Anthony Howe and Simon Morgan (eds), The Letters of Richard Cobden, Vol. 3: 1854–1859

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pg 507INDEX

This index is primarily one of people and places but includes the major subjects with which Cobden was concerned. Addresses are excluded, as is Cobden himself, except for publications by or concerning him. Figures in bold indicate letters written by Cobden; (?) is used to indicate uncertainty of identification; (1) or (2) immediately after a name indicates a biographical note is to be found in either Volume One or Volume Two respectively.

Abercromby, James (1) 16
Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl (1) xxiii, xxiv, xxv, 31, 85 n. 3, 227, 298, 340, 373, 392
and Crimean War 64, 66, 71–2, 82, 84 n. 4, 147
as Foreign Secretary 255
ministry of 69, 71, 84–5, 86–9, 137
Aberdeen 223
Aberdeenshire 227
Acland, Sir Thomas (1) 24–5
Adams, Louise Amicie 111, 112 n. 1
Adams, Louise Eliza 189, 190 n. 8
administrative reform xxvi, 123, 263
Administrative Reform Association 183, 263, 310 n. 2
Admiralty Board, seeNavy, Royal
advertisement duty 414
Afghanistan 361
war with 342
agriculture 35, 47, 139
and commerce 392
harvest 335
wages in 172–3
Albany, NY 422, 426
Albert, prince consort of England 89, 380
alcohol, measurement of 485, 488, 489–90, 491, 505
Aldershot 223
Alexander, Edward (2) 137, 410
Alexander, Robert 185 n. 5, 284, 288
Algeria 253
see also
Algiers 41
Bright in xxx, xxxi, 249, 253
Alsace 488
American War of Independence 159
Amjid Ali Shah, king of Oudh 360, 362 n. 8
Anapa 133
Angers, France 147
Anglesey xxiii, xxxi
Anglo-French Commercial Treaty (1860) xxi, xxiii–xxiv, xlii–xliv, 451, 452, 462, 463–4, 466–7, 477–8, 485–500, 502–3, 505–6
British government and 467–8, 474–6, 493, 494
and British tariff 477–8, 487, 499, 505
and French cabinet 502–3, 505
French fears about 456, 457–8, 465, 466
and French protectionists 463, 499, 502–3
and French tariff 458, 463, 465, 486, 487, 488, 494, 499, 503
negotiations 489, 492 n. 3, 493, 494, 495–7, 498, 502–3
see alsowine duties
animal cruelty 234–5
Anson, Sir John xxxviii, 449 n. 5
pg 508Anti-Corn Law League xxii, xxvi, xxxviii, 103, 243, 247, 258, 261, 283, 413
and Manchester politics xxxiv, 68 n. 4, 301 n. 6, 320–1, 339, 406
and the newspapers 411–12
Anti-Opium Society 286
anti-slavery 38, 41, 93, 402
Anti-Slavery Reporter 85
Anti-Slavery and India Reform League, 39 n. 2
arbitration 161
as principle of foreign policy xxvii, 61, 169–70, 181, 206, 219, 251
Archangel 5
Argyll, 8th Duke of (2) 99
aristocracy,
and Crimean War 53, 89, 368
and India 334–5, 357
middle-class veneration of 159, 337
power of 3, 103, 105, 263, 283, 321, 353, 460
warlike tendencies of 227, 366
Arlès-Dufour, F. B. 456, 457 n. 5
armaments,
expenditure on xliv, 107–8, 140, 151, 247, 366, 368, 441–2, 452, 467–8, 482, 500
limitation of 71, 93, 100, 176, 217, 369, 378–9
as obstacle to liberty 44–5, 231
Armitage, Sir Elkanah (2) 297, 301 n. 6
Armstrong gun 453
Arundel 172
Ascot 223
Cobden's property at 96, 109, 189
Ashburner, George (1) 33, 34 n. 2, 193, 422, 431
Ashburner, Katherine 33, 34 n. 2
Ashburner, the Misses 422, 424 n. 9, 431
Ashburner, Sarah (Sally) 422, 431, 432 n. 7
Ashburton, Lord 100
Asher, Carl Wilhelm 207–8, 209 n. 10
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 235
Ashworth, Henry (1) xxii, xxxi, xli, 13, 87, 159, 235, 269, 336–7, 434, 413, 458
and Borneo 409
and United States 336
Ashworth, Letitia (1) 337, 440
Asmar, Marie Theresa d', Princess xxx, 39–40, 40 n. 2
Association for the Repeal of the Taxes on Knowledge 18 n. 1, 414, 415 n. 5
Athenaeum 111
Athenaeum Club xxxvii, 316, 365, 435, 447
Australia 150, 210, 375, 384
Chinese in 395–6
Cobden's relatives in xxxvii, 407–8, 409
gold discoveries in xxxviii, 144, 470
Austria xxxii, 107, 227, 248, 256, 265
alliance with Britain and France 206, 256–7
and Crimean War negotiations 66, 72 n. 2, 77, 100, 104, 118, 119, 140, 165, 181, 183, 199
and Danubian principalities 264–5
and Italy 264, 416, 418
Treaty of Villafranca 476
war with France 416, 418, 428, 466, 482
Azov, Sea of 134, 138, 142, 145, 210
see alsoKertch
Backhouse, John C. 253, 254 n. 9
Badajoz 73, 76, 104
Baden 375
Bailey, Gamaliel (2) 41
Bailey, Thomas 37
Baines, Edward (1)
and education 11, 130
pg 509and Crimean War xxiv, xxv, 28, 73, 78, 81 n. 4, 151, 153, 163, 179, 183, 251, 259
see also Leeds Mercury
Baines, Matthew Talbot (2) 226
balance of power, seeforeign policy
ballot, secret 226, 263, 305, 329, 366, 392, 400–1
Ballot Society 283, 308–9, 418
debate on 403–4
Baltic Sea 129
Bancroft, George (2) 41
Banfield, Thomas 193
Bangor, N. Wales 246, 269
Bank Charter Act (1844) 349–50
Bank of England 171, 249, 349–50
Bank of France 249
banking 349
Barings, merchant bankers 265
Basevi, Giacchino (1) 45
Bastiat, Frédéric (1) 121, 164, 236, 243, 279
Les harmonées économiques 279
Oevres Complètes 285
Bath 166, 314
Baxter, William 444, 445 n. 4
Bay Islands 220
Bazley, Thomas (1) xxxi, xli, 13, 159, 267–8, 386, 434
Beal, James 430 n. 8
