Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel Egan (eds), The New Oxford Shakespeare: Critical Reference Edition, Vol. 1

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Sc. 113.4

Enter Lear, Kent, and foole.
Critical Apparatus1

Kent. Here is the place my Lord, good my Lord enter,

Critical Apparatus2The tyrannie of the open nights too ruffe

Critical Apparatus3For nature to indure.

Lear. Let me alone.

Critical Apparatus4

Kent. Good my Lord enter.

Lear. Wilt breake my heart?


Kent. I had rather breake mine owne, good my Lord enter.

Critical Apparatus6

Lear. Thou think'st tis much, that this [contentious] storme

7Inuades vs to the skin, so tis to thee,

8But where the greater malady is fixt

9The lesser is scarce felt, thoud'st shun a Beare,

pg 1297Critical Apparatus10But if thy flight lay toward the roring sea,

11Thoud'st meet the beare it'h mouth, whē the mind's free

Critical Apparatus12The bodies delicate, this tempest in my mind

13Doth from my sences take all feeling else

Critical Apparatus14Saue what beates their filiall ingratitude,

G1v Link 15Is it not as this mouth should teare this hand

16For lifting food to't, but I will punish sure,

Critical Apparatus17No I will weepe no more,

Critical Apparatus18In such a night as this! O Regan, Gonorill,

19Your old kind father whose franke heart gaue you all,

20O that way madnes lies let me shun that,

21No more of that.

Kent. Good my Lord enter.

Critical Apparatus22

Lear. Prethe goe in thy selfe, seeke thy one ease

23This tempest will not giue me leaue to ponder

24On things would hurt me more, but ile goe in,

25Poore naked wretches, where so ere you are

26That bide the pelting of this pittiles night,

27How shall your house-lesse heads, and vnfed sides,

28Your loopt and windowed raggednes defend you

29From seasons such as these, O I haue tane

30Too little care of this, take physicke pompe,

31Expose thy selfe to feele what wretches feele,

32That thou mayst shake the superflux to them,

33And shew the heauens more iust.


Foole. Come not in here Nunckle, her's a spirit, helpe me, helpe mee.


Kent. Giue me thy hand, whose there.


Foole. A spirit, he sayes, his nam's poore Tom.


Kent. What art thou that dost grumble there in the straw, come forth?


Edg. Away, the fowle fiend followes me, thorough the sharpe hathorne 39blowes the cold wind, goe to thy cold bed and warme thee.


Lear. Hast thou giuen all to thy two daughters, and art thou come 41to this?


Edg. Who giues any thing to poore Tom, whome the foule Fiende hath 43led, through fire, and through foord, and whirli-poole, ore bog and 44quagmire, that has layd kniues vnder his pillow, and halters in his pue, 45set ratsbane by his pottage, made him proud of heart, to ride on a bay 46trotting horse ouer foure incht bridges, to course his owne shadow for 47a traytor, blesse thy fiue wits, Toms a cold, blesse thee from whirle-winds, G2rCritical Apparatus Link 48[starre-blasting], and taking, doe poore Tom some charitie, whom the Critical Apparatus49foule fiend vexes, there could I haue him now, and there, [and] there againe.

pg 1298 Critical Apparatus50

Lear. What, his daughters brought him to this passe,

51Couldst thou saue nothing, didst thou giue them all?


Foole. Nay he reseru'd a blanket, else we had beene all sham'd.


Lear. Now all the plagues that in the pendulous ayre

54Hang fated ore mens faults, fall on thy daughters.


Kent. He hath no daughters sir.


Lear. Death traytor, nothing could haue subdued nature

57To such a lownes, but his vnkind daughters,

58Is it the fashion that discarded fathers,

59Should haue thus little mercy on their flesh,

Critical Apparatus60Iudicious punishment twas this flesh begot

61Those Pelicane daughters.


Edg. Pilicock sate on pelicocks hill, a lo lo lo.


Foole. This cold night will turne vs all to fooles & madmen.

