Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel Egan (eds), The New Oxford Shakespeare: Critical Reference Edition, Vol. 2

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1Critical Apparatus1.1Critical ApparatusACT I. SCENE I.

Critical Apparatusscene, A Royal Palace. Critical ApparatusDuke Angelo, Roderick, and Courtiers.
Critical Apparatus1

Roderick. My gracious Father, this unwonted Strain

2Visits my Heart with Sadness.

Duke. —————Why, my Son?

3Making my Death familiar to my Tongue

4Digs not my Grave one Jot before the Date.

5I've worn the Garland of my Honours long,

pg 36896And would not leave it wither'd to thy Brow,

7But flourishing and green; worthy the Man,

2Critical Apparatus8Who, with my Dukedoms, heirs my better Glories.

Critical Apparatus9

Roder. This Praise, which is my Pride, spreads me with Blushes.

Critical Apparatus10

Duke. Think not, that I can flatter thee, my Roderick;

11Or let the Scale of Love o'er-poize my Judgment.

Critical Apparatus12Like a fair Glass of Retrospection, Thou

13Reflect'st the Virtues of my early Youth;

Critical Apparatus14Making my old Blood mend its Pace with Transport:

Critical Apparatus15While fond Henriquez, thy irregular Brother,

Critical Apparatus16Sets the large Credit of his Name at Stake,

Critical Apparatus17A Truant to my Wishes, and his Birth.

Critical Apparatus18His Taints of Wildness hurt our nicer Honour,

19And call for swift Reclaim.

Roder. —————I trust, my Brother

Critical Apparatus20Will, by the Vantage of his cooler Wisdom,

Critical Apparatus21E'er-while redeem the hot Escapes of Youth,

Critical Apparatus22And court Opinion with a golden Conduct.

Critical Apparatus23

Duke. Be Thou a Prophet in that kind Suggestion!

Critical Apparatus24But I, by Fears weighing his unweigh'd Course,

pg 3690Critical Apparatus25Interpret for the Future from the Past.

26And strange Misgivings, why he hath of late

27By Importunity, and strain'd Petition,

28Wrested our Leave of Absence from the Court,

Critical Apparatus29Awake Suspicion. Thou art inward with him;

30And, haply, from the bosom'd Trust can'st shape

31Some formal Cause to qualify my Doubts.


Roder. Why he hath press'd this Absence, Sir, I know not;

Critical Apparatus33But have his Letters of a modern Date,

Critical Apparatus34Wherein by Julio, good Camillo's Son,

Critical Apparatus35(Who, as he says, shall follow hard upon;

Critical Apparatus36And whom I with the growing Hour expect:)

Critical Apparatus37He doth sollicit the Return of Gold

Critical Apparatus38To purchase certain Horse, that like him well.

39This Julio he encounter'd first in France,

40And lovingly commends him to my Favour;

41Wishing, I would detain him some few Days,

Critical Apparatus42To know the Value of his well-placed Trust.

3 43

Duke. O, do it, Roderick; and assay to mould him

44An honest Spy upon thy Brother's Riots.

45Make us acquainted when the Youth arrives;

Critical Apparatus46We'll see this Julio, and he shall from Us

pg 369147Receive the secret Loan his Friend requires.

Critical Apparatus48Bring him to Court.


