Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly (eds), The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick, Vol. 2

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pg 211TRANSMISSIONAL HISTORIES AND HISTORICAL COLLATIONS

Note: All transmissional histories should be read in conjunction with the relevant headnote

MS 1 A Country life To his Brother, Master Thomas Herrick.

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197,pp. 16–19; Bodleian Library Ashmole 38, pp. 90–2; Huntingdon Library, San Marino, CA HM 198 (1), pp. 12–14; New York Public Library Arents S 191 ff.18r-20r] (rev); Victoria and Albert Museum, London (National Art Library) Dyce Collection Cat. No. 18 (Pressmark 25.f.17) ff.72v-4r; Warwickshire Record Office, CR 136/B743

Print: 1648, pp. 35–9 (sig. D2a-D4a)

Transmissional History

The longest MS version is referred to here as the 'Alston' text after the copytext, Tobias Alston's MS Osborn b 197. It is twelve lines longer than the print version and transmitted by four witnesses. There is essentially only one witness to a partial but almost certainly earlier version, since the second of its two MSS—Dyce Collection Cat. No. 18 (VA18)—is copied directly from the first, NYPL Arents S 191 (NY19). There is no clear evidence of where or when this version circulated, although speculative links can be drawn between Herrick and the compiler of NY19, John Cave, a student at Lincoln College, Oxford, in the 1610s. He subsequently took a living in Pickwell in Leicestershire, close to Sir William Herrick's seat, in 1629 and was also one of the network of poets asked to contribute to Lachrymae Musarum, the volume of elegies containing Herrick's final printed poem (see PR 61). However, it appears Cave, an assiduous collector of Donne's poetry, received the poem as part of a small collection of Corbett's poetry and he may have thought it was also Corbett's, as John Nedham, the copyist of VA18, did.

Despite the relatively few extant copies there is no reason to think that this poem was particularly restricted in its circulation. Its presence in the Alston and Huntington miscellanies and its subsequent appearance in Ashmole 38 suggest it continued to circulate until at least 1639–40, when Alston was being copied.1 Cave's copy offers no evidence of where he obtained the text but based on datable content in the miscellany it is copied post-1623. One hypothesis, which the available evidence supports, is that Cave's text is the sole witness to an earlier version, which is later revised by Herrick, who cuts lines to produce a text close to that eventually found in the four later witnesses, CR 136/B743, Osborn b197, HM 198(1), and Ashmole 38. Thepg 212 immediate source for Osborn b 197, HM198(1), and Ashmole 38 was then emended again by him in a minor way and additional variants introduced by scribes in the process of copying. Should a full-length copy of Cave's poem emerge we may be able to say whether Herrick also added lines to the 'Alston' text. However, each set of changes should be considered independently rather than treated as a series of progressive improvements, which in any case it is clear they are not since both versions are drawn on for print.

Cave's miscellany and text

NY19 comprises a seventy-two-poem collection of John Donne's work, copied in Cave's hand, followed by a reversed section which has twelve poems, eight of which are by Richard Corbett.2 The Donne section may be dated by Cave's poem in praise of Donne's work, which is entered on the front leaf with a date of 3 June 1620.3 Cave copies the first eight poems of the Corbett section, including 'The Country Life', and the remaining four are added by four different hands. This group begins with a widely circulated topical satire on the visit of Buckingham and the Prince of Wales to Spain in 1623, attributed in this MS to I.C., which begins 'False on his Deanery? false nay more Ile say', responding to Corbett's poem, 'To the Lord Marquess of Buckingham, vpon his Iourny into Spayne', which immediately follows it.4 The remaining poems are all by Corbett, except two: 'A paradox of a painted face' (pp. 149–52) attributed to 'Baker', which creates an affinity between this copy and Bodleian MS Malone 117, which attributes this poem to William Baker; and the final poem in the MS 'I came from England into France' (pp.163–9), which is unattributed in this MS but is usually given to Thomas Goodwyn. This latter poem was also interpreted in the period as a comment on the 1623 visit to Spain, and so, given the topicality of several of these poems, a mid-1620s date for their copying is reasonable.5 As the signed endleaf for the Donne section immediately precedes it, the Corbett section might once have been a separate MS, but as the whole text is consecutively copied by John Nedham into his miscellany, the two collections must already have been bound together at this point, presumably by Cave. John Nedham's name and that of Elizabeth Barker appear on the flyleaf of the whole miscellany and on the endleaf to the Donne section.

The text in NY19 supplies eight additional lines not contained in the other MSS, and four of these lines are found in slightly altered form in 1648. Unlike Alston et al., Cave does not attribute the poem to Herrick and we cannot tell whether lines 93–8 of 'Alston' (which are cut from 1648) were also in the full-length copies of Cave's 'Country Life', aspg 213 his copy ends at what is effectively line 84 of this version, the difference made up by its extra lines. Nedham's copy attributes the poem to Richard Corbett, reflecting the context of copying from Cave. Nedham, probably the man who graduated BA from Christchurch in 1619 and MA in 1622, transcribes carefully, occasionally amending Cave's text for sense and grammar, but the bulk of the variants (e.g. 'brest' (24), 'most' (33), 'home' (75)) are sufficient to confirm the relationship of exemplar and copy.6 There are several minor variants between the readings of Cave and the 'Alston' version (as agreed by all four witnesses) which are tabulated below but its unique lines are of the greatest interest. Lines 29–33 are reproduced with slight revisions in Hesperides.

In Cave, they read:

The printed version reads:

  • Thus thou canst tearcely live to satisfy
  • The belly chiefly; not the eye:
  • Keeping the barking stomach wisely quiet
  • Lesse with a neat, then needfull diet.

Cave is also the only witness to another pair of couplets which are cut from 1648 and do not appear in the 'Alston' text either. Lines 45–6 supplement Herrick's account of sexual relations between Thomas and his wife:

  • For where pure thoughts are led by godly feare
  • Trew love not lust at all comes there.

Read in context, the original passage considerably amplifies Herrick's description:

  • Nor hath the darkness power to vsher in
  • Feare to those sheets that know noe Sinn
  • But still thy wife with chast intention led
  • Giues thee each night a maydenhead
  • For where pure thoughts are led by godly feare
  • Trew loue not lust at all comes there
  • And in that sense the chaster thoughts commend
  • Not halfe so much the acte as end. (NY19, ll.41–8)

pg 214The text in Alston et al. does not transmit lines 45–6; Newdegate does not transmit either 41–2 or 45–6; and 1648 presents the shortest form:

  • Nor has the darknesse power to usher in
  •   Feare to those sheets, that know no sin.
  • But still thy wife, by chast intentions led,
  •   Gives thee each night a Maidenhead. (ll.38–42)

The other couplet unique to NY19 —'Then what with dreams in sleep of rurall bliss | Night grows far shorter than she is' (49–50)—begins a short praise of sleep which is not copied by the other MS witnesses or 1648. Since this praise is repeated in slightly different terms in lines 53–4, it may have been cut for this reason from both 'Alston' and 1648.

The 'Alston' version

The four witnesses here are Alston itself (YA19); Edward Denny's miscellany HM 198 (1) (HM19); Nicholas Burghe's miscellany Ashmole 38 (BDA3); and the copy on a single folio leaf among the papers of the Newdegate family of Arbury Hall in Warwickshire (WA13). They transmit a 154-line version of the poem, eight lines of which (ll. 93–8 and ll. 123–4) are omitted from the version in Hesperides. These lines follow a reference to the prevalence of vice at court (ll.90–2 of the printed text) and in YA19 read:

  • No; know thy happy & vnenuied state
  • Owes more to virtue then to fate,
  • Or fortune too, for we the first secures
  • That as herselfe, or heauen endures
  • The two last faile & by experience make
  • Knowne what they giue, againe they take.

The other three witnesses vary line 95, reading it as 'Or fortune, for what the first secures' (WA13). The lines are cut for print rather than accidentally omitted, since Herrick remodels the MS line to read 'But thou liv'st fearless; and that face ne'r shows' and conceals the break by drawing a verbal parallel with line 89 'And when thou hear'st by that too-true Report'. Another couplet found in these witnesses, 'can'st drinke in earthen cup, which nere containe | Colde hemlock, or the libards bane' (YA19, ll.123–4) is also cut from the print copy.

BDA3, HM19, and YA19 are copied from a witness that reads 'sand' (24) in error for 'land', 'weake' (25), 'bediapured' (46), 'crowes' (57), and 'braue' (107), which attributes the poem to Herrick and calls it (unsurprisingly) 'A Country Life'. YA19 is the text which is most consistently in agreement with 1648 for its minor readings and represents Tobias Alston's most painstaking copying. His copy has only two substantive variants in comparison to the other MS versions: 'happy' for 'walld' (75), corrected by Alston in a marginal note, and 'we' for 'what' (95). His minor errors consist of transcribing 'home'pg 215 as 'whome', and he has problems with minims on one occasion. Of the three copyists, he is the only one to transcribe both line 61 and the idiomatic 'there be seas' (70) accurately. Both HM19 and BDA3 omit the same part of line 61 and correct line 70's reading to 'are'. BDA3's transcriptions of 'hopes' (101) for 'thoughts' and 'selfe' (55 ) for 'reste' are unique to this witness. HM19 and BDA3 agree together at a number of times against YA19 and it is likely, in fact, that as well as taking pains with the poem's transcription, Tobias Alston had a slightly more accurate copy of their common parent.

The variants in WA13, a witness carefully copied in an elegant italic hand on the recto and verso of a folio separate, also help distinguish between authorial readings and scribal changes made to the parent of YA19 et al. WA13 is copied around 1630, the other three later in the same decade, although a miscellany copied around 1639 (as YA19 is) may of course witness an earlier version of the text than one copied in 1630. The parent of WA13 and the parent of YA19/HM19/BDA3 do represent separate sources of the same poem, which are distinguished initially by what are probably minor authorial changes accompanied by scribal changes or errors. Newdegate, for example, agrees with 1648 in reading 'enammeled' (46) against YA19 et al.' s 'bediapured' and with 1648's reading of 'surly oake' (105) rather than the more plausible 'sturdy oake' offered by YA19's group. The latter is a straightforward case of a copyist correcting what he thought was an error; the former is clearly a deliberate change. On the other hand, YA19 et al. agree with 1648 in reading 'thy both last, and better' (2) against WA13's 'though last yet better' (2). Newdegate in fact has a small number of distinctive agreements with Cave ('though last yet' (2), 'vpp' (56), 'speakes' (57), 'that' (61)), which suggests that Newdegate may be an interim revised version between Cave and the slightly amended text which is the parent of YA19, HM19, and BDA3. Alternatively, it may share a parent with that text and thus we can identify which of the latter's readings are produced by scribal rather than authorial interventions.

Table 1. Variants distinguishing the MS and print traditions of 'A Country Life'

NYI9

WA13

YA19 et al.

Hesperides

though (2)

Though (2)

Both (2)

both (2)

canst (3)

Couldst (3)

Canst (3)

Could' st (3)

but (10)

But (10)

But (10)

then (10)

mange (22)

Mange (22)

Mange (22)

plague (22)

sparing (23)

Sparinge (23)

Sparing (23)

warie (23)

breast (24)

Brass (24)

brasse (24)

Brasse (24)

but (25)

Wise (25)

weake (25)

cheap (25)

quench (26)

Quench (26)

Quench (26)

coole (26)

The first … art (27–8)

the first … art (27–8)

the first … art (27–8)

Lines 27–8 cut

pg 216

which most creates(33)

Which next creates (29)

which next creates (29)

Most makes sweet (31)

Transmits ll. 29–31

Not copied

Not copied

Transmits ll. 27–31

and in that sense … the act as End (4I–2)

Not copied

and in thy scene … the act as end (4I-2)

Lines 41–2 cut

enamelled (54)

enamelled (44)

Bedyaprd (46)

enameled (46)

woolly (60)

wooly (50)

wolly (52)

fleecie (52)

speaks (65)

speakes(55)

Crowes (57)

Warnes (57)

crackling (68)

crackling (58)

Crackling (60)

spirting (60)

God (70)

God (60)

God (62)

Jove (62)

Furthest (74)

farthest (64)

Farthest (66)

Western (66)

hye (75)

hie (65)

hie (67)

Fly (67)

Better (79)

better (69)

Better (71)

whiter (71)

wall'd (83)

wall'd (73)

Happy ^walld^(75 )

wall'd (75)

shades (88)

shades (78)

shaddowes (80)

fine Shades (80)

borrowing (89)

borrowing (97)

borrowing (81)

taking (81)

seald (91)

seald (81)

sealed (83)

deafe (83)

Text breaks off here.

Of states, of Courtes, Princes, Kings (83)

Of states of courts of kings (85)

of of States, of Countries, Courts, and kings(85)

truth (85)

States (87)

truths (87)

is vice-roye (88)

is vicegerent (90)

rules the Most (90)

Godly (89)

Godly (91)

pious (91)

transmits six lines (91–6) ('No; know … take')

transmits six lines (93–8) ('No; know … take')

Cuts lines 93–8

Strong built (99)

strong built (101)

prepar'd (95)

salute (100)

salute (102)

To take (96)

surly oake (103)

sturdy oake (105)

surly Oke (99)

bould (105)

braue (107)

bold (101)

fare (110)

fare (112)

Larr (106)

tooth (113)

tooth (115)

mouth (109)

pg 217

Does not copy lines 117–22

deere (118)

Rare (112)

Transmits couplet but omits part of l.124

Transmits couplet 'Canst drinke . .bane' (123–4)

Cuts lines 123–4

Briske (123)

bristle (131)

brisk (123)

Build (128)

build (136)

make (128)

knowe (133)

know (141)

find (133)

thoughts (139)

thoughts (147)

selves (139)

Historical Collation

Note: As it is the longer text, YA19 is used as copytext for the purposes of collation; the lines unique to NY19, VA 18, and Hesperides are collated separately.

Heading: Mr Hericks Country Life] HM19  In praise of the Country Life BDA3  The Countrie Life NY19 WA13  The Countrye Life Dr. Corbett VA18  A Country Life: To his Brother, M. Tho: Herrick 1648

1 Thrice], HM19 1648

above], HM19 1648

my soules halfe] (⁓!) NY19 VA18 (⁓⁓⁓) 1648

2 both] bost HM19  though NY19 VA18 WA 13

and] yet NY19 VA18 WA13

3 Canst] Couldst WA13 1648

with] for 1648

5 it] does not copy NY19 VA18

7 to know] how to know BDA3

10 not] lesse 1648

but] then 1648

12 Led] lett BDA3

16 confine] confine's NY19 VA 18

17 To] And 1648

18 In] And BDA3

19 such] those NY19 VA18 1648

who] that NY19 VA18

21 to the] to' th' A3  to th' NY19 VA18 WA13 1648

pg 218

22 That] the NY19 VA18

mange] plague 1648

23 sparing] warie 1648

24 More] (⁓1648

brasse] brest NY19 VA18

sand] land NY19 VA18 WA13  Land) 1648

25 weake] but NY19 VA18  wise WA13  cheap 1648

26 quench] coole 1648

1648 cuts lines 27–28; lines 29–39 in MS become lines 31–41 in 1648.

29 next] most NY19 VA18 1648

creates] makes sweet 1648

happey] country 1648

31 consenting] (⁓ BDA3

33 warme] war'd VA18

34 While loue the sentinell doth keepe.] (⁓^) 1648  Whilst NY19 VA 18

36 Thy] The NY19 VA18

37 has] hath NY19 VA18 WA13

38 the] thos BDA3 NY19 VA18 1648

that] which WA13

NY19 and VA18 supply an additional couplet after line 40: For where pure thoughts are led by godly feare | Trew loue not lust at all comes there. 1648 and WA13 omit lines 41–2.

41 thy] that NY19 VA18

scene] sence BDA3 HM19 NY19 VA18

her] the NY19 VA18

43 damaske] damaskt WA13 1648

crawlinge] peebly 1648

44 Sweeten] Sweetens VA18

45 bedyaprd] enamelled NY19 VA18 WA13 1648

47 there] thee NY19 VA18

whilest] while BDA3 HM19 NY19

49 ye] you BDA3 HM19  thou NY19 VA18

here] hear'st NY19 VA18

with] by 1648

50 wooed] woe HM19

pg 219

51 While] Whilst NY19 VA18

vowes] comes 1648

52 rauenous] rav'ning 1648

wolfe] wolves HM19 1648

wolly] fleecie 1648

53 that] which NY19 VA18 WA13

55 thes] those HM19

so] in VA18

rest] selfe BDA3

56 rise] vp NY19 VA18 WA13

57 Crowes] Speakes NY19 VA18 WA13  Warnes 1648

doth] to HM19  to ^dost^ NY19  dost VA18 1648

59 late] does not copy WA13

60 crackling] spirting- 1648

61 Which] That NY19 VA18 WA13

donne] downe BDA3

this] thus BDA3

sentence] does not copy BDA3 HM19

62 God] Jove 1648

63 daly] holy WA13

64 desperate] desp'rate 1648

65 hath] has 1648

66 farthest] Western 1648

67 back] home NY19 VA 18

tortured with fear] (⁓ ⁓ fears) 1648

hie] lye VA18 fly 1648

69 securuer] securest NY19 VA18 1648

70 beleiueth] beleue'st BDA3 HM19 NY19 VA18 WA13 1648

be] are BDA3 HM19 NY19 VA18

71 when] but NY19 VA18  while 1648

better] whiter 1648

72 seest] sees NY19 VA18 1648

those] these NY19 VA18 WA13 1648

73 safe] sure WA13

pg 220

75 happy ^walld^ ] walld Ω‎

77 or] ore BDA3

or] ore BDA3

79 Viewing] Seeing 1648

those] the HM19 NY19 VA18

painted] parted NY19 VA18

80 there] those 1648

shaddowes] shades NY19 VA18 WA13  fine shades 1648

81 thy] their NY19 VA18

borowing] taking small 1648

82 Trauell] trauayle VA18

NY19 and VAi8's text ends here.

83 sealed] deafe 1648

84 Farre more with wonder then with feare] () 1648

85 Fame] BDA3 italicizes

tells] tell WA13 1648

of] thee BDA3

of courtes] of countries, Courts 1648

of kings] Of Princes, kings WA13  and Kings; 1648

86 And] thow HM19

beleeuest] believe WA13 1648

87 those] this WA13 these 1648

states] truth WA13 truths 1648

thy] the BDA3

89 too] twice HM19

90 is] in WA13 rules 1648

vicegerent] the Vice-roy WA13  the Most 1648

at] in WA13  or All 1648

the] at 1648

91 godly] pious 1648

though thou not there] (⁓) HM19 1648

92 Vertue] That WA13

had] Vertue WA13

moued] moued in BDA3

and moued her spheare] omits WA13

1648 does not copy lines 93–8

pg 221

93 No] Nor BDA3

95 Or] And HM19

too] does not copy WA13

we] what BDA3 HM19 WA13

99 nere] not BDA3 HM19 WA13  liv'st 1648

fearest them] fearlesse 1648

not] ne're BDA3 HM19 WA13 1648

101 strong built] () BDA3 HM19  prepar'd 1648

doth] dost BDA3 HM19 WA13 1648

102 For to salute her] To take her by the 1648

103 the] does not copy BDA3

105 sturdy] surly WA13 1648

106 still growes] Growes still WA13 1648

107 braue] bould WA13 1648

center like] Center-like HM19 1648

vnmoued] immovd HM19

110 come] comes 1648

111 thy] they WA13

are] now are BDA3

112 fare] Larr 1648

115 tooth] mouth 1648

WA13 omits lines 117–22.

117 the] that BDA3 HM19 1648

cheere] fare 1648

118 deere] rare 1648

119 Mint] Beets 1648

eate] date BDA3

120 sower] such HM19

as] is BDA3

121 Whilst] While BDA3 1648

bids] makes 1648

my] thy HM19 1648

1648 cuts lines 123–4.

124 libards bane] omits WA13

pg 222

125 is] doest HM19

it] thow HM19  ytt fitt BDA3

thou] that WA13 1648

keep'st] keepe HM19

127 sense] feare WA13

dearth] death WA13

which] ( HM19 WA13

should] ( BDA3  since HM19

sinns] sin WA13 1648

it] )BDA3 HM19 WA13

128 see't] see BDA3

131 bristle] briske WA13 1648

feast] feed BDA3

132 Till] if till BDA3

133 blest] ()BDA3

134 a] the HM19

138 (Councell] ^⁓ WA13

end)] ⁓^ HM19 WA13

139 comming] conning BDA3 HM19 WA13 1648

140 fly] shun 1648

141 knows] knowe BDA3 HM19 WA13  find 1648

142 thy] the WA13

tedders] tothers WA13

143 neate] close 1648

firme, close, and true] and wisely true 1648

144 Thy] to thy WA13 to thine BDA3 HM19 1648

147 doe] to WA13 1648

your] thy HM19

thoughts] selves 1648

148 WA13 and 1648 italicize.

149 blest, thrice happy paire] (⁓^ ⁓ ⁓ ⁓) WA13

150 to one] t'th' one HM19

the others] th'others BDA3 HM19 1648

152 death] Life WA13

one] and HM19

pg 223

153 then] when 1648

let faith so prompt your liues] in such assurance live 1648

you] ye 1648

154 Not] Nor WA13 1648

Subscription: Finis] WA13  finis Mr Robt Hericke BDA3  Cætera desunt NY19  Cætera desideranta VA18 no subscription HM19

Historical collation of NY19, ll. 29–32

29 But] Thus 1648

and] to 1648

30 only] chiefly 1648

31 barking] ⁓ of VA18

meanly] wisely 1648

32 with] Lesse ⁓ 1648

yet] then 1648

MS 2 Mistresse Elizabeth Wheeler, under the name of the lost Shepardesse

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library Osborn b 52/2, p. 122 ; Osborn b 213, p.16; Bodleian Library MS Don.c.57. f.97r; Rawlinson.poet.65, f.30v; British Library Add. MS 27879, ff.97v-98r; Add. 53723, f.78r; Harley 3511, f.48r—v; Harley MS 3991,f.43r; William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California Los Angeles, fMS.1960.022 ff.3v–4r; MS.1950.024, p.1; Folger Shakespeare Library, MS V.a.169, Part II, f.15r; STC 4547, f.1r; National Library of Scotland, Adv. MS. 19.3.4, f.12r; New York Public Library, Arents Collection, S288, pp. 31–2; Music Division, Drexel MS 4257, No.38; University of Glasgow, MSS Euing R.d.58,f.3v; Euing R.d.59,f.3v; Euing R.d.60,f.3v

Print: Thomas Carew, Poems (London: Printed for Thomas Walkley, 1640), sig. M5b-M6a; The Academy of Complements 6th edn (London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, 1645), pp. 164–7 (Wing G1401A);1648,p.120 (sig.I4b—I5a); Select Musicall Ayres and Dialogues (London: Printed for John Playford, 1652),p.8.

Although the present editors merely describe the relationship among the MS witnesses of Lawes's musical setting, these could easily be collated with the exception of Bodleian Don.c.57(BD57), which is in lute tablature, and Drexel MS 4257, No. 38, which is in a different key and notated in half the note values of the other settings. Likewise, the setting of Euing MSS, which is for three voices, is described below and could easily be collated with D & M 26 and 36.

Sources Recorded

D & M 6 Pt 1;D&M 14; D&M 26; D&M 14 (29); D&M 30; The Academy of Complements (1646), pp. 200–1 (and five subsequent edns); The Academy of Complements (London: Printed for R.Parker,1684), pp.272—3.]

pg 224Transmissional History

This poem is written by 1613 but its earliest surviving witnesses date from the late 1630s, by which time the lyric already appears to have been much amended, both authorially and by copying errors and sophistications. We present the versions in order of length, starting with the longest, a 26-line text.7 1648 transmits a version of the shortest, a 22-line text, as does Henry Lawes's autograph BL Add. MS 53723 (BL53), and it would seem that 1648 is essentially the version Lawes used or possibly created with Herrick. There is textual evidence of a second authorized version found in two related 24-line witnesses which transmit an authoritative reading of l.22. One possibility is that Herrick progressively shortened this poem, his attention focusing each time on ll. 13–16, the weakest in the poem, and on l.22, which marks the final decisive shift in the poem's tone and argument. An alternative possibility, given that there is no witness to a 26-line version before 1640, is that all or part of lines 13–16 is a scribal interpolation made early in the poem's circulation. We might assume that the shortest text was created for a musical setting, but the musical discussion below notes that a 22-line text is unique within the Lawes/Herrick repertoire and it evidently had to be manipulated to fit the setting in a manner which Herrick's other songs did not. The setting itself, a dance-song, has a balletic quality but, whether set for one or three voices, its lack of melodic and harmonic variation (particularly since it was intended to be performed six and a half times) means that much of its long-lived popularity was probably owed to Herrick's lyric rather than Lawes's arrangement.

The 26-line version

There are six witnesses to the 26-line version. The additional lines form ll. 13–16 of all these witnesses, which read in 1640, the earliest of them:

  • In brightest lilies that there stand
  • The emblems of her whiter hands
  • In yonder rising hill there smells
  • Such sweets as in her bosome dwells

Three of the six might be described as the 'Carew' group since two are copied from or draw on the text of the third as it is printed in Thomas Carew's posthumous Poems (Carew). Scott Nixon argues that Carew comprises an opening section that prints a reasonably reliable MS collection of Carew's poems and a second (pp.168–206 = sig. M4a-O7b) which prints a verse miscellany that he suggests probably circulated with the main Carew MS (see the transmissional history to MS 21). The collections are conflated in print and all contents attributed erroneously to Carew. Carew's copy of 'Elizabeth Wheeler', retitled 'The Enquiry', is contained in this second part. Harleypg 225 3511 (BLH3) uses the same title and its copyist, Arthur Capel (1631–83), appears to have amended an existing MS copy using the text of Carew. Similarly, the anonymous late seventeenth-century miscellany BL Add. MS 27879 (BL79) attributes the poem to Carew and directs the reader in a marginal note to Carew; its text is almost (but not quite) identical to it. All three agree in reading 'shall' twice (at lines 23 and 25), both readings shared with another witness to the 26-line version, BL Harley 3991 (BLH9), an anonymous miscellany in English and French dated by Beal to the mid-century.8

The use of the modal verb in these lines distinguishes the 26-line version; the more emphatic 'must' is consistently used by witnesses to the 24- and 22-line versions including 1648. The 26-line version also consistently reads 'twinkling' (24) rather than the authoritative 'turning'. Two further witnesses to a 26-line version date to the second half of the century: Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.65 (BD65) and Yale Osborn b213 (YA21).9 YA21 agrees with Carew and BL79 in reading 'brightest lillies' (13) whereas BLH9 and BD65 struggle with the line, BLH9 reading 'yonder lilly' and BD65 conflating two lines to produce 'on yonder rising hill', as both copyists strove to get to grips with a poor quality source.10 One notable variant in BLH9 is its reading 'the true resemblances' (22), which agrees only with 1648, but since there is no evidence to suggest that it follows a path of transmission separate to the other five witnesses in its group, the copyist has either made a lucky guess or taken the reading from 1648.

The 24-line version

The pair of witnesses to the 24-line version—Clark MS.1950.024 (CL24) and NYPL Arents S288 (NYS2)—are found in miscellanies of an early date, the earliest in fact of all the witnesses. CL24 is signed by 'Michaell Keepis. anno Dom: 1636 ffebruarie 13th. me tenet' and Arents S288 is signed on the inside board by Hugh Barrow, who may have also compiled the miscellany. Both witnesses agree exclusively together in reading 'the too true types fond man of thee' which may be an earlier version of 1648's l. 18 'the true resemblances of thee'. Their parent also omits ll.15–16 and swops ll.11–12 with ll.13–14 so that in this version the blazon concludes with a version of the lines 'In bloome of Peach, in Roses Budd | There wave the streamers of her blood.' The pair also read 'there thou hast' (8) rather than 'there thou maist find', the reading used by thepg 226 26-line witnesses and prefer 'At the which' (21) to the longer group's 'with that'. Since all the 22-line witnesses including 1648 read 'at which', this too suggests that this version derives from an authorized text, even if the surviving witnesses are clearly at some distance from it. Both contain clear errors and unlikely readings and both copyists evidently were using a copy they found difficult to read. Their joint parent varied from all surviving witnesses at l.7, but each copyist renders the variant reading differently, CL24 as 'the smirk Tulipp' and NYS2 as 'the sweetest July', the latter a plausible albeit careless misreading of 'Tulip'. Keepis' miscellany calls the poem 'A louers contemplation of his Mrs' and Barrow's more simply 'On his Mrs'.

Beal dates Barrow's miscellany to approximately 1638. However, Keepis' MS is clearly older than 1636. It is in two hands, the first hand copying the poems from pp. 1—21 and again from pp. 28—32. The miscellany is also signed 'fran: wyrley', whom Jeremy Maule proposes as the principal compiler.11 'The Lost Shepherdess' is the first poem in this MS and the same hand copies several poems datable to the 1620s. Several are by Henry Blount, including a Gray's Inn poem, and since Blount entered Gray's Inn in 1620 (ODNB) and in 1629 left England for three years to travel, this offers an approximate span of dates for these poems early in the MS; the evidence of John Ford's elegy for John Fletcher (d. 1625) on pp. 13—14 and Herrick's 'Pastoral on the birth of Prince Charles' (b.1631) on p. 16 date this section to 1625—1631, assuming that these poems are entered contemporaneously with the events they commemorate.

The 22-line version

The 24-line witnesses' joint reading of l.22 'The too true types fond man of thee' also links them to the first of the 22-line versions, found in a c.1639 songbook Clark Library fMS.1960.022 (formerly C6967M4) (CL22), which reads 'the truest tipes fond man of thee'. CL22 reads consistently with Lawes's autograph with the exception of this line and the Lawes MS's rendering of it as 'fond man resemblances of thee' is authoritative since it appears in 1648 in slightly revised form as 'the true resemblances of thee'. CL 22 may then transmit an earlier version of the setting that Lawes fair-copies into his autograph. The copyist of CL22 had, as we have shown elsewhere, privileged access to the work of William Lawes (see MS 47), and so may have had access to an earlier version of this song text. The reviser of this line for the purpose of singing it, whether Herrick, Lawes, or both, might primarily have sought to ensure that the singer sustained so that it contrasted with the first line of this stanza, which naturally elicited a mid-line interruption after 'At which I stop'd'. Unlike all the other stanzas, the end of the first and second line in the fifth elide; and the second line of the fifth stanza in Lawes's MS ('fond man resemblances of thee') better ensures that it is sung in one breath, whereas the version of this line in CL22—'the truest tipes fond man of thee'—could occasion apg 227 break mid-phrase after 'tipes'. The implementation in all four phrases of the song of a homogeneous rhythmic pattern comprising a mid-phrase hemiola—an almost (if not entirely) undetected feature in later versions of the ayre—also suggests that the version in CL22 pre-dates Lawes's fair copy in BL53.