Critical Apparatus64

[Edg.] Take heede at'h foule fiend, obay thy parents, keep thy [word] 65iustly, sweare not, commit not with mans sworne spouse, set not thy 66sweet heart on proud array, Toms a cold,


Lear. What hast thou beene?


Edg. A Seruingman, proud in heart and mind, that curld my haire, 69wore gloues in my cap, serued the lust of my mistris heart, and did 70the act of darkenes with her, swore as many oaths as I spake words, and 71broke them in the sweet face of heauen, one that slept in the contriuing 72of lust, and wakt to doe it, wine loued I deeply, dice deerely, and in 73woman out paromord the Turke, false of heart, light of eare, bloudie of 74hand, Hog in sloth, Fox in stealth, Woolfe in greedines, Dog in madnes, 75Lyon in pray, let not the creeking of shooes, nor the ruslings of silkes 76betray thy poore heart to women, keepe thy foote out of brothell, thy hand 77out of placket, thy pen from lenders booke, and defie the foule fiend, still Critical Apparatus78through the hathorne blowes the cold wind, hay no [nonny], Dolphin 79my boy, my boy, caese let him trot by.


Lear. Why thou wert better in thy graue, then to answere with thy 81vncouered bodie this extremitie of the skies, is man no more, but this 82cōsider him well, thou owest the worme no silke, the beast no hide, the Critical Apparatus83sheepe no wooll, the cat no perfume, her's three ons are [sophisticated],

G2v Link 84thou art the thing it selfe, vnaccomodated                                              man, is no more but such

Critical Apparatus85a poore bare forked Animall as thou art, off off you lendings, come Critical Apparatus86[vnbuttone].

pg 1299 87

Foole. Prithe Nunckle be content, this is a naughty night to swim in, 88now a little fire in a wild field, were like an old leachers heart, a small Critical Apparatus89sparke, all the rest [ins] bodie cold, looke here comes a walking fire.

Enter Gloster.
Critical Apparatus90

Edg. This is the foule fiend [fliberdegibet], hee begins at curphew, and Critical Apparatus91walks till the first cocke, he giues the web, & the pin, [squenies] the eye, Critical Apparatus92and makes the hare lip, mildewes the white wheate, and hurts the poore 93creature of earth,

Critical Apparatus94    [Swithune] footed thrice the old

Critical Apparatus95    A met the night mare and her nine fold

Critical Apparatus96    Bid her, [a] light

97    And her troth plight

Critical Apparatus98    And arint thee, witch arint thee.

Critical Apparatus99

Kent. How fares your Grace?

Lear. Whats hee?

Kent. Whose there,

100What i'st you seeke?

Glost. What are you there? your names?

Critical Apparatus101

Edg. Poore Tom, that eats the swimming frog, the tode, the tod pole, 102the wall-newt, and the water, that in the furie of his heart, when the foule 103fiend rages, eats cow-dung for sallets, swallowes, the old ratt, and the 104ditch dogge, drinkes the greene mantle of the standing poole, who is 105whipt from tithing to tithing, and stock-punisht and imprisoned, 106who hath had three sutes to his backe, sixe shirts to his bodie,

Critical Apparatus107     Horse to ride, and weapon to weare.

108    But mise and rats, and such small Deere,

pg 1300109Hath beene Toms foode for seuen long yeare—

Critical Apparatus110Beware my follower, peace snulbug, peace thou fiend.


Glost. What hath your Grace no better company?


Edg. The Prince of darkenes is a Gentleman, modo he's caled and Critical Apparatus113ma hu—

Critical Apparatus114

Glost. Our flesh and bloud is growne so vild my Lord,

115That it doth hate what gets it.

Edg. Poore Toms a cold.

Critical Apparatus116

Glost. Go in with me, my dutie cā not suffer

117To obay in all your daughters hard commaunds,

118Though their iniunction be to barre my doores,

119And let this tyranous night take hold vpon you,

120Yet haue I venter'd to come seeke you out,

121And bring you where both food and fire is readie.

G3r Link 122

Lear. First let me talke with this Philosopher,

123What is the cause of thunder?


