'Hector—where is he?' If Aeneas is dead, why, she wonders, can she not see Hector, also dead? Her elliptical thought process and her breaking off of her speech in the second foot of the line communicate her intense concentration on her former husband: his name will be the last word of her second speech (343), while her final speech ends with the memory of her dead son Astyanax (489–91).
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impleuit clamore locum: there is a poignant echo of 2.769 impleui clamore uias where Aeneas shouts as he looks for his lost wife Creusa.
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313–16 furenti … turbatus: both of them are deeply affected by this surprise meeting—Aeneas himself has seen the ghost of the dead Hector in a vivid dream (2.270–97), we should remember, and both of them have difficulty in speaking (uix, 309; uix, 313). furenti is the more dynamic word, used of Neoptolemus, e.g., at 2.499 and Turnus at 9.691, 11.486, 11.901, but never of Aeneas (though he is described as furiis accensus at 12.946): it recalls Homer's description of Andromache as 'like a maenad' when she rushes to the tower to see what has happened to her husband (Il. 22.460); and precisely the same form will be used of Dido when she finds she is losing the man she thinks of as her husband (Aeneas) at 4.298.
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uix pauca … subicio et raris … uocibus hisco: 'with difficulty I interpose [OLD subicio 9] a few words and I stammer in broken phrases': again tautology* reinforces the emotion. hisco (only here in V.) means 'gape' (OLD 1a) and 'open the mouth to speak' (OLD 2a): Aeneas gives himself a stage direction for the coming speech (as again in demissa uoce, 320).
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uiuo equidem: equidem is an emphatic equivalent of ego: 'for my part, I live', 'I DO live'. This sets Aeneas himself in contrast to those who are dead.
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extrema per omnia: 'through all kinds of extreme situations': the neuter plural adjective extrema is used as a noun and then qualified by omnia: the emphatic combination also occurs at Sallust, Cat. 26.5, Livy 3.15.9 (though of taking the ultimate step of violent revolution).
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ne dubita: i.e. that I am alive. For the construction, see 394, Penney in Adams & Mayer 1999: 253.
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uera uides directly answers uerane te facies …? in 310. For the half-line, see Introduction, p. 51: this is a very effective instance, strikingly glossed* by raris … uocibus (314); but there is no reason to think V. would have left it so had he given final form to the poem.
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317–19 quis te casus … excipit: given that the positive digna satis fortuna follows, best taken as 'What misfortune has overtaken you'. The interrogative adjective quis instead of qui (more common in prose) seems to have been preferred by V. except before a word beginning with s: cf. 5.648–9. te comes in the second position typical for unemphatic pronouns ('Wackernagel's Law').
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deiectam coniuge tanto: 'cast down from [i.e. bereft of] so great a husband'. Hector is a great warrior and an admirable man in the Iliad, and his marriage to Andromache represents an ideal relationship (as opposed to that of Paris and Helen and those of the Greek commanders with their concubines).
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quae digna satis fortuna reuisit: lit. 'what fortune sufficiently worthy visits you again', i.e. 'what fortune that could match what you deserve comes to you now'.
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Hectoris Andromache: 'Hector's <wife> Andromache'. Most editors attach this to the end of the previous sentence, but Horsfall sees that the contrast with Pyrrhi is more pointed if the vocative leads into the rest of 319. Before naming the impious Greek she is known to have married, Aeneas asserts her true identity: whatever fortune has come now, in his mind (as in her own: 488) she will always be the wife of Hector.
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Pyrrhin = Pyrrhine. 'The shortened form is often found in colloquial speech …, but apart from 6.779 uiden ut … V. reserves it for anguished or indignant questions' (Tarrant on 12.503 tanton).
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conubia seruas: 'do you maintain your marriage' to Pyrrhus (OLD seruo 5). For the scansion of
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cōnūbĭă, contrast 136.
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320–4 dēiēcīt uūlt(um) ēt dēmīssā uōce: the expression is effectively simple: the spondaic* rhythm and the double echo of deiectam (317) emphasize Andromache's dejection.
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o felix … Prĭămēĭă uirgo: this ironic makarismos* ('fortunate is she who …') looks back to Aeneas' wish, in his first speech in the poem, as the storm strikes, that he had died at Troy ('three and four times blessed were those who had the fortune to meet death before the eyes of their fathers Troiae sub moenibus altis' (1.94–6, a version of Odysseus' words in the storm at Od. 5.306–7); cf. also 5.623 o miserae (of those who survived Troy). Priam's maiden daughter is defined by what follows as Polyxena, sacrificed on Achilles' tomb as his share in the booty from the sacked city; contrast her sister Cassandra (Priameia uirgo 2.403), who is allotted to Agamemnon, and in Aeschylus' tragedy (and other versions) dies alongside her master in his palace. V. again refers to Euripides: (a) Trojan Women, in which Andromache argues that her sister-in-law, the dead Polyxena, is better off than she is herself (630–83); (b) Hecuba, in which Polyxena is about to be sacrificed on the tomb of Achilles (hostilem ad tumulum) at the demand of the latter's ghost. (The play does not take place beneath the walls of Troy but on the Thracian Chersonese: 13–68 n.) In an eloquent speech (342–78) Polyxena tells her mother and Odysseus that she longs to die. She has been a great princess and does not wish to be degraded in slavery; she wants to meet her death as a free woman. As a slave, she says (359–66), 'I may perhaps have a cruel-hearted master who … will force on me the task of making bread in his home, and impose the daily drudgery of sweeping the house and standing by the loom. And a slave bought from I know not where will defile my bed, which was once thought worthy of princes.'
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una ante alias: 'uniquely, more than others': both parts of this give a superlative force to felix: cf. 2.426 Rhipeus, iustissimus unus, 4.141 ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnis (Aeneas 'himself handsome beyond all the others'), 11.821 fida ante alias quae sola Camillae (Acca, 'who alone beyond others was loyal to Camilla').
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sortitus non pertulit ullos: 'did not endure any drawing(s) of lots': the plural sortitus is easily understood of a process that featured many individual actions. Here the reference is to the scene in Euripides, Trojan Women (240–77) in which the Greek herald Talthybius announces to the captive Trojan women that each has been allotted to a different Greek. The women specified are Hecuba (allocated to Odysseus), and Cassandra and Andromache, both in fact excluded from the ballot, as chosen by Agamemnon and Neoptolemus respectively. Talthybius also speaks riddling words about Polyxena: 'she has been appointed to serve at the tomb of Achilles' (264); he then advises Hecuba 'count your daughter fortunate: she is lucky' (εὐδαιμόνιζε παῖδα σήν· ἔχει καλῶς‎, 268). The echo of this in 321, together with the general similarity of sentiment, locates Andromache's speech firmly in the world of Greek—and specifically Euripidean—tragedy (even though stories about the aftermath of the Trojan War were a staple of Roman tragedy).
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eri: the synonym of dominus is frequent in comedy but very rare in epic. After the grand uictoris 'Andromache's use of the everyday word emphasizes her anger and contempt' (Williams). We may compare what rumour says of Dido's lover at 4.214 dominum Aenean.
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325–9 nos patria incensa: an echo of Meliboeus' announcement of his exile in the first speech of the Eclogues: see Introduction, pp. 6–7.
