Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel Egan (eds), The New Oxford Shakespeare: Critical Reference Edition, Vol. 2

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pg 31792.1Sc. 4Actus Secundus. Scena Prima.

Enter Montano, and two Gentlemen.
1

Mon. What from the Cape, can you discerne at Sea?

2

1. Gent. Nothing at all, it is a high wrought Flood:

Critical Apparatus3I cannot 'twixt the Heauen, and the Maine,

4Descry a Saile.

Critical Apparatus5

Mon. Me thinks, the wind hath spoke aloud at Land,

6A fuller blast ne're shooke our Battlements:

7If it hath ruffiand so vpon the Sea,

Critical Apparatus8What ribbes of Oake, when Mountaines melt on them,

9Can hold the Morties. What shall we heare of this?

10

2 A Segregation of the Turkish Fleet:

Critical Apparatus11For do but stand vpon the Foaming Shore,

Critical Apparatus12The chidden Billow seemes to pelt the Clowds,

13The winde-shak'd-Surge, with high & monstrous Maine

14Seemes to cast water on the burning Beare,

Critical Apparatus15And quench the Guards of th'euer-fixed Pole:

16I neuer did like mollestation view

Critical Apparatus17On the enchafed Flood.

[Mon.] If that the Turkish Fleete

18Be not enshelter'd, and embay'd, they are drown'd,

Critical Apparatus19It is impossible to beare it out.

Enter a Gentleman.
Critical Apparatus20

3 Newes Laddes: our warres are done:

Critical Apparatus21The desperate Tempest hath so bang'd the Turkes,

Critical Apparatus22That their designement halts. A Noble ship of Venice,

Critical Apparatus23Hath seene a greeuous wracke and sufferance

Critical Apparatus24On most part of their Fleet.

25

Mon. How? Is this true?

Critical Apparatus26

3 The Ship is heere put in:

Critical Apparatus27A [Veronnessa], Michael Cassio

28Lieutenant to the warlike Moore, Othello,

pg 3180Critical Apparatus29Is come on Shore: the Moore himselfe at Sea,

30And is in full Commission heere for Cyprus.

Critical Apparatus31

Mon. I am glad on't: 'Tis a worthy Gouernour.

32

3 But this same Cassio, though he speake of comfort,

33Touching the Turkish losse, yet he lookes sadly,

Critical Apparatus34And [prayes] the Moore be safe; for they were parted

Critical Apparatus35With fowle and violent Tempest.

Mon. Pray [God] he be:

36For I haue seru'd him, and the man commands

37Like a full Soldier. Let's to the Sea-side (hoa)

38As well to see the Vessell that's come in,

39As to throw-out our eyes for braue Othello,

Critical Apparatus40Euen till we make the Maine, and th'Eriall blew,

41An indistinct regard.

Gent. Come, let's do so;

42For euery Minute is expectancie

Critical Apparatus43Of more Arriuancie.

Enter Cassio.
Critical Apparatus44

Cassi. Thankes you, the valiant of the warlike Isle,

Critical Apparatus45That so approoue the Moore: Oh let the Heauens

Critical Apparatus46Giue him defence against the Elements,

47For I haue lost him on a dangerous Sea.

48

Mon. Is he well ship'd?

49

Cassio. His Barke is stoutly Timber'd, and his Pylot

50Of verie expert, and approu'd Allowance;

51Therefore my hope's (not surfetted to death)

52Stand in bold Cure.

Within. A Saile, a Saile, a Saile.

53

Cassio. What noise?

54

Gent. The Towne is empty; on the brow o'th'Sea

55Stand rankes of People and they cry, a Saile.

Critical Apparatus56

Cassio. My hopes do shape him for the Gouernor.

pg 3181 Critical Apparatus57

Gent. They do discharge their Shot of Courtesie,

Critical Apparatus58Our Friends, at least.

Cassio. I pray you Sir, go forth,

59And giue vs truth who 'tis that is arriu'd.

60

Gent. I shall.

Exit.
61

Mon. But good Lieutenant, is your Generall wiu'd?

62

Cassio. Most fortunately: he hath atchieu'd a Maid

63That paragons description, and wilde Fame:

Critical Apparatus64One that excels the quirkes of Blazoning pens,

Critical Apparatus65And in th'essentiall Vesture of Creation,

Critical Apparatus66Do's tyre the Ingeniuer.

Enter Gentleman.

How now? Who ha's put in?

67

Gent. 'Tis one Iago, Auncient to the Generall.