Kent. My good Lord take his offer, goe into the house.

Critical Apparatus125

Lear. Ile talke a word with this most learned Theban,

126What is your studie?


Edg. How to preuent the fiend, and to kill vermine.


Lear. Let me aske you one word in priuate.

Critical Apparatus129

Kent. Importune him to goe my Lord,

130His wits begin to vnsettle.

Glost. Canst thou blame him,

131His daughters seeke his death, O that good Kent,

132He said it would be thus, poore banisht man,

133Thou sayest the King growes mad, ile tell thee friend

134I am almost mad my selfe, I had a sonne

135Now out-lawed from my bloud, a sought my life

136But lately, very late, I lou'd him friend

137No father his sonne deerer, true to tell thee,

Critical Apparatus138The greefe hath craz'd my wits, what a nights this?

Critical Apparatus139I doe beseech your Grace.

Lear. O crie you mercie

140Noble Philosopher, your company.


Edg. Toms a cold.


Glost. In fellow there, in't houell keepe thee warme.

Critical Apparatus143

Lear. Come lets in all.

Kent. This way my Lord.

Lear. With him

144I wil keep stil, with my Philosopher.


Ken. Good my Lord sooth him, let him take the fellow.

pg 1301 146

Glost. Take him you on.


Kent. Sirah come on, goe along with vs?


Lear. Come good Athenian.

Glost. No words, no words, hush.