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diuersa per aequora uectae: V. six times ends a verse with adjective + per aequora uect-, alluding to Catullus' visit to his brother's tomb in the Troad, at 101.1 Multas per gentes et multa per aequora uectus ('Carried through many peoples and over many seas', itself an epigrammatic version of Od. 1.1–4; Elliott (2013: 110) suggests that Catullus mediates existing Latin epic diction): the single line thus combines Andromache's themes of exile and of mourning. Compare in particular Aeneas' words to the disguised Venus at 1.375–6 nos Troia antiqua … diuersa per aequora uectos ('we, carried from ancient Troy … over various seas'): the lots of Aeneas and Andromache here coalesce.
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stirpis Achilleae fastus iuuenemque superbum: 'the exhibitions of pride of the offspring of Achilles and the arrogant young man': two phrases making much the same point, though the first concentrates on the hated Achilles and the second on the youth of Neoptolemus (whom Andromache will not name till her narrative has him safely dead, at 333).
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seruitio enixae: 'bringing forth <a child> in slavery': though enitor can be intransitive in this sense (OLD 3), the three other instances in the Aeneid are transitive (391, 7.320, 8.44). The omission of an object draws attention to Andromache's failure to acknowledge the existence of a new son. This is particularly striking because of the importance of the boy in the plot of Euripides' Andromache: she announces the hopes connected with the child in the Prologue (24–5: H(a)); one of the main themes of the play is the wish of Hermione and her father Menelaus to kill the boy; and Thetis, as deus ex machina, reveals that he will be the founder of a dynasty of Molossian kings: though the baby's name is never revealed, this implies that he is called Molossus (as in other sources, e.g. Servius on 297). The word enixae that here implies his existence takes the metrical shape called 'molossus' (Book 3).
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de̅ı̅nde always has trochaic* form in V.: the first two vowels coalesce through synizesis*.
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secutus: with the human and the abstract object there is a mild syllepsis*: 'having pursued' (i.e. as a suitor), OLD 2; 'having sought', OLD 16.
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Ledaeam Hermionen Lacedaemoniosque hymenaeos: hendiadys*: 'Hermione, descendant [granddaughter] of Leda, in a Spartan marriage'. Leda gave birth to Helen as a result of her union with Jupiter in the form of a swan. Helen married Menelaus and Hermione was their only child: her marriage to Neoptolemus is being celebrated when Telemachus visits Menelaus in Sparta (Odyssey 4.5– 7). The mannered form of the line culminates in the unusual foursyllable word, of Greek origin, as at 680.
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me famulo famulamque Heleno transmisit habendam: 'handed me over to Helenus, for him to possess, a slave to a slave'. Though it is possible to make sense of que ('me to a slave and a slave to Helenus'), that obscures the point: the conjunction seems to have been added simply to avoid hiatus* between famulam and Heleno. For such polyptoton*, used 'to connect two characters', see Wills 1996: 213. Henry helpfully relates this to Euripides, Andr. 64 (Andromache to a Maidservant: ὦ φιλτάτη σύνδουλε—σύνδουλος γὰρ εἶ‎, 'O dearest fellow-slave—for you are a fellow-slave'). The expression of this line, with its prosaic gerundive, identifies the operation as a business transaction, a passing on of property (cf. 297). The men of Troy were butchered by the Greeks; we are not told why Helenus survives as a slave, but may surmise that his status as a seer has protected him: Servius (on 297) tells a story in which he is useful to Neoptolemus, advising him to return to Phthia overland, thus avoiding the storms that wreck and disperse the Greek fleet.
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330–2 V. follows Euripides' Andromache, in which Orestes had originally been betrothed to Hermione, but her father Menelaus, on discovering that Troy could only be taken with Neoptolemus' participation, promised her in marriage to the latter if he should sack Troy (966–70); Orestes and Hermione elope, and he arranges the killing of Neoptolemus (who, in the play, is not represented unsympathetically). In Ovid, Heroides 8, Hermione, in writing to Orestes, follows the account here and talks as if they had already been married before Neoptolemus seized her.
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ast: an archaic* word used by Augustan poets mainly as an alternative to at where a heavy syllable is needed before a vowel (seventeen times in V., plus ast de transmitted at 10.743).
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ereptae … coniugis: 'of the wife [or, perhaps, fiancée] who had been snatched from him': the situation is fundamental to the Iliad (Helen, Briseis), and similar language is used in elegy* by Propertius to encapsulate his situation when a rival has won Cynthia (2.8.1 Eripitur nobis … cara puella; 2.34.2), and to compare himself to Achilles after the loss of Briseis (2.8.29 abrepta coniuge, 36 erepto amore).
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scelerum Furiis agitatus Orestes: 'Orestes, tormented by the madness of [or the Furies pursuing] his crimes'. Orestes had killed his mother Clytemestra on Apollo's instructions in requital for her murder of his father Agamemnon. Since all letters in ancient manuscripts were capitals, V.'s text would make no distinction between the abstract idea of madness and the Furies aroused against Orestes by the spirit of his mother, who feature terrifyingly in Attic drama (esp. as the chorus in Aeschylus, Eumenides): Lyne 1989: 28–9. At 4.469–73 Dido's dreams are compared to the madness of Pentheus and (according to the manuscripts) Agamemnonius scaenis agitatus Orestes (471; it is possible V. wrote not scaenis but Poenis [= Furiis], as the eighteenth-century scholar Markland conjectured). See Introduction, p. 54.
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patrias … obtruncat ad aras: traditionally (as in Euripides' Andromache) Neoptolemus was killed at Apollo's temple at Delphi. patrias is chosen to relate Pyrrhus' death to his slaughter of first Polites in front of his father Priam (2.526–32), and then, brutally, Priam himself at the latter's ancestral altar in the palace (2.513–25, 550–3), summed up at 2.663 natum ante ora patris, patrem obtruncat ad aras. Within Aeneas' narrative, however, it is harder to see quite how the epithet functions: perhaps 'of his home country', i.e. Greece, in contrast to the murder he committed at Troy. Servius refers to a tradition that Pyrrhus had set up an altar to his father Achilles in the temple; or we might think the killing has been moved to Phthia, or Epirus (so Rebeggiani 2016: 61–5). The expression here also associates him with Pygmalion, Dido's brother, in his slaughter of her husband Sychaeus, whom, as Venus has told Aeneas (1.348–56: P), he took incautum (cf. 332) ante aras. Pyrrhus' end is grimly appropriate. Orestes, a shifty character in Euripides' Andromache, is portrayed here as an out-and-out villain. In the play he contrives the murder by spreading rumours among the people of Delphi about Neoptolemus' threat to the shrine.
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333–6 regnorum reddita cessit | pars Heleno: reddita means 'handed over (appropriately/as called for)'; the dative Heleno follows both reddita, and cessit (cf. 297). V. does not explain how Helenus becomes king, but there is an answer if we ask (one implied by Andr. 1243–9: H(b)): Andromache is the mother of Neoptolemus' infant heir, and needs a consort to rule the kingdom and pass it on to the line of future kings.
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qui Chaonios cognomine campos | Chaoniamque omnem Troiano a  Chaone dixit: 'who called the plains by the name Chaonian and the whole area Chaonia after Trojan Chaon': a very emphatic (and resonant) assertion for a very obscure piece of etymology: we know nothing of a Trojan 'Chaon' and the Chaonians were thought to have existed before the Trojan War. One effect is to bring Dodona to mind (293 n.); for Jenkyns (1998: 439) 'the grinding repetitions suggest an obsessive clinging to names when the substance is gone'.