Critical Apparatus68

Cassio. Ha's had most fauourable, and happie speed:

Critical Apparatus69Tempests themselues, high Seas, and howling windes,

70The gutter'd-Rockes, and Congregated Sands,

Critical Apparatus71Traitors ensteep'd, to enclogge the guiltlesse Keele,

72As hauing sence of Beautie, do omit

Critical Apparatus73Their mortall Natures, letting go safely by

74The Diuine Desdemona.

Mon. What is she?

Critical Apparatus75

Cassio. She that I spake of: our great Captains Captaine,

76Left in the conduct of the bold Iago,

77Whose footing heere anticipates our thoughts,

78A Senights speed. Great Ioue, Othello guard,

79And swell his Saile with thine owne powrefull breath,

80That he may blesse this Bay with his tall Ship,

Critical Apparatus81Make loues quicke pants in Desdemonaes Armes,

82Giue renew'd fire to our extincted Spirits.

Enter Desdemona, Iago, Rodorigo, and Æmilia.

Oh behold,

Critical Apparatus83The Riches of the Ship is come on shore:

Critical Apparatus84You men of Cyprus, let her haue your knees.

pg 3182Critical Apparatus85Haile to thee Ladie: and the grace of [God],

86Before, behinde thee, and on euery hand

87Enwheele thee round.

Des. I thanke you, Valiant Cassio,

Critical Apparatus88What tydings can you tell [me] of my Lord?

tt1r Critical Apparatus Link 89

Cas. He is not yet arriu'd, nor know I ought

90But that he's well, and will be shortly heere.

Critical Apparatus91

Des. Oh, but I feare: How lost you company?

Critical Apparatus92

Cassio. The great Contention of [the] Sea, and Skies

Critical Apparatus93Parted our fellowship. But hearke, a Saile.

[Within. A Saile, a Saile.]
94

Gent. They giue this greeting to the Cittadell:

Critical Apparatus95This likewise is a Friend.

Cassio. See for the Newes:

96Good Ancient, you are welcome. Welcome Mistris:

97Let it not gaule your patience (good Iago)

98That I extend my Manners. 'Tis my breeding,

99That giues me this bold shew of Curtesie.

Critical Apparatus100

Iago. Sir, would she giue you so much of her lippes,

Critical Apparatus101As of her tongue she oft bestowes on me,

Critical Apparatus102You would haue enough.

103

Des. Alas: she ha's no speech.

Critical Apparatus104

Iago. Infaith too much:

Critical Apparatus105I finde it still, when I haue leaue to sleepe.

106Marry before your Ladyship, I grant,

Critical Apparatus107She puts [her] tongue a little in her heart,

108And chides with thinking.

Æmil. You haue little cause to say so.

Critical Apparatus109

Iago. Come on, come on: you are Pictures out of doore:

110Bells in your Parlours: Wilde-Cats in your Kitchens:

111Saints in your Iniuries: Diuels being offended:

pg 3183Critical Apparatus112Players in your Huswiferie, and Huswiues in your Beds.

Critical Apparatus113

Des. Oh, fie vpon thee, Slanderer.

114

Iago. Nay, it is true: or else I am a Turke,

115You rise to play, and go to bed to worke.

Critical Apparatus116

Æmil. You shall not write my praise.

Iago. No, let me not.

117

Desde. What would'st write of me, if thou should'st praise me?

118

Iago. Oh, gentle Lady, do not put me too't,

119For I am nothing, if not Criticall.

Critical Apparatus120

Des. Come on, assay. There's one gone to the Harbour?

121

Iago. I Madam.

122

Des. I am not merry: but I do beguile

123The thing I am, by seeming otherwise.

124Come, how would'st thou praise me?

Critical Apparatus125

Iago. I am about it, but indeed my inuention

126Comes from my pate, as Birdlyme do's from Freeze,

Critical Apparatus127It pluckes out Braines and all. But my Muse labours,

128And thus she is deliuer'd.

129If she be faire, and wise: fairenesse, and wit,

Critical Apparatus130The ones for vse, the other vseth it.

Critical Apparatus131

Des. Well prais'd: how if she be Blacke and Witty?

132

Iago. If she be blacke, and thereto haue a wit,

Critical Apparatus133She'le find a white, that shall her blacknesse fit.

134

Des. Worse, and worse.

Æmil. How if Faire, and Foolish?

135

Iago. She neuer yet was foolish that was faire,

Critical Apparatus136For euen her folly helpt her to an heire.

Critical Apparatus137

Desde. These are old fond Paradoxes, to make Fooleslaugh i'th'138Alehouse. What miserable praise hast thou for her that's Foule, and Foolish.

139

Iago. There's none so foule and foolish thereunto,

140But do's foule pranks, which faire, and wise-ones do.