Beggs, Thomas 3
Beijing (Peking) 275, 276, 454
Belgium 243, 258
see alsoBrussels
Bell, Anna 415, 416 n. 7
Bell, Eliza 415, 416 n. 7
Bell, James (2) 138, 250, 415
Ben Rhydding 189, 190 n. 3
Bennett, Gordon xxix, 142, 143 n. 7
Bentinck, Lord George (2) 214
Bepton, Sussex 184
Berkeley, Charles Lennox Granville, 145, 146 n. 8
Berlin 94, 102, 165
Beschir el-Kassim, Emir of Lebanon 39, 40 n. 3
Bethell, Sir Richard 451 n. 4
Billault, Adolphe xliv, 489, 490 n. 10
Bird, Charles 286, 287 n. 5, 288
Birkbeck, Anna Margaret 52–3, 53 n. 2, 98
Birmingham 309,
Bright's election for 338, 339, 356
Bright in 403, 406
Chamber of Commerce xxxvii, 386
class structure of 321
and parliamentary reform 321, 406–7
representation of 403
Black Rod 145
Black Sea
limitation of Russian power in 71, 72 n. 2, 82, 93, 100, 101, 104, 118, 121, 123, 171, 198
military operations in 14, 18, 33–4, 49, 53–4
blockades, naval seemaritime law
blood sports 234–5, 236
Board of Trade
presidency offered to Cobden xxii, xl, 434–5
Bolton 76, 321
Bond, Florio St Quintin 399, 401 n. 2
Bonham, Sir George 284, 285 n. 7
Borneo xxxvii, 213, 384, 385, 397, 398
Bourboulon, Alphonse de 470, 471 n. 10
Bowring, Edgar 144
Bowring, Sir John (1) 144
and Arrow war xxxiii, 273–4, 275, 278, 293–4, 302, 314, 330, 393
Bradford, Samuel D. (1) 41, 431, 433
Bradford 382
Chevalier visits 457, 463, 465
Committee for Investigating State Affairs 266, 267 n. 22, 269
Brendon, Sibella (1) 43
Bright, Helen Priestman xxxviii, 355, 356
Bright, Jacob 147, 148 n. 10
pg 510 Bright, John (1) xxvii, xxxviii, xli, xlii, 35, 41, 96
and Birmingham xxxvi, 337–8, 339, 340–1, 342, 356, 364, 386, 403, 406
and corn laws 324
and Crimean War 22, 47, 55, 59, 64, 94, 97, 98
health of xxii, xxx, xxxi, 189, 195, 209, 230 n. 30, 246, 249, 253, 261, 303, 307, 335, 348, 356, 391, 410, 411, 413
and India 80–1, 354–5, 381
in Italy 291
and Manchester xxv, xxx, xxxiv, 12, 67, 68–9, 147, 291, 304, 307, 312–13, 314, 321, 339, 340–1, 364
and Morning Star 93, 175, 198, 250–1
and national education 7, 11, 16
and parliamentary reform xxxvii, xli, 7, 26, 339, 406, 407, 410, 411, 413
and Safety Life Assurance Company 335, 354
and Sarawak 384, 385, 386, 389, 396
speeches of xxx, 97, 404 n. 2, 411
and United States 159, 246
Bright, Thomas (?) (2) 261
Bright, Ursula 148 n. 10, 228
Brighton 38, 250, 347, 355, 462, 467
representation of 305
Brighton Examiner 68
Brighton Gazette 183
Bristol 386
British and Foreign Bible Society 43
British India Association 352 n. 2
British Museum 188, 371
British Quarterly Review 54
Brock, Sarah 109, 110 n. 2, 113, 426
Brodie, Anna Maria 153
Brooke, Sir James (2) xxxvii, 385, 386, 389, 396, 398, 399
Brotherton, Joseph (1) 96, 299
Broughton, seeManchester
Brown, William (1) 159, 165, 434
Bruce, Sir Frederic Wright- 459, 461 n. 20, 470, 483
Brussels 166
International Free Trade Congress xxxii, 226, 230–1, 243, 258
Buchanan, James,
letters to 196, 428
Minister to British court xxiii, xl, 50, 51 n. 10, 157, 158–9, 160–1, 195, 207, 219
US presidency xxiii, 239, 261, 426
Buchanan, Walter 318, 319 n. 7
Buckley, Edmund xxxviii
budgets,
(1854) 18, 19 n. 4, 32
(1855) 121
(1859) 443 n. 4
(1860) 496
Buffalo, NY 421
Bulgaria 4, 6 n. 12
Bunsen, Christian (1) 29, 59, 60–1, 236, 251
and Richard Brooks Cobden xxx, 139, 199, 201, 202, 375
Burgoyne, Sir John (1) 117
Burke, Edmund (1) 108
Burma 167, 213, 342, 397
Byron, Lord (1) 153, 156
Caird, Sir James 471, 472 n. 2
Calais 51, 467, 478
Calcutta 345, 358
Calcutta Review 324
California,
gold discoveries 144
Campbell, Sir Colin 136
Campbell, Sir John 136
pg 511Canada 150, 210, 431
Cannes xliv, 504
Canning, Lord 345–6
Canton 276, 284
bombardment of xxxiii, 273–4, 275, 278, 286, 288, 299, 302, 305, 314, 374
occupation of 373, 393
Cape Colony 385
Carbutt, Francis (2) 74 n. 3, 77, 78
Cardwell, Edward 97, 98 n. 2, 289, 341
Carlisle Journal 300
Carlisle, representation of 298, 299, 300, 314
Carlton Club 368
Carr, Jonathan Dodgson 298, 299 n. 11, 299
Cattaneo, Carlo 45, 46 n. 8
Cavour, Camillo Benso di (2) 324, 416, 418
Cawnpore, seeKanpur
Central Criminal Court 310
Ceylon 392
Chadwick, Edwin (1) 164
Chambers of Commerce, seeBirmingham, Edinburgh, Gloucester, Liverpool, and Manchester
Chambers, William (1) 5
Chantilly 498
Charity Commission 171, 187
Charles XII, king of Sweden 105, 121
Chatham, Earl of (2) 210
Cherbourg 379
Chertsey 156
Chesson, Frederick W. 38
Chester 452, 453
Chevalier, Michel (1)
and Anglo-French Commercial Treaty xxiii, xxvi, xlii, 187, 452, 457, 463, 465, 467, 474, 481–2, 485, 488, 489, 491, 493, 494, 495–7, 505
and Anglo-French naval rivalry 482
in Bradford 457, 463, 465
and Crimean War 176
and gold pamphlet xxxviii, 361, 391, 394 n. 5, 405, 470
letters to 121, 218–19, 405, 441–2, 454–6, 462
Chicago 419–20, 426, 429, 471
Chichester 203, 205, 337, 422
Infirmary 399
Chile 230
China
Cobden's motion on 286, 287 n. 3, 287–8, 289–90, 291, 363
commercial relations with 276, 286, 324, 383
First Opium War 324
government of 275, 276, 305, 324
Peiho river 459, 470
Taiping rebellion 302, 324, 374
Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) 275, 313
Chinese Evangelisation Society 287 n. 5
Chobham camp 76
cholera 116, 135, 472
Chowler, William 324, 325 n 6
Church of England xxvi, 3
see alsoPuseyites
church rate 80
Cicero, Marcus Tullius 349, 350 n. 1
Cincinnati 426
Circassia 38, 128, 133
Clare, Elizabeth 272 n. 3
Clare, Mary Ann 272 n. 3
Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, 4th Earl (1)
and Anglo-French Commercial Treaty 187
and Crimean War 18, 92, 157
and maritime law 208, 219, 333
pg 512and Palmerston 253, 284
and United States 159, 160–1, 204, 207, 209, 215–16, 220–1
Clark, Sir James (1) xxx, 99, 100, 227, 253
Clark, John Forbes (2) 100
Clay, James 399–401, 401 n. 1, 403–4
Clay, Sir William 140, 141 n. 7
Clifford, Frederick 248
Cloots, Jean-Baptiste (Anarchis) 64, 65 n. 8
Cobbett, William (1) 153, 154 n. 8
Rural Rides 223
Cobden, Catherine (1) xxii, xlii, 41, 303
death of Richard Brooks Cobden xxi, xxiii, xxx–xxxi, 199, 201, 202, 203–4, 205–6, 208, 212, 214, 219, 223, 271–2, 342, 375, 442, 470
health xxxi, xxxiii, xxxvi, 49, 279, 292, 337, 369, 373, 472
use of opiates 203, 223
in Paris 419–20, 423, 429–30, 435, 440, 442, 447, 472
Cobden, Charles (1) xxxi
Cobden (later -Sickert), Ellen Millicent Ashburner (2) 435
Cobden, Frederick (1) 12, 416
Cobden's reliance on 342, 370
illness and death of xxi, xxxiv, xxxvi, 310, 337, 341, 341–2, 366, 369–70, 371, 372, 373–4, 375
Cobden, Henry (1) xxxvii, 407–8
Cobden, Kate (1) 14, 250, 422, 423, 429 435
Cobden, Richard,
Russia: a Cure for the Russophobia (1836) 5, 6 n. 15
The Three Panics (1862) xlii
What Next, and Next? (1856) xxvii, 166, 174, 176, 178 n. 8, 181, 183, 279
Cobden, Richard Brooks (1) 12, 14, 68–9, 76, 82, 87, 136
education of xxx–xxxi, 99, 146, 147, 375
health 30, 70
letters from 187
Cochrane, Sir Thomas 284, 285 n. 8
Cockburn, Alexander 111, 112 n. 6, 261
cocoa plantations 392
Codrington, Sir William 283, 284 n. 3
Coffin, Walter 193, 194 n. 7
Cole, John Amber 145, 146 n. 2, 393
Collet, Collet Dobson (2) xxiv
Collins, Caleb 429, 431 n. 9
Collins, Edward (2) 115
Colmache, Georgina 482, 485 n. 24
Columbia 265
Combe, George (1) xxiii, xxxvii, xxx, 16–17, 62–4, 130–1, 253, 415 n. 5
Congreve, Richard 284, 285 n. 9
Gibraltar, or the Foreign Policy of England, 284
Conservative Party xli, 208
and China xxxiii–xxxiv, 291
and corporal punishment 367
and Crimean War 307
election of 1857 291–2
and foreign policy 264, 482, 500
in Huddersfield 302
and maritime law 184
and newspaper stamp 113, 126
and non-intervention 224, 264, 365–6
and Palmerston 227, 261, 368, 467–8
and parliamentary reform 309, 400–1
prospects for power 108
pg 513Conspiracy to Murder bill xxxvi, 365–6
Constantinople 38, 179
Conway 272
Cooke, Isaac (2) 434, 436 n. 12
Cooper, Emma (née Rogers) 447, 448 n. 8
Coppard 101
Coppock, Henry (1) 179
Coppock, James (1) 316
corn,
price of 406, 409, 411
trade 134–5, 138, 142
Corn Laws 75
repeal of xxxiv, 322, 323–4, 353, 368, 468
corporal punishment 367
Cortéz de Monroy y Pizarro, Hernàn 392, 394 n. 15
Costa Rica 204, 207, 209–11
Coulthard, Ralph 354
Cousens, Frances 339 n. 5, 335 n. 2
Cousens, Sidney 335 n. 3
Coventry, election (1857) 314
Cowdray estate, Midhurst 184, 429
Cowell, Lt-Col. James Charles Murray 57, 58 n. 3
Cowell, Sir John Stepney- 57, 58 n. 3
Cowley, Lord, first Earl xxiii, xliii, 474–6, 476 n. 1, 493, 494, 498, 499
Crampton, Sir John xxxii, 161, 162 n. 9, 212–13, 215–16, 217
Crawfurd, Dr John (1) xxxvii, 316, 317 n. 6, 389, 399, 469–70
Indian Archipelago 397
Crawshay, George (1) xxiv, 46, 56–7, 153, 260
cricket 367
Cricklade 83
Crimean War 1854–6 xxiv–xxvii, xxx, xxxii, xxxiv, xlii, 42, 53, 54–5, 61, 63–4, 65–6, 166, 167–8, 192, 204, 224, 248, 282, 342, 343, 352, 470
Alma, battle of 61, 101, 127
Cobden's opposition to xxi, 37, 47–9, 70, 95, 132
and finances 18, 20, 32, 107–8, 117, 121, 140, 368
and financial markets 28, 29 n. 1, 151, 171
Inkerman, battle of 61, 127, 192
ministers of religion and 29, 47–8, 88, 114–15, 125–6, 145
naval operations 14, 18, 33–4, 49, 53–4
outbreak of xxi, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12–13, 20, 22–3, 23–4, 26, 29, 269
peace negotiations xxvi–xxvii, 59, 71–2, 76, 82, 87, 88, 91–2, 100, 104, 111, 113–114, 118, 120, 169, 171, 174, 181, 183, 198
popular support for 3, 4 n. 7, 46, 116, 123–4, 170, 175, 307, 368
recruitment 151, 153, 163
Treaty of Paris 206, 248
Cromwell, Oliver (1) 45
Cropper & Co. 418, 419 n. 4
Crosfield, Isabella (2) 87
Curtis, Sir William 90, 91 n. 9
Daily Telegraph and Courier 142, 149, 366
Dalhousie, first Marquis of (2) 357
Dallas, George 196, 197 n. 3, 215–16, 289–90
Dallas, Philip 196, 197 n. 4, 215
Dangstein xxiii
Danubian principalities xxxii, 5, 6 n. 11, 256, 264–5
Dapples, Dr 420 n. 8
Darbishire, Samuel (2) 167–8, 272
Darton, Samuel 408, 409 n. 9
Dasent (?), George Webbe 156, 158 n. 11
Davis, Sir John Francis 275
pg 514decimalization 151
International Association for Decimal Coinage 460 n. 2
Delane, John T. 133, 152–3, 156, 483
Delhi 330, 342, 344