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Pergamaque Iliacamque iugis hanc addidit arcem: Pergama (neuter plural) was the name for the citadel of Troy, as is indicated by the epexegetic* gloss* Iliacamque … arcem (cf. 133). For the expression here, cf. Prop. 4.4.35 montibus addita Roma ('Rome built on top of the hills'): the city-founding theme here looks backward to Troy, not forward to Rome: see Morwood, G&R 38 (1991), 212–23.
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337–43 tibi: the postponement* of qui gives this an emphatic position.
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qui cursum uenti, quae fata dedere: an ἀπὸ κοινοῦ‎* construction: dedere is understood in the first clause, cursum in the second: 'what winds have given you your course, what fates …?' So extraordinary does the meeting seem that Andromache assumes here and in the next line that natural and supernatural causes have brought Aeneas to Buthrotum.
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ignarum: cf. 7 incerti quo fata ferant; moreover Aeneas had no idea that there was a Trojan settlement at Buthrotum.
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nostris deus appulit oris: oris is dative of destination after appello, as in the similar phrase at 715 uestris deus appulit oris.
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quid puer Ascanius?: 'what (of) the boy Ascanius?' For the form of question, cf. 7.365, Geo 1.111, 3.258, 264–5: it is common enough for the grammar not to need careful attention (and commentators accordingly keep silence); we suppose that agit or perhaps fit might be implied. Andromache is thinking of her own son Astyanax when she asks about Ascanius. Here, as elsewhere in Books 2 and 3, we may remember that it is not Ascanius whom Dido is cradling in her lap as Aeneas tells his story, but Cupid in his guise.
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superatne et uescitur aura: 'does he survive and take in the air?' cf. 2.597–8 superet coniunxne Creusa | Ascaniusque puer? and 1.546 si uescitur aura, where Ilioneus wonders whether Aeneas himself has survived the storm.
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quem tibi iam Troia: 'whom to you in Troy already …'; for half-lines, see Introduction, p. 51. This instance is the only one in the poem where the sense is incomplete (so already Vita Don. §41): perhaps V. could not work out how to complete the sense, but perhaps he saw the aposiopesis* as effective (this is certainly the case for the sentence Neptune begins and breaks off at 1.135): Andromache cannot bring herself to mention the death of Creusa, whether for fear of upsetting Aeneas, or because it reminds her of her own losses at Troy.
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ecqua tamen puero est amissae cura parentis: 'all the same does the boy have any love for his lost mother?' Though ecquae is the standard form of the feminine nominative singular, poets occasionally use ecqua as a metrically convenient alternative: Ovid, Fasti 4.488; Statius, Thebaid 5.129. Andromache was in Troy after Aeneas had fled; it is not hard (if we wonder) to imagine how news of Creusa's fate had reached her. In thinking of the boy and the mother, she is again relating his loss to her own, and she perhaps echoes Hecuba, asking about Polydorus at Euripides, Hec. 993 'Has he any memory of his mother here, of me?'.
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ecquid in antiquam uirtutem animosque uirilis | et pater Aeneas et auunculus excitat Hector?: 'does <the example of> his father Aeneas and his uncle Hector [brother of Creusa] rouse him at all [ecquid, adverbial] to old-style courage and manly valour?' The singular verb can be justified by taking the boy's uncle and father as a single example potentially inspiring the boy to become a man (uirtutem, uirilis): Andromache perhaps remembers Hector's words at Iliad 6.479, where (with chilling irony) he hopes people may one day say of their son Astyanax 'he is a much better man than his father'. Servius quotes 9.311 ante annos animumque gerens curamque uirilem ('showing a manly spirit and thoughtfulness beyond his years'), which marks how Ascanius has matured; but later in the same book, after his arrow has killed the boastful Italian Remulus Numanus, Apollo congratulates him on his manliness (macte noua uirtute, 641), but then tells him to stop fighting, twice addressing him as puer (641, 656). Line 343 is repeated at 12.440, at the end of the one speech Aeneas makes to his son in the poem; Andromache addresses him at 486–91, but we never hear anything of the boy's feelings about his mother. The speech that began with praise of death ends with thoughts of Ascanius—but even this is cast in terms that look to the past (antiquam, 342; Hector, 343), and another member of the future generation, the son who will rule over Buthrotum, is totally elided (327 n.); the account Andromache gives of the city looks persistently back to Troy (334–6).
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344–8 fundebat … ciebat: a 'leonine' rhythm, as in 36.
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longosque ciebat | incassum fletus: 'she was beginning to shed tears in vain at length'. At 6.468 the phrase lacrimas ciebat describes Aeneas' reaction to the sight of Dido's ghost.
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sese: cf. 215. The arrival of Helenus precludes any response to Andromache's questions, and so avoids the repetition of information already known to Aeneas' audience and V.'s readers.
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multum lacrimas uerba inter singula fundit: some MSS have lacrimans, but the noun is needed as the object of fundit. The adverbial multum is found emphatically placed also at 10.839 multumque remittit | qui reuocent (Mezentius 'repeatedly sends men to call back' his son Lausus); here the meaning is 'he pours forth tears much', i.e. copiously. Presumably these are tears of mixed emotion at the sight of fellow Trojans: joy to see them now (347), but pain too at the reminder of what they have all lost.
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349–51 paruam Troiam simulataque magnis | Pergama: this is not a 'big' city as the Penates (159–60) and Hector (2.294–5) have commanded Aeneas to aim for: see Fletcher 2014: 125–7, with references to further discussions.
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agnosco: this is a key word (perhaps emphasized by the echo of agnoscit, 347, of Helenus' recognition of his fellow Trojans): Aeneas' reactions are focalized through his own viewpoint. He recognizes the reproduced Troy and notes how small it is. Colonists at all times have used the names of their former homes in their new settlements; but whereas this is journey's end for Helenus and Andromache (493–9), Aeneas must found a city of the future. His response to this theme-park Troy is not entirely negative (351), but it is surely significant that the swirling streams of the Trojan river Xanthus, so eddying and active in Homer (see above all Iliad 21 where the river rushes over the plain), are reduced in Aeneas' mind's eye to a dry watercourse (arentem … riuum). V. uses agnosco to acknowledge his imitation of Homer (cf. Hinds 1998: 8–10).
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Scaeaeque amplector limina portae: the Scaean gates were the west gates of Troy: the derivation may be from the Greek word σκαιός‎ ('left'). In the Iliad, it was by this very gate that Hector and Andromache had their deeply loving exchange in the presence of their son Astyanax (6.392–496). For the embrace of doorways, cf. the women of Troy at 2.490 amplexaeque tenent postis atque oscula figunt ('they cling to the doorposts, embracing them and planting kisses'). limina is used loosely to mean 'gateway' (OLD 2a).
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352–5 nec non et: 'additionally too'; the phrase was introduced into poetry by V. in the Georgics, perhaps under the influence of Varro's Res Rusticae, which four times has nec non etiam.
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porticibus … amplis: at least the colonnades are large in this little city, and Helenus can use them to entertain the new arrivals.
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aulāī is an archaic* genitive ending found regularly in Ennius and Lucretius. This genitive occurs three times elsewhere in Aen. (6.747 aurai, 7.464 aquai, 9.26 pictai), but not otherwise in Augustan poetry. A note of solemnity is struck.