Critical Apparatus141

Desde. Oh heauy ignorance: thou praisest the worst best. But 142what praise could'st thou bestow on a deseruing woman indeed? One, Critical Apparatus143that in the authorithy of her merit, did iustly put on the vouch of very 144malice it selfe.

145

Iago. She that was euer faire, and neuer proud,

146Had Tongue at will, and yet was neuer loud:

147Neuer lackt Gold, and yet went neuer gay,

148Fled from her wish, and yet said now I may.

149She that being angred, her reuenge being nie,

150Bad her wrong stay, and her displeasure flie:

151She that in wisedome neuer was so fraile,

152To change the Cods-head for the Salmons taile:

153She that could thinke, and neu'r disclose her mind,

Critical Apparatus154See Suitors following, and not looke behind:

Critical Apparatus155She was a wight, (if euer such wightes were)

pg 3184 156

Des. To do what?

157

Iago. To suckle Fooles, and chronicle small Beere.

158

Desde. Oh most lame and impotent conclusion. Do not learne of 159him Æmillia, though he be thy husband. How say you (Cassio) is he not 160a most prophane, and liberall Counsailor?

161

Cassio. He speakes home (Madam) you may rellish him more in the 162Souldier, then in the Scholler.

Critical Apparatus163

Iago. He takes her by the palme: I, well said, whisper. With as 164little a web as this, will I ensnare as great a Fly as Cassio. I smile vpon Critical Apparatus165her, do: I will giue thee in thine owne Courtship. You say true, 'tis so 166indeed. If such tricks as these strip you out of your Lieutenantrie, it had 167beene better you had not kiss'd your three fingers so oft, which now Critical Apparatus168againe you are most apt to play the Sir, in. Very good: well kiss'd, and Critical Apparatus169excellent Curtsie: 'tis so indeed. Yet againe, your fingers to your lippes? Critical Apparatus170Would they were [Clister]-pipes for your sake.

171The Moore I know his Trumpet.

Cassio, 'Tis truely so.

172

Des. Let's meete him, and recieue him.

Cassio. Loe, where he comes.

Enter Othello, and Attendants.
173

Oth. O, my faire Warriour.

Des. My deere Othello.

174

Othe. It giues me wonder great, as my content

Critical Apparatus175To see you heere before me. Oh my Soules Ioy:

Critical Apparatus176If after euery Tempest, come such Calmes,

177May the windes blow, till they haue waken'd death:

178And let the labouring Barke climbe hills of Seas

179Olympus high: and duck againe as low,

180As hell's from Heauen. If it were now to dye,

181'Twere now to be most happy. For I feare,

182My Soule hath her content so absolute,

183That not another comfort like to this,

Critical Apparatus184Succeedes in vnknowne Fate.

Des. The Heauens forbid

Critical Apparatus185But that our Loues and Comforts should encrease

Critical Apparatus186Euen as our dayes do grow.

Othe. Amen to rhat (sweet Powers)

187I cannot speake enough of this content,

188It stoppes me heere: it is too much of ioy.

pg 3185Critical Apparatus189And this, and this the greatest discords be

Critical Apparatus190That ere our hearts shall make.

Iago. Oh you are well tun'd now:

191But Ile set downe the peggs that make this Musicke,

tt1vCritical Apparatus Link 192As honest as I am.

Othe. Come: let vs to the Castle.

Critical Apparatus193Newes (Friends) our Warres are done: The Turkes are drown'd.

Critical Apparatus194How do's my old Acquaintance of this Isle?

195(Hony) you shall be well desir'd in Cyprus,

196I haue found great loue among'st them. Oh my Sweet,

197I prattle out of fashion, and I doate

198In mine owne comforts. I prythee, good Iago,

199Go to the Bay, and disimbarke my Coffers:

200Bring thou the Master to the Cittadell,

201He is a good one, and his worthynesse

202Do's challenge much respect. Come Desdemona,

203Once more well met at Cyprus.

Exit Othello and Desdemona.
204

Iago. Do thou meet me presently at the Critical Apparatus205Harbour. Come [hither], if thou be'st Valiant, (as they say 206base men being in Loue, haue then a Nobilitie in their Natures, more 207then is natiue to them) list-me; the Lieutenant to night watches on the Critical Apparatus208Court of Guard. First, I must tell thee this: Desdemona, is directly in 209loue with him.

210

Rod. With him? Why, 'tis not possible.