Dench, Edward 111, 112 n. 2
Denison, (John) Evelyn xl, 130, 131 n. 11
Derby, Edward G. G. S. Stanley, 14th Earl (1) xxvi, 88
and Borneo 385, 386
and China 288, 291
maritime law 208, 234
ministry of 1858 xxxvii, xl–xli, 367, 378, 384, 385, 400, 466
and parliamentary reform 412
Dering, Sir Edward Cholmeley 26, 27 n. 6
Despatch 226
Devonport Telegraph 248
Dickinson, John 338, 356, 357, 363
Dickson, David 131, 132 n. 2
Dickson, Spencer 230, 231 n. 4
Dieppe 481
Disraeli, Benjamin (1) xxvii, 20, 261, 368
and Crimean War 65, 111, 126 n. 3, 152–3, 156
and parliamentary reform 400, 412, 413 n. 15
and premiership 383
and Sir Robert Peel 324
Dissent, (militant) religious xxvi, 347, 402
Dixon, Maj. W. F. 134
Dollfus, Jean 488, 490 n. 3
domestic duties 369–70
Don Pacifico affair 261
Doncaster 48
Dornbusch, George (2) 169
Dost Mohammed Kahn, Emir of Afghanistan 361, 363 n. 13
Doudet, Célèstine xxx, 101, 102 n. 6, 109, 202 n. 4
Dowling, Jonathan 23
Dowling, William, 24 n. 2
Drummond, George, Viscount Forth 66, 67 n. 8
Drummond, Henry (2) 156, 223
Drury Lane Theatre 14, 324, 325 n. 7
Ducos, Théodore-Jean-Etienne (2) 442
Ducpetiaux, Edouard 165–6, 166, n. 1
Dunckley, Henry (2) 240–2, 254–5
Duncombe, Thomas (1) 315
Dundas, Sir James 31, 32 n. 6, 33, 128, 129, 132–3
Dundee 265
Dunfermline, Lord, seeAbercromby, James
Dunford, Sussex xxii, xxxviii, 41, 199, 435, 442
improvements to 100, 109
letting of 419, 422, 426, 429, 430 n. 8
purchase of land 171, 172 n. 10, 186–7
Dylife mine, seeWales
East India Company xxxv, xxxvi, 330, 331 n. 3, 354–5, 356, 357, 360, 395
Calcutta petition against 345–6
Eastern Question xxiv, 5, 12, 15, 26, 31, 96 n. 4,
and balance of power xxvi, 3, 150, 253
Economist 174, 226
Économiste Belge 166
Edinburgh 7, 48
Chamber of Commerce xxxvii, 386, 399
Town Council 311
education xxix
education bills (1855) 79–80, 80 n. 2, 130, 131
national and secular principles of 7, 11, 16–17, 63, 130, 196
Scottish education bill (1854) 16, 17 n. 5, 32, 130
voluntarism in 11, 16
pg 515Edwards, Priscilla (1) 11
Egmont, Lord (1) 184
Egypt 249, 253
Elcho, Lord 437, 438 n. 6
electoral corruption 305, 310, 411, 450
Elgin, Lord 324, 326 n. 13
Ellerby, Thomas S. 42–3, 43 n. 2
Ellice, Edward (1) 21, 107–8, 209–11, 291–2
Elliotson, John 203, 204 n. 4
Ellis, Dr James 280 n. 11
Ellissen, Moritz xxx–xxxi, 146 n. 10
Elton, Sir Arthur 260
emigration 151, 353
Empire, The 51
English Channel 380–1, 467
Ephesus 169
Eu, France 253
Europe 235, 255
Cobden in 146
compared to United States 336, 428
free trade in 219, 243
money markets 240, 249–50, 349
Evans, Sir George De Lacy (1) 105, 145, 192, 282
Evening Star 198, 225, 235
see alsoMorning Star
Evpatoria 129
Ewart, William (1) 251, 442
Eyre & Spottiswoode 189
factory question xxix, 27–8, 352
Fanshawe, Rear Admiral Arthur 214, 215 n. 4
Farnham 223
Faucher, Julius 149, 150 n. 5, 163, 165, 235–6
Faucher, Léon (1) 171
Fenton, John 437, 438 n. 8, 444, 445
Ferdinand II ('Bomba'), king of the Two Sicilies 161, 162 n. 10, 236, 248
Field, Benjamin 193, 194 n. 9
Fielding, Henry 341
Fiers, Charles (1) 480 n. 8
Fiers, Sarah (1) 371
Finland 237–8
Finsbury, seeLondon
Firth, Joseph 27–8, 27 n. 1
Fisher, Joseph (?) 360, 361 n. 4
Fisher, William xxiii, 31, 32 n. 5
Fitzmayer, Col. Sir James William xxii, xxxii, 57, 58 n. 2, 66, 78, 87, 103–5, 109, 123–4, 127, 129, 153, 179, 192, 194–5, 282, 304, 381–2
Fonblanque, Albany (1) 226
Forbes, John Murray 431, 432 n. 4
Forbes, Mary (later Kelsall) (2) 447, 448 n. 5
Ford, Mary (2) 185, 193
Ford, Richard (2) 185, 193
Foreign Enlistment Act 69, 70, 108, 153
Foreign Office 161, 253, 255, 256, 264–5, 482
foreign policy, British,
aggressive nature of 129, 167, 403
and 'balance of power' xxvi, xxxii, xxxiii, xlv, 48, 157, 217, 253, 263
reform of xxi, 251, 259–60, 264–6, 284
Forster, John 226, 229 n. 19
Foskett, Paul 324, 325 n. 6
Fould, Achille xliii, 457–8, 460 n. 4, 474–6, 486, 487, 489, 493, 495–6, 503
Fox, William J. (1) 47
France 249, 353
in Africa 464
and Austria 416, 418, 428
and China 276–7, 379, 393
Cobden in 375
and Crimean War xlii, 4–5, 23, 71, 73, 76, 77, 94, 109, 111, 119, 151, 176, 181, 199, 206, 344, 380
pg 516 finances 249
free trade in 219, 243, 463, 465, 488
intervention in Naples xxxii, 236, 240, 248, 251, 264–5
intervention in Rome 264
Italian policy of 458
naval rivalry with Britain 28, 378–9, 441–2, 452, 458, 482
and political economy 165
relations with Britain xli–xlv, 28, 227, 253, 366, 380–1, 441–2, 456, 458, 470, 478
slave trade of 402
and United States 50–1
war with Austria 416, 418, 428, 466, 482
Francis, Sir Philip 393, 395 n. 20
Frankfurt xxxi
Franklin, Lady Jane xxix, 24–5, 25 n. 1
Franklin, Sir John 25
Fraser 's Magazine 311
Frederick the Great, king of Prussia (1) 282
Frederick William IV, king of Prussia (1) 29, 102
free trade xxvii, xxxv–xxxvi, xliii, 164–5, 165–6, 258, 321,
alternative to imperialism xxxv, 210, 335, 340, 385, 397
in France 219, 456
International Free Trade Congress, Brussels (1856) 226, 230–1, 243, 258
newspaper 78, 93, 230
and peace xxxiii, 121, 297, 496, 499–500
