Gary Taylor, John Jowett, Terri Bourus, and Gabriel Egan (eds), The New Oxford Shakespeare: Critical Reference Edition, Vol. 2

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pg 370415Critical Apparatus2.2SCENE II.

An Apartment.Enters Violante alone.
Critical Apparatus1

Viol. Whom shall I look upon without a Blush?

Critical Apparatus2There's not a Maid, whose Eye with Virgin Gaze

Critical Apparatus3Pierces not to my Guilt. What will't avail me,

4To say I was not willing;

Critical Apparatus5Nothing; but that I publish my Dishonour,

Critical Apparatus6And wound my Fame anew.-O Misery,

7To seem to all one's Neighbours rich, yet know

Critical Apparatus8One's Self necessitous and wretched.

Critical ApparatusEnter Maid, and afterwards Gerald with a Letter.

Maid. Madam, here's Gerald, Lord Henriquez' Servant;

10He brings a Letter to you.

Critical Apparatus11

Viol. A Letter to me! How I tremble now!

12Your Lord's for Court, good Gerald, is he not?


Ger. Not so, Lady.


Viol. O my presaging Heart! When goes he then?


Ger. His Business now steers him some other Course.


Viol. Whither, I pray you?—How my Fears torment me!


Ger. Some two Months Progress.

Viol. 2.2Whither, whither, Sir,

Critical Apparatus18I do beseech you? Good Heav'ns, I lose all Patience.

Critical Apparatus19Did he deliberate this? or was the Business

Critical Apparatus20But then conceiv'd, when it was born?

Critical Apparatus21

Ger. Lady, I know not That; nor is it in the Command I have to wait

pg 3705Critical Apparatus22your Answer. For the perusing the Letter I commend you to your


[Exit Gerald.
Critical Apparatus24

Viol. To Hearts like mine Suspence is Misery.

Critical Apparatus25Wax, render up thy Trust: Be the Contents

26Prosp'rous, or fatal, they are all my Due.

16Critical Apparatus27[Reads.] Our Prudence should now teach us to forget, what our

Critical Apparatus28Indiscretion has committed. I have already made one Step towards this

Critical Apparatus29Wisdom, by prevailing on Myself to bid you

30        Farewell.

31O, Wretched and betray'd! Lost Violante!

Critical Apparatus32Heart-wounded with a thousand perjur'd Vows,

Critical Apparatus33Poison'd with studied Language, and bequeath'd

Critical Apparatus34To Desperation. I am now become

35The Tomb of my own Honour: a dark Mansion,

Critical Apparatus36For Death alone to dwell in. I invite thee,

37Consuming Desolation, to this Temple,

Critical Apparatus38Now fit to be thy Spoil:

A1                       the ruin'd Fabrick,

A2Which cannot be repair'd, at once o'er-throw.

Critical Apparatus39What must I do?—But That's not worth my Thought:

Critical Apparatus40I will commend to Hazard all the Time

41That I shall spend hereafter: Farewel, my Father,

42Whom I'll no more offend: and Men, adieu,

Critical Apparatus43Whom I'll no more believe: and Maids, adieu,

pg 370644Whom I'll no longer shame. The Way I go,

Critical Apparatus45As yet I know not.—Sorrow be my Guide.

[Exit Violante.