Whilst the text of 1648 exhibits two characteristics typical of Herrick's revision for print—unique print variants and an MS reading drawn from a version other than his base text—the base text is nonetheless very similar to that witnessed in Lawes's autograph. It is curious that in the MS and print witnesses the 22-line version of the poem was set to music rather than the 24-line version because the last two lines would, presumably, have had to have been sung to the last half of the musical setting. Though it was not uncommon for the last line(s) of a song to be repeated (for instance, the last line of each stanza in 'A Willow Garland'—likewise a strophic setting by Henry Lawes—was repeated), the inclusion of an additional half a stanza is a unique feature of a strophic song whose text is by Herrick. This suggests, then, that Herrick rather than Lawes determined the length of the poem (meaning that some parts—or features—of the poetic text were not developed together with the setting). CL22 is dated 'June the ffirst 1639' on its flyleaf, and there is nothing else to date this MS, but given the agreements between it and Lawes's autograph, which is copied c.1639—41, it is more likely that the 1639 date constitutes a terminus a quo for its compilation.12

It is also the 22-line version that survives in seven later witnesses: Humphrey Moseley's sixth edition of his bestselling The Academy of Complements (1645B); Playford's print Select Ayres and Dialogues (1652A); the Bodleian songbook, Don.c.57 (BD57); NYPL Drexel 4257 (NYD2), now known as John Gamble's songbook; copies of the words only in a Scottish verse miscellany NLS MS 19.3.4 (NLS1), dated by Beal to 1653; the 1650s verse miscellany Folger V.a.169 Part II (FL19); and Robert Pye's late seventeenth-century verse and prose miscellany Yale Osborn b 52/2 (YA52).

The setting is number 155 in BL53 and is second last in the volume's main sequence of Herrick's lyrics (141, 144—7, 150—1, 155, 160), datable to some point between 1637 and 1643.13 Lawes' setting occurs again in BD57 as the tenth of the thirteen musical settings for treble and lute tablature, rather than for treble and bass, which, although transcribed by the MS's principal hand, are placed towards the back. Out of these thirteen, six are definitely by Henry Lawes (suggesting that they were purposefully grouped together) and of these six, five are included in music prints which date from 1652 or later.14 The final eleven lines of its text are copied from 1648 (which includes a deletion of the word 'rich' from l. 11 of the copyist's text and the insertion of the printed text's reading). It also supplies a variant unique to 1648—'yond Carnation'—in the margin.pg 228 The lines and variant from 1648 are entered in the same hand but in a slightly lighter shade of ink to that of the opening three stanzas (and the lyrics on the following page) so they have been added later by the scribe returning to what was obviously a defective copy, but it is reasonable to assume that this entry in BD57 was completed relatively soon after the first copying, given that neither the hand nor pen changes. Scholars have proposed dates ranging between 1631 and 1650 for the compilation of this MS, and what we can confidently assume is that the MS's main compiler is still adding to it in 1648.15

Playford prints Lawes's autograph setting in a 1652 print in the section 'Select Ayres to sing to the Theorbo and Basse Violl' (1652A). However, his text differs from that in Lawes's autograph. It begins with 'Amidst' rather than 'Amongst' the mirtles and the remainder of the text agrees most closely with that printed in the sixth edition of Humphrey Moseley's The Academy of Complements.16 Both read 'even in the turning of an eye' (24) (a reading shared with the 26-line witnesses) and uniquely 'As do those flowers when knit together' (26). It is possible that Playford takes the lyric from Moseley's text, an example of the overlap between the output of these two highly successful publishers of royalist lyrics. Moreover, Moseley's 22-line text also confirms that this version is being circulated and performed—both as a reading and as the song text of Lawes's ayre—by the mid-1640s.

Playford's prints are also the sources for two other MS witnesses. 'The Lost Shepherdess' is one of a number of lyrics which the copyists of the 1650s miscellany FL19 transcribe from 1652A or the 1653 edition of the same publication (1653B), consistently omitting the settings. It copies these prints' error of 'then' (l.5) and agrees with them throughout except in l.9, where FL19 probably corrects 'Fancy' to 'Pancy' although the letter form is ambiguous and unlike the copyist's regular 'F' or 'P'.17 Another partial copy, Folger STC 4547 (F4547), is also made from a Playford source. This witness is entered on one of a pair of folio leaves of MS verse copied 'in a neat roman hand, at the end of a printed exemplum of Thomas Campion's The First Booke of Ayres (London, [1613?]) bound with The third and fourth booke of Aires (London, [1617]), in panelled calf'.18 The sixteen lines of MS 2 found here may be taken from 1652A or 1653B since all three witnesses agree in reading 'Amidst' (1), 'then' (5), and 'and' (18), the latter two peculiar to the Playford prints and the MS copies made from them.pg 229 However, a later Playford print is the more likely source. The copyist transcribes eight songs and six of these are found in Playford's The Musical Companion (London, 1673) (D & M 36), including a 16-line copy of 'Amidst the Mirtles' which agrees consistently with F4547's copy.19

Lawes's setting also appears as no. 38 in NYD2, a collection of 243 songs owned in 1659 by the composer John Gamble.20 It is worth noting that here the presence of Townshend's lyric immediately after Herrick's as no. 39 (to be sung to a separately-transcribed yet almost identical version of no. 38's ayre) suggests a strong connection between this MS and BL53, in which Townshend's answer-poem is transcribed immediately underneath Herrick's poem set by Lawes with the note: 'Second Dittye to the former Ayre'.21 It seems likely, then, in spite of myriad textual and musical differences between the versions of the setting in BL53 and NYD2, that they both derive from the same source. (Such a relationship between the versions of 'Amidst the myrtles' in BL53 and NYD2 accords with that between the two versions of MS52, a song like-wise transcribed in both of these MSS.) This source is probably a descendant of the archetype from which CL22 derives. (It is unlikely that CL22 is the archetype because the vocal line of 'the Lost Shepherdess' contains an obvious error in bar 1—the third note is at the pitch of d" instead of e"—which remains uncorrected; this mistake is not transmitted by either NYD2 or BL53.)

The volume (NYD2) is compiled by three hands: the first, if Charles Hughes is to be believed, is an earlier hand, which Jorgens describes as a 'firm, bold, but well-controlled secretary hand'.22 'Mistress Elizabeth Wheeler' is the first poem entered by what Jorgens identifies as the second hand in the MS, a 'looser and somewhat lighter secretary hand', before a third hand begins at no. 78, although it completes no. 46, which is left unfinished by the second hand.23 The MS is not compiled chronologically and Jorgens notes that one table of contents is completed to no. 179 by the first hand; she therefore concludes that either all three hands had access to the MS at the same time, orpg 230 the second and third hands undertook to enter all the songs listed by the first. The former is the more plausible scenario, especially as Hughes notes that both the first and second hands copy texts from 1652A into the MS.24 Vincent Duckles' critical edition proposes that the first hand might be that of Ambrose Beeland, to whom Gamble was apprenticed in the 1640s.25 Beeland, a theatre musician, was sworn into the King's Music as a violinist in 1640, where he worked alongside both William and Henry Lawes and Nicholas Lanier, and all three composers are represented here, Henry Lawes's settings taking particular prominence. Both Jorgens and Duckles believe the third hand is that of Gamble himself, but the second hand remains unidentified. The date of 1659 might indicate that this is when Gamble takes or is given the book as his own and all the songs from no. 177 onwards, a section that also includes all of Gamble's own songs, are entered in his hand.26

However, NYD2's text of MS 2 is not taken from 1652A (or any other of Playford's prints) since it copies none of the distinctive errors or readings of Playford's text with the exception of 'Amidst', an alteration which a musician might easily have made independently (see n. 16 above) and its many unique variants also distinguish it from the other 22-line sources. Its text is also a distinctive and elegant one, evidently amended for singing, which reads 'and then I stopt', a more abrupt break than Lawes's 'at which I stop'd' that better captures a sense of the speaker's shock, and it concludes with what was already an archaic term 'inknit together', a graceful conclusion, though lacking the plaintive quality of the authorial 'ere'. Another witness to the same source used by NYD2 survives in NLS1. These two have a pair of agreements ('yon' (9) and 'run' (9)) which indicate a relationship—though clearly a distant one—between them. NLS1 renames 'The Lost Shepherdess' 'Sonnett 8' and in fact only one witness to the 22-line version gives no indication of a musical origin, the untitled copy in YA52. Pye includes a large number of dated prose texts in approximate chronological order in his miscellany, and his copy of the poem is entered after a satire on the prorogation of Parliament dated 19 December 1671 and is followed immediately by the poem 'Advice to a Painter to Draw the Duke by' ('Spread a large Canvas Painter to contain'), printed in 1673.27

A final witness to this poem is a musical setting for three voices (but for only four lines) which John Playford transcribed into his own partbooks (Glasgow MSS R.d.58–60) and which he subsequently printed in The Musical Companion (1667; D & M 26), confirmed by their shared reading of 'entred talke' (2) against 1652A's 'enter pg 231talke'. The presence of the same conjunctive error (g' instead of a' in bar 14 of the Cantus Secundus) in the copies of the three-voice setting in D & M 26 and the reprints 34 and 36 shows that they were set with reference (and strict adherence) to the former.28 However, the three-voice musical setting by Lawes in GW58–60 and D & M 26, 34, and 36 was first published as 'Thou shepherd'—a song 'for one, two or three voyces' together with a basso continuo part—in Lawes's 1653 print, D & M 5, and the text of MS 2 was substituted by Playford.29 In arguing both that the first twenty folios of GW58–61 could date from late 1659 or early 1660 and that one song, 'Carolus Catharina rex et regina', although now missing from the MS, was added in or after 1662 but before 1667, Spink implies that Playford ordered his 'loose papers' chronologically. For Spink, then, it would seem likely that 'Amidst the Mirtles', the fourth item in the set of MS partbooks, was entered around this date.30

Historical Collation

Note: In relation to the Playford partbooks, only the text in Glasgow Euing R.d. 59, f. 3v is collated here as it is the only partbook to have the first four lines in full.

Heading:31 The Enquiry] Amongst the Mirtles  BL79 A louers contemplation of his Mistress CL24  Sonnett 8 NLS1  A Song 1645B On his Mistress NYS2  Mrs. Eliz. Wheeler, under the Name of the Lost Shepardesse 1648 No title BD57 BD65 BL53 BLH9 CL22 F4547 FL19 GW59 NYD2 YA21 YA52 1652A

1 Amongst] Amidst BLH3 FL19 GW58 NYD2 1652A F4547  Amonge BL53 BD57 1648  Amongst YA52  All in NLS1  Within BLH9

myrtles] woods NYS2

walk't] walk'd BL53 CL24 NLS1 NYS2 YA52  walke F4547 FL19 GW58 1652A

pg 232

2 Love and] Alone, I 1645B

my sighes] with ⁓ ⁓ 1645B ⁓ selfe BD65 BLH9 CL22 NYD2 YA21 ⁓ thoughts BL79 I NYS2

thus] sights this BL79  does not copy NLS1

intertalk't] Enter-talk'd BL53 YA52  enter talke FL19 1652A  enterd talke BD65 GW59 F4547 NYD2  talkt 1645B  together talked NLS1  intertalked NYS2 CL24

3 (said I] then NYS2 Ω‎ do not copy )

(distresse)] Ω‎ do not copy)

4 may] I BD57 BD65 BL53 BLH3 CL22 CL24 F4547 GW59 NLS1 NLS2 YA21 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A shall BLH9

I] may BD57 BD65 BL53 BLH3 CL22 CL24 F4547 NLS2 YA21 1645B 1648 1652A  Might YA52  shall NLS1

Shepheardesse] sweet mistress BLH9

Line 4 in BL79 is lost following the first word. GW5860's copies end here.

5 Thou] Ah BD65  why NLS1  You NYS2  Then FL19 F4547 1645B 1652A

(said] does not copy YA21  Ω‎ does not copy )

(love)] he NYS2  Ω‎ does not copy )

knowst] knowe BL79

this] ⁓; FL19 NLS1  ⁓? 1648

6 good] fair [?] BD65  fayre NYS2 YA52  sweet 1648

7 yonder] the smirke CL24  the sweetest NYS2  <yond> BD57 yond' 1648

tulip] July NYS2  <Carnation> BD57  Carnation 1648

seeke] see NLS1

8 There] and ⁓ BLH9  then BLH3  YA52 where  NLS1

thou] may BD65  maist BLH3  there BLH9

maist] hast CL24 NYS2  may BL79  shalt BL53 CL22 FL19 F4547 NLS1 NYD2 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A  thou'lt BLH9  you BD65  thou BLH3

find] haue BLH3 BL53  and NYS2  does not copy CL24  NYS2

lip] faire NLS1  face NYS2

her] and BD57 BD65 BLH3 BLH9 FL19 NYS2 1645B 1648 1652A F4547

cheeke] cheeks NYS2  Beauty NLS1

F4547 does not copy ll. 9–16.

9 yon] that BD57 BD65 BL53 CL22 CL24 FL19 YA52 1645B 1648 1652

the BLH3 NYS2  Yonder BL79

pansie] Fancy 1652A  Fancy[?] FL19

by] goe by YA21

10 There] Where NLS1

thou] may BD65  shalt BLH9 FL19 1652A

pg 233shalt] shall BL79  shalt BLH3  thou BLH9  FL19  YA52  1652

[y]ou BD65  maist BD57  do not copy CL24 NYS2

have] finde BD57 BD65 BLH9 FL19 NLS1 NYD2 YA21 1645B 1652A  find'st CL24 hast NYS2

Ll. 11–12 in CL24 and NYS2 are swopped with ll. 13–14 in MS. Their positions are reversed here for ease of collation.

11 bloome] balme NYD2

peach] pease NYS2

in] and BD65 BL79 NLS1 1648

rosie] roses> BD57 BL53 BLH3 CL22 CL24 FL19 NYD2 NYS2 YA21 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A  Rose NLS1

bud] or bud NLS1

12 There] does not copy BLH9

wave] waues BD65 BL53 CL22 CL24 NYS2 YA52 1645B 1648  run NYD2 runs NLS1  does not copy BLH9

streames] BL53 FL19 NYS2 1652A  Strainer CL24  streamer BD57 CL22 YA52 1648  streamers BD65 BL79 BLH3 BLH9 NLS1 NYD4 YA21 1640 1646

blood] pure Blood NYS2  purer blood BLH9 BD57 BL53 CL22 FL19 NLS1 NYD2 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A omit ll.13–14.

13 In] On BD65  And CL24 NYS2

brightest] in that CL24  in the NYS2  higher BLH3  yonder BD65 BLH9

lillies] lilly BLH9  rising BD65

that] hill BD65  white NYS2  smoother CL24

there] her NYS2  doth BLH9  heare BL79  does not copy CL24

stands] skin CL24 NYS2  stand BLH9 BL79

14 The] Then NYS2  There CL24

emblems] Emblem BLH9 YA21  thou CL24 NYS2

of] hast CL24 NYS2

whiter] necke CL24  lip NYS2

hands] hand BLH9  her chin CL24 NYS2

BD57 BL53 CL22 CL24 FL19 NLS1 NYD2 NYS2 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A omit ll. 15–16

15 smells] smell BLH3  swells BL79 BLH9

BD65 reads ffor love she always(?) keeps her talk (?)

16 sweets] thoughts BD65

dwells] walk BD65

17 'Tis] It is BL79  why NLS1

true] foole NLS1  here CL22

(said I)] ^⁓^ Ω‎ ⁓ Loue NLS1

18 I] And FL19 F4547 NLS1 1652A

to pluck] and pluckt BLH9 F4547 FL19 NYS2 YA21 1645B 1652A  ⁓ pull NLS1

pg 234

19 To] Of BLH3 NYD2

make] give NLS1  parts BLH3 NYD2

of] a BLH9 F4547 FL19 1652A  them NLS   to BLH3 NYD2

parts] part F4547 FL19 1652A  all NLS1  make BLH3 NYD2  cord BLH9

a] an BD57 BD65 BL53 CL22 CL24 NLS1 NYS2 1648  and BLH9

20 on] of BD65

a] the NYD2 NYS2

all] they BD65

was] were BD57 BD65 BL53 CL24 NLS1 NYD2 NYS2 1648

21 With that] At which BD57 BD65 BL53 CL22 F4547 FL19 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A  At the which CL24 NYS2  And then NYD2

I] and NYS2 does not copy CL24

stopt] ⁓. BD57⁓; FL19 NYD2 1648  ⁓; 1652A  stoopt BLH3  stopp CL24 toy NYS2

said love] (⁓ ⁓) NYS2

these] those NYS2

22 (Fond man)] ^⁓⁓^ BD65 BL27 BL53 BLH3 FL19 F4547 NYD2 YA52 1645B 1652A  the true BD57 BLH9 1648  the truest CL22 The too true CL24 NYS2

resemblances] tipes fond man CL22 CL24  tipe fond man NYS2

thee] yee NYS2

23 And] for BD57 BD65 BL53 BLH9 CL24 F4547 FL19 NYD2 NYS2 YA21 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A

these] the BD65  those BL27

thy] does not copy BD65 these NYD2

joyes] Joy F4547 FL19 NYS2 1645B 1652A  fade BD65

shall] must BD57 BD65 BL53 CL22 CL24 F4547 FL19 NYD2 NYS2 YA21 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A  and BD65

24 Even] And BL53 CL24 NYD2 YA52 1648  All BD65 CL22  As BD57

the] illeg. YA52

twinkling] turning BD57 BL53 CL22 CL24 F4547 FL19 NYS2 1645B 1648 1652A

F4547 does not copy ll. 25–6

25 And] all BLH9 YA52  So BD65  Then NYD2

all] and all BLH9

thy] the NYS2 YA21

of] in BLH9

shall] must BD57 BD65 BL53 CL22 CL24 FL19 NYD2 NYS2 YA21 YA52 1645B 1648 1652A

pg 235

26 Like] As do FL19 YA21 1645B 1652A

these] those BD57 BD65 FL19 NYS2 1645B 1648 1652A

short sweets] Flowers FL19 YA21 1645B 1652A  short partes CL22

Thus] are BD65 CL22 YA52  ere BD57 BL53 1648  heare CL24 NYS2  soe BL79  thou BLH9  when FL19 1645B 1652  do not copy BD65 NYD2

knit] gott'st BLH9 inknit NYD2

Subscription: [Thomas Carew] Thomas Carew BL79 Henry Lawes BL53 ingot[o] BD65  no subscription BD57 BLH3 BLH9 CL22 CL24 FL19 GW58–60 NLS1 NYD2 NYS2 YA21 YA52 1640 1645B 1652A

MS 3 Upon Mistress Elizabeth Wheeler, under the name of Amarillis

Sources Collated:

MS: British Library Add. MS 11608, ff. 10v–11r; Add. MS 29396, ff. 27v–28r; Add. MS 53723, f. 73r; Egerton MS 2013, f. 22r–v; Bodleian Library MS Don.c.57, ff. 94v–95r

Print: 1648, p. 49 (sig. E1a)

Transmissional History

The text and Henry Lawes's setting of it appear in five closely related witnesses. Mary Chan has traced the connections between three of these—John Hilton's MS BL Add. 11608 (BL11), Don.c.57 (BD57), and Egerton 2013 (BLE2)—to a group of musicians that included Lawes, who met and apparently performed these works in front of London audiences in the late 1640s and early 1650s (see 1. lxi and 2.17). In relation to BL11 in particular Chan found that '[t]he impression the MS gives of being a book for immediate use by a number of people, a working copy, is very strong'.32 She notes that the settings of 'Amarillis' in both BLE2 and BL11 are 'very similar despite different ascriptions' and contain the 'same error in note values'.33 Moreover, some evidence suggests that the version in BLE2 is copied from BL11. Although Chan is not more specific, the 'error' is in the first system (in BL11) and in the first and second systems (in BLE2) of the second folio on which both these settings were transcribed and consists of two differences which should be considered as distinct. The first is the alteration to the values of the notes which are set monosyllabically to the word 'markinge' in bar 20. While in Lawes's autograph and in the fourth witness BL Add. 29396 (BL29), the songbook of Lawes's close friend Edward Lowe, these two notes are a dotted crotchet and quaver, in both versions in BLE2 and BL11 they are a minim tied over the barline to a dotted quaver followed by a semiquaver, making one part of Chan's 'error' a conjunctive variant. While the second part of the 'error' which swiftly follows (for 'either' is set monosyllabically to a dotted quaver followed by a semiquaver in the versions in BLE2 and BL11) could have arisen in BLE2 because of the system break, or in both MSS because of the elongation of the first syllable ofpg 236 'markinge', this metrical error could also be understood as a conjunctive variant, since all five MSS share this reading.34

These are not the only two musical differences which the versions of this song in BL11 and BLE2 share: the same rhythmic variants in the voice part occur in bars 6–8. Furthermore, the placement of the barlines in both these MSS, for the most part, concurs. When the barring in BLE2 differs from BL11's in bars 9–13, the erroneous insertion (and subsequent crossing out) of a barline in mid bar 12 in the former MS, where one actually occurs in the latter MS, strengthens the theory that the version in BLE2 was copied from that in BL11.35 The dating of both these MSS, and the position in which this version is entered into BL11, corroborates this. In BL11, 'Upon Mistress Wheeler, under the name of Amarillis' is the eleventh of the twelve numbered songs entered consecutively at the start of the MS. (The first song on the first folio of the MS, however, is now missing.) Mary Chan argues that the MS was probably begun in the early 1640s. While song no. 2 dates from 1641 and no. 5 from 1640, four songs by Wilson entered after this sequence of twelve (the first appears on ff. 21v–22r) are attributed to 'Dr.', meaning that this composer's songs were entered after 1645, the year he gained his doctorate from Oxford.36 As all the songs in the first part of the MS appear to be entered consecutively and in rough chronological order, 'Amarillis' was probably entered into BL11 between 1641 and 1645 and BLE2 appears to be the later MS.37

While Spink dates the song entries in BLE2 only to before 1650, Chan argues that the fact that only one song in this MS is ascribed to William Lawes implies that it was compiled after the composer's death in 1645.38 However, there are some caveats. Separative variants between these two versions of the song do occur, even in the treble part of the version in BLE2. These are mainly in bars 9–12 and could either suggest that in both versions the scribe was trying to rectify a metrical error in the parent copy of both, or that BLE2 was here being transcribed aurally, which led to the presence of different rhythmic variants in these bars, and this is the case for some of the other songs BLE2 transcribes (see MS 47). An ascription to Henry Lawes appears in BL11 but not in BLE2, and instead a later hand erroneously attributes the setting to 'Jo: Willson'.

pg 237There are very few textual variants and the only one of any significance is the error of 'spring' (1) shared by BL11, BLE2, and BL29. If we also take into account the musical variants (or errors), it appears that the version of 'Amarillis' in BL29 is copied from a parent that contains the reading 'spring' and musical variants similar to those then found in BL11 and BLE2 (such as the shortening of the value of the note set to the word 'fled' by a third in bar 7), but if BL11 is not, in fact, the parent of BLE2, there may be an intervening MS between this common parent and BL11 and BLE2, from which this latter pair might be copied.39

The relationship between BL29 and BL53 is much clearer. BL29 and BL53 greatly resemble one another in their setting of Amarillis: for instance, these are the only two sources which give the repeat mark at the start of bar 24. Indeed, the parent of BL29 might well be Henry Lawes's original rough copy from which the composer made his fair copy of the song, which is included in BL53, and Lowe could quite easily have obtained these papers from Lawes.40 However, separative variants do occur, the most conspicuous being the rhythmical one in bar 7 mentioned above, as well as that in bar 9. The dating of BL53 and BL29 suggests that the versions in these two MSS probably pre-date at least both those in BL11 and BLE2. BL29 may have been begun in 1636 and MS 3 is set by Lawes probably between 1637 and 1643 so these two witnesses again overlap here.41

BD57 is the most distinctive witness, both textually and musically. It reads 'amaz'd' against the other MSS' reading of 'afraid' and 'little' for 'either' (10). Both of these are possibly errors of transcription but they should also be considered as deliberate variation. Its setting is even more distinctive. Like its setting of MS 53, the version in BD57 is suggestive of how a solo song might typically have been embellished and performed in the seventeenth century. Indeed, the vocal ornamentation in this setting creates much word painting (for instance, the word 'fled' in the phrase 'a redbreast fled' is ornamented). The version in BD57 contains a highly embellished vocal line which shares rhythmic similarities with all of the four other versions in MS. The accompaniment of this version is transcribed in lute tablature (for a lute tuned in A). In BD57, this song is the fifth of thirteen musical settings for treble and tablature which,pg 238 though transcribed by the MS's main witness, are placed towards the back. It is very unlikely both on textual and musical grounds that any of the four other versions in MS descend from this copy. So whilst Chan argues that BD57 is likely to be the earliest of the three miscellanies she examines, and that a relationship of reciprocal copying exists between them, this is clearly not the case with 'Amarillis'.

The flexibility of rhythm and tempo, which was a feature of the mid-seventeenth-century performing style, is greatly illustrated in this song, especially since the variants among all the settings are principally rhythmical alterations. Spink suggests that these embellishments impart an expressive dimension. Indeed, the treatment of 'Amarillis' 'evokes that luxury and languor of the scene, with the nymph sitting by the stream "soft and soul-melting" '. He also offers a not entirely convincing explanation for this lyric's non-appearance in any of Lawes's printed works, describing this song as one for which 'words and music are perhaps too "precious" to appeal beyond a refined circle of poets and musicians, or others of similar sensibility'.42

Historical Collation

Note: 1648's line ordering is used here.

Title: none] BD57 BL11 BL29 BLE2  Upon Mrs. Eliz: Wheeler, under the name of Amarillis. 1648

1 Amarillis] Sweet ⁓ 1648

springes] springe BL11 BL29 BLE2

2 (soft] ^ ⁓ Ω‎

Meltinge)] ⁓ ^ Ω‎

Murmerings] murm'ring BL11  murmuringe BL29

3 vnto whom a Red-breast fled] and thus sleeping, thither flew 1648

4 whoe simply thinkinge she was dead] A Robin-red brest; who at view 1648

5 to burye her, brought Speer-mint fine] Not seeing her at all to stir 1648

6 & leaues of sweetest Eglintyne:] Brought leaves and mosse to cover her: 1648 1648 cuts ll. 7–8

7 when] where BD57

8 affraide] amaz'd BD57

9 vnto a Mirtle growing bye] But while he, perking, there did prie 1648

10 whence] when BL29

either] little BD57  About the Arch of either eye 1648

11 a thousand flames of loue to flye] The lids began to let out day 1648

pg 239

12 poore Robin] At which ⁓ ⁓ 1648

redbreast] cuts 1648

then] he BL29  cuts 1648

drew nighe] flew away 1648

Subscription: none] BL29 BD57  finis BL11  Jo: Willson BLE2

MS 4 An Epithalamie to Sir Thomas Southwell and his Ladie

Sources Collated:

MS: Bodleian Library MS.Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 84r–86r; British Library Harley 6918, ff. 43v–46v; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, ff. 23r–26r

Print: 1648, pp. 57–62 (sig. E5a–E7b)

Transmissional History

The three witnesses are Peter Calfe's autograph miscellany BL Harley 6918 (BLH6), Peter Daniell's miscellany in five unknown hands (Bodleian Eng.poetx.50/BDC5), and Anthony St John's miscellany, compiled by a professional scribe (Harvard fMS Eng 626/HA62). All have unique readings but all three treat stanzas 4 and 18 as octets and make stanzas 11 and 17 twelve lines long, meaning this was the layout of their common source. BDC5 divides the opening pair of 10-line stanzas into three of eight, six, and six lines respectively to produce a 21-stanza version. BLH6 does not number the stanzas; BDC5 and HA62 do but the differing layout in BDC5 suggests that the archetype did not number the stanzas. BLH6 and HA62 agree very closely together and read against BDC5 at more than ten points, although BDC5's reading of 'secret' (42) for 'sacred' is the only variant that could be deemed substantive; the rest are relatively simple errors or scribal substitutions. This suggests that despite the initial impression that BLH6 and HA62 are a pair (that is copied from the same immediate source), it is the high number of copying errors in BDC5 which makes them appear artificially close and bibliographical evidence confirms that all three are separate copies of a common source.

Historical Collation

Heading: An Epithalamium] An Epithalamie HA62   An Epithalamie to Sir Thomas Southwell and his Ladie 1648  no title BDC5

1 time] , 1648

2 crowne] does not copy BDC5

5 your fires] Love's fire 1648

6 still] thus 1648

7 not admits] admits noe BDC5  But learn, that Time once lost, 1648

8 Then haste and come away,] Is ne'r redeem'd by cost 1648

BDC5 inserts stanza break here

9 Night with all her Children starres] Then away; come, Hymen guide 1648

pg 240

10 Waits] wayte BDC5 HA62  To the bed, the bashfull Bride. 1648

11–20 Stanza 2 cut from 1648

14 take] make BDC5

BDC5 inserts stanza break here

19 maides] maide HA62

21 your fault] (sweet maid) your fault 1648

that] 1648 cuts

soe] 1648 cuts

23 Or is] Deare, is 1648

that] this 1648

25 Know virgin] Beleeve me; 1648

26 Loue] Esteeme 1648

it is] 'tis BDC5 1648

28 Least] Lest 1648

29 Come, come Hymen,] Then away; come, 1648

Hymen] does not copy BDC5

30 the Bashfull] Bashfull BDC5

35 faire maide] (⁓ ⁓) HA62  And may a while controule 1648

36 all bashfullnesse at last] The soft and am'rous soule; 1648

37 then trust that night will couer] But yet, Loves fire will wast 1648

38 the] thy BDC5  Such bashfulnesse at last. 1648 1648 supplies refrain: Then away; come, Hymen guide | To the bed, the bashfull Bride.