and the press 75
success of 144
in United States 239
freehold land societies 3, 4 n. 5
National Freehold Land Society 50, 157, 158, 158 n. 17
Fremont, John Charles 239, 240 n. 6, 246
Fryer, Frederick 79
Gadsby, John (1) 93
Garnett, Jeremiah (1) 302
Garnier, C. Joseph (1) 236
Gaskell, Elizabeth (2) 58
Gavazzi, Alessandro 265, 266 n. 13
Gay-Lussac, alcoholometer 485, 489
Geach, Charles (2) 51 n. 6
general election (1857) xxxiv, 291–2, 295–6, 298, 300, 301–2
and China 290, 294, 296–7, 299, 302, 307, 314, 315
corruption in 305, 310
general election (1859) 426
Genoa 291
Gentleman 's Magazine 226
George Augustus Frederic II, King of the Mosquito nation 220, 222 n. 12
Germany 353
Cobden visits, 146 n. 10, 147
see alsoBaden; Prussia
Ghent 258
Gibraltar 464
Gibson, Susannah A. Milner- (1) 69, 98, 111, 193
Gibson, Thomas Milner (1) xxxvi, 130, 250, 286, 365–6, 368, 370, 415 n. 5, 435, 459, 468
and Crimea War 20, 47, 55, 66, 94, 125–6, 140
and education 267–8
and Manchester xxxiv, 13, 67, 69, 117, 191, 305 n. 6, 312–13, 314, 320, 321
and parliamentary reform 411
and taxes on knowledge 111, 152, 415 n. 5
Gilpin, Anna 448, 449 n. 6
Gilpin, Charles (2) xxii, xxxiv, xxxix, 29, 78, 207, 294, 312, 326–8, 408, 411, 448, 458–9
pg 517 Cobden staying with 157, 158, 371, 374, 382, 434, 462, 464, 465
health of 464, 481
Gilpin, Henry Dilworth 41, 42 n. 7, 419, 426
Girardin, Emile de (2) 256, 504
Gladstone, Robertson (2) xliv, 103, 246, 260, 386, 434, 477
Gladstone, William Ewart (1) xxiv, xxvii, xxxiii, xli, xliv–xlv, 18, 32, 71, 97, 152, 156, 326, 347, 366, 405
and Anglo-French Commercial Treaty xlii–xliii, 451, 452, 462, 465–6, 474–5, 477–8, 485–6, 487–8, 488–90, 491–2, 493, 495–6, 499, 502–3, 505
and China 291
Cobden's views of 170–1, 226–7
and Crimean War 48, 118, 126, 140, 226–7
and newspaper stamp 75, 95, 106, 111
and Suez Canal 479
Glasgow,
Chamber of Commerce 386
reform meetings 410
Gleig, George 111, 112 n. 3, 175
Gloucester,
Chamber of Commerce 29
election 450
Glyn Garth xxiii, xxxi, 242 n. 2
Glynne, Sir Stephen 452, 502
Godalming 31, 76, 117
Goderich, Lord 105, 106 n. 10, 140, 291, 296
Gorchakov, Prince Alexander 112, 113 n. 10, 118
Gordon, Arthur Charles Hamilton- xxiii, 31 n. 4, 82, 112, 113–14, 185, 235, 372–3
and Liskeard election 298
Graham, Sir James (1) 18, 97, 126, 298, 299, 300, 366
see alsoPeelites
Granville, Lord (2) 434
Greece 255, 264
ancient 374
Greek population in Turkey 18, 26
Greeley, Horace (2) xxix, 142
Greenock 64
Greenwich, seeLondon
Greg, Robert Hyde (1) 291
Greg, William (1) 226
Gregson, Samuel 278
Grey, Charles, 2nd Earl (1) 400
Grey, Edward, Bishop of Hereford 34, 35 n. 4
Grey, Henry George, 3rd Earl (1) 48, 125–6, 227
Greytown, Nicaragua 160 n. 7, 210
Grosvenor Street, London
Cobden's move to 14
residence at 130, 286, 441
Guest, John 3
Guildford 223, 340
Guillaumin, Gilbert (1) 236, 285
Guillaumin, publishing house 279
Guizot, François (1) 289
Gurney, Samuel (1) 29, 217
habeas corpus act 291, 294
Hadfield, George (1) xxxiv, 7, 264, 266 n. 4
Halifax, Nova Scotia 330
Hall, Basil 90, 91 n. 14
Hall, Sir Benjamin (2) 188, 372
Haly, William (2) 142, 164, 196, 198, 238, 316–17
Hamilton, Lord Claude 20, 192
Hamilton, George Alexander 392, 394 n. 10
Hamilton, John
and peace movement 169
and Morning Star 220, 224, 225–6, 228 n. 3, 230, 231, 235–6, 257, 315, 343–4, 345–6
Hardinge, Lord Henry (1) 153
Hargreaves, Alice (1) 49, 193, 447
Hargreaves, William (1) 23, 47–9, 86, 193, 447
pg 518 Harvey, Thomas (2) 238
Hatherton, Edward John Littleton, 1st baron xxiii, xxxviii, 410 n. 1
Hatherton, Lady (1, sub Davenport, Caroline) xxiii, 113
Haven, Franklin 433
Hawarden xliii, 451, 452
Hawkshaw, John 272
Hawthorn, Nathaniel 162 n. 8
Haxthausen, August von 166, 174
Haydn 's Dictionary of Dates 371
Hayter, Sir William G. (2) 140, 287–8, 291, 403
Heber, Reginald 167, 168 n. 7, 360
Heidelberg xxx, 202
Heldenmaier, Dr Benjamin (2) 31
Herald of Peace xxix
Herbert, Sidney (2) 71, 97, 118, 156
Heron, Joseph (1) 117, 191
Herrán, Victor 220, 222 n. 10
Hett, Edward 389
Hewe(?i)tt, journalist 350
Heyshott, Sussex 184
Heyworth, Lawrence (2) 249
Hickin, Joseph (1) xxxviii, 147
Higgin, Mary Anne (2) 422, 424 n. 12, 426, 430
Hill, Frederic 380–1, 381 n. 1
Hill, Rowland (1) 378
Hilson, John 75
Hindley, Charles (1) 291
Hogg, Sir James 360, 362 n. 9
Holder, Lt-Col. Charles 429, 431 n. 9
homoeopathy 306 n. 2, 367 n. 6
Honduras 220–1, 222 n. 11
Hong Kong 129
Horse Guards 127, 163, 368
horse racing 48
Horsfall, John 163
Horsfall, Robert 163
Houghton, John (1) 109, 128, 128–9
Houghton, Thomas A. 129
House of Lords 125, 261, 294, 309, 313
Houses of Parliament 144
Huc, Evariste Regis (2) 276, 284
Huddersfield,
Cobden contests xxxiv, 296, 297, 300, 302, 303
Cobden defeated at 304, 306–7, 308, 310, 312–13, 314
representation of 291
Hume, Joseph (1) 20, 23, 47, 49, 263, 308, 468
Hungary 248, 255, 256, 264, 501, 458
Hyderabad 334
hydropathy xxx, 279
Ilkley 447
Illinois 429, 431
Illinois Central Railroad xxii, xxxix–xl, 204, 207–8, 360, 471–2