211

Iago. Lay thy finger thus: and let thy soule be instructed. Marke me with 212what violence she first lou'd the Moore, but for bragging, and telling her Critical Apparatus213fantasticall lies. To loue him still for prating, let not thy discreet heart Critical Apparatus214thinke it. Her eye must be fed. And what delight shall she haue to looke 215on the diuell? When the Blood is made dull with the Act of Sport, there Critical Apparatus216should be [againe] to enflame it, and to giue Satiety a fresh appetite, 217Louelinesse in fauour, simpathy in yeares, Manners, and Beauties: all which Critical Apparatus218the Moore is defectiue in. Now for want of these requir'd Conueniences, Critical Apparatus219her delicate tendernesse wil finde it selfe abus'd, begin to heaue the gorge, disrellish and abhorre the Moore, very Nature wil instruct her in pg 3186220it, and compell her to some second choice. Now Sir, this granted (as it Critical Apparatus221is a most pregnant and vnforc'd position) who stands so eminent in the Critical Apparatus222degree of this Fortune, as Cassio do's: a knaue very voluble: no further Critical Apparatus223conscionable, then in putting on the meere forme of Ciuill, and Humaine Critical Apparatus224seeming, for the better compasse of his salt, and most hidden loose Critical Apparatus225Affection? Why none, why none: A slipper, and subtle knaue, a finder Critical Apparatus226of occasion: that [ha's] an eye can stampe, and counterfeit Aduantages, 227though true Aduantage neuer present it selfe. A diuelish knaue: besides, 228the knaue is handsome, young: and hath all those requisites in him, that 229folly and greene mindes looke after. A pestilent compleat knaue, and the Critical Apparatus230woman hath found him already.

231

Rodo. I cannot beleeue that in her, she's full of most bless'd 232condition.

233

Iago. Bless'd figges-end. The Wine she drinkes is made of grapes. If shee had Critical Apparatus234beene bless'd, shee would neuer haue lou'd the Moore: Bless'd pudding. Didst Critical Apparatus235thou not see her paddle with the palme of his hand? Didst not marke that?

Critical Apparatus236

Rod. Yes, that I did: but that was but curtesie.

Critical Apparatus237

Iago. Leacherie by this hand: an Index, and obscure prologue to the 238History of Lust and foule Thoughts. They met so neere with their lippes, Critical Apparatus239that their breathes embrac'd together. Villanous thoughts Rodorigo, Critical Apparatus240when these [mutualities] so marshall the way, hard at hand comes the Critical Apparatus241Master, and maine exercise, th'incorporate conclusion: Pish. But Sir, be 242you rul'd by me. I haue brought you from Venice. Watch you to night: Critical Apparatus243for the Command, Ile lay't vpon you. Cassio knowes you not: Ile not be 244farre from you. Do you finde some occasion to anger Cassio, either by Critical Apparatus245speaking too loud, or tainting his discipline, or from what other course 246you please, which the time shall more fauorably minister.

247

Rod. Well.

Critical Apparatus248

Iago. Sir, he's rash, and very sodaine in Choller: and happely may strike at 249you, prouoke him that he may: for euen out of that will I cause these of Critical Apparatus250Cyprus to Mutiny. Whose qualification shall come into no true taste 251againe, but by the displanting of Cassio. So shall you haue a shorter 252iourney to your desires, by the meanes I shall then haue to preferre them. Critical Apparatus253And the impediment most profitably remoued, without the which 254there were no expectation of our prosperitie.

Critical Apparatus255

Rodo. I will do this, if you can bring it to any opportunity.

256

Iago. I warrant thee. Meete me by and by at the Cittadell. I must fetch pg 3187257his Necessaries a Shore. Farewell.

258

Rodo. Adieu.

Exit.
Critical Apparatus259

Iago. That Cassio loues her, I do well beleeu't:

260That she loues him, 'tis apt, and of great Credite.

261The Moore (howbeit that I endure him not)

Critical Apparatus262Is of a constant, louing, Noble Nature,

263And I dare thinke, he'le proue to Desdemona

264A most deere husband. Now I do loue her too,

265Not out of absolute Lust, (though peraduenture

266I stand accomptant for as great a sin)

267But partely led to dyet my Reuenge,

Critical Apparatus268For that I do suspect the lustie Moore

269Hath leap'd into my Seate. The thought whereof,

270Doth (like a poysonous Minerall) gnaw my Inwardes:

Critical Apparatus271And nothing can, or shall content my Soule

Critical Apparatus272Till I am eeuen'd with him, wife, for wife.

273Or fayling so, yet that I put the Moore,

274At least into a Ielouzie so strong

275That iudgement cannot cure. Which thing to do,

276If this poore Trash of Venice, whom I trace

277For his quicke hunting, stand the putting on,

278Ile haue our Michael Cassio on the hip,

Critical Apparatus279Abuse him to the Moore, in the right garbe

Critical Apparatus280(For I feare Cassio with my Night-[Cap] too)

281Make the Moore thanke me, loue me, and reward me,

282For making him egregiously an Asse,

283And practising vpon his peace, and quiet,

284Euen to madnesse. 'Tis heere: but yet confus'd,

285Knaueries plaine face, is neuer seene, till vs'd.