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libabant pocula Bacchi: 'they make libations from goblets of wine' (Bacchi used by metonymy*). Though libabant could mean 'were drinking' (as at Ecl. 5.26 nec amnem | libauit quadripes, 'nor did animal drink river water'), the presence of paterae in 355 and the echo of Geo. 2.191–2 hic fertilis … laticis, qualem pateris libamus et auro, 'this vine is productive of the liquid [i.e. wine] that we offer on golden dishes [hendiadys*]' give a religious feel to the feast. More important still are the echoes of 1.728–40, where Dido has called for a golden patera and made a libation to Bacchus and Juno before drinking and passing the bowl on. There is thus an effect of mise en abyme* here: Aeneas is at a feast of welcome for the Trojan refugees narrating another such feast.
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356–462 The prophecy of Helenus
In the central section of the central episode of the book Aeneas asks Helenus for clarification of the conflicting prophecies he has heard, and receives a long prophecy in response (see on 374–462). This consultation takes the place of a trip to the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, mentioned as part of the Aeneas legend by Dionysius Hal., Rom. 1.51.1.
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356–8 iamque dies alterque dies processit: 'now one day and the next has passed'. As when the Argonauts linger on Lemnos (Apollonius 1.861 ἀμβολίη δʼ εἰς ἦμαρ ἀεὶ ἐξ ἤματος ἦεν | ναυτιλίης‎, 'there was constant postponement of the voyage from day to day') the rapid repetition expresses the rapid passing of days, and hints at the need for Aeneas and his fleet to move on; but it will be verse 505 before they finally depart from the attractions of old friends and a reconstituted Troy. There are explicit markers of delay at 473, 481. dies alterque dies is repeated by Valerius Flaccus, at Arg. 5.276; similar phrasing occurs earlier in Cicero, e.g. Verr. 2.4.66 dies unus, alter, plures; Clu. 72 unus et alter dies.
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aurae | uela uocant: it is not the weather that is delaying them; cf. 269 uentus … uocabat.
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tumidoque inflatur carbasus Austro: 'the canvas is puffed out by the swelling South Wind'. Though it is the sail that is billowing, not the wind, Latin poets like the expressive usage that applies such epithets to what causes the effect, e.g. Horace, Odes 1.5.7 nigris uentis ('the darkening winds'); the linguistic process is inverted in 455 sinus secundos.
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adgredior: no conjunction links this to the previous sentence, which gives the circumstances in which Aeneas comes to Helenus: parataxis*. his dictis and talia, by contrast, look ahead.
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359–61 Troiugena: the appeal begins with reference to their shared origin, an obvious captatio beneuolentiae* and a reflection of Helenus' concern with the past, before moving on to Helenus' capacity for prophecy as a priest of Apollo, astrologer, and augur.
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tripodas laurusque Clari: 'the tripods and laurels of the Clarian god'. Items particularly associated with the worship of Apollo at Delphi (81, 91) are here transferred to another of the god's oracular centres, Claros, near Colophon (north-west of Ephesus), and thus not far from Troy. V. alludes to both Nicander, Alexipharmica 11 τριπόδεσσι … Κλαρίοις‎, and Lucretius 1.739 (= 5.112) Pythia quae tripode a Phoebi lauroque profatur ('what the Pythia utters from the tripod and laurel of Phoebus'). Statius imitates this passage in turn at Thebaid 7.707–8 (describing Amphiaraus): qui tripodas laurusque sequi, qui doctus in omni | nube salutato uolucrem cognoscere Phoebo ('he who is skilled at following the tripods and the laurels, at hailing Apollo and recognizing a bird in every cloud'). tripodăs (Greek third declension) and laurūs (fourth declension) are both accusative plurals, perhaps used to suggest the range of Helenus' knowledge. The text we print is a recent conjecture by Silvia Ottaviano (MD 62 (2009), 231–7). The text in late antiquity was tripodas Clarii (or Clari) laurus, which lacks the conjunction required by the context. Later manuscripts read Clarii et, and Mackail suggested tripoda (Greek acc. sing) ac; but there is a further problem: the a in Clari is short (Call. Hymn 2.70, Ov. Met. 11.399, e.g.) where a long syllable is needed, and the alternative form Clarii breaks Vergil's norms for the genitive of second-declension nouns (see 702 n.). Confusion with clārus will have been the root of the corruption.
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sidera sentis: 'apprehend the stars'; sentire is a very general word for perception and so suits the range of objects it takes here. Attitudes to astrologers in Rome were utterly inconsistent, hence Tacitus' later account of them as something perpetually banned in Rome, and perpetually retained (et uetabitur semper et retinebitur, Hist. 1.22): though much consulted for personal horoscopes, for example, they were formally expelled from the city by Agrippa in 33 bc, and while Augustus made his horoscope, published in ad 11, a significant part of his self-representation, his edict of the same year forbade private consultations as well as any consultations at all about the date of someone's death (see further F. Santangelo, Divination, Prediction and the End of the Roman Republic (Cambridge, 2013), 246–58; and 26, 70 on ornithomancy).
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et uolucrum linguas et praepetis omina pennae: the line pairs two aspects of augury: listening to the cries of birds and observing their flight; cf. e.g. Ovid, Fasti 1.448 nunc pinna ueras, nunc datis ore notas ('you [birds] give true information now with a wing, now with your beak'). This recalls the description of Helenus as 'by far the best of the bird-readers' (Iliad 6.76). praepetis is a formal term from augural language (Gellius 7.6); it means 'flying straight ahead', with the implication 'favourable' (OLD 1a). For a similar list of prophetic qualifications, cf. Asilas at Aen. 10.175–6 (and Harrison ad loc.) cui pecudum fibrae, caeli cui sidera parent, | et linguae uolucrum et praesagi fulminis ignes ('to whom the entrails of cattle are intelligible, the constellations in heaven, the tongues of the birds and the flashes of the presaging thunderbolt').
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362–8 fare age: age sometimes attaches an element of impatience to another imperative (e.g. 4.569 heia age, rumpe moras, 'hey, come on, break your delay'; 6.629), but this seems rather to belong with instances where it reinforces the request (6.343 dic age, 'do tell me' addressed to the ghost of Palinurus; 6.531 age fare uicissim, 'please tell me in turn' from Deiphobus to Aeneas; 7.37 Nunc age … Erato; 12.832 uerum age, Jupiter to Juno). fare may be chosen carefully here to reflect the link with fata (Introduction, pp. 36–7).
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namque omnis cursum mihi prospera dixit | religio: 'for every divine sign has spoken to me in successful terms of my journey': notably the prophecies of Apollo and the Penates in this book, as well as the directions from the ghosts of Hector and Creusa, e.g. in Book 2 (see 5 n. for further details). namque introduces a substantial parenthesis (cf. 1.65–6, 2.604–7, 6.117–18, 6.860–2), in this case extending over five lines; nam is used similarly (374). On the application of prospera to subject not object, see 310 n., Conte 2007: 107.
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rēligio: 'a manifestation of divine sanction' (OLD 4); cf. 409, and rēliquiae (87) for the lengthening of the vowel, standard in poetry.
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cuncti … numine diui ('all the gods with divine authority') repeats and confirms omnis religio, and sets up the contrast with sola, 365: Celaeno alone has made a predominantly negative prophecy.
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suaserunt … | Italiam petere: the infinitive expressing indirect command is a regular construction in Latin verse; V. has it seven times after suadere, including 1.357 (P; see Tarrant on 12.814). Italiam petere recalls Celaeno's phrasing at 253.