board of directors 421–2, 471
Cobden's mission to 416, 419–20, 421–2, 426
London deputation to 387–8
Illustrated London News 151
India
cotton growing 80–81, 319, 330, 331 n. 3
expansion of 167, 213, 282, 342, 357–8, 381, 360–1
newspapers 351
racial antagonism in 330, 339, 441
India and China Commercial Association 278, 284
India Reform Association 356
Indian 'Mutiny' xxxv–xxxvi, xlii, 330, 339, 345–6, 351–2, 385, 392, 402, 441
British reprisals 343–4, 357–8, 361, 374, 376, 382, 393
Cobden's views on 342–3, 381–2
in Oude 342, 357, 360–1
Sepoy atrocities 331–2, 334, 342, 343–4, 345 n. 3
see alsoDelhi; Kanpur; Lucknow
pg 519 Ingram, Herbert 151, 152 n. 6
International Association for Customs Reform 243, 258
international law 251, 380
invasion scares
(1852–3) 28, 151, 442
Inverary 209
Ireland,
general election ( 1857) 298
tenant right 329
tithes 329
Irish party 329
Ironsides, Isaac 260
Isle of Wight 49
Italy 23, 165, 227, 236, 248, 353, 371
Austrian occupation of 256, 264, 416
Bright in xxx
nationalism in 265
Jay, Eleanor 421
Jelf, Revd. Richard 439
Jewish disabilities 326
John Bull 18, 51, 54–5, 64, 116, 207, 269, 353, 428, 460
Johnson, Samuel 155, 157 n. 3, 373
Jolliffe, Sir William 411, 412 n. 7
Jones, B. Brock 426
Jones, Sir Harry D. 136
Josephus (1) 261
Journal of the Statistical Society of London 174
Jowitt, Robert 415, 416 n. 9
Julius Caesar 45
Junius 393
Kaiswar, Malka 358, 359 n. 12
Kanpur (Cawnpore) 342, 344
Kars 181, 183, 192, 199, 316
Kell, Edmund 115 n. 2
Kelsall, see Forbes, Mary
Kelso Chronicle 75
Kensington Gardens 188
Kershaw, James (1) 291
Kertch 128, 129
see alsoAzov, Sea of
Kew Gardens 188, 223
Kidd, Dr Joseph 366, 367 n. 6
King 's College, London 439 n. 3
Kingscote, Henry 164, 165 n. 1
Klapka, Georg (2) 393
Kossuth, Lajos (Louis) (2) 256, 265, 322, 458
Labuan 398
see alsoBorneo
Lamare, Col. 104, 105 n. 4
Lambeth, seeLondon
Lanarkshire 204, 210
Lancashire 59, 440
and free trade 321
and reform 458–9
and United States 161, 204, 210
land reform xxix, 83, 93, 124–5, 353
leases 329
tenant right 329
Landsdowne, Lord (1) 125–6
Lane, Harriet 246, 247 n. 6, 261, 426, 428
Langworthy, Edward 297
Lattimore, Charles (1) xxii, 35–73
Lavington, Sussex 184
Law, Edward 42–3, 44 n. 4
Law, John 472, 474 n. 12
Layard, Austen H. 65–6, 66 n. 4, 82, 192, 295, 297
and India 352, 376–7
Leatham, William H. 450
Leeds,
Peace Association 79
peace meeting xxv, 74, 77, 78, 79, 80–1
Leeds Mercury 226
and Crimean War 28, 151, 159, 163, 179, 183
Lefevre, Charles Shaw- (2) 145, 291
Lesseps, Ferdinand de 479
Lewis, Sir George Cornewall (1) 106, 111, 124, 140, 227, 451
pg 520 Lewis, Gilbert Frankland 227, 229 n. 27
Lhuys, Drouyn de (2) 120, 157
Liberal party, independent liberals
and China xxxiv, 288, 290, 291
and Crimean War 44–5, 307, 369
and defeat of Palmerston (1858) xxxvii, 288, 290, 291–2, 365
disunity of xxxvii, 88, 263, 288, 290, 299, 365–6, 400–1
and foreign policy 264, 482, 500
and general election (1857) 299
in Huddersfield 302
and imperial expansion 385
leadership of xxxvii, 227, 299
in parliament 444
and parliamentary reform 308, 366, 368–9
and prosperity 322
reunification of xl–xli xlv, 435 n. 3
Liberia 85
limited liability xxix, 189 n. 5
Lindsay, William Schaw xxii, xxviii, xl, 53–4, 54 n. 2, 69, 109, 111, 207–8, 232–4, 317–18, 332–3, 349, 354
and maritime law 232–4, 251, 269, 317–18, 332–3
Liprandi, Gen. Pavel 119
Liskeard, Cornwall 298
Liverpool xl, 161, 330, 431
and ballot 283
and Borneo 386, 396, 397, 399, 402
Chamber of Commerce xxxvii, 386, 399
and China 291–2, 293–4
Cobden's reception in, 1859 434, 440
Financial Reform Association xliv, 103, 434, 459, 477, 481–2
Irish in 294
merchants of 291, 293–4
and reform 283
Town Dues 191
Livingstone, David 360, 362 n. 10
Livsey, Thomas 463, 464 n. 3
Llandudno 249
Locke, Joseph 411, 412 n. 8
Lombard Street, seeLondon, Stock Exchange
London 165, 212, 223, 392
Bedford Square 448, 462
'Bedlam' lunatic asylum 482
building trades 443, 444 n. 2
City elections 90, 310, 314
City of 296, 448, 481
Crown and Anchor 261
Downing Street 212, 325
Eaton Square 41
Exeter Hall 18, 295
Finsbury, representation of 353, 354 n. 2
Greenwich, election ( 1857) 283
Houndsditch 408
Italian street musicians in 165
Lambeth 294, 305, 314
Mansion House 314
peace meetings in 166, 169, 294, 295–6
reform meeting in 406
South Kensington Museum 144
Stock Exchange 169, 217, 265
Tavern 183
Zoological Society 69
London Examiner 226, 397, 399, 402, 409
London Gazette 275
London University Magazine 270
Longlee, Yorkshire 27
Louis Napoleon, seeNapoleon III
Louis Philippe, king of France (1) 380
Loxley Hall 57 n. 1
Lowe, Robert 153, 154 n. 4, 188, 191, 226
Lucas, Samuel (2) 406–7, 418
Lucerne 63
Lucknow 357, 360–1
Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes xxxvi, 363, 364 n. 3
Lyell, Sir Charles (2) 90
Lyons, Lord (1) 192, 210, 380–1
Lyons, France 478
pg 521 Lynch, Judge Charles 376
Lytton, Sir Edward Bulwer (1) 113, 140, 390–1, 402
Macchi, Mauro xxiii, 44–5, 45 n. 1
Studi politici 45 n. 3
McClellan, George 471, 473 n. 4