Notes Settings


Critical Apparatus
2.2 Most scholars have agreed that this scene was probably written originally by Shakespeare, but in Double Falsehood it has been significantly altered by Theobald.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.1 without a Blush Unique to Fletcher among the four candidates: 'Without a blush sir, I dare bid ye wisdom' (Rule a Wife 1.6.8). This verbal parallel, and the one at 2.2.3, may suggest that Violante's opening soliloquy was pieced together, partly from materials that originally belonged elsewhere. (All the remaining Violante scenes in the play seem to have been written by Fletcher.)
Critical Apparatus
2.2.2 There's not a Maid The closest parallel in the candidate canons is 'there shall not a maid' (2 Henry VI 19.100, a scene currently attributed to Marlowe).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.2–3 Eye … Pierces For the collocation, compare Shakespeare's All Is True 1.1.67–8 ('and let some graver eye pierce into that'), Coriolanus 5.4.15 ('He is able to pierce a corslet with his eye'), and King Lear 4.301 ('How far your eyes may pierce I cannot tell').
Critical Apparatus
2.2.3 What will't avail me Closest link is to Fletcher: 'What did this avail me' (A Wife for a Month 4.1.62).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.5 publish my Dishonour There are two examples of 'publish my disgrace' in the Fletcher canon, but neither is attributed to Fletcher: The Spanish Curate (3.3.146), Love's Cure (5.1.80).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.6 wound my Fame This idiom is unique to Theobald among the four candidates: 'wound her fame' (Decius 9).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.8 One's Self Theobald's Censor 16:116. Shakespeare never uses 'one' in this way, and the application here looks like Theobald's 'correction' of normal Jacobean grammar.
Critical Apparatus Gerald 1watts; Cardenio taylor; a Messenger from Lord Fernando modern. Cardenio's presence here would explain the exchange in 4.2.67–81, where it is clear that he and Violante have already met, but in circumstances far different from their encounter in 4.1. If Cardenio has come from court, then he would be dressed as a courtier, and thus very differently than in Act Four. But Cardenio cannot appear in this scene of Double Falsehood: in the preceding adapted scene of catch-all exposition (2.1), Fernando explains that he has 'remov'd' him (by sending him to court for money to buy horses). This is part of Double Falsehood's conflation of Cardenio's two journeys from home into one. Up to this point, we have never seen and have no interest in Gerald; consequently the scene has little dramatic function, beyond Violante's anticipation and reception of the bad news we already know. If Gerald's part here had originally been played by Cardenio, then the scene would belong to the category of Shakespearean situations which depend upon an ironic or complex relation between the deliverer and receiver of a letter: Julia (as Sebastian) delivering letters to Proteus, Silvius delivering Phoebe's letter to Rosalind, Helen delivering Bertram's letter to the Countess.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.11 How I tremble now See Fletcher's 'how I shake now and tremble' (Double Marriage 4.134). Theobald also uses the trigram 'how I tremble' (Fatal Secret 30).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.18 Good Heav'ns Theobald, Persian 32
Critical Apparatus
2.2.19 or was the Among the candidate authors, only in Theobald (Works 108 n.10).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.20 then conceiv'd 'Who then conceiving' (Merchant of Venice 1.3.80)
Critical Apparatus
2.2.21 in the Command Unique to Shakespeare (All's Well That End's Well 3.6.39).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.21–2 Command I have Only in Shakespeare (Merry Wives of Windsor 4.3.8).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.21–2 wait your Answer This idiom is used by Fletcher in Humorous Lieutenant: 'wait long answer' (1.1.103), but it is not found elsewhere in works by Shakespeare, Davenant, or Theobald.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.22 I commend you to your Unique to Shakespeare among the four candidates (Comedy of Errors 1.2.32).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.24 Suspence 1watts; suspèct taylor and modern. Theobald's anachronistic noun has apparently been substituted for Shakespeare's obsolete one. But the meaning is different: instead of 'suspense', Violante speaks of her 'suspicion' of Fernando, which in turn leads to the images of 'trust', 'betrayed', etc.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.25 Wax Wax is addressed vocatively and asked its 'leave' at Twelfth Night 2.5.78, King Lear 20.238, and Cymbeline 3.2.35.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.27 Prudence should Compare Shakespeare's 'This ancient morsel: this Sir Prudence, who| Should not unbraid our course' (Tempest 2.1.271–2).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.27 to forget, what Used elsewhere by Fletcher in Monsieur Thomas (2.2.17), but not by Shakespeare, Davenant, or Theobald. The mix of Fletcher and Shakespeare phrasing in the letter may arise from the fact that it appears here (in a Shakespeare scene) and in 5.2 (a Fletcher scene), and the final (or adapted) version of the letter may amalgamate writing from both authors.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.27–8 our Indiscretion Unique to Shakespeare: 'Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well' (Hamlet 19.8).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.28 Indiscretion has This bigram appears only in Fletcher (Rule a Wife 3.1.88).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.28 towards this Unique to Shakespeare among the four candidates (Cymbeline 2.3.55).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.28–9 this Wisdom Used elsewhere by Fletcher in Rule a Wife (3.1.114, only twenty-six lines later than 'Indiscretion has'); not in works by Shakespeare, Davenant, or Theobald.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.29 by prevailing This bigram is found only in Theobald (Electra 30).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.29–30 to bid you Farewell Shakespeare is the only candidate to use this idiom (Twelfth Night 2.3.85).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.32 Heart-wounded Used only by Theobald in his adaptation of Richard II (43).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.33 studied 1watts; candied taylor and modern. Shakespeare associated poison with sweetness: 2 Henry VI 11.31, Richard III 1.2.146, King John 1.1.213, Coriolanus 3.1.158; 'words' (Richard III 3.1.13–14), 'discourse' (Richard II 2.3.6), and 'sentences' (Othello 1.3.214) are all described as 'sugar[ed]'; in a recurrent image, flattery is both sweet and poisonous. In his early work Shakespeare tends to use 'sweet' or 'sugar[ed]' in such contexts, but later 'candy' or 'candied' is more characteristic (1 Henry IV 1.3.246, Hamlet 9.47, Timon of Athens 14.226, Tempest 2.1.264).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.34–5 I am … Honour See Shakespeare's 'honour thou King Richard's tomb,| And not King Richard' (Richard II 5.1.12–13).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.36 Death alone Used elsewhere by Theobald (Antiochus 24, 114; Orpheus B2r) and by Davenant (Love and Honor 4.1), but not in Shakespeare or Fletcher.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.38 thy Spoil This bigram occurs elsewhere in Shakespeare (Julius Caesar 3.1.208), but not in Fletcher, Davenant, or Theobald.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.39 But That's not worth my Thought Unique to Theobald: 'and is not worth my thought' (Perfidious 54).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.40 I will commend to This idiom is used elsewhere only by Shakespeare: 'he will commend to' (Richard II 3.3.115).
Critical Apparatus
2.2.40–2 commend … spend … offend Such internal rhymes are particularly characteristic of Shakespeare's late style (Muir, 'Trick'). For more on the Shakespearean features of this passage, see Jackson, 'Looking', 151.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.43 adieu 1watts; God buy you taylor and modern. The emendation—a colloquial contraction of 'God be with you'—has the same meaning as 'adieu', but Double Falsehood's repetition of 'adieu' seems lame. After the initial variation—'Farewell', then 'adieu'—we expect a third synonym here. 'God' follows naturally from 'adieu' and 'believe', and it gives the following phrase a double referent: Violante will no longer shame 'maids' or 'God'. Moreover, the sequence of three salutations here fits the three parties she addresses: she wishes her father to 'fare well', she leaves the treachery of men 'a dieu', and she hopes that God will protect maids.
Critical Apparatus
2.2.45 Sorrow be my Guide 1watts; Sorrow be my shepherd taylor; not in modern. The only close parallel among the candidate authors is 'Fortune be my guide' in Theobald's Persian Princess.
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