40 resigned] ⁓! 1648

41 trie] flie 1648

42 Loues] To Love's 1648

sacred] secret BDC5 sweet 1648

43 yon] yond BDC5

45 soone would] should soone BDC5

47 Then away fayre virgin come] Then away, come, Hymen guide 1648

48 Haste least Luna take your roome:] To the bed, the bashfull Bride. 1648

49 Behold] ⁓! 1648

The Bridegroome in the porch] How Hymens Taper-Light 1648

pg 241

50 Expects you with his pinie Torch] Shews you how much is spent of night. 1648

51 taper] tapers BDC5 See, see the Bride-grooms Torch 1648

52 what is] what's BDC5  Halfe wasted in the porch. 1648

53 fiue Boyes with torches fiue] And now those Tapers five 1648

54 thriue] :1648

55 golden] silv'rie 1648

56 and] To 1648

59 Now] Moue HA62 1648

then] on BDC5

your] you BDC5

60 to] And 1648

each thing] what ere 1648

you] they 1648

61 shooe] showe BDC5  May all, like flowrie Meads 1648

62 there spring a violett;] Smell, where your soft foot treads; 1648

63 the] like HA62  And every thing assume 1648

64 Smell, where your soft foot treades] To it, the like perfume 1648

65 make Earth as flourishing.] As Zephirus when he 'spires 1648

66 as in the painted spring,] Through Woodbine, and Sweet-bryers 1648

67 when Zephirus and warme May] Then away, come, Hymen guide 1648

68 pranke the fields in sweete arraye:] To the bed, the bashfull Bride. 1648

Lines 69–78 are placed as lines 41–50 in 1648

69 Now] On 1648

70 for] while 1648

71 that] who 1648

72 lucky] luckier HA62

73 goe] goes 1648

thy] the HA62 648

74 scattering] strewing 1648

75 while] And the 1648

soft] sweet 1648

sings] singe BDC5 HA62 1648

pg 242

77 bring oh Hymen, bringe the Bride,] Home the Turtles; Hymen guide 1648

78 or the winged Boy will Chide:] To the bed, the bashfull Bride 1648

79 See, see] see the BDC5 HA62  And now 1648

80 O're] Ouer BDC5 HA62 1648

Cheeke] Cheekes HA62

83 hath] ha's HA62  Shewing a heart consenting 1648

84 without a minde to doe,] As with a will repenting 1648

85 softly] gently 1648

87 wise] For that, 1648

88 of it, will sweeten] of that Passion sweetens 1648

89 bee] of 1648

90 o're] Now ⁓ 1648

93 post] posts 1648

94 remembering] remembring BDC5 1648

95 the last] the sides 1648

97 and poyson kills] ⁓ ⁓ kill BDC5 HA62 And the evil deads 1648 Stanza 11 cut from 1648

112 note] noates BDC5 1648

113 nor] no 1648

full of dread] here about, 1648

114 made this your Bridall bedd,] To put the Tapers out 1648

115 doe watch] watch BDC5 HA62  Watch, or did make the bed: 1648

116 the lights away to snatch;] 'Tis Omen full of dread: 1648

117 there] here HA62  But all fair signs appeare 1648

118 doth at the bedd appeare;] Within the Chamber here. 1648

119 aloofe] far off 1648

120 Soft] Cooling 1648

with] charming HA62

his] her BDC5  with HA62  cut from 1648

charming] his HA62

121 behold] ! 1648

the longing couch] the Bed or Couch 1648

pg 243

122 Virgins] Virgin BDC5  That ne'r knew Brides, or Bridegrooms touch 1648

125 its] it BDC5  a 1648

127 if it moued] it did move 1648

128 with passions as it loued] Ev'n with the soule of love. 1648

129 Then undoe your selues and venter] And (oh!) had it but a tongue, 1648

130 for the dimpling bedd bidds enter:] Doves, 'two'd say, yee bill too long 1648 ll.131–40 are placed as ll.111–20 in 1648

133 her not] not her BDC5

135 or by her dreame divine] ⁓ ⁓ Rose-buds ⁓ 1648

137 Or kisse a Rose budd ouer,] Nor name those wanton reaks 1648

138 her] a BDC5  Y'ave had at Barley-breaks 1648

139 kisse] now ⁓ 1648

embrace her] thus say 1648

140 and twixt the soft sheetes place her:] Take time Lady while ye may 1648 ll. 141–50 are placed as ll. 121–30 in I648

141 shutt] barre 1648

husband] Bride-groom 1648

144 doe] does not copy BDC5

145 giue] O! give 1648

both] does not copy 1648

146 with] and 1648

good and neate] both compleat: 1648

147 and] Fit 1648

149 may] which ⁓ 1648

150 a] the BDC5

1648 cuts stanza 16

157 sprightfull] vprightfull BDC5

160 Lucina] Lusina HA62

161 Not a slumber, much more shunne] O enter then! but see ye shun 1648

162 untill] till BDC5

163 not the least breath expire] Let kisses, in their close, 1648

164 but let it urge desire;] Breathe as the Damask Rose 1648

pg 244

165 flye slowly, slowly howers] Or sweet, as is that gumme 1648

166 now while their lipps make flowers] Doth from Panchaia come 1648

167 Each kisse in its warme close] Teach Nature now to know 1648

168 Smells like a damaske Rose] Lips can make Cherries grow 1648

169 that] the BDC5  Sooner, then she, ever yet, 1648

170 doth from Panchaia come] In her wisdom co'd beget 1648

1648 cuts lines 171–2

173 O] On Ω‎

you] your HA62 1648

174 full] fat 1648

175 what] that 1648

to man and wife] which Heav'n can give 1648

176 an] a BDC5

To build an happy life] To make you bravely live 1648

177 Benignant heauen allowes] Fall, like a spangling dew 1648

178 follow your prayers and vows] By day, and night on you 1648

1648 supplies two lines for this stanza not found in MS: With all luckie Birds to side | With the Bride-groom, and the bride (149.159–60).

ll. 181–90 are placed as ll. 91–100 in I648

181 Venus] ! 1648

183 Virgins;] ! 1648

184 neede] needs BDC5

185 teach] bid 1648

to] cut from 1648

188 although] her, though 1648

189 Then] 1648 cuts

190 while] Since 1648

yet] that 1648

Time] loue BDC5 1648

Loue] tyme BDC5  Night 1648

bidds] bid 1648

191 May] Let 1648

fates] Fate 1648

spindle] spindles 1648

pg 245

192 whiter] whitest 1648

194 you] ye 1648

195 Let] yet BDC5  May 1648

196 with slow not] And not with 1648

desperate] desp'rate 1648

198 Fate] Come, 1648

wee will] let us 1648

200 shocks] shackes BDC5

Subscription: Rob: Herrick] finis BDC5 HA62

MS 5 Chorus

See headnote.

MS 6 The Admonition

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library Osborn b 197, p. 8; Osborn b 205, f.74r-v; Bodleian Library MS Eng.poet.c.50, f. 76r; MS Eng.poet.c.50, f.133r; MS Eng.poet.f.25, f. 20r; British Library Add. MS 15227, f. 95v; Add. MS 19268, f. 23r; Add. MS 22118, ff. 37v–38r; Add. MS 22603, ff- 57v–58r; Add. MS 25303, f. 81r; Add. MS 53723, f. 29r; Egerton 2725, f. 151v; Harley 6931, f. 4r; Sloane MS 1446, f.75v; Cambridge University Library Add. MS 42, f.36r; Corpus Christi College, Oxford MS 328, f.74r-v; Folger Shakespeare Library MS V.a.245, f.18v; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, ff. 6v-7r; Leicestershire Record Office DG.7/Lit. 2, f. 348r; London Metropolitan Archives MS ACC 1360/528, f.9r; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia MS 239/23, pp. 133–4; MS 243/4.2, p. 156; Trinity College, Dublin, MS 877, f. 167v; MS 877, f. 224v; West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds MS 156/237, f. 10r

Print: 1648, p. 150 (sig. L3b); The Academy of Complements (London: Printed for Humphrey Moseley, 1650), sig. L5a-b (Wing G1402).

Sources Recorded: The Academy of Complements (1658; 1663; 1664; 1670).

Transmissional History

Since the earliest extant witness, Cambridge University Library Add. MS 42 (CU42), and 1648 agree here we believe 'diamonds' is the original reading of line 1. The collation suggests that all but one of the texts reading 'jewells' in their first line (witnessed by 6.2) are best categorized as witnesses to a copy of the lyric that read 'fond youth' (14) which in turn is probably revised from a text similar to the ancestor of the group of 'diamond' witnesses which share the title 'A Fancy'. The 'rubies' text (witnessed by 6.3) is a revision of a 'diamonds' lyric similar to the ancestor of the group of witnesses using the title 'On a dresse of haire stuck with jewells' (witnessed by 6.1).

pg 246The 'diamonds' text

Twelve witnesses read 'diamonds' in the first line, the earliest (CU42) an incomplete copy written on the back of a memorandum dated 1622 (for this MS and a reproduction of the leaf, see 2.254–5 and Plate 3). This is also 1648's reading. Five of these have near identical titles and appear to have been copied from the same source, although clearly at differing distances from it. This source uses the phrase 'stuck with jewels' in the title, reads 'in' (3), 'and' (12), 'trophies' (13), and 'fond man' (14), and circulates from the mid-1620s onwards. Four out of the five witnesses to this version also read 'she that will wear thy teares, will wear thyne eyes' in the final line. Of these five, Folger MS V.a.245 (FL24), a 1630s miscellany, and Rosenbach 239/23 (RO23),a MS from the early 1630s, call the poem 'Of a proud Ladie that had her hayre drest and stuck with Jewells'.43 The c.1625 miscellany BL Add. 25303 (BL25) shares its title with BL Sloane 1446 (SL14) and WYL 156/237 (WY23), a pair of 1630s miscellanies copying the same sequence of poems.44 All three use the title 'Uppon a Ladies dresse of Hayre stuck with Jewells'.45 This pair's reading of 'fond man' also suggests a link to another untitled 'diamonds' text, the first copy of the poem in TCD MS 877 (TD77), which the copyist conflates with a lyric beginning 'When souls from bodies part, so part we two'. Since this lyric seems to be a relatively rare one, it is significant that it is also found in SL14 on f. 75r (its copy of 'The Admonition' is on f. 75v) and in WY23 on f. 10r (its copy of 'The Admonition' is on f. 48r) and these two pieces of evidence usefully place TD77 amongst these witnesses.46 These six agree with 1648 in reading 'diamonds', 'trophies', and 'Ah then' (14), which suggests that 1648 may well be a further revision of the source of this group's copies. What would make this clearer is evidence of which of the two principal readings of line 14—'beware fond youth' or 'beware young man'—is authorial, but since 1648 replaces this whole phrase with 'consider', no further advance is possible.

However, the reading of 'youth' may be authoritative, suggested by a group of witnesses reading 'diamonds' and 'youth' all of which are copied from a source entitled 'A Fancy'.pg 247 These four read 'this' (2), 'or' (3), 'the which' (9), and 'through' (10) against the 'stuck with jewels' witnesses. Comprising a miscellany later owned by a member of the Clitherow family, London Metropolitan Archives MS/ACCA360/528 (LM13), the second copy in Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.50 (BDCO), Edward Natley's miscellany Bodleian MS Eng. poet.f.25 (BDF2), and the Oxford miscellany Osborn b 205 (YA25), all date between the late 1630s and the mid-1640s.47 BDCO and BDF2 share the error 'buglosse' (7), which is intended to correct another error 'bugles' (for 'bubles'/ 'bubbles'), which YA25 retains. BDCO and BDF2 probably make the same correction independently since bugloss is a blue-flowering plant, like some hyacinths, which is recommended as a treatment for the heart (Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), 2.4. L3), and so would readily suggest itself to copyists as the original of 'bugles'. As LM 13 correctly reads 'bubbles' and keeps the reading 'trophies' (14) and these three read 'titles' here, their shared source must have been altered again, both deliberately and through misreading, from the text copied by LM 13.48 However, these four retain the authorial reading of 'or' (3) and this is a variant that indicates the more accurate witnesses of the authorial source as the majority of copyists change this variant to the more obvious but less effective 'and'. The MSS that do retain that reading are the earliest MS, CU42, the four witnesses to the 'A Fancy' group, and two witnesses to the 'jewels' text, Tobias Alston's miscellany Yale Osborn b 197 (YA19 is copytext 6.2) and BL Add. 22603 (BL22), a miscellany belonging to a Cambridge student, copied c.I.644.49

The 'jewels' text

There are seven witnesses in total reading 'jewels' in the first line but six are more closely related, reading 'O then' (14), a reading they share with the 'A Fancy' witnesses, and so it may be that the source for the 'A Fancy' group was produced from a text similar to that which provides the text for BL22, YA19, and another witness, Leicestershire Record Office, DG.7/Lit. 2 (LEDG) and, at a greater distance, the remaining three 'jewels' texts. It should be borne in mind that the introduction of the 'jewells' reading may also be a memorial hangover from the title 'On a Ladies dress of haire stuck with jewells' since all except two MSS in this group are untitled and two call the poem 'A Song', which may simply have been used in the sense of a shortish lyric. In addition, the seventh witness (1650) in fact agrees with the 'rubies' group with the exception of its first line reading of 'jewells', which clearly is a memorial substitution. The two 'Song' witnesses are YA19 and BL22, both Cambridge miscellanies copied probably c.1639–45. These two additionally share the readings 'which' (12) and 'or' (3) with the 'A fancy' group and the 'A Fancy' group's reading of 'wretched' with another 'jewells' witness, LEDG. LEDG also independently agrees with the 'A Fancy' group by reading 'through' at line 10.

pg 248The final three 'jewells/o then' witnesses are BL Egerton 2725 (BLE4) and a pair of miscellanies using the Crum archetype (see 2.10–13), Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.50 (BDC5) and Harvard fMS Eng 626 (HA62). BLE4, BDC5, and HA62 agree against all other witnesses in 'turned' (11) and 'these' (12 ) and BDC5 and HA62 against all other witnesses in reading 'could' (14). HA62's copyist originally wrote 'Turned' and then reworked the line to read 'Of them did turn' presumably to maintain the alternating tetrameter-trimeter pattern of the previous lines. The source used by BLE4, BDC5, and HA62, which derives from a copy reading 'jewells' (1) and 'fond youth' (14), has obviously been changed again, almost certainly by a copyist since it reads 'and' (3) instead of the authoritative 'or' (3), a reading used in Hesperides.

The 'rubies' text

This version is a systematic reworking of the lyric and there are eight witnesses, of which the earliest, Rosenbach 243/4.2 (copytext 6.3/RO 24), is compiled at the latest by 1634 (see 2.56 n. 19). The other witnesses are the second copy in TCD MS 877 (TD87), five miscellanies all dating from the 1630s—BL Add. 15227 (BL15), Add. 19268 (BL19), Add. 22118 (BL21), Harley 6931 (BLH1), and Corpus Christi College, Oxford MS 328 (CC32)—and the copy used in 1650. All except 1650 read 'rubies' (1) but all eight do read 'young man' (5), 'from sundry' (6), and 'loue' (9) and repeat 'young man' at line 14. 1650's use of 'jewels' and its title of 'Song' indicates that the scribe who prepared the copy for print is either conflating two different texts or making a substitution based on his memory of a 'jewels' text. Notably this group's line 6 reading partly agrees with the 'jewells' witnesses, which read 'by sundry' and RO24 and BL15 share a reading of 'that' (1) with HA62 and BDC5. Seven of the eight 'rubies' witnesses also read 'ensigns' (13 ) with BL21 erroneously transcribing it as 'engines'. The title used by all of the 'rubies' witnesses is very similar to the MSS that have the term 'stuck with jewells' in their title and one, BL15 does use the title 'On a dressing of hayre stuck with jewells' and reads 'trophees' instead of 'ensigns'. BL22 has the very similar 'On a Dresse of hayre with jewells in it' and TD87, BL19, and CC32 share a title, 'On his Mistress adorned with seueral jewells', although BLH1 writes 'sundry' instead, probably interpolated from 'sundry' at line 6. RO 24's 'Upon a Scornful Lady's dress of haire (with jewells) written by way of advice, to a puny lover' is an expansion of a similar title. More notably, all of the witnesses reading 'rubies' and all the 'stuck with jewels' group read 'man' at line 14, instead of 'youth', and so the 'rubies' version is reworked from a witness reading 'diamonds', but one similar to the lyric witnessed by BL25 rather than by the 'A Fancy' witnesses.

The song-text

This is a unique text that shares readings with all the versions. Henry Lawes's setting in his songbook, BL Add. 53723 (BL53), is the final source to read 'diamonds' in line 1. 'The Admonition' is the first poem by Herrick in the MS and it appears on f. 29r; it is the 59th item out of 73 occurring five leaves before the five 'Comus' songs that are dated 'October. 1634' by Lawes on f. 37r. Lawes's text reads 'titles' (13) before supplying 'trophies' in the margin and Lawes may have taken this from 1648.50 Like the group ofpg 249 five that use 'stuck with jewells' in their title, it reads 'fond man' (14) but 'all Embling' (8) is unique to it and 'through' (10) is shared with YA19, BL22, and LEDG. Its reading of 'oh then' (14) agrees with witnesses reading 'fond youth' (14) but itself reads 'fond man' and also has the 'rubies' version's reading of 'sundry' (6) instead of 'wretched'. But its reading of 'she that will weare thy teares would weare thine Eyes' is identical to the line used by Hesperides and also by Alston. This may point to a source connected to this Cambridge MS, and it is possible that Lawes received his copies directly from Herrick and his version or versions then transmitted and absorbed alternative readings. This clearly was a popular setting and it may be that 'titles' as a variant (which is used inconsistently by copyists) comes from a memory of Lawes's setting. It is also likely that Lawes tweaked the text he received before setting it and he may well have amended it again before he entered it into this songbook. We exclude it from the distribution tree in Figure 1.

Lawes had access to at least one variant text other than his base text, and probably more than one. Set to the last two crotchets of bar 23 in BL53, a double reading of the lyrics occurs: 'Trophies' is written underneath 'Tytles'. Willetts surmises that this particular variant, together with this setting's divergent reading of ll. 5–8 (if compared with 1648), demonstrates that 'for this poem the Lawes version is a transitional stage' (The Henry Lawes Manuscript, p. 25). The musical setting is itself a through-composed declamatory ayre in common time in the tonality of D minor. The climax of the piece lies in the first beat of the penultimate bar on 'teares', where the intentional clash (if we abide by the maxim lectio difficilior potior) between the e" in the voice and f in the thoroughbass prepares us for the sombre warning at the very end of the setting.

Historical Collation

Note: For the purposes of the collation, YA19 (MS 6.2) is treated as the copytext. Key variants are collated in full, including witnesses whose readings agree with the copytext.

Heading: A Songe: R: H:] Of a proud Ladie that had her hayre drest and stuck with Jewells FL24 RO23  A Song BL22 1650  A fancie BDCO BDF2 LM13 YA25  On a Dressing of hayre stuck with jewels BL15  On a Dresse of hayre with jewells in it BL21  On his Mrs adorned with seuerall sorts of Jewells BL19  Ons Mrs adorn'd with seuerall sorts of Jewells CC32  On his Mris adorned with sundry sortes of jewells BLH1  On his Mrs adorned with seuerall Jewells TD87  The Admonition 1648  Vppon a Ladies dresse of hayre stuck with Jewells BL25 SL14 WY23  Vppon a Scornfull Ladyes dres of haire (with Jewells) written by way of advice to a puny louer RO24  Vppon parting wth a deare frend TD77  No title BDC5 BLE4 BL53 CU42 HA62 LEDG

1 Iewells] BDC5 BL22 BLE4 HA62 LEDG 1650  diamonds BDCO BDF2 BL25 BL53 CU42 FL24 RO23 SL14 TD77 WY23 YA25 1648  rich diamonds LM13  rubyes BL15 BL19 BL21 BLH1 CC32 RO24 TD87

which] that BDC5 BL15 HA62 RO24  does not copy LM13

she] does not copy CU42

pg 250

Fig. 1. All verse miscellany witnesses to 'The Admonition'.

Fig. 1. All verse miscellany witnesses to 'The Admonition'.

pg 251

2 In] on BL53

rich] her ⁓ BL15 that ⁓ BDC5 BL19 BL21 BL22 BLE4 BL25 CC32 CU42 FL24 HA62 LEDG RO23 RO24 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 1648 1650 the ⁓ BLH1 tthis ⁓ BDCO BDF2 LM13 YA25

Carcanett] BDC5 BL21 BL15 BL19 BL22 BL25 BL53 BLE4 BLH1 CC32 FL24 LEDG LM13 RO23 RO24 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 1648 1650  Cakenet CU42  Cabinett BDCO BDF2 HA62 YA25

3 Or] BL22 BDCO BDF2 CU42 LM13 YA25 1648 and BDC5 BL21 BLE4 BLH1 BL15 BL19 BL25 BL53 FL24 HA62 LEDG RO23 RO24 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 1650  An CC32

on] BDC5 BL15 BL21 BL22 BL53 BLE4 BLH1 CC32 CU42 HA62 LM13 RO24 TD77 TD87 1648 1650 in BDCO BDF2 BL19 BL25 FL24 LEDG RO23 SL14 WY23 YA25

dishelued] disleued BL19

haires] haire BLH1 1650

4 pearles] pearle BLH1 TD87 1650

5 Beleeue] Beleue't BL15 BLH1 SL14 CC32  Beleius't TD87

young Man] (⁓ ⁓) BL19 BL21 BLE4 BLH1 WY23  (⁓ SL14  (⁓ (⁓) TD87

all] as BDCO  that BDF2 YA25

those] BDCO BL19 BL22 BL25 BLH1 CU42 LEDG LM13 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 YA25 1648  these BDC5 BL15 BL21 BL53 BLE4 CC32 FL24 HA62 RO23 RO24 1650  they BDF2

were] are LEDG

6 By] BDCO BDC5 BDF2 BL22 BL25 BLE4 CU42 FL24 HA62 LEDG LM13 RO23 SL14 WY23 YA25 1648  which TD77  of BL5   from BL21 BL15 BL19 BLH1 CC32 RO24 TD87 1650

wretched] BDCO BDF2 BL22 BL25 CU42 FL24 LEDG LM13 RO23 SL14 TD77 WY23 YA25 1648  sundry BDC5 BL15 BL19 BL21 BL53 BLE4 BLH1 CC32 HA62 RO24 TD87 1650

wooers] woer CU42  louers BL21 BL53 CC32 LEDG YA25  bowers^ bowbles^ ^louers^ BDC5

7 Bubles] Babbells BL19  bugles ^buglosse^ BDCO  bugles YA25  buglosse BDF2  mournfull 1648

Hyacinthes] hyacinte BDCO BDF2 BL21 BLE4 BL15 BL25 CU42 FL24 RO23 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 YA25 1650

8 Emblems of] all Embling BL53  that figure 1648

9 Which] the BDCO BDF2 LM13 YA25

when] (⁓ RO24 which BDCO BDF2 LM13 YA25

not] had CU42

by] with BDF2  they WY23

pg 252her] then WY23

veiwe] griew WY23  loue BL15 BL19 BL21 BLH1 CC32 TD87 1650  loue) RO24  dewe LM13

10 By] BDC5 BL15 BL19 BL21 BL22 BL25 BLH1 CC32 CU42 FL24 HA62 RO23 RO24 SL14 TD77 TD87 WY23 1648 1650  through BDCO BDF2 BL53 LEDG LM13 YA25  Each BLE4

cold] one BLE4  bold 1650

neglect] neglected BDCO  by BLE4

each] (⁓ WY23 cold BLE4

one] neglect BLE4

11 Congeald]) WY23 Turn'd BDC5 BLE4  ^Of them did^ Turned HA62

pearle] pearles BL19

and] or BDC5 BDCO BL53 BLE4 HA62  to BDF2 LM13

12 Which] and BL25 FL24 RO23 SL14 WY23  These BDC5 BLE4 HA62

now] (⁓ RO24  precious 1648

the] as YA25  deletes 1648

of love] deletes 1648

her]) RO24

13 titles] CU42 BDC5 BDCO BDF2 BLE4 HA62 YA25  <Trophies> BL53  tytle BL22  trophees BL15 BL25 FL24 LEDG LM13 RO23 SL14 TD77 WY23 1648  engines BL21  ensignes BL19 BLH1 CC32 RO24 TD87 1650

of] to LEDG TD77

CU42 does not copy ll. 14–15.

14 Othen] BDC5 BDCO BDF2 BL22 BL53 BLE4 HA62 LEDG LM13 YA25  Ah then FL24 RO23 SL14 TD77 WY23 1648  Ah! then BL25 Wherefore BL15 BL19 BL21 BLH1 CC32 RO24 TD87 1650

Beware fond youth] BDC5 BDCO BDF2 BL22 BLE4 HA62 LEDG YA25 ⁓ (⁓ ⁓) LM13 beware fond man BL53 beware young man BL15 beware (young man) BL21 TD87  (beware young man RO24  fond man beware BL25 FL24 RO23 TD77  (fond man) beware SL14 WY23  young man beware CC32 1650  (young man) beware BL19 BLH1 Consider! 1648

and] What 1648

this] BL25 FL24 RO23 TD77 SL14 WY23 all ⁓ 1648 thus BDCO BDC5 BDF2 BL15 BL19 BL21 BL22 BL53 BLE4 BLH1 CC32 HA62 LEDG LM13 RO24 TD87 YA25 1650

surmise]! SL14 ⁓) RO23  implies 1648

15 will] BL21 BL22 BL25 BL53 BLE4 FL24 LEDG RO23 SL14 WY23 1648 1650  woulde BDCO BDF2 BL19 BLH1 CC32 LM13 RO24 TD77 TD87 YA25  doth BL15  could BDC5 HA62

weare] does not copy BL19

pg 253would] BDCO BDC5 BDF2 BL21 BL15 BL19 BL53 BLH1 CC32 HA62 LEDG LM13 RO23 RO24 TD77 TD87 YA25 1648  will BL25 BL22 BLE4 FL24 SL14 WY23 1650

thyne] thy BL22 BLE4 RO24 YA25

eyes] eye CC32

Subscription: no subscription] BDCO BDF2 BL15 BL19 BL21 BL22 BL25 BL53 BLE4 CC32 FL24 LEDG LM13 SL14 TD77 TD87 YA19 YA25 1650 F RO23 Finis BDC5 HA62 Finis R. Hericke WY23 Herrick of Cam: BLH1 Robert Herrick RO24

MS 7 The Bubble

Sources Collated:

MS: Bodleian Library MS Eng.poet.c.50, f. 94v; British Library Harley 6918, f. 50r–v; Cambridge University Library Add. MS 42, f. 36r; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, f. 35v

Print: 1648, p. 97 (Sig. H1a)

Transmissional History

This short lyric was probably composed by the early 1620s, and although it exists in four MS witnesses there are two versions, one witnessed by CUL Add. MS 42 (CU42) and one by a trio of MSS all of which are copying the same source, essentially leaving us with two witnesses to the MS versions of the poem. This common source is the Crum archetype and these witnesses are Harvard fMS Eng 626 (HA62), Bodleian Eng. poet.c.50 (BDC5), and BL Harley 6918 (BLH6) (see 2.10–13).

Once again, there appear to be two serially composed texts. CU42 reads 'made bubble' (2), 'Then fall an able distance till her sigh' (7), and 'And thy swolne ways be fully opposite' (8). The trio copying from the archetype read 'madd bubble' (2); '& when thy shaking fires and her sight' (7) and 'Are thus and thus & truly opposite' (8). These lines are changed again in 1648 to read 'Next, when thou dost perceive her fixed sight' (7) and 'For thy revenge to be most opposite' (8). The dating of CU42 to the 1620s (see below), its retention of the authorial 'made bubble' rather than the latter's more simplified 'madd bubble', its agreement with 1648 in reading 'Stoope, mount, passe' (5), and its use of the authoritative title affirm that this is a reliable copy of an early version of the poem. 'Made' obviously serves as a verb (a bubble manufactured or contrived of sighs and tears) but also in the sense possibly of trained or shaped to achieve the specific purpose (OED, II 5) of 'revenge' (215.8), something clarified and reiterated in Herrick's revision of line 8 for print. In addition CU42 has an extra metrical foot at line 9 which Herrick also keeps when revising the line for print but which the 'madd bubble' witnesses drop, confirming that this is the extant witness closest to the text which Herrick later revised for print.

The origin of the revisions to the Crum archetype may be authorial or scribal. That the same lines are changed again for print is the most persuasive evidence that the changes to each version are authorial, since we have seen a similar pattern in thepg 254 transmissional history of MS 6 and to a lesser extent of MS 1. What we can say is that the archetype's copy MS read 'madd bubble', which almost certainly is a scribal error. HA62 reads 'stoope' (5) with CU42 and 1648 but both BLH6 and BDC5 read 'staye' here. The source drawn on by the Crum archetype scribe(s) must have been close to illegible at line 8 to cause him to resort to the rather desperate 'are thus and thus > truly opposite', a reading dutifully copied by all three of the witnesses to this MS. A consistent attribution to Herrick might strengthen the case for this version's authority but it is not clear whether the archetype attributed the poem to him. BLH6 does attribute the poem whereas neither HA62 or BDC5 do so, but as HA62 attributes only the Randolph poems it copies this is not much of a guide. The hand in BDC5 which copies this poem attributes some poems in the sequence but not Herrick's and the attribution may well have been lost by the time he encountered the archetype. In addition, the BDC5 copyist also writes 'but' instead of 'hast' at line 2, probably a misreading since this copyist, judging by the collation of his other Herrick poems, has a higher rate of errors in copying than either Peter Calfe (the copyist of BLH6) or the professional scribe copying HA62.