Mackinnon, Alexander 332, 333 n. 2
McLaren, Duncan (1) xxxvii, 298, 356, 386, 399
McLaren, Priscilla 228
Macleod, Dr William xxx, 190 n. 3
Macready, William C. (1) 58
Madrid 45, 98
Maeren, Michael Corr van der xxiii, 243, 258
Magne, Pierre xliv, 489, 490 n. 9, 505
Malakoff 133, 136
Manchester 41, 342, 405, 445
and Borneo 384, 386, 397, 409
Broughton 447
Chamber of Commerce xxvii, 13, 251, 254–5, 409
and China 293–4
Church Missionary Society 303
class structure of 321, 339
Cobden at xxii, xxxiv, 13, 55, 81, 299, 342, 403, 444, 447, 448
Cobden's property in xxxviii–xxxix, 448
Cobden's speeches in xxv
Commercial Association 254–5, 294
Corporation 63, 117, 189, 255
and Eastern Question 12
and free trade 339
Free Trade Hall 255 n. 2, 256, 297, 298, 301
General Committee on Education 268 n. 5
and India 80–1, 330, 331 n. 3, 347
and local dues 189, 191
Mechanics ' Institute 254
Model Secular School 63
and Morning Star 164, 175 n. 2, 218 n. 10, 226
and Napoleon III 117
Newall 's Building xxxiv, 459
Palmerston 's visit to, 1856 xxxii, 255, 256–7, 373
parliamentary reform movement in 7, 11, 309, 321, 339, 406, 410, 459
peace meetings 259, 347
representation of xxxvii, 382, 383 n. 3
secular education 7, 11, 16–17, 63, 80, 130, 131 n. 7, 267–8
soirées for Bright and Gibson 74, 78, 81, 410
trade of 57
Manchester and Salford Education Bill 16–17, 17 n. 9, 267–8
Manchester Examiner and Times 5, 49, 68, 130, 140, 149, 175, 176, 239, 254–5, 256, 405
Manchester Guardian 302
Manchester School xxvi, xxvii, xxix, xxxii, xxxiv, xxxvi, xli, xlv, 78, 115, 225, 239, 261
Mangles, Ross Donnelly 330, 349, 354, 356
Marcy, William Learned 231, 232 n. 3, 269, 326, 333
maritime law xxii, 207–8, 232–4, 251, 269, 332–3
blockades, naval 4, 49, 198, 317–18
Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st Duke 282, 283 n. 3
Marlborough 83
marriage laws xxix, 379
Marseilles 261, 330
Marsh, Edward 408
Martin (friend of Sturge) 29
Martin, Robert Montgomery (2) 286, 302, 441
The Indian Empire 441
pg 522 Marvell, Andrew 226, 229 n. 22
Matley, Esther 21, 22 n. 3
Meade, Henry 346
Meadows, Thomas Taylor 275, 276 n. 7
Mechi, John Joseph 35, 36 n. 2
Mediterranean Sea 93
Mednyánski, Alexander (Sandor), 53 n. 2, 98
Melbourne 390
Mellor, James (1) 376, 434, 447
Mersey, river 434
Mexico 230, 402
see alsoTexas
Miall, Edward (1) 11, 310 n. 2
Midhurst 54, 76, 96, 136, 139, 195, 205, 214, 220, 303, 447, 459, 481
parliamentary constituency of 184, 185 n. 9, 314, 336, 429
middle classes,
and Crimean War 147, 149
and national pride 361
and the press 199
and reform 400, 413
and tariff 468
Middlesex
election (1857) 314
Hanwell lunatic asylum 482
Mills, Henry (2) 172 n. 10, 186–7
Milnes, Richard Monckton (1) 20
Minié rifle 76, 77 n. 6
ministerial crisis (1855) 86–7, 88, 88–9, 89, 95, 97
Mirio, Jean-Baptiste 482, 484 n. 14
missionary societies 303
and China 396
and India 347, 348 n. 3, 352, 358, 364
Mississippi, state of 265
Mitchell, John 382–3, 383 n. 1
Mitchell, Thomas 135
Mitchell, William (2) 106, 124–5, 172–3, 184
Moffatt, George (1) xxii, xxxix, 12, 99, 101, 133, 155, 185, 193, 418, 429, 434
and Illinois Central Railroad 422, 426
and parliamentary reform 411
quarrel with Cobden 426
Moffatt, Sarah (2) 220, 221 n. 1
Molesworth, Lady Andalusia G. (1) 21, 22 n. 9, 98, 133, 156, 185, 187, 193
Molesworth, Sir William (1) xxiv, 21, 22 n. 4, 155–6
rift with Cobden 48, 132, 142, 143 n. 11, 149
Moncrieff, James 16, 17 n. 6
monetary reform xxxviii, 329, 350
gold question 361, 391–2, 405, 470
Moniteur, Le 495–6
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat 322, 323 n. 12
Montreal 431
Moore, Richard 414, 415 n. 3
Morison, Alexander 96
Morley, Samuel (2) 183, 294, 310
Morning Advertiser 226
Morning Chronicle 29
Morning Post 170–1, 174, 178–9, 226
Morning Star xxvi, xxviii–xxix xxxii, 217, 247, 300, 482
and China 275, 276–7, 284, 287–8, 293–4
circulation of 214, 221
City article 350
and Derby ministry 384
finances of 311
and foreign policy 256, 264–6
foundation of 93, 115, 138, 142, 148–9, 155, 175, 196
Huddersfield election 1857 303
and Indian Mutiny 334, 343–4, 345–6, 351–2, 363–4
and Palmerston 309
and parliamentary reform 418
and Punch 270
and Sarawak 386
pg 523 Morny, Charles duc de 457–8, 460 n. 5
Morocco, French interest in 464
Morphy, Paul Charles 433
Morris, Mowbray 152, 153 n. 2, 156
Mortimer, Thomas (2) xxi, 234
Moscow 55, 56, 171
Mosquito Coast, seeNicaragua
Mowatt, Francis (2) xxiii, 33, 227, 429
Mowatt, Harriet and Sarah 34, 35 n. 4
Mullins, George (2) 23, 24 n. 1
Murchison, Sir Roderick (1) 26 n. 6
Murray, Sir George (1) 210
Nana Sahib 344, 345 n. 9
Napier, Sir Charles (2) 316, 332, 379 n. 2, 482
Napier, Sir Charles James 344
Naples,
mooted Anglo-French intervention in xxxii, 236, 240, 248, 251, 264–5
Napoleon, Bonaparte (1) 45, 55, 105, 121, 282, 361, 416
Napoleon III (Louis Napoléon) (2) xxiii, xxvii, xlii–xliv, 45, 51, 249, 253, 282, 380, 441, 468, 500
and Anglo-French Commercial Treaty 452, 457–8, 463, 474–6, 486, 487, 488–9, 491, 493, 494, 495–6, 499–500, 502–3
and Austria 416, 418