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repostas: syncope* for repositas: cf. 6.59–60 penitusque repostas | Massylum gentis ('and the utterly distant tribes of the Massyli'), 6.655 tellure repostos ('hidden away by the earth', of the dead).
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nouum dictuque nefas … | prodigium: 'a strange prodigy and one not right to speak of': cf. 256–7, where Celaeno prophesied that hunger would drive the Trojans to eat their tables before they could found a city. Helenus responds to this at 394–5. On the adjectival use of dictu nefas, see Wackernagel 715.
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canit: the verb is common of prophecies (155), and Celaeno spoke in hexameters, like the oracles of Apollo and the Sibyl (fata canit, 444).
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tristis denuntiat iras: 'threatens grim manifestations of anger': see 215 n. for the intimate connexion between the Harpies and ira. Beginning from 1.11 and 25, which establish Juno's anger as a theme, the plural of ira appears thirty-four times in the Aeneid, often as here with the sense 'exhibitions of anger'. tristis also picks up on the earlier account of the Harpies (214), as does obscenam in the next phrase (241, 262).
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obscenamque famem: 'and portentous hunger', as threatened at 256–7. The long parenthesis ends on this grim note.
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uito: for the indicative in a deliberative* question, cf. 88.
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quidue sequens … possim: the subjunctive shows that the participle is equivalent to si sequar: 'if I were to pursue [= by pursuing] what end could I overcome …?'
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tantos … labores: the speech ends with another echo of a key theme from the proem (1.10 tot … labores), also revisited at e.g. 7.117, 12.177 quam propter tantos potui perferre labores (the land 'for which I have been able to endure such labours'), 12.435. The word helps figure Aeneas as a hero, undergoing ἄεθλοι‎ as Odysseus does (1.18), and Hercules too (cf. 8.291 ut duros mille labores … fatis Iunonis iniquae | pertulerit, 'how he endured a thousand tough labours through the fate imposed by unfair Juno'; 10.321).
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369–73 hic: 'at this point'.
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pacem diuum: first Helenus seeks divine goodwill, in the traditional Roman way: cf. 251, OLD pax 2, and e.g. Oakley on Livy 6.1.12.
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uittas … resoluit | sacrati capitis: 'unties the fillets from his consecrated head'. On 4.518 Servius enunciates the principle in sacris nihil solet esse religatum ('in sacred rites it is normal for nothing to be tied'); and in describing direct attempts to channel divine power writers regularly mention (or imply) the absence of belts or knots (4.518; Ovid, Met. 1.382), sandals (Ovid, Fasti 5.432; Petronius 44.18), and rings (Fasti 4.658; Gellius 10.15.6): for the prophet without fillets cf. the Sibyl at 6.48 non comptae mansere comae ('her hair was no longer well-arranged').
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ad tua limina, Phoebe: as at 119 the apostrophe* lends a hymnic quality to the narrative, and perhaps hints at the intimacy with Apollo of another priest, Caesar, who appears sedens … limine Phoebi on the shield (8.720).
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ipse manu … ducit: though Horsfall finds here a 'gesture of affectionate reassurance', as he acknowledges, it is hard to find the parallels that confirm the significance of such an act.
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multo suspensum numine: 'anxious at the powerful presence of divinity'. We might expect the prophet about to speak to be the one affected by divine power (cf. the Sibyl at 6.46–51, 77–80), and Servius records the variant suspensus, which would refer to Helenus. However, V. uses the participle of those making enquiries (2.114, 6.722), or afflicted by uncertainty (5.827), so suspensum, of Aeneas and his anxiety about what he is going to hear, is probably correct.
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374–462 Aeneas now delivers Helenus' divinely inspired prophecy (diuino ore, 373), aiming to capture its friendly tone (ore amico, 463). Three lines of oracular grandiloquence—Aeneas is crossing the deep under higher protection; thus is Jupiter arranging the fated future—introduce the prophet's wish to make the journey to Italy safer. He begins with a summary of the long voyage ahead, and quickly gets the Trojans to the west coast of Italy: the forecast of the favourable omen of the fecund sow and her thirty young (388–93) outweighs Celaeno's threat about hunger and the eating of tables (394–5). He then returns to more immediate matters: the Trojans should avoid the nearer parts of Italy because of the hostile Greek population (396–402) and should sail round Sicily rather than passing through the narrow channel between Sicily and the mainland and thus encountering the dangers posed by Scylla and Charybdis (410–32). Interspersed with instruction about the journey is important religious advice: the Trojans are to cover their heads during sacrifice, as the Romans will (403–9), and Aeneas is to win over Juno with worship: that, Helenus surprisingly says (see below), will ensure arrival in Italy (433–40). Finally he combines the geographical and the sacred in telling Aeneas to consult the Cumaean Sibyl (441–60).
The prophet says nothing of (a) the Cyclops, (b) the death of Anchises (Aeneas complains about this omission at 712–13), (c) the storm, the arrival in Carthage, and Dido, (d) the return to Sicily and the burning of the ships. Near the start of his speech he says that he will only reveal pauca … e multis, explaining that the Fates prevent him from knowing the rest and that Juno forbids him to speak it (379–80); and in his penultimate line, he says that Aeneas has received the advice he is allowed to hear from Helenus (461). These paradoxical comments taken together are appropriately cryptic for an oracular utterance. They invite the reader to consider whether Helenus knows more than he is saying; and they are in line with O'Hara's illuminating comments on the prophecies of Celaeno and Helenus (1990: 25): 'events repeatedly betray Aeneas' expectations, because of what he has been told by gods and prophets'.
Helenus' assertion that Juno forbids him to say more (380) is lent emphasis by the fact that V. alters his source for this line in the Argonautica (2.313–16: M(d)) where it is Zeus, not his wife, who wishes to put limitations on human prophecy. It links with Helenus' emphatic demand that Aeneas should win the goddess over with suppliant gifts (433–9). The narrative structure of the Aeneid means that readers will be aware that any Trojan action to this effect (e.g. at 546–7) will fail (though eventually Roman worship will win Juno round: 1.279–85, 12.838–40). The poem begins with an explanation of her passionate and persistent rage against the Trojans (1.8–49) and her instigation of the terrible storm that drives them to Carthage. Together with Venus, she will engineer a marriage between Dido and Aeneas. She will also instigate the burning of the ships (5.606) and the war in Italy (7.286–640). When she prevents Helenus from saying more, it may be with the intention of keeping Aeneas in ignorance of all of this—and it suits the narrative (see next paragraph). On the other hand, the demand that Aeneas pray to Juno may prove sympathetic to the listening Dido. Carthage is the goddess's most highly favoured city (1.15–18, 441–5) and work on the temple to Juno that Dido is building is essentially finished (446–93).
Though Helenus attributes his omissions to divine constraints, it would make no narratological sense for him to predict all that follows. Aeneas will soon recount the encounter with Polyphemus, and in any case the Trojans escape unscathed. Similarly, he will tell us of the death of Anchises, an event that might be ascribed to Fortune rather than Fate (especially given the inconsistencies over where it happened: 707 n.). The poet himself has already done full justice to the storm, the arrival in Africa, and the meeting with Dido in Book 1: the reader does not need to hear a prophecy of these events, or the return to Sicily, which will be described in Book 5. On the divine level, these are not fated, but the results of Juno's interference—and thus perhaps beyond Helenus' ken. (It would also be distinctly awkward to have Aeneas repeat before Dido that he would meet a woman in Africa who would be a threat to his mission.)