The evidence of CU42 is suggestive but inconclusive about the origins of its (remarkably authoritative) copy. It is a separate in an unbound collection of ninety-eight items, is the earliest witness, and consists of three poems (this one, MS 6, and MS 8), written on the verso of a note dated 4 December 1622, concerning a lease.51 The collection is described in the catalogue of Post-medieval Western Additional Manuscripts in CUL, Add. MSS 1–2746 as 'a miscellaneous collection of verses and ballads, epitaphs and inscriptions, etc of 176 leaves apparently compiled by Samuel Knight, DD. Various hands early 16th-early 18th centuries. Belonged to Samuel Knight DD, prebend of Ely and rector of Blundisham, Hunts. After Knight's death in 1746, the MS descended to John Percy Baumgartner of Milton, Cambs., who presented it to the library in 1861'.52 It is comprised of separates of varying sizes held in three folders and the core of the collection (ff. 77–102) comprises Latin and Greek exercises by the historian John Strype (1643–1737) dating from 1659–60 while he was a student at St Paul's.53 These evidently passed into the hands of Knight, who intended to write a biography of Strype. The majority of the poetry is satire ranging from comment on the Howard/Carr trial of the 1610s (ff. 32r–33v) to the Earl of Rochester's speech to Parliament in 1679 (ff. 43r–44v). Many of the individual items appear to have been detached from bound MSS, judging by the presence of stab-holes for sewing or tears where the leaf has been pulled from the stitches. Much of the material is folded in a manner that suggests it was posted to the recipient and a few are addressed to Knight.54pg 255 The current organization of the collection is by size of leaf. Signs of a different ordering are evident in the pattern of water-stains shared by many items now separated into different folders possibly after they arrived in the library.

CU42 preserves a substantial amount of material related to students and fellows of Cambridge University, or to people connected with it such as the first Duke of Buckingham, a former Chancellor. The leaf we are concerned with here (f. 36) may have been preserved either because someone recognized the verses were by Herrick (unlikely, since they are not attributed to him) or because of a reference to 'Dr Ward' in the memorandum on the verso of the leaf. This is possibly Samuel Ward, the Master of Sidney Sussex College between 1610 and 1643. The writer is certainly someone of the university since he refers to the recent election of 'our vicechancellour' and Truscot notes that the same hand reappears on f. 31 supplying the title 'Mr Cleuelandes verses which were sung at Sidney colleg at commencement night 4 July 1630 which he retracted 1 August in the consistory' to the poem beginning 'It is noe Coranto now I undertake'. The leaf, a folio, had at some point been gathered through the centre fold and stab sewn but was removed before the poems were entered possibly after the note had been written. The note, dated 4 December 1622, is written first because the fold mark on the leaf runs through a line of the memorandum whereas the copyist of the poems (a different hand to the note hand) skips over the fold, leaving a slight gap between lines 5 and 6 of 'The Admonition'.

The poems are also squashed onto the page, indicating that the copyist misjudged the space available to him but also suggesting that the verso was already used. The copyist appears to have dashed the three poems down, dropping the final two lines of 'The Admonition' as he does so. The question remains of how long after the entry of the note the poems were written down. It does seem reasonable to conclude that these copies of the three poems are early, probably ones which circulated among students and fellows at the university in this period, and its copies of 'The Bubble' and 'The Curse' agree more closely than any other extant MS witness with the texts of the same poems in 1648.

Historical Collation

Heading: The Bubble] om. BDC5 HA62  To His Scornfull mistris BLH6  The Bubble. A Song. 1648

2. hast] But BDC5  Flie 1648

made] madd BDC5 BLH6 HA62

4 like] (⁓ 1648

planett]) 1648

5 Stoope] Mount, BDC5 BLH6 HA62

mount] stoope HA62 stay BDC5 BLH6

eyes] eye BDC5 BLH6 HA62 1648

6 a dire comet] to a dreadfull Comet 1648

pg 256

Plate 3. CUL Add. MS 42 f. 36r.

Plate 3. CUL Add. MS 42 f. 36r.

pg 257

7 Then fall an able distance till hir sight] and when thy shaking fires, & her sight BDC5 BLH6 HA62  Next, when thou dost perceive her fixed sight 1648

8 and] are BDC5 BLH6 HA62 for 1648

thy] thus BDC5 BLH6 HA62

swolne way] and thus BDC5 BLH6 HA62  revenge to 1648

be fully opposite] & truly opposite BDC5 HA62 BLH6  be most opposite 1648

9 There ready; like] Then like BDC5 BLH6 HA62 1648

a ball of wild fire] a Globe, or Ball of Wild-fire 1648

10 vpon hir eye] in shivers on ⁓ ⁓: 1648

Subscription: no subscription] ffinis BDC5 HA62  Rob: Herrick BLH6

MS 8* To his False Mistress

Sources collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn 205, f. 73v; Bodleian Library MS Eng. poet.c.50, f. 113r; MS Eng.poet.c.50, f. 133r; British Library Add. MS 19268, f. 22r; Add. MS 53723, f. 46r; Add. 25707, f. 110v; Add. MS 30982, f. 42v; Add. MS 33998, ff. 82v–83r; Egerton MS 2013, ff. 8v–9r; Egerton MS 2725, ff. 68v–69r; Sloane MS 1446, f. 88r; Folger Shakespeare Library MS V.a.96, f. 44r; MS V.a.96, f. 72r; V.a.124, f. 44v; MS V.b.43, f. 8v; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, f. 70r; Huntington Library HM 198 (1) f. 63r; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia MS 239/23, pp. 37–8; MS 239/23, p. 156; MS 1083/17, ff. 115v–116r; Westminster Abbey MS 41, f. 93r; West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds 156/237, f. 52r; Rosemary Williams The Stoughton MS, p. 57.

Transmissional History

There are two principal versions of the text, each created through minor textual changes, and each of these versions in turn survives in two or three different states. None of these versions are datable to any specific time period other than a general date of c.1630s. The pattern of MS variation suggests two copies of the text distinguished by reading either 'sure' (3) and 'false oaths' (8), which we call A1, and a version reading 'know' (3) and 'until … oaths' (8), which we call A2. Further revisions elaborate on these principal divisions. Despite the assignment of numbers to the sigla it is not clear which set of readings are the originals and a genuinely early witness (datable to the 1620s) is needed to establish with confidence which set of readings is the original.

The extant witnesses (22 in all) split into two groups of eleven, based on variant readings of ll. 3 and 11. Ten witnesses including the copytext read 'I'm sure' (3) and one more MS, Westminster Abbey MS 41, is placed here based on a variant it has which is transmitted only by 'I'm sure' witnesses. The 'I'm sure' version (A1) of 'To his False Mistress' exists in a number of variant states. Eight of these eleven are witnesses to a text (B) reading 'and falling may they' (11). Six of these eight are directly copied from a further revision (C) to this source, which reads 'let them' (9) and 'pearce' (11). The 'let them' (9) reading is probably introduced by the creator of C to remove B's repetition ofpg 258 'may they' in ll. 9 and 11. B rather than A1 must be the source of the repetition since the remaining copies of A1SL14, WY23, and RO29—read 'may' (9) but then 'lett' in l. 11 (as do the eleven witnesses). These three remaining copies have independent agreements with B/C and with the remaining eleven witnesses, which are copied from a parent (A2) reading 'I know no place' (3) and 'then falling let it' (11). These three 'hinge MSS' tend to indicate firstly that the original source (A) read 'let it' (11), since the reading appears in both A1 and A2. Grammatically and poetically, a reading of 'it' makes better sense than the B and C witnesses' reading of 'they' (11) since l. 10 reads 'Till they both one lightning prove' and one witness to B, WA41, does read 'it'. There is one further significant variant line. All the A1 witnesses transmit l. 8 as 'till one … false oathes it find'—a repetition of l. 1—although another revised version of A1 (D) is varied to read 'lost vowes'. A2 has the more pedestrian 'Until one of her oaths it find', the expansion of 'til' making up the lost half foot. There is no way textually of establishing which of the two readings came first (although it seems reasonable to assume that the original reading was 'oaths' rather than 'vowes' and D's variant is an instance of intelligent improvement by the copyist which removes the repetition of 'false oaths'). It appears that both versions also circulated simultaneously as two miscellanies carry copies made from A2 and from A1. This is a poem which was flexibly amended by copyists when they judged such changes necessary. There is no obvious connection between a particular version of 'To his false Mistress' and a particular version of 'The Curse' (MS 8) although the title 'On his perjured mistress', used by a number of relatively closely related sources, is clearly linked to the opening line of 'The Curse'—'Go perjured man'—and as we note in the transmissional history of MS 8 most of the witnesses to the pair used the starkest variation of its line 5.

The witnesses to A1 are Huntington 198(1) (HM19), the miscellany of Edward Denny which is c.1630s; BL Add. 33998 (BL33), a mid-1630s miscellany made by a professional scribe in the London theatres which belonged to Chaloner Chute; and the second copy in the 1630s–40s miscellany Bodleian Eng.poet.c.50 (on f. 133r) (BDCO). Another five witnesses—BL Add. MS 30982 (BL30), the miscellany of the Christ Church Oxford undergraduate Daniel Leare, compiled c.1631–3; BL Add. MS 19268 (BL19), a 1630s miscellany once owned by a John Philips; the mid-seventeenth-century miscellany, Yale Osborn b 205 (YA25); the second copy in Folger V.a.96 (on f. 72r; FLV9); and George Morley's miscellany Westminster Abbey MS 41 (WA41), compiled between the 1620s and 1640s—follow the poem with a copy of 'The Curse', entitled 'The Answer'.55 West Yorkshire Archive Service MX 237 (WY23), a miscellany given as a gift to Sir John Reresby, and Sloane 1446 (SL14), compiled by an Inns of Court man (see 2.246 n. 45 for a brief account) and signed by Francis Baskerville, are paired here. Both copyists are using the same sequence of poems, which includes this text of 'To his False Mistress' (see 2.246 n. 44), and so its variants may be part of its reworking prior to inclusion in the sequence (for examples of other such reworkings, see MS 6 and MS 14).

pg 259When this additional bibliographical detail is taken into account, the relationships between the A1 witnesses are clarified. Only one witness, the copytext Rosenbach 239/23, p. 156 (RO29) appears to be copied directly from A1 although it too has unique variants, particularly 'will' (4) and 'grapple' (9). Denny's miscellany (HM19) and Westminster 41 (WA41), which is both revised and difficult to read in MS, appear to be copies of a slightly different text (B); in fact both read 'wheer' (1) suggesting a common parent (B1) preceding the revised text C. This is because the other witnesses that, like WA41, follow the poem with a copy of 'The Curse' entitled 'The Answer' are all copied from C, whereas WA41 does not transmit the distinctive readings of C but reads more closely with HM19 and the second copy in RO29. The agreement in transmitting 'The Answer', however, suggests C is produced from a copy of B. The remaining witnesses, then, are copied from C, and four—BL19, BL30, FLV9, and YA25—follow it with a copy of 'The Curse' entitled 'The Answer'. Two witnesses to C do not follow the poem with 'The Curse': the second copy in Eng.poet.c.50 (BDCO) and BL33 (Chute's miscellany). The copyist of the relevant section in BDCO may have opted not to copy 'The Curse' since another hand has entered both 'To his False Mistress' (using a text descended from A2) and 'The Curse' twenty leaves earlier, on f. 113r. BL33, like its fellow C witness BL19, attributes the poem to Herrick. The pairing of SL14 and WY23 most likely witnesses a revised version (D) of A1, with both its witnesses describing a text entitled 'On a False Mistress' which reads 'doth' (5), 'neuer back again' (7), 'lost vowes' (8), 'doe' (10), and 'soe' (12)

The other eleven witnesses are all copied from a parent (A2) reading 'I know no place' (3), 'dares' (4) rather than A1's 'dare', and 'untill one of her oathes' (8) rather than A1's 'till one of her false oaths'. All the A2 witnesses share a reading with RO29 and D of 'and falling let it blast her eyes' (11), confirming this reading as the probable reading of the archetype (A). Like A1, A2 is preserved in a number of states. One version (E) is a text revised to read 'love' (3) and 'may it' (9) and the four witnesses to it are the first copies in three miscellanies, Eng.poet.c.50, f. 113r (BDC5), Folger V.a.96 f.44r (FL96), and Rosenbach 239/23, pp. 37–8 (RO23) and the copy in Harvard fMS Eng 626 (HA62). All four are drawing on the Crum archetype here (see 2.10–13 ). Five of the remaining witnesses read 'is thus' (12): British Library Egerton 2725 (BLE4), a 1640s miscellany once owned by Sir Thomas Meres; Folger MS V.a.124 (FL12), a miscellany compiled by Richard Archard from 1650 onwards; and three miscellanies using a common source from the papers of the poet Henry King: Folger MS V.b.43 (FLB4), the Stoughton MS (STOU), and British Library Add. MS 25707 (BL27), a miscellany owned by the Skipwith family of Cotes in Leicestershire.56 All five copy the poempg 260 alongside 'The Curse' and use a variant of the title 'On a Perjured Mistress'. Egerton 2725 (BLE4) agrees with BDC5 for other poems, including 'His Age', where it agrees with it and HA62.57 The latter two are both using the Crum archetype for that poem and the convergence of the same two miscellanies here suggests that Egerton's copyist is copying poems which also derive from that source.58

Rosenbach 1083/17 (RO17), a mid- to-late-1630s miscellany owned by Horatio Carey, reads 'was thus', as does the setting in Henry Lawes's autograph songbook BL Add. 53723 (see 2.16–18). However, little weight can be attached to recurrence of this particular variant: the copy of Lawes's setting in Egerton 2013 (BLE2), a songbook almost certainly aurally compiled by an amateur singer listening to performance of the songs he copies (see 2.456–57), reads 'is thus' and this variant might well suggest itself independently to someone listening to the song in performance or to any copyist. Similarly, RO17 reads 'is thus' but his title and the remainder of his text agree with the five 'was thus' witnesses. Lawes enters this text as number 94 of 325 songs (the main sequence of Herrick lyrics begins at number 144) and it appears to have been set not long after 1636, judging by the presence of Davenant's 'Whyther soe gladly and soe fast', set by Lawes for the 1636 masque The Triumphs of the Prince d'Amour, at number 84.59

Historical Collation

Heading: To his False Mistresse] A Complaint BDCO BL30 YA25  A Complaint of his piurd Mrs R.H. BL19  In Perjuram FL12  On a false Mrs SL14 WY23  Of his periur'd Mrs RO17  On his periur'd Mrs BL27  On a periured Mris BLE4  Vpon his periur'd Mistris FLB4 STOU  No title BDC5 BLE2 BL53 FL96 FLV9 HA62 HM19 RO23 WA41

1 Whether] Wheer HM19 WA41

her] ower HM19  those BLE2  illegible WA41

false] illegible WA41

oathes] Oath HM19 illegible WA41

flowne] illegible WA41  blown Ω‎

2 they] the BL27

pg 261

Fig 2. All witnesses to 'To his False Mistress'.

Fig 2. All witnesses to 'To his False Mistress'.

pg 262

3 I'me] O WA 41  I BDC5 BL27 BL53 BLE2 BLE4 FL96 FL12 FLB4 HA62 RO17 RO23 STOU

Sure] thers WA 41  know BDC5 BL27 BL53 BLE2 BLE4 FL96 FL12 FLB4 HA62 RO17 RO23 STOU

plane] place Ω

Faith] loue BDC5 FL96 HA62 RO23

knowne] showne YA25

4 Will] dare BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 HM19 SL14 WY23 YA25  dares BDC5 BL27 BL53 BLE2 BLE4 FL96 FL12 FLB4 HA62 RO17 STOU does WA41

5 that] which BL19 BL33 HM19 WY23 YA25  with BDCO BL30 BLE2 FLV9 SL 14 WA 41  with ^which^ BLE2

did] didst WA 41  doth SL14 WY23

6 Shall] Goe WA 41

venture] tender WA 41

one] on FL12

Sighe] high FL12 sight BL30

winds] wind Q

7 O] and SL14 WY23

may it] ⁓ ⁓ euer BL30 never SL14 WY23 ⁓ thou thou WA41

never] back SL14 WY23

home] againe SL14 WY23  hence FLB4

8 Till] until BDC5 BL27 BL53 BLE2 BLE4 FL96 FL12 FLB4 HA62 RO17 RO23 STOU

one] once BL30

those] her Ω

false] lost SL14 WY23  do not copy BDC5 BL27 BL53 BLE2 BLE4 FL96 FL12 FLB4 HA62 RO17 RO23 STOU

Oathes] vowes SL14 WY23

it] you WA41

9 There] Then BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 WA41 YA25

may] let BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 YA25

they] them BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 YA25 it BDC5 FL96 HA62 RO23

grapple] goe [?] WA41  wrestle Ω

in the] illegible WA41

skyes] sky BL19 BL30 BL33 HM19 FL12 FLV9 WA41 YA25

10 Till] until HM19

they] there WA41

both] shall   BL33 doe   SL14 WY23  does not copy BL30  illegible WA41

one] and YA25 a WA41

pg 263

11 Then] and BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 HM19 WA41 YA25

lett] may BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 HM19 WA41 YA25

it] they BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 HM19 YA25

blast] blaze HM19 pearce BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 YA25

Eyes] eye BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 FLV9 RO17 YA25 WA41

12 That] Which WA41

is] was BDC5 BDCO BL19 BL30 BL33 BL53 FL96 FLV9 HA62 HM19 RO17 RO23 SL14 WA41 WY23 YA25

thus] soe BDC5 FLA9 HA62 RO23 SL14 WY23

Subscription: F:] finis BDC5 RO23 WY23  Hen: Lawes BLE2 R Herrick BL19 Rob: Herricke BL33  no subscription BDCO BLE4 BL27 BL30 BL53 FL96 FLV9 FL12 FLB4 HA62 HM19 RO17 SO 14 STOU WA41 YA25

MS 8 The Curse

Sources Collated:

MS: Barber Institute, Birmingham MS 5002, pp. 8–11; Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197, p. 10; Osborn b 205, f. 74r; Osborn b 54, p. 931; Osborn fb 142, p. 33; Bodleian Library Ashmole 38, p. 4; Ashmole 38, p. 179; MS Don.c.57, f. iir; MS Eng.poet.c.50, f. 39r; MS Eng.poet. c. 50, f. 113"; MS Eng.poet.f.25, f. 19v; MS Mus.b.1, f. 45r; MS Mus.c.26, ff. 134r-139r; MS Mus.Sch.c.12, pp. 84–5; Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.14, p. 118*; MS Mus.Sch.c.16, pp. 29–30; Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.17, p. 6, p. 16; Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.18, p. 6 and pp. 29–30*; Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.19, p. 112–13*; Bodleian MS Mus.c.26, ff.134r-139r; Mus.Sch.c.95, p. 116; MS Mus. Sch.c.96, ff. 5v-6r; MS Rawl.poet.196, f. 15r; MS Tanner 465, f. 60r; British Library Add. MS 15227, f. 3r; Add. MS 19268, f. 22r; Add. MS 19759, f. 43r; Add. 22100, ff. 39v-44r; Add. MS 25707, f. 110v; Add. MS 29397, ff. 5v-7r [rev.]; Add. MS 30382, ff. 31v-32v; Add. MS 30982, f. 42v; Add. MS 33234, ff. 49r-50v; Add. MS 33235, ff. 67v-70r; Add. MS 33287, ff. 2r-3r; Add. MS 63626, ff. 30v-31r; Egerton MS 2421, f. 22v; Egerton 2725, f. 69r; Sloane 1446, f. 74v; Cambridge University Library Add. MS 42, f. 36r; Add. MS 8470, ff. 18v-19r; William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California Los Angeles MS 1950.024, p. 30; Christ Church, Oxford MS Mus 527 ff. 68r-67v (rev)*; Mus 628, pp. 8–11; Corpus Christi College, Oxford MS 176, f. 8r; Edinburgh University Library MS La.III.436, p. 79; Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge MS 118, pp. 28–31; MS 120, pp. 75–83; Folger Shakespeare Library MS V.a.96, f. 45v; MS V.a.96, f. 72r-v; MS z, p. 107; MS V.a.124, f. 42v; MS V.b. 43, f. 8v; Folger V.b.197 (1), pp. 32–44; Folger MS W.b. 515, pp. 77–80; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, f. 73r; Huntington Library HM 198 (1), p. 53; Ron Lieberman, The Family Album,pg 264 Kinzers, PA Wolf miscellany, p. 130; London Metropolitan Archives ACC/1360/528, f. 21r; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey 7.a.29, p. 81; Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge MS 2802, ff. 54r—56r; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia 239/23, p. 44; 239/27, pp. 121–2; 243/4, p. 155; 1083/17, f. 120v; St John's College, Cambridge MS S.32, f. 48v; Mary Hobbs (ed.), The Stoughton MS (1990), p. 57; Westminster Abbey MS 41, f. 93r; West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds MS 156/237, f. 16v; Yorkminster Archives MS 22, f. 5r-6r

Print: 1648, p. 53 Sig. E3a

Sources recorded:

D & M 59; D & M 94; D & M 134; D & M 183.

Transmissional History

Our analysis here is intended to give an account of the textual and musical history of this poem and describe how the text and setting changed over time. Consequently we have not sought to construct a stemma but have outlined the shared readings between witnesses and, based on 1648, indicated the versions and readings which preserve what are likely to be authorial variants.

Classification of Witnesses

Where the MS witnesses in general tend to vary is in whether they place 'hands', the noun modified by 'rude' (5) on the same or the subsequent line. 1648 reads 'hand more rude' but several early and late witnesses put it on the following line, creating a line break that reflects the abruptness of the lover's action. This placement also makes 'rude' into a widely-applicable sign of the lover's wider failings, invoking not only the particular application of 'rude' to hands (OED adj. 2b), exemplified in the 'forced fingers rude' (4) of Milton's 'Lycidas', but also its broader sense of 'Not gentle, violent, harsh; giving out unkind or severe treatment; marked by unkind or severe treatment of people or living things' (OED adj. 2), all the charges levelled against the lover by his spurned mistress.

Version reading 'perhaps with rude | hands'

The only witness which both uses the authorial title and attributes the poem to Herrick (HM19), as well as what is probably the earliest extant copy (MS 8.1), are amongst the witnesses to this version, suggesting that this is an early authorial version. It is also the version which circulates most often in company with MS 8*. The twenty witnesses to it comprise the largest single tradition for the verse (as opposed to the song) text.

YA19 and HM19 agree in calling the poem 'The Curse' and in reading 'seeke' (2). These two MSS are significant sources for Herrick's MS poems: they are the only surviving witnesses, for example, to 'Parkinsons Shade' (MS 10), an unpublished poem by Herrick. They share the error of 'seeke' with the Wolf MS (WOLF), which also uses the title 'The Curse', although it has a unique reading of line 8: 'pray'd forpg 265 pitty'.60 Alston (YA19) copies the poem within its principal Herrick sequence, where most of the poems are attributed. Clearly all three are copied from a source that did use both the authorial title and attribution and the presence of these two important witnesses to Herrick's work in this tradition underlines the authority of its readings.

Five of the surviving witnesses derive from the papers of Henry King. The closely related Stoughton MS (STOU) and Folger MS V.b.43 (FLB4) agree in the title 'A Reply to the Same' (that is to 'To his False mistress', where they are similarly linked (see 2.259)). They also agree with the text of the setting by John Wilson found in Bodleian MS Mus.b.1 (BDB1), a songbook which as a whole is also closely related to the c.1636 Stoughton MS, commissioned by King.61 A fourth witness to what Mary Hobbs has identified as the 'Stoughton group' is British Library Add. 25707 (BL27), which shares its title 'on hir periur'd ser'ant' with Egerton 2725 (BLE4).62 Folger V.a.124 (FL12) uses the title 'Reply', close enough to STOU and FLB4's title 'A Reply to the Same'. (Oddly enough these are the only other witnesses to use 'reply' in their title.) FL12 is probably compiled by a Richard Archard, who signs it in 1650 and again in 1657. BLE4 is a c.1640s miscellany signed by 'Thomas Meres', identified by Peter Beal as probably Sir Thomas Meres (1634–1715) of Kirton, Lincs. Both also copy this poem with 'To his False Mistress', FL12 doing so as part of a long sequence of answer poems.

Taken as a whole, neither Archard's nor Mere's miscellanies belong to the Stoughton group, but the texts of the two poems they share with this group (the collation of 'To his False Mistress' indicates with BL27 specifically) must deri'e from this group's text. There is no single common variant which all five share and we rely on a combination of bibliographical evidence, shared titles, and their relationship within the textual tradition of MS 8* to argue that these five witnesses have the same relationship as they do for 'To his False Mistress', each one copying both poems as a pair and from the same source though at differing removes. The final witness to a copy taken from the King papers is St John's College, Cambridge S.32 (SJS3), which calls the lyric 'Sonnett', in the sense of a shortish lyric or song.63 Hobbs identifies a section of SJS3 (which includes 'The Curse') as sharing twenty songs with STOU, although she argues that they are not copied directly from STOU but from other papers belonging to STOU's commissioning owner, Henry King, and the collation indicates that this witness to 'The Curse' was among them. The commentary on Scriptorium dates this MS earlier than Hobbs suggests, arguing it is more likely to be copied c. 1632 than the 1635 date posited by Hobbs.64

pg 266Textual and bibliographical evidence links four untitled witnesses all dating to later in the same decade: the second copy (on f. 113r) in the Daniell MS (Bodleian Eng. poet.c.50/BDCO), the St John MS (Harvard fMS Eng 626/HA62), Rosenbach 239 /23 (RO23), and the first of two copies in Folger V.a.96, f. 45v (FL96) share a reading of 'ruffle' (6), a scribal variant for the authorial 'rifle' (1648.6). These are familiar relationships: the fourth hand in Daniell (who copies this text) and the professional copyist of HA62 both use the Crum archetype for their other Herrick poems, a source which RO23 also used (see 2.10–13), and the shared agreements here make it likely that this version of MS 8 circulated via the same route.

The four also share a reading of 'these' (2) with another pair of witnesses, London Metropolitan Archives (LM13) and Yale Osborn b 54 (YA54), but these latter two copy a distinctive variant text reading 'these' (2), 'honour' (4), 'touch' (6), and 'might' (8). LM13 copies 'The Curse' immediately after a poem on Hobson the Cambridge carrier ('Here lyes Hobson, amongst his many betters') and Randolph's 'Gratulatorie to Ben Jonson' ('I was not borne to Helicon, nor dare'), and so is copied no earlier than 1631, whereas YA54's title-page and endleaf indicate that this large volume was transcribed between 1677 and 1681.65

The five remaining witnesses to this version are copies which do not share any unique variants or titles with other surviving witnesses. Cambridge University Library MS 42 (CU42) is untitled but is probably the earliest witness, written on the recto of a note dated 1622. Although entered after the letter was composed (see 2.254–5), it is likely to be copied early in the decade and many of its texts' readings are authoritative (see MS 7). The copy in George Morley's miscellany, Westminster Abbey MS 41, is entitled 'Answer' but like its copy of 'To his False Mistress' the revisions to this text are extensive and the leaf physically damaged: line 2 is varied to read 'fetch the poor remainder' (2); it has a completely different line 3: 'Know I haue thought & still did euer trust' (3), and significant alterations to lines 4, 6 (where legible), and 7.66 The copy in the Clark Library UCLA, MS.1950.024 (formerly S4975M) (CL24) is entitled 'On a perjur'd man', which is similar to that of BL27 and FL12, but reads 'pray'd ye gods' at line 7, probably a scribal interpolation.67 Rosenbach 239/27 (RO27), apg 267 miscellany datable to c. 1634, calls the poem 'A Songe' but it is more likely that the copyist received the poem without a title since he conflates it with a 16-line lyric attributed to Kenelm Digby, reading:

  • Lowe in a 'ale there sate a sheaperdesse
  • Bewailing to her selfe her great distresse
  • her downecast head vpon her knee shee bent
  • Whilst with her hands her curled haire shee rent
  • Which carelessly now hunge about her eares
  • And onely serued for to dry her teares
  • But by her face ' gesture was exprest
  • The liuely image of a Soule distrest.
  • Her teares that from her red swolne eyes did flow
  • Faster then riuers from the mountains growe
  • The heart did heaue as though her heartstrings straind
  • Each part exprest the sorrowe itt sustained
  • Only her tongue her sorrowes were soe many
  • That itt found wants of words to utter any[.]68

'The Curse' forms the remaining eight lines, and the copyist clearly thought he was transcribing a single 22-line poem, as he carefully and habitually marks off the final line of each poem and he concludes this poem at 'strike thee blind'. This conflation of the two, using the preceding verse to supply a pastoral context for the final denunciation, is one of the relatively few examples of social editing in Herrick's work, where a copyist deliberately (or inadvertently?) runs two poems together to shape a fresh one.

The text in Corpus Christi College, Oxford, MS 176 (CC17), is copied in the miscellany's principal hand, and probably made at Oxford judging by the sheer quantity of verse by Corbett, Strode, and Grange within it. It too is an independent copy, this time reading 'view' (2) but this is probably scribal and borrowed from another variant text, where 'view' is the preferred reading of line 2.

The 'scatter' text

A second variation on the 'rude | hands' (5) text is shared by six witnesses but this text has been varied to read 'scatter' and this version is linked in three of its witnesses to one of Herrick's early musical collaborators, the Cambridge composer Robert Ramsey (see MS 24 and 181). The first is in a musical setting attributed to Robert Ramsey in the songbook most closely associated with him, Bodleian Don. c.57 (BD57), the second a copy in the hand of William Sancroft, later Archbishop of Canterbury, in his verse miscellany, Bodleian MS Tanner 465 (BDT4), where an initial attribution to Ramsey ispg 268 struck through, and a third copy in the early to mid-1630s miscellany BL Add. 15227 (BL15 ).69 Sancroft entered Cambridge in 1633 and remained until 1651 and the section of this MS, copied in his hand, is dominated by Crashaw's poetry and concludes with Cleveland's 'The Rebell Scot', so he copies 'The Curse' at some point between 1633 and 1647. 'The Curse' is the sixth ayre at the start of BD57, the second song after John Milton's 'Charon' dialogue on the death of Hobson (the famous carrier). The setting itself likely dates to the 1620s since Ramsey is actively setting Herrick's work around 1627.

The remaining MSS date from the 1630s and whilst BDT4 and BD57 have a slightly closer relationship, reading 'with' (3) and 'or' (4), all three are made by or based on the MSS of men working or studying at Cambridge University. The pre-existing relationship between Herrick and Ramsey encourages a closer look at the 'scatter' tradition as potentially authorial or as developed by Ramsey on the basis of an authorial text.

