Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel Egan (eds), The New Oxford Shakespeare: Critical Reference Edition, Vol. 2

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Critical Apparatus3.1ACT III. SCENE I.

25 SCENE, THE PROSPECT OF A VILLAGE. Enter Julio with a Letter, and Citizen.
Critical Apparatus1

Citiz. When from the Window she did bow and call,

2Her Passions shook her Voice; and from her Eyes

3Mistemper and Distraction, with strange Wildness

4Bespoke Concern above a common Sorrow.

Critical Apparatus5

Jul. Poor Leonora! Treacherous, damn'd Henriquez!

6She bids me fill my Memory with her Danger;

pg 37187I do, my Leonora; yes, I fill

8The Region of my Thought with nothing else;

9Lower, she tells me here, that this Affair

10Shall yield a Testimony of her Love:

11And prays, her Letter may come safe and sudden.

12This Pray'r the Heav'ns have heard, and I beseech 'em,

Critical Apparatus13To hear all Pray'rs she makes.

Citiz. 3.1Have Patience, Sir.


Jul. O my good Friend, methinks, I am too patient.

Critical Apparatus15Is there a Treachery, like This in Baseness,

Critical Apparatus16Recorded any where? It is the deepest:

Critical Apparatus17None but Itself can be its Parallel:

18And from a Friend, profess'd!—Friendship? Why, 'tis

19A Word for ever maim'd; in human Nature

Critical Apparatus20It was a Thing the noblest; and 'mong Beasts,

Critical Apparatus21It stood not in mean Place: Things of fierce Nature

pg 371926Critical Apparatus22Hold Amity and Concordance.—Such a Villany

23A Writer could not put down in his Scene,

24Without Taxation of his Auditory

25For Fiction most enormous.

Citiz. 3.1These Upbraidings

Critical Apparatus26Cool Time, while they are vented.

Jul. 3.1I am counsel'd.

Critical Apparatus27For you, evermore, Thanks. You've done much for Us;

Critical Apparatus28So gently press'd to't, that I may perswade me

29You'll do a little more.

Citiz. 3.1Put me t'Employment

30That's honest, tho' not safe, with my best Spirits

31I'll give 't Accomplishment.

Jul. No more but This;

Critical Apparatus32For I must see Leonora: And to appear

Critical Apparatus33Like Julio, as I am, might haply spoil

34Some good Event ensuing. Let me crave

35Th' Exchange of Habit with you: some Disguise,

Critical Apparatus36May bear Me to my Love, unmark'd, and secret.


Citiz. You shall not want. Yonder's the House before us:

38Make Haste to reach it.

Jul. 3.1Still I thank you, Sir.

A1O Leonora! stand but this rude Shock;

A2Hold out thy Faith against the dread Assault

A3Of this base Lord, the Service of my Life

A4Shall be devoted to repay thy Constancy.