Exit.

Notes Settings

Notes

Critical Apparatus
2.1.3 Heauen hauen
Critical Apparatus
2.1.5 hath spoke does speake
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2.1.8 Mountaines melt on them the huge mountaine mes lt 1okes
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2.1.11 Foaming banning
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2.1.12 chidden chiding
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2.1.15 euer-fixed euer fired
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2.1.17 Mon. allot; Men. jaggard
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2.1.19 to they
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2.1.20 Laddes: our Lords, your
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2.1.21 Turkes Turke
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2.1.22 A Noble Another
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2.1.23 wracke jaggard = wreck (as in mcmanus). Although wells does not modernize here, in the naval context 'wreck' seems the dominant sense; its sense (complete destruction) complements 'sufferance' (damage, but short of wreckage).
Critical Apparatus
2.1.24 their the
Critical Apparatus
2.1.26 in: jaggard, 1okes; in, theobald. Both early texts interpret the next line to apply to Cassio, not the ship. theobald felt the emendation necessary because Cassio is not elsewhere described as a native of Verona; when his name was first mentioned, Iago described him as 'a Florentine' (1.1.17). But Shakespeare is often guilty of such trivial inconsistencies, which bother pedantic editors. 'Florentine' occurred 688 lines earlier, but 'the ship' was called 'of Venice' (not Verona)only twenty-three words earlier (by the very same speaker). Of the two alternative contradictions, the one shared by both early editions would have been very easy to make and is still very easy to overlook in performance or ordinary reading. By contrast, the contradiction created by theobald (and almost all subsequent editors, including wells, mowat–werstine, honigmann, neill, rasmussen, and mcmanus) is immediate, glaring, and confusing. Verona was a Venetian dependency, and might theoretically have supplied this ship to the Venetian navy (information supplied by Theobald and repeated by subsequent editors). But what theatrical or literary point would be served by this (conjectural) information? The fact that Verona was a Venetian dependency might just as easily explain the presence of Cassio, as of the ship. What 'a Florentine' and 'a Veronese' have in common is that both go out of their way to identify Cassio as (a) Italian, but (b) not a native-born Venetian.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.26–7 The Ship … Cassio 1okes; 1 line jaggard
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2.1.27 Veronnessa 1okes (Veronessa) = Veronese (as in neill); Verennessa jaggard. An easy 'e'/'o' misreading in an unfamiliar foreign proper name. See previous note.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.29 Shore: the allot; ~. ~ jaggard; ashore: the 1okes. Some exemplars of jaggard show faint traces of a dot above what seems to be a full stop, suggesting a faulty colon and a blameless compositor.
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2.1.29 on Shore ashore
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2.1.31 I … Gouernour. 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: on't: |
Critical Apparatus
2.1.34 prayes 1okes; praye jaggard. Another of the recurrent errors of omission of terminal 's'.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.35 God this edition; Heauens jaggard; Heauen 1okes. This is the only example in the Shakespeare canon of 'Pray Heauens' (plural), so jaggard is almost certainly wrong. 'Pray Heauen' (singular) is more plausible, occurring eight times elsewhere in Shakespeare's work; but all eight examples are in posthumous texts that show other evidence of expurgation. By contrast, Shakespeare uses 'Pray God' twenty-three times elsewhere, all in plays written before 1606; five of those examples, in the early quarto editions of Richard II and 2 Henry IV, are either omitted in the Folio, or changed to 'Heauen'. It is therefore likely that Shakespeare wrote 'God' here, and that 'Heauen(s)' represents retrospective censorship in both texts. See 3.4.144.
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2.1.40–1 Euen till … regard not in 1okes
Critical Apparatus
2.1.43 Arriuancie jaggard; arriuance 1okes. Although editors since 2hawkins and rowe have preferred the 1okes spelling, this is the first recorded occurrence of either spelling, and the suffixes '-ance' and '-ancy' have the same meaning (as demonstrated by 'expectance' and 'expectancy'). The jingle 'expectancy … arrivancy' does not appeal to modern taste, and jaggard might be due to a minim misreading or to contamination from the preceding phrase. But Shakespeare and other Elizabethans sometimes had a taste for such echoes, and we can hardly be confident of the proper form of a neologism.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.44 the warlike jaggard; this worthy 1okes; this warlike rowe. Editors generally prefer rowe's conflation, perhaps because 'this warlike isle' occurs in both texts at 2.3.47 (referring to Cyprus); but Shakespeare uses 'the warlike' seven times elsewhere, and often uses 'the' to indicate singularity of excellence.
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2.1.44 you, to
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2.1.45 Oh and
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2.1.46 the their
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2.1.56 Gouernor guernement 1okes; gouernement 2hawkins
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2.1.57 their the
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2.1.58 Friends friend
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2.1.64 quirkes of not in 1okes
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2.1.65 th'essentiall the essentiall