Of the other three witnesses, two—Edinburgh UL MS La.III.436 (EDLA), which dates from the late 1630s, and Rosenbach 243/4 (RO 24), completed before 1634—use 'Curse' in their titles. This seems unremarkable but only five witnesses in the entire tradition do this. The final 'scatter' witness is the first of the two copies in the Daniell MS (BDC5) where, though transmitting some unique variants—'poore' (2), 'chaunce' (3), 'shalt' (5), 'that that see' (7)—it agrees with BL 15 in reading 'say' (4). The reason for substituting 'rifle' with 'scatter' is not entirely clear: Ramsey's musical phrase to which 'scatter the flowres' is set begins on an offbeat, and the hard consonant sound of both syllables emphasizes its position here more than if he had set 'rifle' (which contains softer-sounding consonants) in the same manner; this likely was the intention.

The 'hands too rude' (5) text

If the version described above is an early text, then this group of MSS witnesses what may be a minor tweak by Herrick to his original line 5, which he then keeps for print. Their line 5 reading of 'hands most rude' is close to 1648's 'hand more rude' but this group's reading of 'view' (2) is not in 1648 and may be either a reading Herrick drops, a variant introduced by Ramsey which is subsequently picked up by copyists (BD57 and BDT4 reads 'view'), or an instance of independent scribal sophistication. Nine witnesses in eight MSS read 'view' (2) and either 'hands too rude' or 'hands most rude': Yale Osborn b 205 (YA25), Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7); BL Add. 19268 (BL19; John Philips' MS); BL Add. 30982 (BL30; Daniel Leare's miscellany); the second copy in Folger V.a.96 onpg 269 f. 72r-v (FLV9); Folger V.a.97 (FL97); Bodleian Eng.poet.f.25 (BDF2) and the two near-identical copies in the same hand in Nicholas Burghe's miscellany, Bodleian Ashmole 38, the first on p. 4 (BDA3) and the second on p. 179 (BDA8). Four of these— YA 25, FLV9, BL19, and BL30—treat 'The Curse' as a response to 'To his False Mistress', where they group together in a similar pattern (see 2.259). All four call the poem 'The Answer' or 'Her Answere' and BL30 and BL19 agree in reading 'mine' (2), suggesting an e'en closer relationship between the two. BDF2, which calls its text 'An Epitaph on a Maid yt dyed in love', and FL97, which uses the title 'To a periurd lover', vary in title but not in their text. SAG 7, as is characteristic for all the Herrick poems it copies, introduces unique 'ariants—'these sacred ashes' (2), 'raise' (8)—but otherwise reads consistently with the other nine witnesses. The pair of copies in Ashmole are situated widely apart (p. 4 and p. 179) and the copyist Nicholas Burghe may simply have copied two texts from two different collections but both witness the same variant text reading 'when' (1), 'of' (2), 'forsaken' (3), and 'most rude' (5), raising the intriguing possibility that Burghe received the same text twice, with BDA8 (the copy on p. 179) witnessing the same text as BDA3 after it had gone through a number of copyists' hands. Burghe may have corrected one version from the other, although there is no sign of emendation on the leaf itself.

Analysis

Having looked at thirty-six witnesses, we can see that there are three variant texts of 'The Curse'. The version reading 'with rude | hands' is revised at some point (perhaps by Herrick and Ramsey working together) to read 'scatter' (5) and is set to music by Ramsey. Another version reading 'hands too rude' (5) may be authorial since Herrick uses the similar 'hand more rude' in 1648. The changes between these versions are few in number; essentially there are (with the exception of the unstable 'see'/'view' variant) two quite minor changes which distinguish between thirty-six witnesses to the poem. Howe'er, at least some contemporary copyists took these differences seriously. FLV9 in particular shows a sharp awareness of alternative versions of the lyric that are in circulation. Already the second copy in this miscellany (the other is FL96) FLV9 also supplies readings from a third and very different version of the poem in the margin (readings which are not taken from FL96). FLV9 is also the only other witness in the entire tradition to attribute the poem to Herrick (SAG7 attributes it to John Grange), which may in some way have contributed to the copyist's desire to keep the two alternative versions on this leaf apart rather than blend what might be an authorial and a scribal text together, or more plausibly, the careful distinction of variants may point to a perception of this lyric as having a number of variant readings which are both unique to a particular version but also interchangeable. The marginal variants supplied by FLV9: 'scoffe' (3), variants from a line 5 reading 'in women's beauty and perhaps with rude' and 'hands tear' (6) reveal a fourth version of the lyric, and there are four full-length witnesses that share some or all of FLV9's third set of readings. All use the title 'A forsaken lady that died for love', identical to the title used by BDA3.

pg 270The 'scoffe' (3) text

The full-length witness whose variants are the closest match for FLV9's marginalia is Egerton 2421 (BLE4), a miscellany still being compiled post-1641.70 In addition to 'scoff' it is the only other extant witness to read 'hands tear' (6).71 The Folger copyist is not using BLE4 itself—BLE4 also reads 'dare' (1) and 'toombe' (2), which he presumably would have included had it been present in its source—but he is using a closely-related copy. More significantly, perhaps, FLV9 does not copy the reading of 'see' (2) which BLE4 does have and which was probably therefore also available to him. This suggests that he saw 'view' as the better reading, which also supports treating this particular variant as unreliable in terms of indicating a MS's affilation. BLE4 also has a closing addition,

  • Reader stay let fall a teare
  • ffor much beautye lyeth here;
  • Thou art if thou sheddest none
  • As very marble as the stone.

probably of the copyist's own composition, which serves to highlight the elegant dexterity of the preceding lyric. BLE4's version is distinct from the remaining 'scoff' witnesses, which do not read 'tombe' or 'dare' but all five do agree in reading 'in' (3) (the only group of MSS with this reading) and in their titles. The 'scoff' text is evidently a revision (probably though not certainly scribal) of a 'perhaps with rude | hands' text. The witnesses also vary amongst themselves and the text underwent a second wave of revision to produce either the version witnessed by BLE4 and FLV9 or the version used by four other witnesses, Sloane 1446 (SL14), WYAS MS 156/23 (WY23), Rosenbach 1083/17 (RO17), and Cambridge UL MS Add. 8470 (CU84).

WY23 and SL14, two miscellanies with Inns of Court connections, copy the poem from the same archetype.72 They agree here in reading 'stroy' (6), a reading they share with a third witness to 'scoff', Horatio Carey's miscellany, RO 17. Scott Nixon's discussion of Carey's MS argues, based on its datable poems, that it was compiled in the mid- to late 1630s, and notes that the section containing 'The Curse' (ff. 84v-169r) is copied from one of three separate collections used by the copyist.73 This section does share a small number of poems with SL14 and WY23 but since many of these are popular and widely available poems only collation of all can confirm whether all three are using the same archetype. SL14 has connections to the Stoughton group, sharing twenty-six poems with STOU, but these occur in a different section of the MS (where the copyist uses what Hobbs argues is the first of his two hands) to 'The Curse'.74 The final extant witness to a 'scoff' reading, CU84, is a small miscellany of the 1630s-40s, signed by an 'Edwardus Hyde' who pg 271Beal suggests is the royalist divine Edward Hide (1607–59), a student and then a fellow and tutor at Cambridge between 1625 and 1642. CU84 reads 'spoyle' rather than 'stroy' (6) but both alternatives are probably attempts at a difficult-to-read word in a common parent.

The 'that the wind' (7) text

Whilst all the forty-one witnesses just discussed have the authorial reading 'that some wind' (1648.8), twenty-one copies, all dating from the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, read 'that the wind' (7) or 'that the winds' and it is this variant which signals an origin for these witnesses in the setting composed by the court musician John Blow (1648?–1708). The text that Blow transcribes in his autograph, Christ Church Oxford Mus 628 (CH62), reads 'see' (2), 'with rude | hands' (5), and 'rifle' (6) and so is close to the witnesses represented by MS 8.1. This constitutes a fifth variant text which is confined to musical witnesses or to verse copies which must be taken from the musical setting by Blow. Because there is no likelihood that Herrick collaborated on this work and because we do not intend to produce an edition of Blow's song-text we opt to collate in full only seventeenth-century copies of the text, primarily as evidence of reception, although we record the major textual and musical variants in full below and include Blow's setting from 1700 in the appendix.

Only two extant witnesses to this reading, the eighteenth-century miscellanies Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.196 (BDR9) and Yale Osborn fb 142 (YA14), omit the setting. There is one witness, consisting of six partbooks, which preserves the instrumental parts to two versions of the second form of the musical setting, though no text is provided.75 These are: Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.12 (BDC2), Mus.Sch.c.14 (BDC4), Mus. Sch.c.16 (BDC6), Mus.Sch.c.17 (BDC7 (p. 6) and BDC1 (p. 16)), Mus.Sch.c.18 (BDC8 (p. 6) and BDCA (p. 29)), and Mus.Sch.c.19 (BDC 9). They preserve not only an early version of the second form of John Blow's musical setting of 'The Curse' (see below), but also the instrumental parts to the version printed in Amphion Anglicus of 1700, which were probably transcribed directly from the music print. BDCA is the first violin part and BDC1 the second violin part to the version in 1700 and BDC9 contains the thoroughbass line to this setting. The parts for the earlier version of the second form of the setting which are contained in this set of partbooks are notated and distributed as follows: the treble and thoroughbass part are placed in score in BDC 2, and likewise the bassus and thoroughbass part (for a second time) are in score in BDC6; BDC8 contains the first violin part, BDC7 the second, and BDC4 the 'base viol part'. In terms of textual variation within this group of twenty there is one principal variant: twelve witnesses read 'might' (8), including Blow's autograph, whereas the remaining nine alternatively read 'may'. The 'may' witnesses are YA14 and BDR9, Folger V.b. 197 (1) (FLB1), Bodleian Mus.Sch.c.26 (BDM1), c.95 (BD95), and c.96 (BDMS), Fitzwilliam Museum MS 120 (FW12), Folger W.b.515 (FL15), and Yorkminster MS 22 (YM22). It is also 'may' in four prints of the poem (D & M 59; D & M 94; D& M 134; D & M 183), and FW12 clearly derives from 1700.76 All except BDM1 and BDMS (late seventeenthpg 272 century) are eighteenth-century copies. The 'might' witnesses are British Library Add. 19759 (BL17), 29397 (BL97), 22100 (BL00), 30382 (BL82), 33234 (BL34), 33235 (BL35), 33287 (BL87), and 63626 (BL63), the partbooks BDC2 and BDC6, Barber Institute MS 5002 (BI50), Fitzwilliam Museum MS 118 (FW18 ), and Pepys Library MS 2802 (PL28). All except BL63 are seventeenth-century copies, and it may be that this latter group derive from MS copies. In Blow's setting, 'may' is contextually easier to sing than 'might', since it is set monosyllabically to a quaver (in a passage of descending quavers) this may have been the reason for the introduction of this variant.

Ramsey and Wilson's settings of 'The Curse'

While the song attribution of 'The Curse' to Ramsey in BD57 is almost irrefutable (since this MS, though not compiled by the composer, implies his influence because of the unique inclusion of his dialogues), ascribing the setting in BDB1 to Wilson is dubious. The musical settings entered into BDB1 on folios 13–204 (such as 'The Curse' and 'Loose no time nor youth') are attributed to Wilson on the top right-hand side of the folio in a hand which (according to Margaret Crum) is entirely unlike the composer's known signature; nevertheless, this is the hand responsible for making fair copies of Wilson's songs and is thought to be that of Edward Lowe, who succeeded Wilson as Professor of Music at Oxford in 1661 (ODNB)77 Crum establishes the extent of Wilson's personal involvement in BDB1's compilation, for she deduces that it is not improbable that the additions and alterations at the beginning of the book, in addition to those scattered through the subsequent pages, are in the composer's own hand.78 Irrespective of this, however, Jorgens believes that attribution of songs to John Wilson in this MS (as well as in ED69 and the composer's Cheerfull Ayres of 1660) is risky.79 Thus, although it has been assumed below that Wilson composed the musical setting of 'The Curse' which is found within BDB1, it should be borne in mind that its authorship is questionable.

Playford never printed either Ramsey's or Wilson's settings of 'The Curse', probably because they are both in a declamatory style and through-composed. John Cutts dates the settings in BDB1 to c.1650–c.1655 and so the transcription of Ramsey's setting comfortably predates Wilson's.80 It is probable that Ramsey's declamatory ayre waspg 273 more widely circulated than Wilson's and it may have influenced his. Wilson likewise set the poem in the tonality of G minor. The phrase structure in Wilson's ayre maintains more of a degree of regularity than that in Ramsey's. For instance, unlike Ramsey, Wilson sets the first two lines of the poem as two two-bar phrases, the first of which seamlessly segues into the next. Since Wilson's melodic phrases tend to include more stepwise movement and are to a large extent arpeggiac (for instance, consider how the composer set lines 4 to mid-line 5)), his ayre is the more melodious of the two. Furthermore, in spite of the deviation into the tonic major in the opening bars of Ramsey's setting, Wilson's is by far the more adventurous harmonically: the ayre in BDB1 modulates into the relative major before cadencing at the end of line 6 on A (that is, the dominant of D, itself the dominant of G minor). Yet Ramsey's setting is not without charm. While Wilson relies on the power of repetition to emphasize the last two lines of Herrick's verse, Ramsey aptly sets the line 'that some' in the phrase 'that some winde' to four ascending quavers and, similarly, the phrase 'may blow my ashes up' comprises a fast ascending vocal line which pinnacles on its final word, the highest pitch in the ayre's vocal line (g").

Although line 4 runs into line 5 in both Wilson's and Ramsey's settings, this is achieved by different means. Ramsey curtails the anticipated duration of 'trust' in favour of elongating the first word of line 5 by setting it to a minim de"; the thoroughbass part then propels the song forward for, by rising a semitone to e" flat, the first scale degree of the dominant in the vocal line is transformed into a suspended seventh which is swiftly resolved. Indeed, the mid-line break in the voice part after 'beauty' (line 5) helps ease the tension which this suspension created. On the other hand, Wilson achieves the enjambment of line 4 by making the accompanying thoroughbass rapidly ascend a fourth stepwise. This drives the setting on to cadence in the tonic of the relative major rather than on its dominant (mid-line 5 on 'of women's beauty'). It can be seen, then, that the enjambment of line 4 (like the enjambment of line 5) and a break mid-line 5 was surely intended in both settings.

It is also worth noting that the opening melody of Ramsey's solo song resembles the 'Herrick' dialogues. For instance, in his dialogue MS 24, the vocal line leaps downward by a minor sixth to the major third of the dominant, a note which resounds thrice.81 William Lawes's 'Charon and Philomel' (MS 48) and Henry Lawes's 'The New Charon' (PR 61) likewise begin in a similar manner. In contrast with the opening bars of these three dialogues, though, instead of calling out in order to make a ferryman or the God of the Underworld draw near, in Ramsey's setting of 'The Curse' the singer calls out to express the desired departure of the perjured man.

pg 274Henry Lawes surely was familiar with MS 8, for he composed a tuneful strophic solo song in triple time in the tonality of G major which was inspired by the poem ('Begone, begone, thou perjured man' in BL Add. 53723, f. 159v). His ayre requires the singer to repeat the last two lines of each stanza. The nature of this song means that more poetical rather than musical similarities with both Ramsey's and Wilson's setting of 'The Curse' exist. Its presence in Lawes's autograph straight after 'Leander's Obsequies' (MS 58) and one folio before 'The Night-Piece, to Julia' (MS 59) suggests the association of this poem with Herrick for the composer.

Blow's setting of'The Curse'

The discussion below of the three forms in which Blow's musical setting of 'The Curse' is preserved is limited to those in pre-1700 sources. All of these MS and print sources present all the parts of the song together in score, except for the version in BL17 and in the Bodleian partbooks BDC2, BDC4, BDC6, BDC7, and BDC8. The eighteenth century music historian Sir John Hawkins relates the circumstances which led to Blow's setting of 'The Curse' as follows:

The king [Charles II] admired very much a little duet of Carissimi [sic: Luigi Rossi (?1597/8–1653)82] to the words 'Dite o Cieli,' and asked of Blow if he could imitate it. Blow modestly answered he would try, and composed in the same measure, and the same key of D with a minor third, that fine song 'Go perjured man'.83

Rossi's 'Dite o cieli' is for cantus and bassus with an accompanying throroughbass. Provided that Hawkins's account is reliable, it seems probable that Blow first of all likewise set 'The Curse' for this ensemble. With the exception of the version of the setting in one source (PL28) which will be discussed below, all MS and print copies of the musical setting are in one of two forms. The first form of the setting is scored for a cantus, bassus, and accompanying thoroughbass, and the other in addition for two violins. Apart from the version of the song in Amphion Anglicus, all the other printed versions of it (that in D & M 59, and the newly typeset one in D & M 94 and its re-edition in D& M 134) are in the first form. The MS sources dating from prior to 1700 which contain the first form of the setting are FW11, BL 97, MS Mus. Sch.c.96 (BDMS), and BL17. The thoroughbass part is missing from the version in BL97, however, and the version in BL17 is for the cantus part only. It is likely that the version of the setting in BL97 derives from the printed copy in 1683 or 1687.84 Indeed, in the index at the back of the volume, 'Go Perjured man' is listed together with the following note in square brackets: 'Ch[eerful]. Ayres &c 1683. words by Herrick'. Although it seems that the version in BL17 is in the tonality of F minor, it is not completely improbable (since the voice part does not include the necessary accidentalspg 275 of A and D flat) that the scribe erroneously placed the part in the clef of G2 rather than C1 and added an E flat to the key signature. The replacement of the usual minims on 'strew'd' and on both 'know's with crochets, in addition to the rhythm of the first two notes in bar 13, means that this source shares a number of conjunctive variants with PL28. While in many respects the version in BDMS resembles that in 1683 (for instance, the e' of the cantus's 'strew''d'), the version in FW 11 contains variants found in the version in 1700 and thus seems to be a more developed version of the setting from which the symphony song derives.

Since various versions of the more developed second form of the setting survive (one of which is in Blow's own hand), it seems that in the process of revising the song the composer extended the string passages.85 It is clear from a comparison between the version in Blow's autograph copy (dating to c.1678) and that in Amphion Anglicus of 1700 that he first of all inserted an opening eight-bar prelude for the two violins and that the two short additional ritornello sections (one at the start and the other at the end of the second section) were supplied later. All of the MS copies of Blow's song in this second form which were definitely copied prior to 1700 contain the opening prelude for violins but not the two short ritornellos in the second section. A number of conjunctive and separative variants among these witnesses (not to mention the odd unique error in each of them) make it difficult to ascertain their precise relationship to one another. However, we can assume that Blow's autograph copy is the archetype for this group of sources (particularly since there are numerous similarities among their thoroughbass lines), or at the least a descendant of the archetype from which all the other MS copies derive. Among other similarities, a conjunctive musical variant in bar 15 of the first violin part separates the copy in BL34, BL35, and BL82 from BL00, BL87, and the version written out in parts in BDC2, BDC6, BDC8, BDC7, and BDC4. Since this musical variant in BI50 is a d" and c" quaver (instead of either d" dotted quaver followed by a c" semiquaver or of a d" quaver followed by a c" and a b' semiquaver), it is possible that this is the parent from which both these groups of MSS descend. Indeed, the copy in BI50 can be linked to BL34 and BL35: the words 'Ritornello for 2 Violins to a Bass' appear at the start of the song in this MS whereas 'Rittor.' and 'Retornello for 2 violins to a Bass' are written respectively at the start of the versions in the other two MSS.

The ambiguity surrounding the compilation date of all the MS versions of the first form of the setting mean that it is difficult to ascertain exactly when Blow composed it and when it was in circulation. Judging from the compilation date of PL28, however, it is probable that the setting was in circulation by the mid-1670s. The version of 'The Curse' in PL28 is unique. This MS was compiled by Cesare Morelli, a musician of Flemish origin who arrived in London in April 1675 and entered into the service ofpg 276 Samuel Pepys.86 Since Morelli returned to Flanders in 1682, it can be assumed that he arranged Blow's setting of 'The Curse' for Pepys sometime between 1675 and 1682. PL28 is one of the four MS volumes containing songs which Morelli wrote out for Pepys, whom he taught to play the guitar. It is not surprising, then, that here 'The Curse'—akin to the other songs in this volume—is an arrangement for bass (to suit Pepys's voice) and guitar accompaniment in tablature together with a figured bass line. This is the sole copy of Blow's setting which has been transposed into A minor. The vocal line, though pitched a twelfth lower, is essentially the same as the upper voice part in 1683 and 1687. While the harmonic filling provided by the accompanying guitar and thoroughbass generally concords with that in Blow's duet, these two parts are evidently Morelli's invention. In the second section, the thoroughbass often adopts the melodic line of the bassus part in Blow's version of the setting, especially from mid-line 5 onwards (the point after which both voices in Blow's version proceed in imitative counterpoint).

Although unclear in most MS copies of the musical setting—whether in its first or second form or in the unique version preserved in PL28—it is evident from the copies in print (because of the presence of double bar lines or repeat marks) that both sections of the song should be repeated. The two sections of the songs do not divide the poem equally, for Blow sets lines 1–2 in the first and lines 3–8 in the second. In addition, both voice parts frequently repeat words and whole phrases, particularly when they mimic one another. The imitative part-writing between the cantus and bassus at the start of the song is increased by the addition of the string passages. In contrast, at the start of the second section the two vocal lines are homophonic; here the principal function of the additional violin parts is to embellish the vocal lines, even in the extended passage of imitative counterpoint between the cantus and the bassus from the anacrusis to bar 31 onwards. Within this section in the version in 1683 and 1700 as well as most of the MS copies, Blow's setting of the text in bars 43–4 of the bassus heightens their meaning. 'That the Wind may blow my' is set to a stepwise-descending quaver passage in bar 43 which is doubled by the accompanying thoroughbass; this draws the listener's attention to the bassus. In the next bar, this voice part leaps up by a fourth to the 'up' of 'Ashes up', thus creating a marked contrast with the previous bar.

Copytext

One copytext will be used for each version of the poem. The copytext for the 'rude | hands' reading is CU42, the earliest datable copy, which agrees in all its readings with the texts of both YA19 and HM19, but does not transmit their error of 'seeke' (2). Herrick's 1648 subtitle of 'A Song' also points to a musical intention and so we also reprint Robert Ramsey's text and setting of the piece from BD57, not least because of the possibility of collaboration or exchange between these two in the production of this work. FL96 conveniently transmits the texts of two different versions simultaneously,pg 277 underlining the malleability of this poem. The 1700 text of Blow's setting, the most developed version, is reproduced in the Appendix of Other Poems and Songs.

Historical Collation

Note: MS 8.1 is used as the copytext.

Title: [no title]] ⁓ BDB1 BDCO BDC6 BDMS BDR9 BD57 BDT4 BD95 BL17 BL35 BL82 BL87 BL97 CH62 FL96 FL15 FLB1 FW11 HA62 PL28 RO23 A forsaken Ladye that dyde for Loue BDA3 BLE4 CU84 RO17 SL14 WY23 An epitaph made by a Gentelwoman att her Death her louer prouing Inconstant BDA8 An epitaph on a Maide that dyed in love BDF2 Vpon a periured man by a woman SAG7 To a periurd Louer FL97 On a periur'd man CL24 Ad pjurum Amatorem CC17 Her Answere BL19 The Answare BL30 FLV9 YA25 Answer WA41 A Curse EDLA A Curse to a False Loue RO24 In periuratum amatorculum BL15 the womans farewell to her louer who under pretence of trauill forsook her BDC5 To a false lover LM13 YA54 A reply to the same FLB4 STOU Replye FL12 On hir periur'd servant BL27 BLE4 The Curse YA19 HM19 WOLF The Curse. A Song. 1648 Sonnett SJS3 A Song RO27 On womans Beauty YA14 Go perjur'd Man BDM1 BL00 BL63 Go perjur'd Man Dr John Blow YM22 BL34 Go perjur'd Man A Song FW12 Go perjur'd man with symphonies by Dr. John Blow YM22 For 2 voices Base & treble with violins BDC2 Riornello for 2 violins to a Bass BI50

1 Goe] O EDLA Goe ⁓ BD57

if] when BDA3 BDA8

thou] ye EDLA  euer WA41  you BDF2 BL30 BL87 FL15 YA14

ere] dost BDA3  shalt BDA8  doest BL15 YA54  dare BLE4 you  WA41

doe LM13  are BDR9

2 To] And BL15

see] veywe BD57 BDA3 BDA8 BDF2 BDT4 BL19 BL30 CC17 FLA7 FLV9 SAG7 YA25  seeke HM19 WOLF YA19  fetch WA41 does not copy FL12

the] these BDCO HA62 LM13 RO24 SAG7 YA54  those FL96 RO23

small] sad BDA8  sacred SAG7  poore BDC5  last CC17

remaynders] remaynder BD57 BD95 BDA3 BDA8 BDC2 BDC6 BDF2 BDM1 BDMS BD95 BDT4 BI50 BL15 BL34 BL63 BL82 BL87 BLE4 CH62 CL24 CU84 EDLA FL15 FW11 FW12 HM19 RO17 SL14 WA41 WOLF WY23 YA14 YM22  ashes SAG7

in] of BD95 BDA3 BDA8 BDC2 BDC6 BDM1 BDMS BDR9 BD95 BI50 BL17 BL00 BL29 BL34 BL35 BL87 BL97 BL63 BLE4 CC17 CH62 CL24 FL12 FL15 FW11 FW12 PL28 WA41 YA14 YM22  on SAG7

my] mine BL19 BL30 CU84 FL97 FL96 HA62 RO23 RO27 SL14 WA41 WOLF WY23

urne] toombe BLE4

pg 278

3 When] And BDC5 CC17

thou] chaunce BDC5  you BL82 CU84 YA14

shalt] to BDC5  wilt BDT4 BD57  shall BL97 BL82 BL97 CH62 CU84

FL12 PL28 YA14 YA19 dost CC17  hast FLB4

laugh] scoffBLE4 CU84 RO17 SL14 WY23  <coffe> FLV9 does not copy BL30

religious] forsaken BDA3 BDA8  Know I haue thought and still did euer trust WA41

4 ask] say BDC5 BL15

wher's] where BDC5 BL27 EDLA YA19

now] is BDC5 BL27 EDLA YA19

the] that FL12  thy FW11

color] coloured BDF2  colours BL35  Cooler CH62  forme EDLA1feature BDC5  honour LM13 YA54

forme] colloure EDLA  fame LM13 YA54

and] or BD57 BDC5 BDT4 CC17  That thou wouldst kick my poore religious dust WA41

5 Of] in BLE4 CU84 RO17 SL14 WY23  <In> FLV9

womans] wemens BDA3 BD57 BDC2 BDC6 BDF2 BDR9 BI50 BL15 BL19 BL27 BL35 BL82 BLE4 BLE4 CC17 CH62 EDLA FL12 FL97 FLB1 FW11 FL15 HA62 HM19 RO23 RO24 RO27 SJS3 SL14 WOLF WY23 YA19 YA25  women YA54

bewty] beautys BL27 BLE4 CU84 SL14 WY23

and] or BD57 BDF2 BDT4 BL19 BL30 YA25  does not copy FW12

perhaps] perchance RO24  shalt BDC5  with BDA3 BDA8 BDF2 BL19 BL30 FL19 FL97 FLV9 SAG7 YA25 1648

with] <with> FLV9  hands BDA3 BDA8 BDF2 BL19 BL30 FL97 FLV9 SAG7 YA25  hand 1648

rude] most ⁓ BDA3 BDA8  too ⁓ BDF2 BL19 BL30 FL97 FLV9 SAG7 YA25  those ⁓ BDC5  what ⁓ BLE4 does not copy line WA41  more ⁓ 1648

6 hand] hands BD57 BDCO BDC2 BDC5 BDC6 BDM1 BDMS BDR9 BD95 BI50 BL15 BL17 BL00 BL34 BL35 BL63 BL87 BL97 BLE4 CC17 CH62 CL24 CU84 EDLA FL12 FL96 FL15 FLB1 FW11 FW12 HA62 LM13 PL28 RO24 RO27 SL14 WY23 YA14 YA54 YM22  <Hands> FLV9  do not copy BDA3 BDA8 BDF2 BL19 BL30 FL97 SAG7 YA25

rifle] rifled YA14  rifling WA41 ruffell BDA3 BDA8 BDCO FL96 HA62 RO23 scatter BD57 BDC5 BDT4 BL15 EDLA RO24 teare BLE4 <teare> FLV9  spoyle CU84  'stroy RO17 SL14 WY23  touch LM13 YA54

the] thes BDA8

which] that BDA3 YA14  where SJS3  does not copy BDC5

virgins] virgin BL63 BL82 BLE4 BLE4

strewed] strew WA41

pg 279WA41 interpolates an extra line: [A?] sk [illegible] which are a heauenly dew

7 Know] Then FL97

I haue] Il BDF2  that ⁓ ⁓ EDLA  I've BD95 BDC2 BDC6 BDM1 BDMS BDR9 BD95 BI50 BL00 BL34 BL35 BL63 BL82 BL87 BL97 CH62 FLB1 FL15 FW11 FW12 PL28 YM22 I be YA14

to] that BDC5  for WOLF  the CL24

pittie] that BDC5  Gods CL24  Furie 1648

some] same  BDC5 HA62 sonne  BL30  that ⁓ ill CL24  that YA14  the BD95 BDM1 BDMS BDC2 BDC6 BDR9 BI50 BL00 BL17 BL29 BL87 BL34 BL35 BL63 BL82 BL97 CH62 FL15 FLB1 FW11 FW12 PL28 YM22

wind] winds BDC6 BDR9 BL00 BL87 FL15 PL28

Yet thou shalt see the graue shall send some wind WA41

8 May] Might BDC2 BDC6 BI50 BL00 BL17 BL34 BL35 BL63 BL82 BL87 BL97 CH62 FW11 LM13 PL28 YA54  and WA41

blowe] raise SAG7

my] vp RO24  mine BL15

and] for to RO24  to WA41

strike] make CC17 EDLA SJS3

Subscription: [none]] ⁓ BD57 BDA3 BDB1 BDC2 BDC5 BDC6 BDF2 BDM1 BDR9 BDT4 BL19 BL27 BL30 BL35 BL63 BL82 BLE4 BLE4 CC17 CL24 CU84 EDLA FL12 FLA6 FL97 FLB4 LM13 PL28 RO17 RO23 RO24 RO27 SJS3 SL14 STOU WA41 WOLF YA14 YA19 YA25 YA54 YM22  finis BDA8 BDCO BL34 HA62 WY23  F: RO23  J. Grange SAG7  Jo: Blow CH62  Mr Ro: Herrick FLV9  Rob: Herricke HM19 Mr Rob Ramsy BDT4  R. Ramsey BL15  By Dr. John Blow BL87  Composed by Dr. Blow BL00  Per Dr John Blow FW12  Dr. Blow BDMS BD95 BI50 BL17 BL97 FLB1 FL15 FW11 Set by Dr. Blow BD95

MS 9 Upon a Cherrystone sent to the tip of Jemonia Waldegrave's ear

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197, pp. 7–8; Osborn b 205 f. 76r–77v; Bodleian Library MS Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 37r–v; MS Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 94v–5r; MS Rawlinson.poet.160, f. 28r–v; MS Rawlinson.poet.206, pp. 66–7; British Library Add. MS 30982, ff. 66r–67v; Sloane MS 1446, ff. 62v–63r; Sloane MS 1792, f. 20r–v; Houghton Library, Harvard fMS Eng 626, f. 35v–36v; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey MS 7.a.29, pp. 114–15; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia Rosenbach MS 239/27, pp. 310–12; Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University MS 422, pp. 103–4.