The Odyssey provides models for a prophecy which guides a hero on his journey: 11.100–37 and 12.37–141, Odysseus receiving advice from the ghost of Tiresias and Circe respectively. At 11.101–3 Tiresias explicitly warns Odysseus about the wrath of the god Poseidon, who plays the same role as agent of obstruction in the Odyssey as Juno does in the Aeneid; he advises the hero to sacrifice to the hostile deity, but as a one-off (11.127–34), rather than the habitual act prescribed in V.'s aetiological* poem. Helenus is like Circe in offering advice about the monsters the hero will meet (420–4 n.). The second source of Helenus' speech is Apollonius' Argonautica; that poem's most complete account of future events comes from Phineus (2.311–425), already brought to mind by the Harpies episode; later Argus will advise the Argonauts on the return journey (4.257–93), and Hera will seek the aid of Thetis by describing the dangers of Scylla and Charybdis (4.789–832). As we have seen, from Phineus comes the narrator's interest in limiting what is revealed to heroes—and to readers—in advance (2.311–16: M(d)); and his advice about passing through the Clashing Rocks (2.317–40) has obvious resonances in Helenus' warning about Scylla and Charybdis. (For a fuller discussion see Nelis 38–44.)
The speech follows the models of Circe and Phineus in using a primarily didactic* mode rather than the obfuscating or inspired manner of Apollo, Celaeno, or the Sibyl at 6.83–97. Though mysteries are created (386, 439) and maintained (394), Helenus repeatedly explains his advice (the repeated nam at 374, 379 might be seen as programmatic*): he tells Aeneas why he must avoid magna Graecia (396–402), sail round Sicily (410–32), and visit the Sibyl (458–60); he even justifies the covering of the head in sacrifice (406–7). There is much repetition to emphasize key moments of warning or advice (384, 392–3, 396, 408–9, 435–8).
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374–6 nate dea (nam …): the parenthesis either explains why Helenus feels able to respond to the request, or introduces the reason for the use of this vocative here (it has more significance than at 311): it is obvious to Helenus that Aeneas continues to be the recipient of divine care, as suits the son of a goddess.
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te maioribus ire per altum | auspiciis manifesta fides: 'there is clear evidence that you are going over the sea under higher auspices'. maioribus … auspiciis (which is quickly glossed* by 375–6) justifies the seriousness with which Aeneas and his father are treating the omens received since the night of Troy's fall (cf. auguriis … diuum, 5, as well as the sequence of prophecies heard in this book). auspicia (literally, omens gathered by observing birds) and its near synonym auguria were fundamental to Rome's religious identity: cf. for example Livy 6.41.4 (speech of Appius Claudius Crassus) auspiciis hanc urbem conditam esse, auspiciis bello ac pace domi militiaeque omnia geri, quis est qui ignoret? ('who is there that does not know this city was founded through the taking of auspices, and that all business of war and peace, at home and abroad, is conducted under auspices?'). The longest passage extant from Ennius' Annales (72–91 Skutsch) concerns the competitive taking of auspices by Remus and Romulus to decide who should name and rule the new city. These twenty lines are cited in the de Diuinatione (1.107) of Cicero, who was himself an augur, though he also presents the classic statement of scepticism about augury in Book 2 of the work. The very name Augustus which Caesar chose for himself evokes augury (Ovid, Fasti 1.611); he too served as an augur (R.G. 7.3).
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deum rex: for single monosyllables at the end of a hexameter, see Introduction, p. 49. They frequently occur in traditional phrases, as here and in the repetition at 12.851: V. nods to Ennius, Ann. 203 diuum pater atque hominum rex: for V.'s use of such phrases to describe the supreme god, see Hutchinson 2013: 334–5.
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fata … | sortitur, lit. 'assigns fates by lot', might be given a less precise sense here, e.g. 'distributes'; but V. nowhere else uses sortiri of divine activity, and he has been precise in describing the functions of fate in 1.256–62 (see Introduction, pp. 36–7). At that chronologically later moment Jupiter will not be playing dice with Aeneas' future but setting in motion the inevitable process of history: this, unlike the narrator, Helenus cannot see.
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uoluitque uices reinforces the sense that Helenus' knowledge of the workings of fate is partial: uices, like sortiri, is not elsewhere used in connexion with the gods, and implies an alternation that only applies on the largest scale to the Trojans' fate—in the fulness of time their successors will defeat the Greeks who have defeated them (1.283–5). What Jupiter rolls at 1.262 are the fatorum arcana. In the Introduction (p. 37) we suggest the image of handling a scroll is in play there; here we come closer to the 'wheel of fortune', a concept at odds with the presentation of Jupiter and fate, but certainly available to V., as the phrase fortunae rota first appears at Cicero, in Pisonem 22 (see R. G. M. Nisbet (Oxford, 1961), ad loc. and K. F. Smith (New York, 1913) on Tibullus 1.5.70), and the concept is older. Virgilio expatiates on the topic in Canto 7 of Dante's Inferno.
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is uertitur ordo: 'thus the cycle of events proceeds'. is is correlated with sic (as ea with is in 393). Though uertere can be used of the elemental movements of the heavens (e.g. 2.250), in this context it rather recalls Jupiter's denial that he is changed (1.260 neque me sententia uertit); ordo on the other hand is used by V. of the big movements of history: Ecl. 4.5 magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo ('the great cycle of centuries is born anew'; cf. Aen. 7.44), 5.707 quae fatorum posceret ordo ('what the course of fate demanded'). The employment of three essentially synonymous phrases, the alliteration of f in 375, and of consonantal u in 376, together with the repetition of other sounds (sortitur … uertitur ordo), build up a feeling of oracular mystery, at least at the start of the speech.
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377–80 pauca … e multis: for the selective nature of Helenus' speech, see 374–462 n.
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quo tutior hospita lustres | aequora: 'so that you may more safely pass across the seas that will receive you (or foreign seas)'. hospita, an adjectival form of the noun hospes used in the feminine and the neuter plural, does not necessarily carry the favourable meaning of our 'hospitable' and indeed can mean 'alien' (OLD 3). quo is the conjunction used to introduce purpose clauses containing a comparative. lustrare occurs three times in the speech (385, 429), each time of the Trojans' journeying; though these lack the religious meaning of e.g. 279, a sacred tone may be evoked by the broader themes of the speech.
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Ausonio … portu: the Penates have told the sleeping Aeneas to go to the Ausonian land in 170–1.
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expediam: a didactic* form (eleven times in Lucretius, e.g.) introduces a passage in which Helenus tells Aeneas that his current views are ignorantly misguided (381–2); the Sibyl is to provide further instruction (expediet, 460).
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prohibent … Parcae … uetat Saturnia Iuno: the limits on what prophets may know or say is a persistent theme; V. particularly alludes* to Phineus in Argonautica 2 (178–86: M(a); 2.311–16 (M(d): see 374–462 n.), along with the hostility to Aeneas of Juno, daughter of Saturn. The epithet (or substantive*) Saturnia, which is applied to her fifteen times in the Aeneid, is present already in Ennius, Ann. 53 Skutsch.