Notes Settings


Critical Apparatus
1.1 It has been widely agreed that this scene was originally written by Shakespeare, and in particular that Shakespeare wrote the first seven lines; but in Double Falsehood most of the rest of the scene has been heavily overwritten by Theobald, partly in order to reflect significant changes in the plot of the adaptation. We therefore assume that most of the scene belongs, verbally, to Theobald.
Critical Apparatus
1.1 ACT I. SCENE 1. 1watts. The act and scene divisions of 1watts are retained throughout. Although a play written by Fletcher and Shakespeare in 1612–13 would certainly have contained act divisions, they would not necessarily have coincided with those in Double Falsehood: see particularly notes below on the beginning of Act Four. Something like the conversation between the Duke and his eldest son here probably occurred in the first scene of Cardenio, but the Jacobean play may have begun with a prologue, and/or may have followed action or conversation omitted by the adaptation (as assumed by taylor and Doran and Alamo). The scene divisions in 1watts have even less claim to Jacobean authority; if scene numbers appeared at all in an early seventeenth-century text of Cardenio, they would almost certainly have been scribal and literary.
Critical Apparatus SCENE … Palace. 1watts. Curtain rises.| A royal palace hammond. The identification of the 'scene', here and elsewhere, reflects Restoration and eighteenth-century theatrical practice. All such stage directions are retained here, but removed in modern. hammond's addition makes explicit the implied and assumed practice of eighteenth-century theatres; 1watts is not in error, so we do not emend its formula here or elsewhere.
Critical Apparatus Duke … Courtiers. 1watts; dukeCourtiers discovered hammond. The emendation reflects the same eighteenth-century practice indicated by 'Curtain rises'. (See preceding note.) In modern we standardize all such entries by supplying the usual Jacobean initial verb 'Enter'. Shakespeare does not use 'Courtiers' elsewhere in stage directions.
Critical Apparatus Angelo 1watts. In Cervantes this character is named 'Ricardo' (DQ 3.10.221, 222, 223), and introduced at the beginning of Cardenio's story of his misfortunes; taylor replaces 'Angelo' with 'Ricardo', but modern simply removes 'Angelo' as uncertain. Theobald could have changed the name in order to avoid associations with the 'Duke Ricardo' in Durfey's Second Part of Don Quixote, and at the same time to supply a suitably Shakespearean name. See Taylor and Wagschal, 28.
Critical Apparatus Roderick 1watts. The name is drawn from Shelton's DQ: see Taylor and Wagschal, 19–20.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.1–7 My … Man For confirmation of Shakespeare's authorship of the opening lines, see Taylor, 'Cognitive', 134–8. Although both halves of the first line are Shakespearean, Tarlinskaja notes that the 'adjective-noun adjective-noun' combination in a single verse-line is uncharacteristic of Shakespeare's verse, especially in the Jacobean period, but entirely typical of Theobald (Companion, Chapter 23); the simplest explanation for this conflicting evidence is that the two adjective-noun half-lines here originally belonged to different verse-lines, and possibly even different speeches, in the original. modern therefore separates them, with a lacuna between.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.8 Dukedoms, heirs Shakespeare does not elsewhere use the verb; compare Theobald's Fatal Secret 4.1: 'who heirs her Dukedom.—And may he heir her Virtues!'
Critical Apparatus
1.1.9 Praise … Pride 1watts. Compare Theobald's Orestes 3.4: 'This Flatt'ry … 'Tis Beauty's Pride to be the brave Man's Praise.' (The two words are never in the same verse-line in Shakespeare.)
Critical Apparatus
1.1.10 Think … thee 1watts; not in modern. Working with LION, Jackson identified 'Think not I flatter' (Two Gentlemen of Verona 4.3.12) as a unique Shakespeare parallel. But there is a better parallel in a work of Theobald not included in LION: 'Think not I flatter thee, Noble Ariobarzanes' (Antiochus 111).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.12 Retrospection 1watts; not in taylor and modern. OED records no example of this sense before 1685.
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1.1.14 my old Blood 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Compare 'thy old blood' (Richard II 1.2.10). But this is a play that Theobald adapted, and knew exceptionally well, so this parallel is not especially strong.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.14 with Transport 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Theobald's Censor 23:164, 92:217, Antiochus 233, Persian 33, Orestes 48, 51, 60, Happy Captive 10, and Richard 2.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.15 Henriquez 1watts; Fernando taylor and modern. In 1612–13 'Henriquez' would inevitably have suggested Prince Henry, especially because it would have been a deliberate change from the original novel: the play performed at court could not have associated the play's immoral aristocrat with the recently dead, massively mourned prince. Theobald might have changed the name in order to avoid comparison with Durfey's Comical History of Don Quixote (Taylor, 'Embassy', 304–6); alternatively, Davenant might have changed it in order to disguise his appropriation, for the Duke's Men, of a play that belonged to the rival King's Men (Hume). In modern, we systematically restore the preferred Cervantine name of the character, 'Fernando', which has the same rhythmical structure as 'Henriquez'. (In some passages of Double Falsehood, which have been added or significantly rewritten for the adaptation, 'Henriquez' is clearly the intended name; but any such passage is not included in modern.) Since the 2010 publication of hammond, various theatrical adaptations of Double Falsehood (including Doran and Alamo) have changed this and other names, based on DQ; but we treat taylor as the first to do so, because public readings and performances of his version began in 1992. (For a full history, see Bourus, 'Stages'.) The Royal Shakespeare Company had a text of Taylor's reconstruction, with these changes, as early as 2006.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.16 Sets … Stake 1watts; not in modern. Jackson identified a Shakespeare parallel at Twelfth Night 3.1.103 ('Have you not set mine honour at the stake'). But the collocation also appears in Davenant's Gondibert: 'The Count his great Stake, Life, to Hubert sets' (10.2).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.17 A Truant to my Wishes 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Compare Theobald's 'a truant to instruction' (Fatal Secret 54) and 'truants to renown' (Orestes 24).