Critical Apparatus149

Edg.     Child Rowland, to the darke towne come,

150    His word was still fy fo and fum,

151    I smell the bloud of a British man.

Notes Settings


Critical Apparatus
11.1–3|3.4.1–3 Here . . . indure. jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.2 The tyrannie 1okes(b) (the tyrannie); the| the tyrannie 1okes(a). The compositing error of dittography is more easily made and less easily spotted across a prose line break than mid-line.
Critical Apparatus
11.2 Some copies read 'the| the', others 'the', for 'The'
Critical Apparatus
11.3–4 Lear. . . . enter. 1 type line 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.4 enter 1okes; enter heere jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.6 contentious jaggard; crulentious 1okes(a), 2pavier; tempestious 1okes(b). The reading in 1okes(a), although nonsense, has more than three-quarters of the word found in jaggard, of which it is probably therefore a misreading, while the word in 1okes(b) is probably the corrector's guess for turning this nonsense into sense (Greg, Variants, 136), or 'a memorially contaminated proof-correction' influenced by his correction of 'the tempest' at 11.12 (Blayney, 249). Contentious, meaning 'hostile, belligerent, quarrelsome' (Crystal), anticipates Invades.
Critical Apparatus
11.6 Some copies read 'crulentious', others 'tempestious', for 'contentious'
Critical Apparatus
11.10 roring 1okes(b), jaggard (roaring); raging 1okes(a), 2pavier. Very probably corrected from the copy, as 'The uncorrected reading is so perfectly apt in context that nobody emending by guesswork would have had any reason to suspect an error' (Blayney, 248). Nor, perhaps, would a corrector have guessed jaggard's reading even if error had been suspected. Roaring can apply to the bear as well as the sea. Compare Winter's Tale 3.3.88–90.
Critical Apparatus
11.10 Some copies read 'raging' for 'roring'
Critical Apparatus
11.12 this 1okes(b); the 1okes(a), 2pavier, jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.12 Some copies read 'the' for 'this'
Critical Apparatus
11.14 beates 1okes(b), jaggard; beares 1okes(a), 2pavier
Critical Apparatus
11.14 Some copies read 'beares' for 'beates'
Critical Apparatus
11.17–21 No . . . that. jaggard; 4 lines 1okes: this!| father| lies|
Critical Apparatus
11.18 In such a night as this! 1okes; in such a night,| To shut me out? Poure on, I will endure:| In such a night as this? jaggard. Blayney argues for an error of eye-skip in 1okes.
Critical Apparatus
11.22 one = own
Critical Apparatus
11.48 starre-blasting jaggard (Starre-blasting); starre-blusting 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.49–50 and there againe 2pavier, jaggard; and| and there againe 1okes. The compositing error of dittography is more easily made and less easily spotted across a prose line break than mid-line.
Critical Apparatus
11.50 his 1okes; Ha's jaggard; has his allot. The omitted initial unstressed syllable in 1okes is within Shakespeare's usual range of verse variations.
Critical Apparatus
11.60–1 Iudicious . . . daughters. jaggard; flesh| 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.64 Edg. 2pavier, jaggard; Fdg. 1okes. If not foul case error this is possibly an intentional substitution due to shortage of italic upper-case E.
Critical Apparatus
11.64 word pope; words 1okes, jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.78 nonny jaggard; on ny 1okes. Ink traces visible in some copies of 1okes might come from a badly damaged 'n' between 'no' and 'on ny' (Blayney). As the gap is wide enough for a space as well as an un-inking letter, this suggests that 'no nonny' was initially set mis-spaced as 'nono ny'—though the spaces before 'no' and after 'ny,' are both also wide.
Critical Apparatus
11.83 sophisticated 2pavier, jaggard; so phisticated 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.85 lendings 1okes(b); leadings 1okes(a)
Critical Apparatus
11.85 Some copies read 'leadings' for 'lendings'
Critical Apparatus
11.86 vnbuttone. halio; on bee true. 1okes(a), 2pavier; on^ 1okes(b); vn-|button here. jaggard. The reading in 1okes(a) indicates that 1okes(b) cannot be correct and that the alteration simply eliminated the two obviously incongruous final words in order to produce sense. The graphical similarity between 'vnbuttone' and 'on bee true' suggests that jaggard offers sound guidance as to the 1okes copy reading. jaggard's 'heere' is a further addition that plays no part in the textual make-up of 1okes.
Critical Apparatus
11.86 Some copies read 'on bee true.', others 'on^' ,for 'vnbuttone.'
Critical Apparatus
11.89 ins weis; in 1okes; on's jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.90 fliberdegibet jaggard (Flibbertigibbet); Sriberdegibit 1okes(a); fliberdegibek 1okes(b); Sirberdegibit 2pavier. Harsnett, the source for the name, has 'Fliberdigibbet' and 'Fliberdigibet'.
Critical Apparatus
11.90 Some copies read 'Sriberdegibit' others 'fliberdegibek', for 'fliberdegibet'
Critical Apparatus
11.91 giues 1okes(b); gins 1okes(a)
Critical Apparatus
11.91 & the 1okes(b); the 1okes(a)
Critical Apparatus
11.91 pin, squenies duthie (Greg, Variants); pin-|queues 1okes(a); pin,| squemes 1okes(b); pinqueuer 2pavier; Pin, squints jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.91 Some copies read 'gins' for 'giues'
Critical Apparatus
11.91 Some copies read 'the pin-|queues' others '& the pin,| squemes' for '& the pin, squenies'