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381–3 principio: equivalent to the πρῶτον‎ of Tiresias (Od. 11.106) and Circe (Od. 12.39), and Phineus' πάμπρωτον‎ at Arg. 2.317; but (despite the excitement of first sighting in 523–4) the Italy Aeneas seeks is far off, and the order of Helenus' prophecy is soon disrupted; thus a closer model may be Lycophron 2, where the guard promises to speak 'from the very beginning' (ἀρχῆς ἀπʼ ἄκρας‎), before apologizing for the lengthy and riddling complexity of Cassandra's prophecy.
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quam tu iam rere propinquam | uicinosque, ignare, paras inuadere portus: 'which you now [i.e. while you are in Buthrotum] think close, and in your ignorance prepare to invade neighbouring ports'. The clause carries on after que without a direct link to the relative pronoun. rere = reris (cf. 440, 7.437); ignare, a vocative, is used with adverbial force, as at Ovid, Met. 2.100 (the Sun addressing Phaethon) quid mea colla tenes blandis, ignare, lacertis? ('why do you ignorantly clasp my neck with persuasive arms?'). inuadere can mean 'to enter' (OLD 7), but the word predominantly has connotations of aggression; Helenus may be looking forward to the way in which the native inhabitants of Italy will regard the Trojans—or to the invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus, a future king of Epirus, in 280 bc.
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Italiam … | longa procul longīs uĭa dīuĭdĭt ĭnuĭa terrīs: 'Italy [appropriately separated from the rest of the clause by the long parenthesis] a long impassable journey via distant lands separates far off'. longis … terris is either instrumental ablative with diuidit or descriptive ablative with uia (or even the more distant Italiam). The line is given an oracular ring by the oxymoron* uia inuia (a Grecism: equivalent to Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris 889 ὁδοὺς ἀνόδους‎: Wills 1996: 455), the repetition of longus, and the sequence of long and short is (length of vowel is marked here, not quantity of syllable).
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384–7 ante looks forward to quam in 387, as in 255–6.
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Trinacria … unda: the 'three-cornered' waters, i.e. those off the coast of Sicily (Trinacria); the phrase reproduces πόντου Τρινακρίου‎ from Argonautica 4.291. With its three promontories (τρεῖς ἄκραι‎: Pelorus, Pachynus, Lilybaeum), the island is famously triangular (Call. Aet. fr. 1.36, Pliny, Nat. 3.86–7), and still symbolized by a three-legged figure on souvenirs. The adjective recurs at 429, 554, the noun at 440, 582. Homer uses the name Θρινάκια‎ (Thrinacia) for the island pastured by the cattle of Helios (Od. 11.107, 12.127); the name appears also at Apollonius, Arg. 4.965, 994, in a context that identifies it as Sicily, as already in Thucydides (6.2.2).
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lentandus remus: 'the oar must be bent' (OLD lento 1), evoking 'the "give" of an oar in the water due to its slight pliancy' (Williams): cf. Apollonius, Arg. 2.591–2 ('the oars bent like curved bows as the heroes strained at them') and C. J. Fordyce (Oxford, 1961) on Cat. 64.183. The effort involved in the journey is brought out, and reinforced by the presence of another spondaic* gerundive (lustrandum) in the middle of the next verse.
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salis Ausonii: V. evokes the travails of the Argonauts in this part of the Mediterranean with his version of Αὐσονίη ἅλς‎, a phrase that occurs three times in Apollonius (4.590, 660, 846); it refers to the sea west of Italy, usually called the Tyrrhenian.
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lustrandum, to be taken with all the subjects in 385–6, is used with a mild syllepsis*: the sea is to be 'traversed' (OLD 3), the island of Circe 'circled round' (OLD 2; cf. 429 metas lustrare Pachyni).
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infernique lacus: when Helenus revisits this part of the journey at 442 diuinosque lacus et Auerna sonantia siluis, he changes the epithet and adds the specific mention of Lake Avernus. Avernus was famously an entrance to the underworld, and that would give a possible sense for inferni here (so Servius). But the easier way of understanding the phrase is as a direct reference to the waters of the underworld, which Aeneas will cross in Book 6: cf. Propertius 2.28.39–40 una ratis fati nostros portabit amores … in inferno … lacu ('A single vessel of fate will carry our love on the infernal lake'; perhaps also 3.18.10) and Tibullus 2.6.39–40 ab excelsa praeceps delapsa fenestra | uenit ad infernos sanguinolenta lacus ('having fallen headlong from a high window she came to the infernal lakes covered in blood'). V. uses the phrase Stygios lacus at 6.134, in the Sibyl's response to Aeneas' request to visit his father. It seems as if Helenus, having spoken of hell in his initial summary, then adjusts his revelation later, whether from divine constraint or tact.
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Aeaeaeque insula Circae: Aeneas is to follow the travels of Odysseus and (again) the Argonauts. The Odyssean Circe turns some of his companions to swine before the hero (with divine aid) resists her magic, becomes her lover, and stays with her for a year: 10.133–12.150 (Book 11 narrates the trip to the world of the dead as an interlude); Helenus refers to a character whose eventual hospitality and advice provide a model for his role. At Argonautica 4.557–61 and 585–8 first the narrator and then the speaking keel of the Argo, fashioned from Dodonian oak, reveal that the Argonauts cannot return home until they are purified by Circe for the murder of Apsyrtus (Nelis 44); they visit her, successfully, at 4.659–752. Helenus by contrast tells Aeneas to pass by Circe's island (regularly identified as what turned into the promontory Monte Circeo), and this they will do, with Neptune's assistance, at 7.10–24. Aeaea, the name of Circe's island, carries with it the Greek cry of woe αἰαῖ‎ ('alas'); the genitive extends the doleful sequence (cf. Propertius 3.12.31 Aeaeae flentis … puellae).
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388–93 signa tibi dicam: 'I shall tell you signs'. Helenus adds the portent of the sow to that of the tables, but misleads both Aeneas and the reader by discussing the sow first. The verse imitates what Tiresias says to Odysseus before telling him the portent of the oar misidentified as a winnowing fan (the end of his journey to appease Poseidon): Od. 11.126 σῆμα δέ τοι ἐρέω μάλ᾽ ἀριϕραδές, οὐδέ σε λήσει‎ ('I shall tell you a sign, a very clear one, and you shall not forget it').
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tu condita mente teneto: reminiscent both of Homeric formulae*, e.g. Od. 15.27 σὺ δὲ σύνθεο θυμῷ‎ ('take heed in your heart') and Lucretian didactic*, e.g. 2.582 conuenit et memori mandatum mente tenere ('it is good also to hold the instruction in a mindful brain').
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tibi sollicito: the adjective accurately describes the agitation of Aeneas at the start of Book 8, esp. 18–35; an extraordinarily expressive simile (22–5) compares his thoughts to the darting reflections of sun- or moonlight off water in a bowl.
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secreti: both 'remote', again (cf. 381–3) stressing the distance the Trojans must travel, and 'hidden', by the trees of 290, 'secluded', in the era before Tiber served an imperial city.
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sus: for the single monosyllable at the end of the hexameter, see Intro., p. 49; unlike 12 and 375 this instance is not known to echo Ennius, but cf. Lucretius 5.25 horrens Arcadius sus, 'the bristling Arcadian pig'. There it might be tempting to think the reference to Hercules' labour dealing with the 'Arcadian Boar' is undercut by the choice of sus rather than aper and the considerable emphasis that is thrust on the word by its placement, and here too we might feel there is a conflict between ingens and the brief monosyllable sus; but V. more closely imitates Odyssey 19.439 ἐν λόχμῃ πυκινῇ κατέκειτο μέγας σῦς‎ ('in a thick copse lay a great pig'). It seems that sus is not a comic word in itself, and other closing monosyllables are grand (dis, 12; rex, 375).