Transmissional History

We collate thirteen witnesses in twelve MSS here, nine more than were known to Martin.87 All thirteen date to the 1630s or later, and there are no printed witnesses.pg 280 Only three witnesses mention Jemimah Waldegrave by name in their title: Yale Osborn b 197 (YA19) and Bodleian Rawlinson.160 (BDR1), which are copying the same parent, and the first of two copies contained in the Daniell MS, Bodleian MS.Eng.poet.c.50 (BDC5), which is also the copytext. All witnesses, with the exception of SL14 and YA25, keep the reference to 'Jemimah', often creatively spelled, in line 34. Three witnesses copy from the Crum archetype (see 2.10–13): the second copy in Daniell (BDCO), on ff. 94v–95r, the St John MS Harvard fMS Eng 626 (HA62), and the Spelman MS, Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7). This trio call the poem '[Up]on a Carved Cherrystone' but the copyist of SAG7 also writes 'Jemimiah Walgraue' in the margin of his copy, constituting a second confirmation from a witness that Waldegrave is the intended addressee. (As YA19, BDR1, and BDC5 are all copied from the same parent, they count as a single witness to the addressee's identity.)

The other six witnesses offer more elaborate titles. Sloane 1446 (SL14) and Sloane 1792 (SL17) call the poem '[On] a cherry stone sent to weare in his Mrs eare a deaths head on the one side and her own face on the other', and the other five, BL Add. 30982 (BL30), Yale Osborn b 205 (YA25), Rosenbach 239/27 (RO27), Bodleian Rawlinson 206 (BDR2), and Bangor MS 422 (BA42), all have variations of 'On a Cherrystone having a Deaths head on the one side and a gentlewoman on the other'. The most notable connection between a number of these miscellanies is their compilers' presence at Oxford: both BL30 and SL17 are copied by undergraduates at Christ Church, Oxford, and BDR2 probably by a student at New College, Oxford, all three in the 1630s; BA42, which is related textually to BDR2, is copied by members of the Griffith family of Llanddyfnan, probably, Beal suggests, while they studied at the university.88 RO27 and YA25 are also 1630s miscellanies and contain over twenty poems by William Strode, often an indicator of an Oxford origin for a miscellany.

These neat divisions by title into four groups are supported by textual variants that split the thirteen into two groups of six and seven, which then subdivide along the lines indicated by their titles. The first group of six consists of YA19, BDC5 and BDCO, HA62, SAG7, and BDR1. They agree in reading 'respect' (4), 'take' (7), 'read' (13 ), and either 'lines' or 'liues' (53), variants which unite the group and distinguish them from the remaining witnesses. They then subdivide according to title and additional separative variants: YA19, BDR1, and BDC5 (the three which give Waldegrave's full name in the title) read together 'incarvements' (ii), 'faile' (29), and use brackets at line 40 to transform part of the line into an aside. YA19 and BDR1 also agree together in reading 'of' (3), 'that' (12), 'thought' (37), 'air' (47), and 'to the' (50). BDR1 omits part of line 51 pg 281and line 52 and the remainder run together into a single line. This must have happened in the parent, since BDR1's copyist leaves a space in his MS for the following line and he presumably would have left space for each of two lines if the illegible readings were in the MS he was copying. YA19 has two unique readings. One at line 56 which reads 'Three airy colours to discern' is a simple error for 'there' but Tobias Alston's insertion of 'Helen' at line 54 appears to be a deliberate emendation. Rawlinson reads 'the greek' here (as do all the remaining MSS) and adds an asterisk though without any accompanying marginal note. The most plausible explanation is that their shared copy had a marginal note clarifying that the rather obscure reference to 'the Greek', which seems to have baffled some copyists, is a reference to Helen of Troy. Alston then introduces it into the body of the poem as his preferred reading, whilst BD16's copyist, who has a professional-looking hand, mechanically records the asterisk but for whatever reason, does not include the note. BDC5 reads 'the Greek' and has two unique variants, 'braue' (20) and 'this' (26).

The trio using the Crum archetype are copies of a parent that moves lines 7–12 to immediately after line 52, drops 'scarce' (29), and reads (using the copytext's line numbering) 'carued measures' (11), 'is gone' (23), 'the' (24), 'its' (49), 'chast virgins' (52), and 'verse' (55). The use of 'chast' here ensures a regular tetrameter, a correction not shared by any other MS except BDR2, which reads 'briske virgins', so this is likely to be a correction by the parent's copyist, a belief supported by the same copyist's use of 'is gone' for 'fled', which is a variation rather than an error, since the copyist also amends 'All's' to 'All' in the same line. This copyist also introduces 'carved measures' again to correct line 11 to tetrameter. 'Incarvements' is a neologism, from 'encarve', which itself is an exceptionally rare word (see MS 9.11 n.). The alternative of 'carved measures', which maintains the original sense of 'incarvements' but introduces both a hint of the proportion and elegance of the earring (OED, n. 3a) and the meaning of measure as a 'specified limit' (OED, n. 1b), thereby dovetailing the object with the argument of the poem. This is a sophisticated substitution, possibly by Herrick himself (which is plausible given his tendency to revise poems in minor ways and for example his care to amend irregular metre when revising MS 24 for print) or by a gifted copyist. All six witnesses share a parent MS but descend from two different copies of that parent and YA19, BDC5, and BDR1 scrupulously preserve the addressee's identity whereas the widely circulating Crum archetype drops it, probably deliberately.

The other seven witnesses, SL14, SL17, BL30, YA 25, RO27, BDR2, and BA42, all read 'regard' (4), 'read' (7), and 'kisse' (13), and all except BA42 read 'limbes' (53). When read against the other group, which transmit 'respect' (4), 'take' (7), 'reade' (13), and 'liues' (53), the variants are either synonyms, simplifications of unusual readings ('limbs' for 'lines'), or readings which might easily be generated by scribal error, so there is no authorial revision here. They agree with the Crum archetype group in reading 'carved measures' (11) and 'fade' (29), and it appears that all these witnesses are created from another copy of the version that circulates in the Crum archetype, although it cannot be demonstrated that the scribe who originated this copy took his source from there. However, all three versions described here were circulatingpg 282

Fig. 3. Six witnesses to 'Upon a Cherrystone'

Fig. 3. Six witnesses to 'Upon a Cherrystone'

at the same time and clearly, as BDC5 demonstrates, the different versions were readily available to each copyist, and it is also likely that for this poem, in contrast to the history of 'The Curse', few of these copyists took as much notice of the variation as we do here.

The group subdivides again into a group of two and a group of five. SL14 and SL17, both copied in the first half of the 1630s, have near identical titles and agree in reading 'convey' (14), 'then when' (31), 'will' (37), 'of this' (51), and 'that' (54). This is not a parent-child relationship, however. SL14 has a number of unique readings, amongst them a line 5 that reads 'ffor the Morrall on't alone', and the copyist also omits lines 25–6 and drops 'Jemima's' from line 34, substituting 'your'. The evidence of SL17, which confusedly reproduces 'Jemimah's' as 'Gemmenayaths', indicates that some of his copying decisions stem from a problem within their shared copytext, with the copyist of SL17 choosing to transcribe a messy reading as best he could and the copyist of SL14 substituting a more mundane but comprehensible alternative. Both struggle with line 55, which must have been a half line in their source, and once again the copyist of SL17 reproduces exactly what he has whereas SL14 opts to repeat the phrase and create a complete line.

The final five witnesses share a title and read together 'we' (12) and 'must' (17); all except BA42 read 'a' (24), and four of the five read 'bare' (32) (BDR 2 does not copy). All of these copies are incomplete, though YA25 drops only one line whereas BDR2 omits eighteen, so these appear to be witnesses to steadily degrading exemplars, a state best demonstrated by YA25's change of line 34 into 'here jemms as titles were', ensuring all evidence of the poem's original dedicatee is lost. BA42's first copyist transcribes lines 1–48 from a text also used by the copyist of BDR2 judging by their agreement in reading 'alls now fled saue this stone' (23), but a second hand supplies the final ten from a text which reads 'lives' but is otherwise in agreement with the other four witnesses in this group, and it may simply be that Hand 2 is completing the copying stint using Hand 1's exemplar. BDR2 does omit lines 25–6 and 31–46, which BA42 retains, so they must have received the text in different states, although the copyist of BDR2 was probably unaware of any gap in his text since the loss occurs between two closed couplets andpg 283

Fig. 4. All witnesses to 'Upon a Cherrystone'.

Fig. 4. All witnesses to 'Upon a Cherrystone'.

the argument of the poem is not disrupted. There are additional minor agreements between pairs here: RO27 and BDR2 read 'haue' (29); YA25 and BL30 read 'not in' (48); RO27 and YA25 read 'beautous stone' (24). All these are changes that could easily have been made independently, so with the exception of BA42 and BDR2 we posit that each witness is copied independently, with an unknown number of intervening MSS between each one and their shared parent. The omission of lines by each witness is probably a combination of omissions in the parent MS and intervening copies and errors made by each copyist.

Copytext

The evidence of titles and the collation of the variants points to the parent of YA19, BDC5, and BDR1 as the closest of the three principal versions described here to an authorized text. Any one of the three witnesses to this text could be used here and since YA19 and BDR1 are using the same slightly altered source, there results a choice between two potential copytexts: YA19 (which is a complete copy of the parent) and BDC5. (Neither of these witnesses was known to Martin.) The differences between them are hardly significant but YA19 is copied from a MS which has five unique variants and it is likely that the most substantive of those variants 'thought' (37) is an error for 'height', which is the reading of all the other witnesses. The line reads 'height of faith', a phrase popularly used by clergy such as William Perkins, who exhorted his readers to seek to 'attaine to this height of liuely faith'.89 The pointedness of the lines 'most may smile, beleevt wil none | or theire height of faith may growe' (36–7) is revealed by Gataker's advice that [this is] 'very pitch and height of faith … so to beleeue all contrary to that that wee see and feele'.90 This rather dry-witted choice of phrasepg 284 suits the didactic tone of the poem and is more likely to be the authorial reading. Therefore BDC5 is selected as the slightly more accurate copy of the parent it shares with YA19. It has a unique reading of 'brave' at line 20 (against all other witnesses' 'sweet'), which we do not change but note here.

Historical Collation

Heading: One a cherrie stone sent to the tip of mistris Jemiammas Wealdgraues eare one the one side a delicate face on the otherside a deathes head] Vpon a cherrystone sent to the tipp of Iemmonia Walgraues eare YA19 Vpon a cherrystone sent to the tipp of the Lady Jemonia Walgraves eare BDR1 Vpon a carved Cherrie Stone HA62 SAG7 On a Carved Cherrie Stone BDCO On a Cherry stone sent to weare in his Mrs eare, a deaths head on the one side and her face on the other SL14 A cherrystone sent to weare in his Mrs eare, a deaths head on one side & her owne face on the other SL17 On a cherry stone haueing a deathe on the one side, and a gentlewoman on the other YA25 On a cherry stone haueing a deaths head one the one side, and a Gentlewoman on the other side BL30 On a cherry stone hauing the picture of death on one side and a gentle-woman on the other BA42 On a Cherriestone having a Deaths-head on the one side and a gentlewoman's on the other BDR2 RO27

2 in] on BDR1

your] the BL30

3 for] of BDR1 YA19

the] great BDR1

prize] price BA42 BDCO BL30 HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA19 YA25

4 respect] regard BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA25

5 But deepe misterie not the Stone] ffor the Morrall on't alone SL14

6 Estimation] an ⁓ BL30

HA62, SAG7, and BDCO move lines 7–12 to follow line 52

7 take] reade BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA25

8 the] th' BDR1

9 life and death] death, and life YA25

10 lookes] looke BDR2 BL30 RO27 SAG7

theise] those BA42 SL14 YA25

HA 62 does not copy ll. 11–12.

11 incaruements] carved measures BDCO BDR2 BL30 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA25  carved measure BA42

12 you] we BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 YA25

13 read] kiss BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA25

14 commend] commends BDCO BDR1 HA62 SAG7  conuey SL14 SL17

pg 285eares] soft BA42

soft] eares BA42

15 the] that BA42

17 teare] feare BL30

may] must BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 YA25

18 to] does not copy BA42

what] that BDR1 YA19

must] may ^must^ SAG7

what] and BA42

19 time] times BA42 BDR2 BL30 YA19 YA25  in times RO27

this] the SL14

20 had] like HA62

braue] sweet Ω‎

BDR2 and SL14 omit ll. 19–20.

23 All's] All BDCO HA62 SAG7 YA25  allas BL30

now] nowes YA25

fled] is gone BDCO HA62 SAG7

alone] stone BA42 BDR2

24 poore] the BDCO HA62 SAG7

the] a BDR2 BL30 RO27 YA25 does not copy BA42

bewtie] bewteous RO27 YA25

bone] stone RO27 SL14 YA25  alone BA42

25 that's] does not copy BA42  that BDCO BDR1 BL30 HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL17 YA19 YA25

26 this] if BL30  It BDCO BDR1 HA62 RO27 SAG7 YA19 YA25

SL17 omits remainder of line

euer]⁓ euer BA42

danglinge] dangling's YA19

smil'd] mild YA19  smile BA42 YA25

i'th] in the BL30 YA19  in RO27

ayre] thayre RO27

28 as] ( ⁓ BDR1 BDR2 SL14

glass]⁓ of yours SL14

assures]⁓ ) BDR1 BDR2 SL14

29 faile] fade BA42 BDCO BDR2 BL30 HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA25

scarce] does not copy BDCO HA62 SAG7

leaue] haue BDR2 RO27 liue BA42

to] for to BL30

showen] knowne ^showne^ RO23

pg 286

30 there] that BDR2  those BL30

euer] ther BDR2  ere BL30

a] an BDR2 BL30 SAG7

BDR2 does not copy ll. 32–46.

31 and] then SL14 SL17

age] [a]ge BA42

32 leane] bare BA42 BL30 RO27 YA25

scalpe] scull RO27

to]⁓ the BA42 BL30 YA25 to th' RO27

YA25 does not copy l. 33; RO27 does not copy ll. 33–8.

33 sexton] sextons BDR1 HA62 SAG7

sweare] sweares BL30

34 here] that ⁓ SL14

Jemmiamas] Jemmonias BDR1 YA19  Jemimihs HA62  Jemininahs SAG7 Jeninishes BDCO  all your SL14  geminias BA42  Gemmenayaths SL17  Jemimias BL30  jemms as YA25

were] are SL14

35 ragg'd] ragged BA42 BDCO BL30 HA62 SL14 SL17 YA25

showen] showne BDCO BL30 HA62 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA19 YA25 om. BDR1

36 may] will HA62

beleeu't] beleiue BA42 BDCO BDR1 HA62 SAG7 SL17 YA19 YA25

37 or] on BA42

height] thought BDR1 YA19

may] will SL14 SL17

38 this] this ^thinke^ BDCO

39 pearce] know RO27

toth] to the BA42 BL30 YA19  the RO27

40 know] like RO27

(faire] ^ ⁓ BA42 BDCO BL30 HA62 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA25  vice-mistress RO27

Mistris] ) BDR1

your] the BL30

youth] ^ BA42 BDCO BDR1 BL30 HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA25

41 with it] still BL30 RO23 YA25

still] shall YA19  wisht YA25  with it BA42 BL30 RO23

walkes] walke YA19

RO27 omits l. 42

pg 287

42 mattins] matters BA42

euensonge] Euening Songe BL30 HA62 SL14 YA19 YA25

43 pikaxe] pike, axe BL30

to] and SL14

44 where't] where it HA62 YA25

45 or] in the RO27

noone] none BA42

46 your] the BDCO

bewtie] faire ⁓SL14

comes] doe RO27  come BA42

soone] come RO27

47 though] through BDR1

this] his BDR1 BL30 SL17 YA19

visage] image BA42

hunge] hang BA42 BL30 BDR2 SL17  hangd RO27 YA25

in the] i'th' BA42 BDCO BDR1 BDR2 HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA25

eare] aire BDR1 YA19

48 doth] and ⁓ BA42 BDR2 BL30

not to] not so SL14  not in BL30 YA25

49 morninge] warning BDCO BDR1 HA62 SAG7 SL14 YA19  moueing RO27

hee's] it's BDCO HA62 SAG7  ther's RO27 SL14 SL17  heers BDR2

50 knowne] know BDR1 SL17

in the] to the BDR1 YA19  by the BDR2  i'th' SL14 SL17

as] and BDCO HA62 RO27 SAG7 SL14

the] in ⁓ BA42 BL30  i'th' RO27

BDR1 conflates l.51 and l.52

51 place] placed BL30

then] thou BA42 does not copy BDCO

this] the SL14 SL17  his BL30

to] whose BDR1  in RO27 SAG7  of SL14 SL17

the] briske BDR1  this SL14 SL17

veiwe] hue BDR1

52 of] to SL14 SL17

those] these BA42

virgins] chast ⁓ BDCO HA62 SAG7  briske ⁓ BDR2

briske] brisky BL30  bright BA42

53 of] whose BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO27 YA25

liues] lines BDR1  limbs BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA25

pg 288colours] colour BDCO BDR2 BL30 YA19 YA25

makes] make BA42 BDR1 BDR2 BL30 SL14 SL17 YA19 YA25

them] me YA25

54 this] thatSL14 SL17  the BA42 BDR2 BL30 RO23 YA25

the greeke] the Greeks BA42 BDCO BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14  Hellen YA19

hath] haue BDCO BDR2 BL30 RO27 SL14 SL17

BL30 does not have ll. 49–52 (leaves missing from the MS here).

55 let them] om. SL17

reade] then SL14 om. SL17

this] o SL14

booke] verse BDCO HA62 SAG7  lett SL14

and] them SL14

56 theire] These BA42  Three YA19

ayrie] verie BA42

colours] coloure BDR2 YA25

to] do SL17

57 this] thes YA19

them] thou SL14  then BDR2

this] the YA19

58 turnes] Turn'd BDR2

behoulders] beholder BDCO HA62

Subscription: [none] ⁓ BA42 BDC5 BDR2 RO27 SL17 YA19 YA25 Finis BDCO HA62 ffinis R. Herricke BDR1 SAG7 Rog. Hericke SL14

MS 10 Parkinson's Shade, to the house of Mr Palavicino takeing his death ill

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197, pp. 10–11; Huntington Library HM 198(1), p. 30

For a comment see the headnote.

Historical Collation

Title: Parkinson's Shade to the House of Mr Pollauesina taking His Death ill. By R: H.] Parkinsons shade to the house of mr Pallauicine takeing his death ill HM19

7 from] for HM19

10 loue?] ⁓^HM19

17 where in] wherein HM19

22 fates] fate HM19

pg 289

27 Ex P] Exit Parkinson: HM19

Subscription: no subscription>] X R: Herrick HM19

MS 11 The Farewell to Sack and MS 12 The Welcome to Sack

Summary

Eleven witnesses transmit the longest version (58 lines) of MS 11 and most of the linelosses appear to be errors of omission. MS 11 does not appear to have been authorially revised during circulation (there is a revised version in circulation but the variants appear to be scribal) and Herrick's main alteration for print is to cut ll. 46–9 from the text. There are twenty-nine copies of MS 12 in MS and one in print. The longest MS version is ninety-eight lines in length, supplying six extra lines in comparison to 1648 (29–31 and 51–4). Of these witnesses, fifteen copy 'The Welcome to Sack' with 'The Farewell to Sack'; another MS, Chetham's Library Mun A 3.47 (CHA3) uses six lines from 'The Farewell' to fill in a gap in its copy of 'The Welcome'. The remainder copy 'The Welcome' as a stand-alone poem, and the bulk of these independent copies are closely related witnesses found in miscellanies linked to Oxford University. Unlike 'The Farewell to Sack' there are two slightly different texts of 'The Welcome'. Twenty of the witnesses are copied from one and eight from the other. The remaining MS (Rosenbach 239/27; RO27) copies its first 63 or 64 lines from the smaller group's text and the remainder from the larger. Of the two earliest datable witnesses, the 'Texas' MS (HRC7) belongs to the smaller group and Richard Jackson's miscellany (ED40) to the larger. Although neither text could be said to constitute a reworking of the poem (changes are usually confined to single words), the distinctiveness of both is confirmed by the ease with which collation detected the conflation of the two versions in RO27. 1648 agrees more closely with the larger group but both HRC7 and ED40 transmit authorial variants that the other does not. It is difficult to say whether Herrick is responsible for both versions of MS 12 or whether some of the substantive variants are supplied by a scribe, but both versions circulated at Cambridge while Herrick was still resident there. The transmissional histories of MS 11 and MS 12 follow separately below.

MS 11 The Farewell to Sack

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library Osborn b 197, pp. 150–1; Osborn b 356, pp. 318–21; Bodleian Library MS. Firth.e.4, pp. 18–19; Rawlinson.poet.160 f. 165r–v; Eng. poet.c.53, f. 14r–v; British Library Add. 72478 (74); Add. 33998, f. 5r–v; Sloane 1446, ff. 17v–18r; Edinburgh University Library MS H-P. Coll. 401, ff.12v–13v; Folger Shakespeare Library MS V.a.96, ff. 56r–57r; Folger MS V.a.160, pp. 23–5; Huntington Library HM 198 (1), pp. 16–17; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey 7.a.29, pp. 131–2; Robinson Library Special Collections, Newcastle University Bell/White 25, ff. 30v–31v; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia Rosenbach MS 1083/16, pp. 121–3; MS 1083/17, ff. 95–96v; MS 239/27, pp. 413–15; University of Texas at Austin HRC 79, pp. 106–7.

pg 290Print: Recreation for Ingenious Headpeeces (1645), sig. Z8a–Aa1b; 1648, pp. 47–9 (sig. D8a–E1a)

Transmissional History

The relationship of the witnesses

A consistent pattern emerges from all the MSS's readings of l. 39 and l. 53. Ten witnesses including the copytext read 'since' (39) and 'lett others drink thee and with main desire' (53) and these ten include another miscellany copying Cambridge material, HM198 (1) (HM19/Denny), and two witnesses copied by professional hands, Chaloner Chute's miscellany BL Add. MS 33998 (BL33), which is in the hand of a London playhouse scribe, and Bodleian Rawlinson 160 (BDR1). Both scribes are drawing on the same immediate source. The remaining witnesses, which include ED40 and a miscellany signed by William Jacob and Humphrey Jacob, Osborn b 356 (YA35), read 'when' (39) and 'lett others drink thee freely and desire' (53).91 This latter reading is also 1648's but it reads 'since' at l. 39. These variants are minor ones, both probably scribal in origin, but are sufficiently unremarkable that they are faithfully reproduced by subsequent copyists. As 1648 cuts across this initial division, the readings of each 'group', for want of a better word, can be regarded as equally representative or otherwise of the copy from which 1648 was revised.

The 'Texas' text

For ease of reference, this version of the poem will be called the 'Texas' text after the earliest of its witnesses, HRC7. The ten divide into two groups. Four—BL Add. MS 72478 (Trumbull/BL72); Horatio Carey's miscellany, Rosenbach 1083/17 (RO17); the 1630s Inns of Court miscellany signed and probably compiled by Francis Baskerville, BL Sloane MS 1446 (SL14); and the 1640s miscellany, Newcastle Bell/White 25 (NE25)—agree in reading 'thou' (32) against the remaining six, HRC7, HM19, BDR1, BL33, Rosenbach 239/27 (RO27), and Folger V.a.160 (FL16), which read 'the'. This weak evidence for a division is bolstered by internal agreements within the latter subgroup. Five of the 'the' witnesses read 'such' (9) instead of the correct reading of 'sweets' which HRC7 retains, and their reading of 'whose' (34) (independently corrected by the copyist of the parent of FL16 and RO27 back to 'which') confirms this group. In addition, there are two obvious pairs in this group: the copies contained in FL16 and RO27, and the copies in BL33 and BDR1. The parent of the first pair introduces numerous alternative readings, including 'weare' (2) 'maydens' (7), 'vnto' (10), and 'time past' (35). Both witnesses to this MS misread l. 50 but FL16's copyist, probably its owner Matthew Day, transcribes the phrase as 'more mildly', much closer to the correct reading of 'more inly' than RO27's 'lesse kindly'. BDR1 and BL33 also share an error that makes their relationship clear. Line 12 of BDR1 reads 'sp'ritts, and last'. The pg 291

Fig. 5. Six witnesses to the 'Texas' text of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

Fig. 5. Six witnesses to the 'Texas' text of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

playhouse scribe copying BL33 elaborates on this by copying 'spiritts; and lastly.' BDR1's use of a comma here also indicates this copyist's effort to make sense of what must have been the same reading, confirming that both are correcting a pre-existing error in their shared exemplar.

The remaining four witnesses to the 'Texas' text have a more complex relationship both to each other and to the source they share with the other six. Again there is a pair—SL14 and NE 25—but the chronological gap between these two is relatively wide and each omits lines and introduces new variations. They read together 'of' (2), 'warmer' (12), and 'her' (56) and also, unlike the other witnesses in this group, they read 'thou thing' (1), a reading transmitted by ED40 and 1648, and these two have a particular agreement with ED40 in reading 'sweet lipps, sweet speech, the touch, the maidenhead' (8). In addition, one reading lost from SL14 but retained by NE 25 is 'sacred' (25), which means that here they read with ED40 against all witnesses to the 'Texas' group. SL14 (judging by its datable poems) is the earlier of this pair, compiled between 1630 and 1635, and Mary Hobbs's discussion of Baskerville noted that the copyist is using more than one source, a useful reminder that the copyist might well have had a number of copies of 'The Farewell to Sack' available to him, one of which may have come via the source also used by Richard Jackson, since this miscellany's copy of 'The Welcome to Sack' is closely related to ED40.92 But any relationship between Baskerville's copy and the source used by Jackson is one of comparison and possible interpolation of a line or reading rather than any systematic copying, especially as neither NE 25 nor SL14 shares Jackson's distinctive readings of 'deep' (22) and 'admiration' (38) or either of the key variants for ED40 and related witnesses. Of the remaining two witnesses, both RO17 and BL72 have their own unique variants and are copied independently of one another. However, the relationship between them posited in the tree in Figure 6 is reinforced by evidence that both occupy the same position in the analysis of 'The Welcome to Sack' (see 2.305–6).

pg 292

Fig. 6. All witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Farewell to Sack'

Fig. 6. All witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Farewell to Sack'

The 'Jackson' text

The history of the 'Jackson' version is even more complex. We posit that there are at least three independent sources being copied here. The first is witnessed by ED40 and YA35; the second by a group of three which includes Bodleian Eng.poet.c.53 (BD53), Recreations for Ingenious Headpeeces (1645A), and Osborn b 197 (YA19/the Alston miscellany); and the third by Rosenbach 1083/16 (RO16), Bodleian Firth.e.4 (BDE4), Folger V.a.96 (FL96), and Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7).

As miscellanies ED40 and YA35 are quite far apart in terms of date: ED40 is probably begun in 1623 but YA35 is a 1640s miscellany in multiple hands. Nonetheless, their copies of MS 11 agree in reading 'but' (6), 'his' (17), 'raise' (25), 'Thebeian' (33), and 'the' (56), and they also share other unique agreements for their copy of 'The Welcome to Sack'. YA35, as is typical for all the Herrick poems it copies, presents numerous terminal variants. It misreads 'bedde' as 'kidde' (7) and uniquely reads 'and' (2), 'refreshing' (6), 'breath' (8), 'foretell' (16), 'that' (23), 'swaines' (34), 'fram'd' (43), 'beames' (46), and 'what is seen by me' (57). The extent of the variation suggests that there must be an intervening MS between YA35 and the parent it shares with ED40 but ED40 itself has one unusual variation in its copy—an additional twelve lines following what is the final line in all other copies and 1648. It is not certain that Richard Jackson believed the addition, beginning 'Goe hence away and in thy parting know', was an integral part of the poem. The lines do begin at the top of a new leaf; but he then draws a line underneath the now 70 -line poem, as he habitually does at the conclusion of a poem and to mark stanza breaks, attributes the poem to R.H., and immediately begins 'The Welcome to Sack'. However, Jackson also uses a diagonal mark to indicate the end of a poem and he makes that stroke at the end of l. 58 of 'The Farewell to Sack' and also at the end of 'Go hence away', and so he reads them as two separate poems. These twelve lines also appear again independently in anotherpg 293 miscellany, BLH7, where they are again attributed to Herrick and entitled 'Upon Parting' (See †MS 19). It seems unlikely that YA35 or its parent would have omitted these lines if they appeared in its exemplar as part of 'The Farewell to Sack' since they fit the conclusion of the poem rather well, so the most likely explanation is that on this path of circulation both Sack poems were accompanied by a copy of 'Upon Parting', an idea supported by the evidence of another miscellany, FL27, which copies a version of 'The Welcome to Sack' closely related to ED40, alongside 'Upon Parting'. It is probably from circulating within this sequence that the unprinted 'Upon Parting' acquires its attribution to Herrick, although it may in any case be his, since several poems that we confidently attribute to him in this edition were also left out of 1648.