Critical Apparatus
11.92 hare 1okes(b), jaggard; harte 1okes(a), 2pavier
Critical Apparatus
11.92 Some copies read 'hart' for 'hare'
Critical Apparatus
11.94 Swithune taylor (after) tate); swithald 1okes; Swithold jaggard. Theobald took this to be the 'S. Withold' mentioned in Troublesome Reign; this has very implausibly been justified as a conjectured Anglicization of the Italian saint known as Vitalis (Tyrwhitt). St Swithun had a rich tradition of legend and folklore, including the saying, relevant to the stormy weather in the scene, that if it rained on St Swithun's Day (14 July) it would rain for a further forty days. To taylor's long note on this emendation it may be added that the Anglo-Saxon bishop St Swithun was a contemporary of the speaker's namesake King Edgar. He was well known for choosing to travel by foot ('footed') rather than horseback. A legend perhaps echoed in the verse tells that St Swithun miraculously cured a man who was paralysed as a result of an encounter with three supernatural women in open countryside (Lapidge, 274–7, and Hall).
Critical Apparatus
11.94–5 old| A 1okes(a) (old^ a); old, he 1okes(b). The more idiomatic and less standard 'a' is probably based on the manuscript, and the correction a printing-house regularization.
Critical Apparatus
11.94 old = wold
Critical Apparatus
11.94–6 Swithune . . . fold jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.94–5 Some copies read 'old^ a nellthu night more', others 'old, he met the night mare', for 'old^| A met the night mare'
Critical Apparatus
11.95 met the 1okes(b), jaggard; nellthu 1okes(a). In 2pavier the uncorrected state of 1okes's 'a nellthu' is altered to the scarcely less puzzling 'anel-thu'.
Critical Apparatus
11.95 mare jaggard, 1okes(b); more 1okes(a), 2pavier
Critical Apparatus
11.95 nine fold = nine-fold. Though there is word play between mare and foal or foaled, the substantive use of nine-fold to mean nine offspring is without difficulty. For its connotations, compare Thomas Lodge, Fig for Momus (1595, STC 16658), sig. H3v–4r: 'These threes so famous, are the steps to nine| Sacred vnto the Muses most diuine,| This number in proportions musicall| Is dissonant: and Astrologians call| The same Sinister for some secret worke;| Or hidden fate, that in the same doth lurke:| Hesiodus in his Theogonie,| Vnder Styx, nine fould streame doth signifie,| The discords, and complexions of mans bodie'.
Critical Apparatus
11.96 a light jaggard (a-light); O light 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.96–8 Bid . . . plight capell; prose 1okes: 1 line jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.98 arint . . . arint = Aroint . . . aroint. taylor points out that 'blayney adopts [jaggard]'s spelling [aroint], but Hulme has found "bid me arent the wich" in a Stratford court record (p. 17), so there seems no reason to emend [1okes]'s spelling in favour of that preserved in [Folio texts printed from] two late transcripts ([jaggard] Lear and [jaggard] Macbeth, 1.3.5)'.
Critical Apparatus
11.98 witch 1okes(b); with 1okes(a)
Critical Apparatus
11.98 And . . . thee. jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.98 Some copies read 'with' for 'witch'
Critical Apparatus
11.99–100 Whose . . . seeke?| this edition; 1 line 1okes, jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.101–2 tod pole, the wall-newt 1okes, jaggard; tode pold, the wall-wort 1okes(a), 2pavier. EEBO-TCP identifies several examples of 'tod' as a spelling of toad, the root of the first syllable in tadpole.
Critical Apparatus
11.101 Some copies read 'tode pold, the wall-wort' for 'tod pole, the wall-newt'
Critical Apparatus
11.107 Horse . . . weare. jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.110 snulbug 1okes; Smulkin jaggard. The name as in jaggard is that of a devil named by Harsnet. Blayney suggests that the form smulking in the copy for 1okes facilitated a misreading. But Jennifer Young has pointed out to me that the misreading is still not altogether easy, and the form in 1okes is attractive in its own right, so we need not assume error. The second element, bug, is a Shakespearean word meaning 'bugbear, hobgoblin', which suits the context well here. Shakespeare may have creatively mis-recollected or deliberately altered Harsnett's word, and normalized the form at a later date.
Critical Apparatus
11.113 ma hu = Mahu. Compare Harsnet's 'Maho', jaggard's 'Mahu'.
Critical Apparatus
11.114–15 Our . . . gets it. pope; prose 1okes, jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.116–21 Go . . . readie. jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.125–6 Ile . . . studie? jaggard; prose 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.129 him 1okes; him once more jaggard
Critical Apparatus
11.129–30 Importune . . . vnsettle. jaggard; 1 line 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.138–9 The . . . Grace. jaggard; wits,| 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.139–40 O . . . company. jaggard; 1 line 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.143–4 With . . . Philosopher. jaggard; 1 line 1okes
Critical Apparatus
11.149 towne 1okes; Tower jaggard. In favour of 1okes's unfamiliar reading is the implicit contrast it offers between Lear's association of Poor Tom with the enlightened town of Athens (in the previous line) and Edgar's own prescient anticipation of a journey to a darker, British place.
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