Cobden's audiences with 472, 473 n. 6, 482, 490, 494
and Crimean War 73, 92, 95, 100, 104, 109, 111, 120, 129, 147, 149, 151, 165, 170, 176, 179, 183
and Italy 227, 236, 416, 428, 458
and Spain 227, 381
and Treaty of Villafranca 476
visit to Britain ( 1855) 117
Napoleon, Prince 504
Napoleonic Wars 173
Narváez, Ramon María 45
National Association for the Promotion of Social Science 460 n. 2, 465
national character, British 374, 392
see alsoJohn Bull
national defences 443 n. 7, 458
National Era 41
National Gallery 188 n. 2
National League 57
National Public Schools Association 11
nationalities question 53
see alsoHungary; Italy
Navy, Royal
Admiralty Board 24–5, 382
Baltic fleet 186
in Caribbean 159, 161, 214
expenditure on xlii, 41–2, 452, 458
reform of xxv
Neild, Alfred 140, 141 n. 16
Nevill, Lady Dorothy xxiii, 412, 413 n. 12
see alsoDangstein
New Grenada, seeColumbia
New Orleans 330
New York 161, 388, 392,
Cobden at 421, 431
New York Herald 142
New York Tribune 93
Newcastle, 5th Duke of (2) 71, 156
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 46, 459
Reform Union 459
newspapers 247
and China 297
circulation of 261
and Crimean War 3, 8–10, 28, 51, 54–5, 64, 88, 92, 108, 149, 151, 175, 343
and France 458
and Indian mutiny 343
and national pride 374
repeal of stamp duty on xxviii, 28, 75, 78, 84, 95, 106, 111, 113, 115, 124, 125, 132, 414, 415
and United States 213, 219, 269
see also Times, The
Nicaragua xxxii, 157, 207, 214, 220
pg 524 Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia xxiv, 4, 5 n. 6, 8, 20, 29, 43, 49, 61, 92, 93, 100, 204
death of 102, 104
Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (2) 322
Nonconformity, see also Dissent, (militant) religious
non-intervention,
motion on 437
in Naples 240
as principle of foreign policy xxii, xxix, 48, 56–7, 78, 167–8, 239, 264, 368
Nord, Le 181
Norman conquest 380
North, Lord Frederick 210, 211 n. 15
Northern Reform Union, later Northern Reform League 461 n. 12
Norway, William King 193, 194 n. 5
Norway 41
Novello, (Joseph) Alfred (2) 414
Nutt, Ellen 375, 376 n. 4
Nutt, Robert 375, 376 n. 1
Oates, Titus (2) 472
O'Brien, James Bronterre (1) 298
Odessa 4, 32
Oliveira, Benjamin 332, 333 n. 1
O'Neill, Arthur xxxvii, 348, 349 n. 1., 357, 363
opium,
use of 393
Orsini affair xxxvi, xlii, 372 n. 5, 384
Osborn, William Henry 422, 424 n. 5, 471
Osborne House, Isle of Wight 380
Ostend Manifesto 239
Ottoman Empire, see Turkey
Otway, Sir Arthur J. 140, 141 n. 9
Oudh (Oude)
annexation of 167, 213, 342, 357–8, 381, 360–1, 363, 381–2
Sepoy rebellion in 342, 357–8. 360–1, 363–4
see also India
Outram, Sir James 213
Overend & Gurney 207
Owen, William 103
Oxford,
constituency 341
Oxford University xxiii, 279, 439
Paget, Charles xl
Paget, Lord Clarence 452, 453 n. 6
Paget, Lord George 66
Paillotet, Prosper 121, 122 n. 10, 285
Pakington, Sir John (2) 79–80, 130, 268, 444
Palmer, William 214, 215 n. 8
Palmerston, Lady 69, 70 n. 13
Palmerston, Lord (1) xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, xxvi, 21, 39, 69, 383, 392
and China 289–90, 467
and Corn Laws 323–4
and Crimean War 37, 64, 94, 97, 98, 109, 120, 129, 146, 149, 170, 176, 179, 181
and Don Pacifico 261
election of 1857 291, 295, 297, 299, 300, 314
foreign policy of xxxii–xxxiii, 240–2, 253, 254–5, 284, 336–7, 373, 434
and France xlii–xliii, 467, 493, 494
and India 346, 356, 372, 378
offers cabinet post to Cobden xl, 434–5, 437, 440
ministry of (1855–8) 87, 94, 113, 139, 147, 211, 212–13, 217, 290, 291–2, 326
ministry of (1859–65) xli, xlv, 434–5, 467–8
and Naples 236
and parliamentary business 191
and parliamentary reform 315, 435
and political stagnation 310
and the press 219, 226, 309, 365
public support for 312
resignation of (1858) xxxvi–xxxvii, 365–6, 367–8, 373
Toryism of 227, 365–6, 368, 400
and United States 156, 159, 161, 185, 220–1
pg 525 Panama, Isthmus of 207
Panmure, Fox Maule, 2nd Baron (1) 210
Pantaleoni, Diomede 292, 293 n. 18
paper duties 414
Paris xxii, 50, 111, 171, 176, 179, 183, 210, 392
-Cherbourg railway 379
Cobden family in 419–20, 423, 429, 435, 440, 442, 447, 448, 452, 454, 459, 466
Declaration of (1856) xxvii, 207, 208 n. 7, 234
peace conference (1856) 198–9, 206, 219, 326, 332–3
Treaty of (1856) 206, 248
Universal Exhibition of 1855 xxvi, 121, 122 n. 3, 151, 152 n. 8
Park, Alexander 376, 377 n. 5
Park, Atherton 376, 377 n. 6
Parker, John (1) 7
Parker, John William 311
Parkes, Bessie Rayner (2) 174, 325
Parkes, Hannah 253, 325, 376–7
Parkes, Harry Smith 274, 278
Parkes, Joseph (1)
correspondence with Cobden xxiii, xxx, 393, 413, 418
and India 395 n. 19
and Persian War xxxii
parliamentary reform xl, xlv, 417–18, 435
Act, 1832 184, 368
Bills (1854) 3, 4 n. 6, 19–20, 26, 184; (1858–9) 392
equal electoral districts 308
extension of the franchise 307, 308–9, 315, 322, 359 n. 2, 366, 400, 409
meetings 7, 11, 406, 409, 410
prospects for xxxvii, 247, 307, 310, 311–12, 399–401, 409
triennial parliaments 308, 400
Paulding, Rear Admiral Hiram 214, 215 n. 5
Paulton, Abraham William (1) 33,