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triginta capitum fetus enixa: 'having delivered a litter [lit. offspring: fetus is acc. plur.] of thirty young [lit. heads]'. For caput referring to individual animals in enumeration, see OLD 8b. Sows usually had ten or twelve teats according to Pliny (Nat. 11.233); and Varro, Rust. 2.4.17 writes that piglets in excess of teats are a portentum, and then goes on to the story of Aeneas' sow, linking the number thirty to the years of Ascanius' reign at Lavinium before the founding of Alba Longa, as the god Tiber will at 8.47–8 (see below).
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alba solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati: 'lying white on the ground, white young about her dugs': the repetition emphasizes the etymology of the place name Alba Longa (O'Hara 1996: 143): cf. Prop. 4.1.35 stetit Alba potens, albae suis omine nata ('Alba, born from the omen of the white sow, stood as a power'), Varro, Ling. Lat. 5.144. ubera in combination with the image of the fertile mother recalls Apollo's instruction at 95–6. The legend of the sow survives in subtly different versions: notable besides those already mentioned are Lycophron 1255–8; the historian Fabius Pictor (c.200 bc) cited by Diodorus (7.5 = FRH 1F3); Dionysius Hal. (Rom. 1.56). At Aeneid 8.43–5 Tiberinus, the god of the river Tiber, appearing to Aeneas in a dream, repeats Helenus' words in 390–2 (not surprisingly some MSS add 393, with hic for is). Tiberinus goes on to say (47–8) that after thirty years Ascanius will found Alba Longa (cf. Jupiter at 1.269). V.'s handling of the tradition is well discussed by Harrison, PLLS 5 (1985), 135–47.
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is … ea: pronouns may be attracted into the gender of their predicate without disrupting the stress given by anaphora*: cf. 375–6, 660, 714.
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394–5 nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros: V. regularly uses a negated imperative in prohibitions: 160, 316. The normal negative in this construction is ne and one would expect neu (= 'and don't') here; V. may prefer nec tu for reasons of euphony: he has it, though not with imperatives, also at 7.733, 12.810 whereas neu tu appears only twice in Statius and once in the fragmentary poet Dorcatius. Helenus reassures Aeneas over the anxieties he has expressed about Celaeno's prophecies in 365–7.
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fata uiam inuenient: the fates will indeed find a way, with the help of Iulus' joke at 7.116 (266 n.): it would spoil the joke to tell it in advance, so divine constraint and narrative benefit combine well here. The reassuring words will be repeated in a more complex context at 10.113, when Jupiter tells the gods not to interfere in the fighting between the Trojans and the Rutuli: it looks there like indifference, but the words Jupiter has spoken at 1.257–66 (see Introduction, pp. 36–7 on fata) have already loaded the dice in Aeneas' favour.
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Apollo: a significant presence in this book through his oracular presence, and involved in the response to the Harpies (264 n.) through his naming at 275 and his implicit presence at Actium (278–88). He is, moreover, the god who speaks through Helenus (359–73, 434).
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396–8 has … terras … hanc litoris oram: as Servius notes, the deictics* has and hanc convey a gesture as Helenus points towards Italy. The urgency of the repetition, followed by the delaying relative clause of 397, sets up the powerfully simple denial of these lands in 398.
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proxima quae nostri perfunditur aequoris aestu: 'the closest shore that is washed by the ebb and flow of our sea': quae is postponed*, and proxima belongs grammatically within the relative clause, as is normal in Latin with superlatives (546).
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effuge: 'avoid', stressed by enjambment* and by the following pause.
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malis habitantur moenia Grais: the dative of the agent with habitari is mainly found with gerundive or past participle, but we may compare Ovid, Tristia 1.1.127–8 nobis habitabitur orbis | ultimus ('the end of the world will be inhabited by me'). malis defines these Greeks as 'hostile' (OLD 5a): Idomeneus and Philoctetes were among the sackers of Troy, and Locri Epizephyrii was to prove an unreliable ally for Rome in the war against Pyrrhus (280–275 bc). For moenia ('walls') as a synecdoche* for city, cf. 159.
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399–402 Narycii posuerunt moenia Locri: Aeneas is not alone in his quest to find land to found a new city: these Locrians were originally from an unidentified town Narycium opposite the coast of Euboea (Iliad 2.535). Returning home from Troy their leader Ajax son of Oileus (called Narycius heros by Ovid at Met. 14.468) was shipwrecked by Pallas Athena, whose shrine he had desecrated (1.39–41); however, some crews carried on to southern Italy, where they founded Locri Epizephyrii (= 'Western'). This is the furthest west of the three places listed here (Map 3).
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Sallentinos obsedit milite campos | Lyctius 'Lyctian Idomeneus has fortified the Sallentine plains with his soldiers': the Sallentine plains are in the southern part of Apulia, the heel of Italy, and thus closest to Epirus. milite is a collective singular*, frequently used with such nouns (e.g. eques, pedes, remex). Idomeneus is Lyctius (an epithet V. uses also at Ecl. 5.72) because he comes from Crete, and Lyctus is among the Cretan cities named in Homer's catalogue (Il. 2.647); cf. Strabo 6.3.5 'they say that the Salentines are colonists from Crete'. Varro (Ant. rer. hum. 3.fr.6) has a story in which Idomeneus, after expulsion from Crete (122), joins up with Locrians in Illyria, and together they colonize southern Italy, including Castrum Mineruae (531 n.).
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hic illa ducis Meliboei | parua Philoctetae subnixa Petelia muro: 'here is the famous little Petelia, resting on the wall of the Meliboean leader Philoctetes.' The Greek hero Philoctetes came from Meliboea in Thessaly (Il. 2.717). The smell of a festering wound from a snake-bite made the Greeks leave him on the island of Lemnos, till they discovered (from Helenus (!), according to Sophocles, Philoctetes 604–13) that his bow and arrows needed to be at Troy for the city to fall. He returned home safely from the war (Od. 3.190); but a later account says that he was then expelled from Meliboea to southern Italy, where he founded Petelia (west of the Golfo di Tarento) and Crimisa (Lycophron 911–13, which describes Crimisa as 'a little city', βραχύπτολις‎). V. is drawing from Cato the Elder who said in the Origines (FRH 5F64) that Philoctetes built the wall of Petelia. parua has been thought to make an etymological point, evoking the old Latin word petilus meaning 'thin'. illa, with its implication of Petelia's fame, perhaps pays tribute to a town that, unlike other cities of Bruttium, stayed faithful to Rome in the Second Punic War (Livy 23.20.4).
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403–9 quin ('further') marks the move to a new, perhaps more important topic as in 1.279 quin aspera Iuno, 6.115, 6.824 quin Decios Drusosque … aspice, 9.465 (equivalent to the fuller forms quin et(iam) found e.g. at 4.309, 6.735, 6.777, 7.177).
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steterint: 'are moored' (or 'beached': cf. 277); the future perfect marks the first part of the temporal clause as prior to the imperative in the main clause, whereas the fulfilling of vows on arrival (solues, 404) occurs at the same time as the veiling of the head: 410–11 follows the same pattern.
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classes: poetic plural*, 'fleet' or 'ships': cf. 602.
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purpureo … amictu: though purpureus can mean 'bright', the toga praete