The next source shows evidence of deletion rather than addition. The extant witnesses to it consist of 1645A, BD53, and YA19, and all three are witnessing a scribally revised version of 'The Farewell to Sack' which drops any attribution to Herrick, instead treating the poem as part of a subgenre of the drinking song. In 1645A it appears within a group of such poems, and in general terms this retitling and revision orients the poem towards a group of readers interested in a drinking poem rather than in Herrick's drinking poem. In YA19, the poem is given the title 'In prayse of Sacke' before 'Mr Hericks ffarwell to Sacke' is added above it in the ruled margin of the leaf, indicating a belated realization that this is another poem by Herrick, whose verses fill the opening leaves of this miscellany. Only BD53 is a complete (58–line) copy of the version (1645A omits ll. 7–8, 11–22, and 29–36; YA19 omits ll.19–20—probably through eyeskip—and 29–36), but all three agree exclusively in reading 'thou' (1), 'chast and undefiled' (6), 'more' (10), 'that with' (23), 'hence' (42), 'formd my braine' (43), 'pronounst' (51), and 'bouldly' (53). YA19 and 1645A are in fact even more closely related, agreeing in reading 'stretching' (27), 'and near' (2), 'scattering' (18), 'I prethee' (45), 'gazing' (46), and 'but yet' (55). They also commit similar errors: Tobias Alston's mistake in reading 'nyly' for 'inly' (50) is matched by 1645A's 'ugly' here, suggesting that both he and the scribe of 1645A were confronted with an identical error in their exemplar, created by the presence of a descender in its second letter and either an undotted 'i' or an absent minim in its first.

YA19 and 1645A also share three readings, 'to the body' (4), 'more' (9), and 'above' (23), with BDE4, which is discussed below. The copyist of their parent may have had access to and compared his text with BDE4's parent or vice versa, but it is more likely that all three readings are independent errors or emendations: in the first instance to ensure a pentameter line; in the second, these three read 'more' for both ll. 9 and 10, increasing the likelihood that this is an error the copyist of their source made independently; the reading of 'above' instead of 'alone' is a particularly easy mistake to make.

The remaining four witnesses, FL96, BDE4, SAG7, and RO16, are far less uniform in their agreements. They have a number of separate independent associations with each other and only one shared reading, 'yet' (6), to group them together, although all four agree in the asyndeton of l.8 which typically varies considerably: 'speech, lips, touch, maidenhead'. SAG7, BDE4, and FL96 also agree in reading 'thou, thou above' (19) and so are more tightly grouped together than RO16, the earliest of these four, which is compiled by 1630 whereas the other three are copied at dates closer to 1640, with Spelman's SAG7 possibly quite late in that decade. BDE4 is dominated bypg 294 Randolph's poetry and contains the latter's celebratory poem on the Dover games, printed in 1636.93 FL96 agrees with SAG7 in reading 'soft' (8) and these two are the only full-length witnesses within this sub-group, but FLg6's reading of 'fforespeake' (16) agrees with RO16, though it is likely that BDE4 and SAG7's reading of 'foreshew' is an error caused by misreading a secretary 'p' as an 'sh'. However, both FL96 and SAG7 have a high number of terminal variants, and SAG7 also reorders lines, placing ll.31–4 at 29–32 and ll.29–30 at 33–4, so its copy has been subject to additional change during the course of its transmission. It also has two of the readings Herrick introduces to the text of 1648: 'wild and active' (18) and 'made' (43). It seems unconvincing to posit the former as a lucky guess on the part of the copyist, not least because this witness has a similar pattern of agreements for 'The Welcome to Sack', yet the text of 'The Farewell' shares no other readings with 1648, and any comparison with 1648 might be expected to produce more than one change. Nonetheless, the pattern of agreements between 1648 and SAG7 in relation to the Sack poems, although few in number, is hard to explain without positing some sort of cross reference to an authorial MS.

Some copyists in this group do have more than one copy of the text available to them. BDE4, which has several terminal variants and omits ll. 45–58, agrees with ED40 and YA35 in reading 'deepe despair' against FL96 and SAG7's 'damn'd despair' (22) and again with ED40 in reading 'we' (37). So BDE4 has separate independent associations with ED40 and YA35 on the one hand and with SAG7 and FL96 on the other. But the reading of 'we' is vulnerable to correction as the first person singular is used throughout the poem, and the copyist of YA35 or of its exemplar also alters it to 'I', so the choice of 'we' may be a separate independent error by two copyists, especially as BDE4 reads 'their soules' at l.28 instead of 'the soule', making 'we' the obvious pronoun. 'Deepe' reads accurately in its context and could also have been arrived at independently, whereas the retention of 'thou thou above Nectar' (l.19) is strong evidence for a closer relationship between BDE4, SAG7, and FL96. Nevertheless, the impression that there is some association between BDE4 and ED40 and YA35 is sustainable and the most plausible scenario may be that the copyist made a casual comparison of his incomplete text with another copy related to YA35 or its parent.94

The complexity of this tradition means we do not attempt to order these groups hierarchically. The evidence needed to posit convincingly that one of these groups supplied the parent of the others is not present and it is more likely, based on the evidence here, that each of the three groups arise independently and as BDE4 indicates these are in any case porous groups. It is essential to stress that the figures present a schematic diagram that illustrates the logical relationships of these witnesses to each other rather than a map of the historical copying of each one.

What remains to be established is 1648's relationship to these groups of witnesses. It shares readings with SAG7 but is certainly not descended from its parent. SAG7 pg 295

Fig. 7. All witnesses to the 'Jackson' version of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

Fig. 7. All witnesses to the 'Jackson' version of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

therefore cannot serve as a guide to 1648's position in the stemma and 1648's own use of 'since' (39) and 'freely' (53) means that it draws on both branches. 1648 agrees exclusively with the 'Jackson' text in reading 'thou' (1), 'thee freely and desire' (53). What this suggests, on a strict interpretation of the data, is that Jackson's reading of 'when' (39) is a scribal change and therefore that despite the fact that HRC7, the Herrick Commonplace book, is the earliest copy of the text, ED40 is slightly closer to the text Herrick used to revise the poem for print. However, 1648 is revised from a text logically prior to both of these and we treat both the 'Texas' and 'Jackson' versions as of roughly equal authority.

Given the complexity of this tradition, phylogenetic methodologies were also applied to this data-set (see 2.24 and Windram et al., 'Thinking "bibliogeographically" '); the conclusions from this approach closely resembled those of the analysis above, and suggest that for data-sets of this kind phylogenetic analyses are particularly appropriate. The NeighborNet analysis of the 'Farewell to Sack' (see Fig. 9) shows strong agreement with the results of the traditional analysis. One benefit of a phylogenetic analysis is that it gives an objective overview of the relationships between the texts based, in the case of the NeighborNet analysis, on the number of different readings between each pair of texts. The division of the texts into groups that correspond with the groupings determined by traditional analysis is readily apparent, and relationships within individual traditional groups can also be identified in the phylogenetic trees, for example the pairings of NE25 with SL14 and of FL16 with RO27. The group of scribally revised texts comprising BD53, YA19, and 1645A appear as a well-defined grouping clearly separated and at some distance from the other texts in the tradition.

In addition to complementing the traditional analyses, the phylogenetic analysis can also serve to challenge the traditional conclusions, highlighting areas where a re-examination of the text may be appropriate. The only instance where the phylogenetic analysis does not tally closely with the traditional analysis is in the placing of witness FL96, which is located as an independent witness in the phylogenetic analysis, but is grouped with BDE4, RO16, and SAG7 in the traditional one. However, this group of pg 296

Fig. 8. All witnesses to 'The Farewell to Sack'.

Fig. 8. All witnesses to 'The Farewell to Sack'.

pg 297four texts is far more diverse than the other groups of witnesses, with only the one reading of 'yet' (6) uniting the group. Whilst this agreement is important textually, it is numerically insignificant and the group is not supported phylogenetically. Textual analysis indicates the independent associations between members of the group, and the presence of the loosely related group can be established but the phylogenetic analysis is a warning against too strong an assumption that these four MSS are related.

Fig. 9. A NeighborNet analysis of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

Fig. 9. A NeighborNet analysis of 'The Farewell to Sack'.

Historical Collation

Heading: The Farewell to Sack] BL72 ED40 SL14 A Farewell to Sack RO16 BD53 1645A My farewell to Sack SAG7 Ones Farewell to Sack NE25 Herricks farewell to Sacke BL33 FL16 YA35 Mr Herick his farewell to Sacke BDR1 BDE4 Mr Herricks farwell to Sacke HM19 RO17 RO27 Mr Rob: Herricks Farwell to Sacke FL96 Mr Hericks ffarwell to Sacke In prayse of sacke YA19 His Farewell to Sack 1648

1 the] thou BD53 BDE4 ED40 FL96 NE25 RO16 SAG7 SL14 YA19 YA35 1645 1648

pg 298thinge] om. BDE4

time past] ( ⁓ ⁓ ) FL96

so knowne] ⁓; SL14  soe true BD53 YA19 1645A

so deare] and deare BD53 YA19 1645A

2 to mee] to come RO17

blood] life BL33

to the] to BD53 BDE4 ED40 FL96 HM19 RO16 SAG7 YA19 1645A 1648  to th' BDR1 BL33 BL72  and RO27 YA35  as the FL16  of NE25 SL14

life] bloud BL33

and] to HM19

neare] and ⁓ 1645A YA19  were FL16 RO27

3 Nay] no SAG7

then] than ED40 NE25

kindred] kind or RO17

man] or BDE4 BL33 1645A

4 the] a BL33

female] ⁓; FL16

and] to BDR1 BL33 HM19 NE25 RO27 SL14 YA35 1648  to the BDE4 FL16 YA19 1645A  to my RO17  does not copy BL72

bodie] ⁓: 1648

5 to] vnto BL33

quicke] quicken RO27  quicker BL72

action] actions RO27

or] then YA35

6 resisting] refreshing YA35  resigning BDE4 RO16 1648  yet chast BD53 YA19 1645A

yet] and BD53 YA19 1645A  but ED40  but the YA35

resigning] resisting BDE4 RO16 1648  undefiled BD53 YA19 1645A

RO17 and 1645A do not copy l. 7.

7 kisse] kisses RO16

Virgins] Maydens FL16 RO23

fruits] fruit BD53 FL16 NE25 RO16 RO23 SL14 YA35

bedd] ⁓; 1648  kidde YA35

1645A does not copy l. 8

8 sweet] soft 1648  the BD53 YA19

speech] charminge speech RO17  lips ED40 NE25 SL14 YA35

sweet] soft BL72 FL96 RO17 SAG7  the BD53 YA19  smooth 1648

touch] lips RO16  speech ED40  NE25 SL14  breath YA35

the lippes] the lipp FL16 RO27  the kisse YA19  the touch ED40 NE25 SL14 pg 299YA35  sweet touch RO16  do not copy BD53 RO17

the] and YA35  sweet RO16

9 sweets] such BDR1 BL33 FL16 FL96 HM19 RO27  sweeter SL14  more BDE4 BD 53 YA19 1645A

neuer] nere SL14

10 So] more BD53 YA19 1645A

and] or BDR1 BL33 HM19 NE25 RO17 SAG7 1648  soe BDE4 ED40 FL16 FL96 RO16 SL14  more BD53 1645A YA19

as] then BD53 YA19 1645A

wast] wert SL14 YA19 1645A  once RO16

once] wast RO16  do not copy FL16 RO27

to] unto FL16 RO27

1645A does not copy ll.11–22.

11 Angells] ⁓! 1648

12 that] Who RO27

scattrest] scattereth HM19  sparkles BD53 YA19

spirits] spirit BD53 ED40 FL96 SAG7 YA19 1648  sprite RO16  Sp'eite, BDE4

lust] last BDR1  lastly BL33  lusts YA35

whose] Af´ thou ⁓ BD53  who YA19

purer] pure BL33 RO17  purest 1648  warmer NE25 SL14  does not copy YA19

13 more] ( ⁓ SAG7

radiant] rarient RO27

the] does not copy BL33

sumers] summer FL16 FL96 RO17 RO27 SL14  summer-sun-beame NE25  does not copy YA19

showes] shoures BD53

14 braue] does not copy BL33 FL16 RO27

to] vnto RO27

15 shagge] sage HM19 RO27  sad BL33 RO16  shag'd BDE4 ED40 FL96 SAG7 YA19 YA35 1648  BD53 omits

16 foreshewe] fforeshewes RO17 RO27  foretell BD53 YA35 1648  fforspeake FL96 RO16

17 full] feirce BDE4  braue BD53 YA19

flame] of flame BDR1

which] that BD53 YA19

a] his ED40 YA35  her BDE4

18 throwing] spirting FL96  scattering BD53 YA19

abroad] about BDE4 SAG7 1648

pg 300his] her BDE4

and] of ED40

pearcing] active SAG7 1648

YA1g does not copy 19–20. RO16 does not copy 19–22.

19 thee] thou BD53 BDE4 BL33 FL16 FL96 RO27 NE25 SL14 ED40 SAG7 YA35 1648

lou'd] ( ⁓ BDR1  aboue BD53 ED40 1648  alone YA35 Loud^ lov'd^ FL16 thou aboue BDE4 FL96 SAG7

Necter] ) BDR1  Nectar's YA35

O] does not copy BD53 YA35

diuiner] diuined SL14  Divinest 1648  sweet BDE4

soule] ⁓!) 1648

20 æternall] ( ⁓ 1648

thy] the SA67

self] ⁓) 1648

21 that] Tis YA19

which] thou YA19

subuerts] subiects BL33

whole] whose YA19  whose^ whole^ HM19

22 the] do not copy BL33 BD53

damd] deepe BDE4 ED40 YA35  dumbe BD53

23 aloane] aboue BDE4 YA19 1645A

who] which RO17 NE25 SL14 that BD53 YA19 YA35 1645A

fann] Pan RO27  flame RO17  faln 1645A

SL14 does not copy ll. 24–31.

24 workst] workes FL 96 NE25

wisdome] wise HM19 art SAG7

Arte] or SAG7

Or] Nature SAG7

Nature] wisdome SAG7

25 rouse] raise BD53 ED40 NE25 YA19 YA35 1645A

the] a YA35  this FL96

holy] sacred BDE4 ED40 FL96 NE25 YA35 1648  mighty SAG7

and] to BDE4 ED40 RO16 SAG7

26 frost] frost-bound BDE4 BL33 FL96  frost-bound-blood NE25 1648

bound] bound-blood 1645A

bloud] bloods SAG7

spirits] RO16

and] does not copy BD53

to] do NE25  can FL96

pg 301

27 with] to RO16

striking] flashing 1648  streaching YA19 1645A

28 the] Their BDE4

soule] Soules BDE4

like] the BL72

actiue] cautiue BD53

YA19 and 1645A do not copy ll. 29–36. SAG7 also reorders lines, placing ll. 31–4 before ll. 29–30.

29 nor] or BDE4 BL33 ED40 FL16 HM19 RO27 SAG7 1648  not NE25

30 Castalian] Corinthian SAG7

singe] sings BL72

31 Horace] ⁓ and FL96

32 thou] not BL33 RO27

not] thou BL33 RO27

thy] the RO27

fire] fires NE25

33 Phœbean] Thebeian ED40 YA35  Plebejans BD53  Pheban BDR1

splendor]! 1648 splendours NE25

the] thou BDE4 BL72 ED40 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14 YA35 1648

Thespian] Thesbian RO17 YA35 Thessalian BD53

34 of] all BL33 If FL96

whose] which BD53 BDE4 BL72 ED40 FL16 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 YA35 1648

sweet] sweets HM19  sweet-swans FL96  all BD53

swans] swaines YA35

must] may YA35

before] ere that RO16

35 true] time FL16 RO27

pac'd] past FL16 RO27 pere BD53

their] your HM19  in ⁓ YA35

sacred] Holy 1648

36 make] makes BD53 FL16 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 1648  makst ED40

worthy] wynne the FL96

Ceader] Cedars YA35

37 why]? BD53 BDR1 FL96 HM19 RO27 YA19 YA35 1648

longer] doe 1645A

doe] I 1645A

I] longer 1645A  wee BDE4 ED40

pg 302

38 thee] theese BD53

eye] eyes BDE4 BDR1 BL33 BL72 ED40 FL16 FL96 HM19 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 YA35  view SL14

Adoration] admiration BD53 BL72 ED40 YA19 YA35 1645A 1648

39 since] when BD53 BDE4 ED40 FL96 RO16 SAG7 YA19 YA35 1645A

thee] you BD53

inforst] (inforc'd) SL14  perforce ED40 YA35  forc'd now BDE4  by force BD53

40 Witching] wished BDE4

away]? BDE4 BL33 FL16 SAG7 1645A

41 but] And 1645A YA19

whimpering] whyning BL72  witching BD53

lookes] lips RO16

42 then] Know YA19 1645A

know] then YA19 1645A

that] 'tis FL96 YA19 1645A

bids] biddeth 1645A

thee] me HM19

goe] hence BD53 YA19 1645A

43 hath] that YA35  has 1648

forg'd] fram'd YA35  formd BD53 YA19 1645A  made SAG7 1648

a] my BD53 1645A YA19

BDE4 does not copy ll. 45–58.

44 is] if YA19 YA35

self] rule FL96

prithee] pre'ether BL72  Pray thee BD53 ED40 RO17  I prethey YA19 1645

drawe in] not smile 1648

1648 cuts ll. 47–9.

46 glaring] glazing FL16 FL96 NE25  glozeing RO27  gazing 1645A YA19

fires]! FL96

least] lest BD53 RO17 YA35  left 1645A

in] by YA35  at YA19 1645A

their] thy FL96

the] thou BD53

47 feirce] does not copy BL33

shoote] steale BL33  doe shoote ED40 RO27 YA35  shout NE25

into] in RO16  vpon BL33 do not copy RO27 YA35

48 turne] proue YA35

49 farewell] be gone SAG7

or] and YA35

pg 303

50 more] Lesse RO27  Or 1648

inly]! FL96  kindly RO27  mildly FL16 NE25 SL14  ugly 1645 nyly YA19  smile 1648

least] lest 1645 A RO17  more 1648

thy] inly 1648

tempting] lest thy 1648

51 denounst] pronounce BD53  pronounst YA19 1645A

thus] this BD53  omits SL14

must] much ED40 FL16 FL96 RO16 RO27 YA19 1645A 1648

shewe] showes YA19 1645A

52 but] does not copy YA35

thy] the YA35

lookes] looke YA35  beames SAG7

53 others] other men NE25

thee] does not copy NE25  thee freely ED40 YA35 FL96 RO16 SAG7 1648  thee bouldly BD53 YA19 1645A

and with mayne desire] and with more desire NE25  and desire BD53 ED40 FL96 RO16 SAG7 YA19 YA35 1645A 1648 ⁓⁓ manie ⁓ BL72

54 thee] they NE25

their] thy SAG7

espouse] espous'd ED40 FL96 RO16 YA19 YA35 BD53 1645A 1648

while] whilst FL96 NE25 SAG7

55 thee] but YA19 1645A

56 faile] Hayle NE25

thy] her NE25 RO16 RO17 SL14 the ED40 YA35

helpes] sippe YA35

57 her] does not copy YA35

in adulterate] Adulterate YA35  unadulterate FL96

whats] for what is YA35

done] seene YA35

58 hereafter] shall smell BD53 FL96 NE25 SL14 YA19 1645A does not copy FL96

shall smell] hereafter BD53 NE25 SL14 YA19 1645A

Subscription: R. Herricke] BL72 RJ. ED40 R.H. SL14  finis Ro: Herr. SAG7 no subscription BDE4 BDR1 BL33 FL16 FL96 HM19 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 YA19 YA35 1645A

MS 12 The Welcome to Sack

Sources Collated:

MS : Aberdeen University Library MS 29, pp. 25–8; Beinecke Library Osborn b 200, pp. 252–3; Yale Osborn b 356, pp. 323–6 Bodleian Library MS. Firth.e.4,pg 304 pp. 14–17; Rawlinson.poet.142, f. 44v; Rawlinson.poet. 160, ff. 165v–166v; Rawlinson. poet.26, f. 89r–v; MS.Eng.poet.c.53, ff. 14v–15v British Library Add. 72478 (74); Add. 19268, ff. 39v–41r; Add. 22603, ff. 37r–38v; Add. 30982, ff. 140v–39r (rev.); Add. 33998, ff. 5v–7r; Harley MS 6931, ff. 61r–62v; Sloane MS 1446, ff. 18v–19v; Sloane MS 1792, ff. 125v–7v; Chetham Library, Manchester Mun.A.3.47, ff. 47v–48r Edinburgh University Library MS H-P Coll. 401, ff. 13v–15r Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington D.C. MS V.a.276, ff. 4r–6r; MS V.a.96, ff. 57v–59v; MS V.a.97, pp. 103–4; V.a.170, pp. 164–7; Huntington Library, San Marino HM 198 (1), pp. 17–19; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey 7.a.29, pp. 132–4; Robinson Library, Newcastle University, UK Bell/White MS 25, ff. 31v–33v; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia MS 1083/16, pp. 123–6; MS 1083/17, ff. 96v–98v; Rosenbach MS 239/27, pp. 415–17; Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, Austin MS 79, pp. 107–9

Print: 1648, p. 85–7 (sig. G3a–4a); Abraham Wright, Parnassus Biceps (London: George Eversden, 1656), sig. G8a–H1a

Transmissional History

The most interesting aspect of MS 12's circulation is the relatively tightly-knit relationships that exist between some witnesses, helped by some careful copying, although this is matched by the poor quality of other copies made from degrading exemplars and characterized by interpolation either of lines composed by the copyist or borrowed from 'The Farewell to Sack'. There are two main patterns of copying here: we can see tightly- knit groups of closely-related witnesses whose accuracy seems to deteriorate only slightly even over long periods of time, and what appear to be bursts of copying over relatively short periods of time that result in omissions, interpolations, and high levels of variation and error in the witnesses. One set of evidence suggests that MS is a very stable medium for transmission, the other that it is highly unreliable, and the decisive factor appears to be the quality of the source: the carefully-written exemplar prompts similarly careful and conservative copying, but the more inadequate the source text, the more erratic, indifferent, or innovative the transcription. For convenience we again label the two versions of this text with the title of their earliest witness and as with 'The Farewell to Sack', we have a 'Texas' text and a 'Jackson' text of this poem. The 'Texas' version is characterized by a reading of 'happie' (27) and 'power' (91), and the 'Jackson' by a reading of 'lustfull' (73) and 'fate' (91).

The 'Texas' text

The five readings that distinguish the text copied by the ten 'Texas' witnesses are 'happie' (27), 'more foule' (30), 'some other' (42), 'had he' (68), and 'power' (91). Not every witness reproduces all of them but it can be argued with reasonable confidence that all ten are copied (or, as we shall see, part-copied) from MSS with these readings. The ten are Harry Ransom Center, MS 79 (HRC7), British Library Add. MS 72478 (BL72), Rosenbach 1083/17 (RO17), Newcastle Bell/White 25 (NE25), British Library Add. MS 33998 (BL33), Rosenbach 239/27 (RO27), Huntington HM 198 (1) (HM19), British Library Add. MS 22603 (BL22), Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.160 (BDR1), and Abraham Wright, Parnassus Biceps (1656). With the exception of the print copy, thesepg 305 range in date from the early 1620s to the early 1640s with the bulk concentrated in the 1630s. Seven of these—HRC7, HM19, BL33, RO27, BL22, BDR1, and 1656—follow a pattern already seen in the discussion of 'The Farewell to Sack'. BL22 does not copy 'The Farewell' but it shares an identical title 'The Time Expired, He welcomes his Mrs Sacke as followeth' with BDR1 and BL33. The latter pair also share a source for 'The Farewell'. HM19 and RO27 also reproduce both 'time' and 'expired' in their titles. 1656's copy is entitled 'A Welcome to Sack' but agrees closely with RO27. Six agree against HRC7 in reading 'moonshine' (5) and 'like the' (57), but all agree in reading 'as is the end' (14), 'bosome' (26), 'dearer' (52), 'winged' (57), and (excluding RO27 and 1656) 'Isles should' (49), 'Queens see queens' (79), 'Cleopatra to Marke Anthony'(80), and 'power' (91). BDR1 and BL33 once again agree even more closely, sharing readings of 'ye Isles' (49), 'Triumviri' (82), and 'state' (86). This pattern of distribution suggests that a now lost MS, closely related to HRC7 but variant in title and in a small number of readings, is the source for these six, and a second lost MS, presumably the same one they both used for 'The Farewell', is the source for BDR1 and BL33.

RO27 and 1656 are copying a witness to this text reading 'wentst' rather than 'meanst' (23) and 'leadeth' (3), and their readings of 'iarre' (RO27) and 'aire' (1656) at l. 34 suggest both copyists were confronted with a similar error in the source. 1656 ends at l. 62 and RO27 switches its exemplar to a copy from another branch, a witness to MS W (see below). This change might well have been in its source rather than made directly by RO27's copyist since its title, 'The Time being Expired Hericks Wellcome to Sack', knits together the title common to the 'moonshine' group with that of W. The first textual evidence of the switch appears on l. 65 (where RO27 reads 'art' against 'was' in 'Texas') but we conclude the break is probably three lines earlier given the evidence of 1656, which ends at l. 62. It is worth noting that both 1656 (which uses the running heading 'University-Poems') and the majority of witnesses to W originate in Oxford.

As with 'The Farewell to Sack', the remaining three are less tightly knit together. BL72, a carefully-copied and difficult-to-date separate, agrees with HRC7 in calling

Fig. 10. Seven witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 10. Seven witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

pg 306the poem 'The Welcome Againe', and all three agree further with HRC7 in reading 'moony', although the copyist of BL72 misreads it as 'many'. All three also agree with the other seven witnesses to 'Texas' in reading 'more foule' (30), 'some other' (42), 'had he' (68), and 'power' (91), but they do not transmit the readings of 'bosome' (26), 'Mark Antony' (80), or of 'joviall' (73), which distinguish these seven. BL72 reads 'ends' (14) and 'meet' (79), and RO17 and NE25 agree together in reading 'when their desire' (7), 'too cold' (36), 'thirst' (42), and 'see' (79), so there must be an intervening MS between them and the parent they share with BL72. RO17 and NE25 also share a title, 'His Return', but NE25 adds the title 'and welcome to Sack' and drops ll. 25–6 (the only witness to this text which loses lines); and readings of 'tempting' (27) rather than 'happy', 'made' (2), and 'thy blessings from me' (89) confirm that this miscellany (as it also did for 'The Farewell') witnesses a text of 'The Welcome' which has been compared and corrected against a version outside the 'Texas' group.

The 'Jackson' version

There are twenty witnesses to a text which read 'that's' (30), 'or had but tasted' (68), 'he euen he' (69), 'lustfull' (73) and 'fate' (91), although not all transmit every one of these variants. Unlike the witnesses in the 'Texas' group, the majority of these attribute the poem to Herrick, usually in the title. This group of twenty also divides into two traditions, one comprised of sixteen witnesses and one of only four.

The 'amber' texts

Sixteen witnesses read 'amber' at l. 27 (1648 reads 'happie') and 'tops' at l. 58 (the witnesses to 'Texas', with one exception, read 'heads' here). Of these sixteen, only four are full-length copies: Richard Cooke's miscellany Bodleian MS Rawl.poet.26 (BD26), Richard Jackson's miscellany (ED40), the 1680s miscellany Folger V.a.276 Part II (FL27) owned by William

Fig. 11. All witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 11. All witnesses to the 'Texas' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

pg 307Jordan, and Francis Baskerville's MS, BL Sloane MS 1446 (SL14).95 The four full-length versions agree together in reading 'I' (50) (or 'Ile'—SL14) and 'sunder' (77) and ED40, SL14, and FL27 agree more closely in reading 'and' (35), 'any thing' (59), 'lymon' (64), and 'each part' (85). These four share variants of an error at l. 42, 'lust-sopt' for 'lust vpon', with two shorter texts, Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.53 (BD53) and Chetham Library Mun. A.3.47 (CHA3). The four agree further with CHA3 in reading 'faire' (6), 'essence' (31), 'probabilitie' (48), and 'doe not' (88), so CHA3 must share a parent with the full-length MSS, although it can only have been a partial copy, as it omits thirty-nine lines in total, for which the copyist attempts to compensate by interpolating a new line at l. 50 'Water sufficient my hott love to slacke;' and supplying ll. 3–10 of a MS copy of MS 11 as a substitute for ll. 54–61 of MS 12. Lines 41–2, 62–76, and 85–8 are also missing and the copyist adds a couplet of his own making to take the place of ll. 90–8. BD53 is distinctive in its title 'His Reconciliation to Sack' (the others all call it a 'Welcome to Sack') and its copyist is almost certainly comparing two or more sources together given that the title is a slight echo of the subtitle used by witnesses to the 'Texas' text and it also shares a reading of 'such as are' (8) with these witnesses. This witness also does not copy ll. 70–98 and includes several unique readings, strengthening the impression that a damaged exemplar is being copied here. BD53's copy of 'The Farewell to Sack' is similarly rewritten and the impression is of a fairly thoroughgoing revision, driven by problems with the exemplar, less clumsy than that in CHA3, and made by a skilled writer. However, the shared error at l. 42 suggests that the text he received was originally copied from the same source as the other five.

Other copies in this group are also characterized by the omission and addition of lines to the poem. FL27 adds a coda to its version, presumably composed by the copyist William Jordan, and addressed to the poet:

  • Grant my request this once you powers deuine
  • lett the Canary poet want no wine
  • Nature I pray thee doe his yeares recall
  • And lett him be an Infant but withall
  • Bless so this suckling that his mother pappe
  • may be the nourishing canary tapp.

This miscellany also copies 'Upon Parting' (†MS 19) as an independent poem, which it attributes to Herrick, as does Jackson (see p. 2.96–7), indicating that despite the approximately sixty-year gap in the copying of these two miscellanies both are witnesses to a continuing tradition of reading 'Upon Parting' alongside the Sack poems.