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2.1.66 Ingeniuer jaggard = ingeniver (as in allot). OED does not record jaggard as a spelling of 'engineer', but wells notes 'it is close to the French ingénieur which OED offers as the origin of the English word'. However, Shakespeare is unlikely to have needed the French spelling for a word that had been naturalized in English since the fifteenth century; moreover, the French would reverse the order of 'e' and 'u'. Rather than assume that jaggard is a weird spelling of a perfectly ordinary word, this edition postulates that the word is a Shakespearian coinage, a portmanteau which combines 'ingen' (as in 'engineer' and 'ingenious' and 'ingenuity') with '-iver' (as in 'contriver'). This would resemble other Shakespearian portmanteaus like 'inpitteous' (Hamlet 15.97) and 'intrinsicate' (Antony 43.293). Because Cassio is here talking about the limits of artistic language, it seems appropriate that his final word should be an invented word about invention; it also echoes the strong accented vowel in 'tyre'.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.66 tyre the Ingeniuer.| Enter Gentleman.| How now, who ha's put in? beare all excellency: ---now, who has put in? | Enter 2. Gentleman.
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2.1.68 Cassio. not in 1okes
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2.1.68 Ha's He has
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2.1.69 high by
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2.1.71 ensteep'd, to enclogge enscerped; to clog
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2.1.73 mortall common
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2.1.75 spake jaggard = spoke (as in 1okes). At 1.3.133, the reverse variant occurs: jaggard has 'spoke' where 1okes has 'spake'. See 1.3.165.
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2.1.75 She … Captaine, 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: of: |
Critical Apparatus
2.1.81 Make loues quicke pants in And swiftly come to
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2.1.83 on shore ashore
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2.1.84 You Ye
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2.1.85 God this edition; Heauen jaggard, 1okes. EEBO–TCP between 1564 and 1605 does not record a single instance of 'the grace of heauen', but gives 306 examples of 'the grace of God'; in the Geneva Bible, 'the grace of God' occurs 23 times, the variant with 'heaven' never. The 'God' version occurs four times in the early Shakespeare canon: 2 Henry VI 2.72 (probably not Shakespeare), 3 Henry VI 21.71, Richard II 1.3.22, and Merchant of Venice 2.2.122. The only possible Shakespeare parallel for 'grace of heauen' is Richard III 3.4.96, but that is variant: the Folio text (traditionally preferred as copy-text) has 'God'. In addition to this evidence, the bigram 'God before' occurs in EEBO–TCP six times, and twice in Shakespeare (Henry V 1.2.307, 3.6.131), 'heaven before' occurs in neither. Shaheen (586) notes that this line may echo Luke 1:28, where the Angel greets Mary; the Geneva notes on that verse include 'grace' and 'of God', but not 'heaven'; the whole chapter repeatedly refers to 'God' and 'the Lord'.
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2.1.88 me of 1okes, allot; of jaggard. There is no caesura to justify, metrically, the missing syllable in jaggard.
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2.1.89 Cas. jaggard (text); Cassio. jaggard (catchword)
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2.1.91 Oh … company? 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: feare:|
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2.1.92 of the 1okes; of jaggard. Metrically, jaggard could be justified by the assumption that 'Contention' is four syllables (accented on the second and fourth, not on 'the first and fourth' as neill claims). However, disyllabic '-ion' in mid-line is rare in Shakespeare, and especially so in the second half of his career: this would be the only example in Othello. It seems much more likely that a scribe or compositor simply omitted 'the', always an easy word to drop.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.93 Within. A Saile, a Saile. These five words are present in both jaggard and 1okes, but 1okes treats them as a stage direction (all italicized, justified right, after 'company', with the first word in square brackets), and jaggard treats them as a speech, indenting 'Within' as though it were a speech prefix, then setting 'A Saile, a Saile' in roman. Although 1okes clearly places the material too early (before Cassio's speech), jaggard places it too late (after Cassio's speech): it must serve as a mid-line cue for Cassio's 'But hearke, a Saile.' The two texts seem to be independent misinterpretations of a marginal stage direction. We follow 1okes in displaying the words as a marginal stage direction, but follow jaggard in positioning it. Dramatic manuscripts often place at the end of a line the direction for an action that must occur within the line. Consequently, here in Reference we place the direction where it presumably occurred in the manuscript (at the end of Cassio's line); but in Modern we place it more precisely between 'fellowship' and 'But'.
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2.1.95 See for the Newes So speakes this voyce
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2.1.100 Sir, For
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2.1.101 oft bestowes has bestowed
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2.1.102 You would You'd
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2.1.104 Infaith I know
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2.1.105 it still, when I haue leaue it, I; for when I ha list
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2.1.107 her 1okes; het jaggard
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2.1.109–12 Come on, come … Beds. 1okes; prose jaggard
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2.1.109 of doore adores
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2.1.112 Huswiues jaggard = hussies
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2.1.113 Des. not in 1okes
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2.1.116 write thou write