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.18 Taints of Wildness 1watts; not in modern. Compare Hamlet 6.32 ('taints of liberty'); as Jackson noted, in each case the reference is to a young man's libertine behaviour. However, Theobald had focused on Hamlet in Shakespeare Restored, published the year before, and of all Shakespeare's works it is the one most likely to have been on his mind when he was adapting Double Falsehood. Compare Theobald's Plato: 'falls into a Place of Wildness' (67).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.20 the Vantage of his This quadgram also appears at Coriolanus 2.3.240.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.21 Escapes Shakespeare used 'escape' in the sense of 'transgression' at Titus 7.110 and Othello 1.3.195.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.22 Conduct 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Theobald used the noun in the sense 'behaviour' (Fatal Secret 21, 34): these are also the only two instances in Theobald where 'conduct' is preceded by an attributive adjective.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.23 Suggestion Shakespeare's ten uses of this noun are all negative; so are Fletcher's five. The anachronistic positive sense here also occurs in Theobald's Plato, 39.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.24 weighing his unweigh'd Course Compare 'an unweighed behaviour' (Merry Wives of Windsor 2.1.18) and 'a very superficial unweighing fellow' (Measure for Measure 3.1.359). As Jackson observed, in these unique Shakespeare parallels 'unweighed' means inconsiderate, thoughtless, and 'unweighing' means thoughtless. By contrast, Theobald used 'unweighed suspicions' and 'unweighed jealousy' in Orestes, and 'injudicious and unweighed' (Works 22n.7); but in all three cases his meaning is 'unfounded'.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.25 for the Future 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Theobald: Plato 44, Oedipus 80, Clouds 25, 28, 62, Plutus 13, Censor 1:6, 42:81, 47:114, 77:100, 94:233, Antiochus 22, Restored 38, 106, Mist's 22 (1728).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.29 Awake Suspicion 1watts; not in taylor and modern. Compare 'awake suspicions' (Fatal Secret 44).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.33–4 Letters … Wherein For 'wherein … letters' see Julius Caesar 4.2.54, Coriolanus 2.1.106–7, and All Is True 3.2.30–1 (Shakespeare scene).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.34 Julio 1watts; Cardenio taylor and modern. All three seventeenth-century records identify some variant of the name 'Cardenio' as the title of the play, and the character must have been given that name in the Jacobean play. The change to 'Julio' might have been made by Davenant or Theobald, for the same reasons that prompted the change of 'Fernando' to 'Henriquez'. (See note at 1.1.15.) In modern we systematically restore 'Cardenio'. However, in this line the original name does not fit the metrical context. This is one of several indications that Roderick's speech here has been significantly adapted: 'modern date' and 'growing hour' are both anachronistic Theobald idioms, and the rest of the speech creates severe problems in the plot. It declares that Cardenio is on his way, dispatched by Fernando; but in the next scene Cardenio is sent for by the Duke, and Fernando has nothing to do with it. Moreover, why should Camillo and Cardenio be so surprised by the Duke's interest in Cardenio, if he is already a good friend of the Duke's younger son, who has in fact been his house-guest? And why in the first half of 1.2 is Fernando never mentioned or consulted by either Camillo or Cardenio? Why does Cardenio in 1.2 never mention the horses he is supposedly being sent to buy? All the characters in 1.2 treat Cardenio's departure not as a short errand on behalf of Fernando but as a ducal summons to attend the court, presumably for some time. All these difficulties are eliminated if we assume that the original play was closer to the plot of DQ, where Cardenio is summoned by the Duke before Fernando abandons Dorotea and moves to Cardenio's city. If Cardenio followed DQ, then Cardenio would have been summoned to court by the Duke, left home, and then (what Double Falsehood does not show) returned home with Fernando; Fernando, having met Lucinda, and decided to steal her from his friend, would then have dispatched Cardenio on the horse-buying errand, in order to get him out of the way. The adaptation apparently conflated Cardenio's two departures, abridging what was almost certainly a play too long for Restoration and eighteenth-century theatres, creating more unity of time and place, and eliminating the strong homosocial—and perhaps homoerotic—bond between Cardenio and Fernando (discussed by Griffiths). That abridgement makes Henriquez (played at Drury Lane by Wilkes) the play's male lead; Julio disappears from before the end of 1.3 until the beginning of Act Three. It is impossible for an editor to restore the original material that has been lost or transformed here.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.35 as he says For this parenthetical use, see Taming of the Shrew 4.6.11, All's Well 5.3.16–17, Winter's Tale 4.4.761, 1 Henry IV 1.3.24. It also appears once in Davenant and Dryden's Tempest.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.35 follow hard upon Hamlet has 'followed hard upon' (2.178). But see 1.1.18.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.36 growing Hour As hammond notes, the earliest record of this phrase occurs in 1660.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.37–8 Gold | To purchase The only juxtaposition of 'purchase' with 'gold' that Jackson found is 'by … gold … Purchase' (King John 3.1.91–2).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.38 certain Horse 1 Henry IV 4.3.18
Critical Apparatus
1.1.38 that like him well For the sense 'that please him well, that he likes well', compare 'It likes me well' (Taming of the Shrew 4.4.61), 'This likes me well' (Hamlet 19.222), 'It likes us well' (King John 2.1.532), and 'likes him well' (Richard III 3.4.50).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.42 know the Value of Jackson noticed an exact parallel at Coriolanus 1.10.20–1, but one also occurs in Davenant's Unfortunate Lovers.
Critical Apparatus
1.1.46–7 he shall from Us| Receive Compare 'he shall receive of us' (Troilus and Cressida 7.134).
Critical Apparatus
1.1.48 Bring … to Court. As hammond notes, a half-line at the end of a scene is characteristic of late Shakespeare.
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