Notes Settings


Critical Apparatus
3.1 The original version of this scene was clearly written by Shakespeare.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.1–4 When … Sorrow The Citizen's first speech is based on DQ, where Cardenio is recounting how he received Luscinda's letter: 'I demaunded of the Bearer before I read, who had deliuered it to him, and what time he had spent in the way. He answered me that passing by chance at mid-day through a streete of the Citie, a very beautifull Ladie did call him from a certaine window: Her eyes were all beblubbered with tears; and said vnto him very hastily: Brother, if thou beest a Christian, as thou appearest to be one, I pray thee for Gods sake, that thou doe forthwith addresse this Letter to the place and person that the superscription assigneth, (for they be well knowen) and therein thou shalt doe our Lord great service' (3.13.270). The religious language of the source is notably lacking from Double Falsehood, perhaps because of less tolerance of 'profanity' in Theobald's time.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.1 bow In the obsolete sense 'bend' (OED v.11, last example 1678). See also 3.2.135.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.5 Treacherous, damn'd Compare Cymbeline 4.2.319 ('treacherous. Damned Pisanio'). 'Pisanio', like 'Fernando', is pronounced as three syllables, accented on the second ('an'), and ending with 'o'.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.5 Henriquez 1watts; Fernando taylor and modern
Critical Apparatus
3.1.13–26 Have … vented. For detailed evidence of Shakespeare's authorship of this passage, see Taylor ('History', 50–60). However, that discussion did not focus on single common words (like 'is', 'the', or 'in'), which could not in themselves be used as evidence of authorship or date. See following notes.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.15 Is 1watts; Roars taylor and modern. The first seven lines of the speech play variations on the verb to be (am, is, is, be, 'tis, was). Some of these come in rare combinations or collocations, but the concentration of weak verbs, in such a strong dramatic context, is suspiciously uncharacteristic of Shakespeare's late style. Both Davenant and Theobald (and other Restoration and eighteenth-century adapters) often replaced Shakespeare's strong and surprising verbs with bland, predictable, rational, and realistic ones; 'is there a' is so commonplace that it could have been written by anyone. For the conjecture 'Roars', compare 2 Henry IV 18.35 ('There roar'd'), Hamlet 11.50–1 ('what act,| That roars so loud and thunders in the index?'), Two Noble Kinsmen 1.3.38 ('roaring tyranny'). The Hamlet parallel, which combines roaring with a term related to books (index), is particularly apt here, where 'roars' would combine with a 'record'; the 2 Henry IV parallel simply reverses the verb and 'There'.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.15 in 1watts; base taylor; lord's modern. Both conjectures attempt to provide something stronger than the commonplace preposition; Shakespeare never elsewhere uses the trigram Tike this in', probably because it weakens the simile by a legalistic qualification: 'was there ever such a treachery as this—I mean, specifically in respect to its baseness?' This looks like an 'improvement' by someone who objected that Fernando's treachery, in attempting to marry his best friend's girl, really could not compare to any number of famous historical treacheries. But the hyperbole is appropriate to Cardenio's situation, dramatically, and the qualification seems awkwardly un-Shakespearean. For the collocation of 'base' with 'baseness', compare King Lear 2.6–10 'With "base", with "baseness, bastardy—base, base"'. For the alternative conjecture, see Titus Andronicus 7.37 ('so great a lord| Basely'). The same contrast ('this base lord') occurs in Cardenio's speech below (3.1.38.A3); Theobald might have borrowed the image for his ending to the scene.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.16 is 1watts; mines modern conj. Dramatically, we would expect a strong verb and strong stresses, to match Cardenio's strong emotion. Moreover, in order to set up the following line, we would expect this sentence to describe an action surpassing, excelling, outdoing all other treacheries. Literally, the verb mine means to 'To dig or tunnel under the foundations of a wall, fort, etc., so as to cause its collapse or to gain an entrance' (OED v.1.a). But figuratively it also often meant 'To attack, overcome, ruin, or destroy by slow or secret methods; to undermine' (v.2.b). Shakespeare used it twice in this sense: As You Like It 1.1.15, Hamlet 11.145. The literal sense sets up the paradox; the figurative sense is clearly related to 'treachery'.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.16 the 1watts; hell's modern. Hell is proverbially the epitome of deepness: see Shakespeare's 'as deep as hell' (Merry Wives of Windsor 3.5.12, Measure for Measure 3.1.91). The second passage, Isabella's condemnation of the 'base applications' and 'filth' of Lord Angelo, is particularly relevant to this speech. For the link between hell and treachery, compare Henry V 2.0.29 ('hell and treason'). Shakespeare also associates hell and its inhabitants with roaring: Richard III 4.4.75, Romeo and Juliet 14.44, 1 Henry IV 1.3.123, Henry V 4.4.60.