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2.1.120 assay jaggard = essay
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2.1.120 Come … Harbour? 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: assay.|
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2.1.125–8 I … deliuer'd. 1okes; prose jaggard
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2.1.127 Braines braine
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2.1.130 vseth vsing
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2.1.131 Well … Witty? 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: prais'd:|
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2.1.133 fit hit
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2.1.136 an heire a haire
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2.1.137 fond not in 1okes
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2.1.137 i'th' i'the
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2.1.141 thou praisest that praises
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2.1.143 merit merrits
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2.1.154 See … behind: not in 1okes
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2.1.155 such wightes jaggard(b); such a wightes jaggard(a); such wight 1okes. The error in jaggard(a) was presumably caused by the compositor's eye or memory returning to 'a wight' earlier in the line in his copy.
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2.1.155 Some copies read 'such a wightes'
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2.1.163–4 With as … will I ensnare … Fly as … will ensnare … Flee
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2.1.165 giue jaggard = gyve (allot)
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2.1.165 giue thee in thine owne Courtship catch you in your owne courtesies
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2.1.168 Very not in 1okes
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2.1.169 to your at your
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2.1.170 Clister-pipes 1okes (Clisterpipes); Cluster-pipes jaggard. The jaggard spelling is recorded nowhere else, and is clearly incorrect; it could easily result from a minim misreading ('i'/'u').
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2.1.175 To … Ioy: 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: me. |
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2.1.176 Calmes calmenesse
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2.1.184 The Heauens forbid jaggard, 1okes. Shakespeare does not use this phrase anywhere else. But he does use 'the heavens' often enough in religious contexts, and 'heavens forbid' occurs at Troilus and Cressida 3.299. EEBO–TCP records six examples of 'the heavens forbid' in print between 1564 and 1605, including Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. Moreover, Othello's subsequent 'Amen … sweet powers' is unusually specific and resonant, and fits well with 'The Heauens' here. For 'power' in reference to divine beings, including angels, see OED, power n.1 9a, 9b; for the juxtaposition of 'heaven' and 'power' in this sense, see Merchant of Venice 4.1.285–6, 'I would she were in heaven so she could| Entreat some power …'. The meter also supports the copy reading. (But EEBO–TCP records 'The Lord forbid' thirty-three times in the same period, and Shakespeare uses it at All Is True 3.2.54. See also 5.2.214, where 'Heauen' and 'Powres' in jaggard are censored substitutes for 'God' and 'God'.)
Critical Apparatus
2.1.185 But … encrease 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: Loues|
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2.1.186 Powers power
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2.1.189 discords discord
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2.1.190–2 Oh … am. 1okes; prose jaggard
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2.1.192 am jaggard(b); an jaggard(a). Because 'an' does not make sense, it is probably not a misreading; it might be a foul case error.
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2.1.192 Some copies read 'an' for 'am'
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2.1.193 Newes … drown'd. 1okes; 2 lines jaggard: done: |
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2.1.194 do's my doe our
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2.1.194 this the
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2.1.205 hither 1okes; thither jaggard. Rodorigo must be addressed and hence 1okes's reading (meaning 'here') is needed and 'thither' (meaning 'there') is wrong. jaggard could easily arise from scribal or compositorial misunderstanding.
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2.1.208 must will
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2.1.208–9 thee this: thee, this
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2.1.213–4 To … prating and will she … pra-|ting
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2.1.213 thy the
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2.1.214 it so
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2.1.216 againe 1okes; a game jaggard. Either reading could be an easy minim misreading of the other. Most editors have preferred 'againe', but both neill and mcmanus retain jaggard's reading. Certainly, 'a game' can inflame lust. But the sexually sophisticated intelligibility of 'a game' within the immediate phrase is contradicted by the larger context of the speech and its function. If 'a game' is all Desdemona needs, sexually, then Othello might continue to satisfy her as well as Cassio, and indeed Othello's exoticism might provide more opportunity for sexual role-playing. Sexual games involve storytelling, and Othello has already demonstrated his ability to enchant her with 'fantastical lies'. But Iago is talking about 'her eye' and what she wants to 'look' on. Othello can keep telling stories and playing games, but he cannot supply 'Louelinesse in fauour, simpathy in yeares, Manners, and Beauties'. Iago phrases the issue in terms of whether Desdemona will continue to be aroused by Othello; therefore 'againe' is precisely pertinent, and 'a game' is irrelevant.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.216 appetite, theobald; ~. jaggard, 1okes. A shared punctuation error unlikely to arise independently in two print shops.
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2.1.216 to giue giue
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2.1.218 in to
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2.1.219 the gorge 1okes, allot; ~, ~ jaggard
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2.1.221 eminent eminently
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2.1.222 Fortune 1okes (fortune), allot; Forune jaggard
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2.1.222 further farder
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2.1.223 Humaine hand-
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2.1.224 compasse compassing
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2.1.224–5 most … subtle hidden affect-|ions: A subtle slippery
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2.1.225 finder finder out
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2.1.226 ha's allot; has 1okes; he's jaggard. The meaning is the same in allot and 1okes, but the form in allot better explains the error in jaggard.
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2.1.226 occasion occasions
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2.1.226–7 Aduantages…knaue the true aduantages neuer present themselues
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2.1.230 hath has
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2.1.234 Bless'd pudding. not in 1okes
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2.1.235–6 Didst not marke that? not in 1okes
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2.1.236 that I did: not in 1okes
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2.1.237 obscure not in 1okes
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2.1.239–40 Villanous thoughts Rodorigo, when When
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2.1.240 mutualities 1okes; mutabilities jaggard. In a generalized sense mutability is inconstancy, which can easily be associated with adultery. But in this specific dramatic context Iago is obsessing over the reciprocal display of genteel politesse that we have just seen, a ritual that is not in itself a sign of mutability; instead, the reciprocal ritual demonstrates adherence to a shared cultural and class code. These public mutualities, Iago insists, lead inevitably to the private mutualities of illicit sex. By contrast, jaggard's 'mutabilities' is not obviously relevant to the topic of 'courtesy', or differentiated from adultery itself. Moreover, 'mutabilities' is a common enough plural, with thirty-eight hits in thirty other texts printed between 1564 and 1623; the singular noun 'mutability' occurs 778 times in 434 texts. But this passage in 1okes is the only example during that period of plural 'mutualities', and the singular form of the noun occurs only nine times in five texts—making 'mutualities' not only more precisely relevant to the context, but far and away the rarer reading, and much less likely to be an error.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.240 hard at hand at
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2.1.241 Master, and not in 1okes
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2.1.241 th' the
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2.1.241 Pish. not in 1okes
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2.1.243 the your
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2.1.245 course cause
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2.1.248 he's he is
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2.1.248 may strike with his Trunchen may strike
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2.1.250–1 taste againe trust again't
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2.1.253 the not in 1okes
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2.1.255 you I
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2.1.259 beleeu't beleeue it
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2.1.262 louing, Noble noble, louing
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2.1.268 lustie lustfull
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2.1.271 or nor
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2.1.272 for wife 1okes, allot; for wift jaggard. Probably a foul case error.
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2.1.272 eeuen'd euen
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2.1.279 right jaggard; ranke 1okes. Although wells followed the editorial tradition in regarding 'right' as a 'weak reading', it is not easy to explain as an error for 'rank', which itself offers a different perspective on the line. The word 'rank' indicates the way that Iago will characterize Cassio, 'right' indicates the way he will present himself (in the 'appropriate' or 'just' manner) when he criticizes Cassio.
Critical Apparatus
2.1.280 Night-Cap okes (nightcap); Night-Cape jaggard. Although neill claims that 'cape could be a variant spelling for cap', OED restricts that spelling to Middle English. mcmanus accepts 'night-cape', glossing it as a sexual euphemism for 'wife', in which case it means the same thing as the 1okes reading. But (unlike cap and hat), the word cape does not have well-established bawdy associations. Moreover, 'night-cap' is an article of clothing worn in bed; night capes are not, and indeed we could not find any examples of that compound in EEBO–TCP in Shakespeare's lifetime. The jaggard reading would thus have to be defended as a hapax legomenon. But the originality of this phrase is not the problem with jaggard. The metaphor turns a very specific, ordinary object into Iago's characteristically debasing equivalent of 'wife'. That metaphor works with 'nightcap', but not with 'nightcape'. The jaggard reading could easily result from misreading, or a dropped letter (if the manuscript had read 'Night-Cappe'): compare 2.1.223 and 2.2.5.
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