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.17 None 1watts; Nought taylor and modern (Theobald). Later, when defending this line, Theobald asserted that 'the Truth is, that the Line is in Shakespeare's old Copy' (Mist's #27; cited in hammond, 311). This is the only line of Double Falsehood that Theobald himself publicly, personally, and explicitly attributed to the original play. But Theobald there quoted the first word as 'Naught', and did so again in a footnote to his 1733 edition of Shakespeare's plays (Works 4:188, n. 25). Theobald thus gives us conflicting testimony as to what stood in the manuscript(s); or perhaps different manuscripts had different readings. We preserve 1watts here in Reference, representing the adaptation, and adopt 'Nought' in modern.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.20 and 1watts; e'en taylor and modern. The emendation supplies an intensifier; we move from human kindness to the more surprising idea, taken from Montaigne, that even animals are capable of friendship. The 1watts reading could result from simple misreading (of 'ene' as 'and') at any stage of transmission between 1612 and 1727, substituting the commoner word. But the error is likelier to have occurred before Theobald prepared the text for printing; he is more accurate than most scribes and compositors, as is evident by the quality of the proofreading in 1watts.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.21 Nature 1watts; kind taylor and modern. 'Nature' repeats the line-ending noun two lines above, and might be the result of unconscious contamination. But it might also be a deliberate adaptation, especially if Shakespeare had originally written the synonym 'kind' (OED n.3, 'natural disposition', 4.a. 'nature in general'). Kind could also mean 'a genus or species' (OED n.13): see Montaigne's 'a fierce kind of people' (in Florio's translation of Essais, Book One, Chapter 40). EEBO-TCP identifies 'fierce kind' in several books Shakespeare read: Florio's translation of Montaigne's Essays, Richard Knolles's General History of the Turks, Spenser's Faerie Queene, Peter Martyr's History of Travel (a source for The Tempest), and twice in Holinshed's Chronicles. But although the seeming paradox of 'fierce kind' might appeal to Jonathan Swift, it would be less appealing to Theobald. In any case, simple error at some stage of transmission would account for the reading, which Theobald then preserved.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.22 Villany 1watts; monster modern. Shakespeare did not use 'a villainy' elsewhere, and it seems anticlimactic in the context of the preceding and following lines. The speech progresses downward from 'human nature' to 'beasts' to 'things', and one might expect this sentence to go further, in order to justify its claim of improbability: after all, by 1612 the early modern stage, and Shakespeare himself, had been displaying worse villains and worse villainies than Fernando for at least a quarter-century. Shakespeare used 'such a monster' in King Lear 2.82; in Tempest, Shakespeare had brought onto the stage 'a monster' (3.2.26, 28), Caliban, that provoked criticism from at least some vocal members of 'his auditory'.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.26 I am counsel'd 1watts; I, I, I, modern conj. The trigram 'I am counsel'd' (however spelled) does not appear elsewhere in Shakespeare. For multiple repetitions of the affirmative 'ay' (ambiguously spelled 'I'), see Troilus and Cressida 14.27 and Merry Wives of Windsor 2.2.18.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.27 For … Thanks. Compare 'evermore thanks' at Richard II 2.3.65, a text that Theobald had adapted. The more interesting image from 2.4.36 ('a richer hand than mine requite you') might originally have belonged here, or at the end of the scene.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.28 that … me 1watts; I persuade me modern. For 'I persuade me' see All Is True 3.2.50; the phrase, not in any of the other four candidates, is last recorded in EEBO-TCP or LION in 1658. 1watts's 'that' and 'may' look like metrical padding. In DQ here Cardenio speaks of 'the motives that persuaded me' (3.13.271); so 'persuade me' seems certainly original.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.32 Leonora 1watts; Lucinda taylor and modern. 'Leonora' does not fit the meter, which suggests that the rest of the line is original.
Critical Apparatus
3.1.33 Like Julio 1watts; Cardenio taylor and modern
Critical Apparatus
3.1.36 secret 1watts; seen taylor and modern. The adjective 'secret' simply repeats 'unmarked'. As altered, the phrase can be interpreted in two ways: 'unmarked, if seen' and 'unmarked and [un]seen', both playing on the paradox of 'seen and not seen'. Compare 'slow unmoving finger' (Othello 4.2.51).
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