Of the ten remaining witnesses to Jackson, only one member of this group also transmits 'The Farewell to Sack', so the majority of copyists here encountered 'The Welcome to Sack' as a single poem. A process of steady deterioration and revision characterizes allpg 308 of these MSS. All of this group agree with the five 'lust-sopt' MSS in reading 'amber' (27) and 'topps' (58), and with the full-length poems and CHA3 in reading 'made by Isles' (2), 'essence' (31), and 'lustfull' (73). They, like CHA3, omit ll. 41–2, but in addition to this the parent MS of the ten must also have lost ll. 75–8. It is also heavily revised, differing from the full-length MSS at nineteen points, including completely rewritten lines like 'O then no longer let my sweet defer' (25); a number of reasonable readings which are in fact errors including 'waters' for 'natures' (4), 'gemmes' for 'gleames' (11), 'nay tis' for 'nauell' (52), and 'disauow' for 'disallow' (97); and also clear alternative readings: 'delight' (6), 'outdarts' (11), 'I must confesse' (43), 'could there ever' (47), 'all the world' (49), 'art the best' (65), and 'feeble sinews' (83). Since the parent does not reproduce the distinctive readings of 'I', 'faire', and 'probability' it cannot share a source with CHA3 (despite the omission of the same pair of lines) or with the full-length MSS.

This pattern then suggests that all the witnesses to the 'Jackson' version are copied from a parent reading 'essence' (31) from which emerges a now lost MS reading 'lustsopt' (42), which provides the source for six extant MSS (BD26, BD53, ED40, FL27, CHA3, and SL14) and another lost MS (W) entitled 'Mr Herrick's Welcome to Sack', which, considerably reduced and reworked, is the source for the other ten. Both of these lost MSS initially circulated with a copy of 'The Farewell to Sack' but nine of the ten extant witnesses to W do not include the companion piece. The anomalous copy is Osborn b 356 (YA35), which is produced from a different copy of W that omits ll. 17–18 (all the other descendants of W retain these lines and omit ll. 23–4 instead). YA35 also has several terminal variants: 'faire' (6), 'home' (21), 'doth' (49), and 'my' (51), and the reading 'Marke Anthony' (80) which characterizes the 'Texas' group. The copyist of YA35 might have had access to a MS from this family but a comparison of copies would have introduced more variation than this single agreement, suggesting the copyist introduced the reading from memory or, equally plausibly, made it independently. The remaining nine MSS steadily lose lines as exemplars degrade and both the number of interpolations and independent associations increase. The most severely truncated witness to the readings of this group is Bodleian MS Rawlinson. poet.142 (BDR4), which reduces the poem to twenty-eight lines, although its reading of 'amber looks' (27) and 'vines' (49) and 'lustfull' (73) does confirm that it shares a parent with this group. This type of shortening occurs elsewhere in this miscellany, though in this particular case it appears to be a deliberate shortening of the work in response to a deteriorating exemplar. It is not collated because its brevity and conflation of lines means its readings will be lost, so it is reproduced in full at the end of the collation.

Of the eight that remain, five—Folger MS V.a.170 (FL17) and V.a.97 (FL97), British Library Add. MS 19268 (BL19) and Harley 6931 (BLH1), and Osborn b 200 (YA20)— read 'isle' (20) in error for 'exile'. YA20 and BLH1 are a pair, agreeing in their opening line 'soe swifte streames meet, so meete with gladder smiles', and both copyists are confronted with a difficult-to-read l. 11, with YA20 transcribing 'Osiris' as 'Phæby' whilst BLH1 simply leaves a gap. The pair also read 'Poore pittied Isle (Why tell me)' (20) although YA20's omission of sixty lines (it copies only ll. 1–38) means it is impossible to know whether BLH1's 'Cope of Heauen' (56) is an interpolation by its copyist orpg 309 belongs to their shared exemplar. BL19, FL97, and FL17 all read 'Poore pittied Isle, o tell me'. FL97 also omits ll. 25–40, 47–50, 67–78 and 85–90, in addition to the lines dropped by the parent; FL17 does not lose any further lines but interpolates 'Flow, as did Nilus in hir purple flood' for l. 84.

The final three extant MSS copied from a version of W, British Library Add. 30982 (BL30) and Sloane 1792 (SL17), and Aberdeen UL 29 (AD29), agree in reading 'shall haue fate' (91) and 'Ne're may' (98); BL30 and SL17 read 'dart forth' (12) against the rest of this group, which reads 'darken'; AD29 and BL30 agree in reading 'would approued' (70).96 It is worth noting that five of the miscellanies that use a copy of W— BL30, FL97, FL17, SL17, and BDR4—are all compiled by students at Oxford, and it may be that it was there that copies of W initially circulated. It is also from this group of ten that RO27 takes ll. 65–98 of its exemplar. Like the group as a whole, it lacks ll. 75–8 and it reads 'who art the best' (65) and agrees with FL97 in reading 'face' (91) against 'fate', establishing the text of RO27 as a careful stitching together of two partial texts to create a close-to-complete poem.

The 'group' of four

The remaining four witnesses share the readings 'on thee' (45), 'or had but tasted' (68), 'he euen he' (69), and 'fate' (91) with the full-length MSS in the 'amber' group but they omit the variant of 'amber' which unites the rest of the witnesses and they also read 'but such' (8), with the 'Texas' branch and 1648, against the entire 'amber' group. There is no single shared error that suggests all four have a common source but there is for three of the four. The witnesses are Rosenbach 1086/16 (RO16), Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7), Folger V.a.96 (FL96), and Bodleian Firth.e.4 (BDE4). These same four witnesses agree in a similar pattern for 'The Farewell to Sack'. BDE4, RO16, and FL96 agree here in reading 'thy flaming blood' (73), and SAG7 reads 'thy generous blood', which agrees with the authorially revised line in Hesperides, although the reading there is 'gen'rous'. This suggests that these variant readings are not wholly scribal, although any direct relationship with 1648 is impossible since all the miscellanies date from the late 1630s or early 1640s, with the exception of RO16, which is dated 1630. The four MSS offer three alternatives to 'amber': RO16 and BDE4 read 'cloudy' (27), FL96 reads 'sullen' (27), and SAG7 'radiant' (27). The large number of terminal variants in FL96 in particular points both to careless copying and a deteriorating exemplar, which would have encouraged the copyist(s) to seek out other versions, as the history of other witnesses confirms. BDE4 and RO16 appear slightly more closely related: they agree on 'cloudy', which seems unlikely to be a lucky guess on the part of two copyists. The most plausible hypothesis here is that the four MS witnesses derive from a slightly revised authorial copy which steadily deteriorates during copying, suggested by the relatively high number of terminal variants transmitted by all four. This hypothesis gains some support from the results generated by the phylogenetic methods used to analyse this tradition (see Figures 14 and 15).

pg 310

Fig. 12. Sixteen witnesses to the 'Jackson' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 12. Sixteen witnesses to the 'Jackson' version of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

pg 311

Fig. 13. All witnesses to 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 13. All witnesses to 'The Welcome to Sack'.

pg 312We employed two computer-based methods—Maximum Parsimony and, NeighborNet—to analyse this tradition.97 There was a very strong correlation between the results generated by the Maximum Parsimony (Figure 14) and the NeighborNet (Figure 15) analyses, which broadly support the findings of the traditional analysis. Most of the witnesses to 'Texas' sources form a clear group in the NNet tree, although RO27 is linked more distantly to the rest of the group. According to the MP results, BL33 and BDR1 form a well-supported (89%) pair of texts. This pair can be extended to include firstly BL22 (82%) and then HM19 (95%) and can be further extended to include HRC7 (93%). However, as in the NNet tree, RO27 does not group with the others in the MP analysis, forming instead a weak association with the witnesses to W. Both analyses also support the proposed relationships between the witnesses to the 'Jackson' text. The grouping of BD26, BD53, ED40, FL27, CHA3, and SL14 is supported in the MP analysis (98%) and in the NNet tree. The nine witnesses to W form a distinct group in NNet and this has 100% support in the MP analysis.

Fig. 14. Maximum Parsimony Analysis of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 14. Maximum Parsimony Analysis of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

pg 313

Fig. 15. NeighborNet Analysis of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Fig. 15. NeighborNet Analysis of 'The Welcome to Sack'.

Other more tenuous linkages proposed by traditional methods were also supported to some extent by these analyses. In the NeighborNet tree, NE25 is paired with RO17 and BL72, but the latter is positioned separately from the other two in the MP analysis (although with a low 58 per cent level of support), a positioning which supports their broad connection but implies another intervening MS between the parent all three share and NE25 and RO17, something confirmed by the exclusive agreements between NE25 and RO17 against BL72. The MP and NNet analyses also supports to some degree (55%) the association between RO 16, SAG 7, and BDE4, but it once again places FL96 as an independent witness. When 1648 (excluded from the traditional tree because of its separate agreements with both branches) is included here, both the NNet tree and the MP analysis place 1648 alongside RO16, SAG7, and BDE4, offering support to the argument that these three witnesses derive from a slightly revised authorial text (which given the date of RO16 could be relatively early) which steadily deteriorates duringpg 314 copying. This might explain the relatively high number of terminal variants transmitted by these three, although the puzzle of SAG7's authorial reading remains unsolved.

Historical Collation

Heading: The Welcome againe] BL72 A Welcome to Sack RO16 1656  Herricks Sack BDR4  His Returne RO17  His Returne and welcome to Sacke: NE25  His reconciliation to sacke BD53  My wellcome to Sack SAG7  Mr Hearick his welcome to Sack BDE4  Mr Herrickes welcome to Sacke BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL96 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35  The Time Expired he welcomes his Mistress Sacke as followeth BDR1 BL22  The time of his Vow expir'd, he thus welcomes it again BL33  The Time Expired he welcomes his Mistress Sacke HM19  The time being expired Hericks wellcome to sacke RO27 Hericks wellcome to Sack AD29  Herricks wellcome to sack AD29 BD26  The Welcome to Sack ED40 FL27 SL14 1648  No title CHA3

1 soft] swift BLH1 YA20

streames] springs FL97

springes] spring CHA3  streams 1656  meete BLH1 YA20

gladder] gladsome BL33

smiles] smile BDE4

2 meete] Springs BLH1 YA20  greete CHA3  ioine HM19

after] ( ⁓ BD53

diuorcement]⁓ ) BD53

by the] made by AD29 BD26 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 NE25 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35  from the RO17 RO27

Isles]⁓: AD29 1648 ⁓; BD26 BDE4 FL17 NE25 YA35

3 loue] ( ⁓ BL72

the] ( ⁓ BD26 BD53 CHA3 FL96 SL14 1648

likeness]⁓ ) BD26 BL72 CHA3 FL96 SL14 1648

vrgeth] urges AD29  leadeth RO27 1656

on]. SL14 one BL19 RO17 RO27

4 natures] waters AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH6 FL17 FL97 NE25 YA20 YA35 water SL17

an] a BLS4 RO27

vnion.]⁓: AD29 BDE4 BL33 BLH1 CHA3 FL96 RO16 YA35 ⁓. SL14 NE25 ⁓; YA20

5 meete] kisses SAG7

stolne] does not copy BD53 meete SAG7

kisses]⁓) BD53  ⁓: SL14  ⁓; NE25 RO27  when SAG7

when] as SAG7

moony] moon shine BDRi BL22 BL33 HM19 RO27 1656  many BL72

nights] night AD29 BL19 BL22 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

6 call] calls AD29 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

forth] does not copy BD53  for BL22

pg 315feirce] fresh BD53  fayre BD26 CHA3 ED40 FL27 SL14  hot RO16  firme RO27

wisht] stolne FL17 RO16 SAG7  faire YA35

delights] delight AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

7 So] Loe NE25

and] meet NE25  meets RO17

Queenes] Queen's BD26

meete] doe ⁓ RO27 FL97 when NE25 RO17

when] illeg. FL97 ( FL96  their NE25 RO17

desire] love FL97  lust RO27

8 but] saue AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35

such] those AD29 BD26 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 1656

as] which AD29 that BD26 BL19 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 1656  that BL30

ayme] tend AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

at] to AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

9 As] A 1648

I] does not copy BDR1

meete] mett SL14

thee] the BDR1 BL72 NE25

fame] name SAG7 ! 1648

10 of] do not copy BD19 FL97

loue] light BD53  Joue BDE4 do not copy BD19 FL97 ! 1648

whose] and CHA3  most FL97

radiant] irradiant FL97

11 out-stares] outstarres BD53 BL72 CHA3 ED40 NE25   outdarts AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35  out flarrs SL14  out-glares 1648

Osiris] o fires BD53  does not copy BLH1  Osiris FL96  O Syris NE25 Phæby YA20

and] so RO27

thy] the BD53 BDE4 ED40  whose NE 25

gleames]! FL96  gleame FL27  gemmes AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

12 dash] darkens AD29 1656  darken BL19 BLH1 FL17 FL97 YA20 YA35  dart BL30 NE25 SL17  Flash RO27  Out-shine 1648

forth] do not copy AD29 BL19 BLH1 FL17 FL97 YA20 YA35 1648 1656  out CHA3 SAG7

his] the BL33 CHA3  these FL96

midday] Middayes BDE4

pg 316

13 oh] ()BD53( SAG7 does not copy FL97

welcome]) SAG7

my] ( BD26 SL14 ⁓ most FL97

illustrouse] beloued BD53

spouse]) BD26 SL14

14 as] does not copy BD53

is] are AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 1648  ere YA35

end] ends AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 1648

15 nay] Yea BD26 BD53 ED40 FL27 FL96  I BDE4  I! 1648

I: RO16 SL14 Aye CHA3

farr] for BL22

happy] does not copy BL72

soile] sowle FL27

16 the] To th' BDE4  To the YA35  when ^the^ RO16

sea-scourg'd] sea scourg'd BD53 BL30 BL72 FL27 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20

after] ( CHA3

toile]: BDE4 ) CHA3

YA35 does not copy ll. 17–18.

17 saluts] Which BDE4

with] he BDE4

teares] salutes BDE4  tear's BD26

of] with BDE4

display] betray 1648

18 smooking] smoaky BD26 BD 53 ED40 FL27 SL14 1648

of] in AD29 BL30 SL17

19 thus] so AD29 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 FL17 FL97 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA 20 YA35 1648 1656

my] mine HM19

imbraces] embrace AD29 SL17 ⁓? ED40

20 exile] Isle BL19 FL97 Ile BLH1 FL17 YA20

tell] Af´ ⁓ BL19 FL17 FL97 (why ⁓ BLH1 YA 20

mee] )BLH1 YA20 ⁓! FL17

21 hence] home YA35

and] Or RO16

22 did] chuse AD29 BL19 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35  chase BL30

choose] soe AD29 for BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA20 YA35

pg 317to blisse] to blesse AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BDR1 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL33 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL96 FL97 HM19 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 16481656 does  not copy FL27

an other] some other AD29 BD53 BDR1 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL72 BLH1 FL17 FL96 HM19 NE25 RO17 RO27 SL17 YA20 YA35 1656  some foreigne BL33

AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 do not copy ll. 23–4. FL97 does not copy ll. 23–42.

23 Or] And 1656

was] went'st 1648

it] thou 1648

to] does not copy BD53

that] this BD26 BD53 BDE4 CHA3 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 YA35 1648 1656  the BL33

end] does not copy BD53

thou] the 1648

meanest] went'st BD26 BDE4 ED40 FL96 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 YA35 1656  went'st away BD53  more 1648

move] woe BD53  proue FL96

mee]⁓? ED40

24 more] does not copy 1648

thy] thine BD26 SAG7

absence] short absence 1648

and] to BD26 CHA3 NE25

NE25 does not copy ll. 25–6.

25 Why] O AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

frownes] then AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20  thou YA35

my] no AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

sweete] longer AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

why] let AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

does] my AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35  dost BD53 doth CHA3 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14  won't 1648

my] does not copy AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

saint] sweet AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA20 YA35

defer] confer 1648

26 her] cut from 1648

bosome] buxome AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 cut from 1648

smiles] Favours 1648

from] to BD53 RO27  upon FL27  on SAG7

worshiper?] fierce Idolater? 1648

pg 318

27 are] haue BL19 BL30 SL14 SL17 YA35  art BL72

those] thy BD53  these SAG7

happie] amber AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35  cloudy BDE4 RO16  sullen FL96  Looks, 1648  tempting NE25  radiant SAG7

lookes] locks FL17  Those 1648

the] ( ⁓ BD26 CHA3 ED40 1656  which BD53  Lookes 1648

which] still BD53  the 1648

haue] which 1648

bin] haue ⁓ 1648

28 time] (Times BD26  times BD53 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 SL14  Time-past 1648 YA35

past] ) BD26

fragrant]⁓ ) BD26 CHA3 ED40 1656  comely SAG7

now]⁓? BD26

drawne] calld BL19

in]⁓? YA35

29 twilight] YA35 ⁓!

mee]⁓? RO27

has] hath AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 and 1648

my soule] the fault 1648 1648 cuts ll. 30–1.

30 an] some BD53 in CHA3

more] that's AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35  that is BL19

foule]⁓? FL17

31 thy] the CHA3

purer] sacred BD53

nature] essence AD29 BD26 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35  offence FL27  selfe BD53

for] so RO17

fault] same ⁓ BD53

32 expiate] sapiate SAG7

with] the BD53

Sulphure] sulphures FL96  fire, RO27 1656

haire] fyres FL96  fyre, YA20  with ⁓ 1656

and] or RO16

33 with] will BL30

springe] springs FL27 SAG7

pg 319

34 the] that BD53

and] the RO27 1656

kill] jarre, RO27  aire 1656  purge ^kill^ BD26

the] that BD53 BL72  this BDE4 FL96 RO16 1648  those SAG7

quarrelling] quarrellings SAG7

SAG7 omits ll. 35–50.

35 Wilt] Will FL27 CHA3  Wo't 1648

thou] not BL72

not] then BL72

or] and AD29 BL30 ED40 FL27 SL14 YA20 YA35  nor BD26 BD53 BLH1 CHA3 FL17 RO27 SL17  now BL19 o FL96

tell me] tellme! FL96

36 cold] coole BD53  too cold NE25 RO17

remisse]⁓? AD29 BL22 CHA3 RO27

37 too] Or YA35

temperate] temp'rate BD26 BLH1 1648

in] does not copy BL19

imbracinges?] embraces? AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 RO17 SL17 YA20 YA35 embraceings BD53 BDR1 BL22 BL72 HM19 RO27 1656  embracements: NE25

has] hath BL19 ED40 FL27 FL96 SL14  Tell me, ha's 1648  have YA20

38 the ward] theewards BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 RO16 SL17 YA20 YA35

in th'embers] with embers BDE4  i' th' BD 26 RO16 1648  in embers BD53 BL30  in the embers BL19 BL22 BL33 ED40 FL27 HM19 RO17 SL14 SL17 1656  i'th' embers BD26 CHA3 1648  its embers RO27

no] not BDR1 NE25

YA20 omits ll. 37–98.

39 this] the AD29 BD26 BL19 BL30 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 SL14 SL17 YA35  his BD53

ash-heape] ashes AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 SL14 SL17 YA35

40 testifie] iustifie FL96

glowing] glaring BD53  glozinge CHA3  glooming FL17  clowing NE25

sparke]⁓? BD26 BD53 BDE4 BDR1 BL19 BL22 BL33 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL96 RO16 RO27 1648 1656

AD29, BL19, BL30 BLH1 CHA3 FL17 FL97 SL17 omit ll. 41–2.

41 Haue] Howe FL96

I] does not copy FL96

devorst] deuour'd FL27 SL14  denounc'd ED40

only] euer BD53

pg 320

42 or] and BD53 1656 In 1648

quench] quench't BDE4 BL22  hot 1648

my] Adult'ry 1648

lust] lust=sopp BD26 ED40  lust sopt BD53  Last Thirst SL14  last hope FL27  thirst NE25 RO17  cut from 1648

vpon] in BD26 BD53 ED40 FL27  with SL14 1648

some other] an other BD26 BDE4 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SL14 1648

43 true] I AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35

I] (⁓ FL96  must AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 YA35 SL17  more FL97

confesse]⁓ ) FL96

lefte] lost RO17

thee] you RO27

44 more] but BD53

confirme] affirme YA35  increase BLH1

45 my] mine BD26 BDE4 NE25 SL17  thyne FL96  m'affection SLi4

affection] affections BL22 YA35  affection on thee BD26 CHA3 ED40 FL27 RO16 SL14 1648  affection on mee FL96

those] these BLH1

46 loue] loues BL19 FL97 RO16

growes] growe BL19 FL97 RO16

foes] froze BLH1

47 forsake] diuorce BD53

thee] does not copy BD53

ever] could AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35

could] there AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35

there] euer AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35

48 like] does not copy BD53 FL17 NE25 1656

possibilitie] impossibility FL17 NE25 1656  Probability BD26 BLS4 CHA3 FL27 ED40

49 When] Why RO27

thou] all AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35  you ED40

thy] the AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35

selfe] world AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35  does not copy NE25

darst] shall AD29 BL30 RO16  dares BDE4  may BL19 BLH1 FL17 SL17  doth YA35  dost RO27 1656

say] know AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35  sweare BDE4

thy] the AD29 BDR1 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL30 BL33 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 SL14 SL17  that BLH1 BL19 YA35  thine BL72  this NE25

Isles] vine AD29 BL30 SL17  vines BL19 BLH1 FL17 YA35  I will! NE25

pg 321should] shall AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO27 SL14 SL17 1648 1656  must BLHi1

50 grapes] water CHA3

before] sufficient CHA3  ere that 1656

Herricke] I will BD26 ED40 FL27  Ile SL14  my hott CHA3

leaues] leaue AD29 BD14 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH11 ED40 FL17 NE25 SL14 SL17 YA35  loue CHA3  leaue a FL27

Canary] Canary-Sack BD26 to CHA3

sacke] slacke CHA3

FL97 does not copy ll.47–50. 1648 cuts ll.51–4.

51 Thou] Sack AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35

art] is AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35

leven] spirit BD53 louer RO16 heauen YA35 1656

salt] my salt YA35

to] and ED40

52 dearer] dearest AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 NE25 SL14 SL17 YA35 1656  best of BDE4  better FL96  boast of RO16  choycer SAG7

nauell] nay t'is AD29 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35  maubell [sp] FL27  tis BL19 FL97  nay NE25  thou RO27 1656

principall] and ⁓ HM19  the ⁓ AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH6 FL97 NE25 RO27 SL17YA35 1656  th' ⁓ FL17

53 fire] thou BD53  Aire RO17

to] giu'st BD53  unto BL33 BLH1 FL97

all] does not copy BD53  my BD26

functions] accons BDR1  all BD26  junctures BD53

giuest] giues AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 NE25 SL17 YA35  thou givst BD26  does not copy BD53

mee] firy BD53

CHA3 interpolates ll.3—7 of'The Farewell to Sack' into its copy, substituting for ll. 54—8

54 Chyne] An AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL97 SL17 YA35   T'haue BDE4  And FL17  Cheere RO16

spirit] active AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35  marrow NE25 RO17

and] does not copy BD26 BD53 BDR1 ED40 FL27 FL96 NE25 RO17 SL14  Spirit AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35

marrowe] full ⁓ AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35

what els] whats AD29 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35  what BL19 FL97

is good] good AD29 BL30 BLH1 FL17 SL17 YA35.

Naie thou more neare then kindred friend, man, wife CHA3

pg 322

55 Thou] Sack AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35  And BD26 ED40 FL27 SL14

makst] makes AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH6 FL17 FL97 YA35  make SL17

ayrie] sprightfull AD29 BL19 BL30 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35  active BD26 BD53 BDE4 ED40 FL27 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14  very NE25  sprightly BLH1

active] aery AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35  easy RO16  does not copy BD53

male to the feamale, soule and body, life CHA3

FL27's ll. 56–7 are moved to become ll. 77–8 in the MS (though not the collation).

56 like] ( ⁓ BD26 SL14

Iphiclus] Iphitus AD29  om. BDR1 ⁓ ) BD26 BLS4  Ipitus BL30  ( ⁓ ) ED40  Ithacus FL17  Iphius HM19  Iphites RO27

vpon] on BL22

topps] eares BL33  top RO16

corn] the corn RO17

to quicke actions, or the warme soft side CHA3

57 and] Sack AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35  Thou BD26 BD53 BL33 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SL14 1648

makst] makes AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 NE25 SL17 YA35

winged] nimble AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 NE25 RO16 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648

as] like BDR1 BL22 BL33 FL96 HM19 RO17 RO27 1656

nymble] winged AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 RO16 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648  nimbler HM19

of the resisting, yet resigneinge bride CHA3

58 caper] cap BD53 BL72 ED40

on] o're AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35

heades] tops AD29 BD26 BD53 BL19 BL30 BL33 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 SL14 SL17 YA35  toppe BLH1  head RO16

The kisses of Virgins, first fruits of the bed CHA3

59 and ride] Amid RO17 ⁓ rule SAG7

a] any ED40 FL27 SL14

thinge] think SL17

sweete speech, sweete touch, the lips, the maiden-heade CHA3

60 heauenly] Cope of BLH1

Isis] Iris AD29 BL30 FL96 YA35  does not copy BD53  heauen BLH6  Ilis FL27  Isio NE25  Iles RO16

61 loue] ioye AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 SL17 YA35 comfort   BD53  good FL96

vnto] to BD53 into YA35

life] Loue AD29 FL27  love? BD26 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 SL14 SL17  Soul BD53 FL97 YA35  Soul? BL19

pg 323Soe neare, or deare as thou art still to me CHA3

CHA3 does not copy ll. 62–76.1656 does not copy ll. 62–98.

62 blandishment] rauishment RO16

63 Idoll]⁓! BD26 BLH1 FL17 FL96 RO17 1648

can] could BDE4 BL72 RO16 SAG7 Co'd 1648

the Egiptian] th'Egiptian BD26 BDR1 BL33 BLH1 FL97 SL14 YA35 the

Egyptians AD29 BDE4 BL30 FL17 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL17 1648

64 the] thee FL27  does not copy BD53

garlicke] Onion AD29 BL30  Onions RO16

onyon] garlike AD29 BL30 RO16  vnion BL72 BDE4  Limon ED40 FL27 SL14  Onions RO27

and] or BD53 BL33 FL27 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL14

65 pay] not NE25

the?], AD29 BDE4 BL22 BL33 BLH1 FL17 FL97 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 YA35 ⁓; ED40 HM19 ⁓^ BD53 BL19 BL30 BL72 FL27 FL96 SL17

who] which AD29 BL30

was] art AD29 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35  wert BDE4  wast BL33 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL14 1648

their] the AD29 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

66 farr] does not copy BD53

transcendent] transcending BLH1

rest]⁓? BL33 BLH1 ED40 FL17 RO16 SAG7 1648 ⁓! FL27

67 that] (⁓ BD26 SL14

weake] weake-waterdrinker AD29 BL22  great BDR1

water drinker] water-drinker) BD26 SL14  water-drinker BDE4 BLH1 FL96 NE25 RO27 1648

FL97 does not copy ll. 67–70.

68 in] on BL22

thy] the AD29 BD53 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL96 RO27 SL17 YA35  this FL27

had] or AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648

hee] had AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648

69 smale] full BDR1 BL22 BL33 HM19

purer] does not copy AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35  gen'rous FL96 frantick 1648

Nectar] Liquor 1648

pg 324hee]⁓, euen hee AD29 BD26 BD53 BDE4 BL19 BL30 ED40 FL17 FL27 RO16 RO27 SL14 SL17 ⁓, e'un he BLH1 ⁓, euen thee YA35  euen hee SAG 7

70 as] (⁓ BD26 BL30 BLH1 ED40 SL14  like BD53  he RO17

the] a AD29 NE25  does not copy BL72  as RO17

Cato]⁓ ) BD26 BL30 BLH1 ED40 SL14

had] would AD29 BL30

of] does not copy BD53 FL96

71 Had] Or had BDE4

not] but FL27 SL14

Joues] Juno's RO16

sonne] found BDR1

that] the AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL19 FL27 FL97 RO23 SL17 YA35  the BD26 SL14

vast] does not copy BDE4  brave 1648

BD53 does not copy ll.72–98.

72 invited] ( ⁓ RO16 1648

Thespian] Thesbian BDR1 BL22 RO17 RO27 1648  Thesyian FL97

banquette]⁓ ) BD26 RO16 1648 banquetts RO17

taine] twaine BL30

73 bloud] flaminge ⁓ BDE4 FL96 RO16 generous ⁓ SAG7 gen'rous ⁓ 1648

Jouiall] lustfull AD29 BD26 BL30 ED40 FL27 FL97 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA35  last-full BLH6 FL17  does not copy BDE4 BL72 FL96 RO16 RO17 SAG71648  able NE25

spright] sperit NE25 YA35

74 ne're] Had AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL97 NE25 RO17 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA35

had] not AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35  neere BD26 BL72 ED40 FL97 NE25 RO17 SL14  neuer FL27

fiftie] forty RO17

that] a FL97

AD2g BL1g BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35 do not copy lines 75— g.

75 Come come] Come, to me FL96

kisse]; FL96

mee] does not copy FL96 ⁓ and ED40

heate] for ⁓ FL97 Love 1648

of] and BDE4 RO16 1648

lust] love BD26 BL72 CHA3 ED40 FL27 SL14

76 thy] the 1648

beauties] beautie SL14

pg 325and] mee BD26 ED40 FL96 RO16 CHA3  cut from 1648

weele] we will 1648

77 fate] hate BD 26 ED40 FL27

breake vs]: HM19 1648  sunder BD26 ED40 FL27 CHA3 SL14

79 Queenes] kings AD29 BL30 FL97 RO27 YA35

see] meet AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648  to FL17

Queenes] Kings FL17

or] so AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

come] let AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

thou] sack AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH6 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35  then CHA3

vnto] to AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

80 as] Or ⁓ AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH6 FL17 RO27 SL17 Or YA35

came ^to^] came ⁓ BD26 BDE4 BL72 CHA3 ED40 FL27 FL26 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 1648  did to SL14  unto AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17  to BD16 BL22 BL33 HM19 YA35

Mark Anthony] Antony AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BL72 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 1648

81 when] wher BL30

highe] hight BDE4

visage] linage SL14 FL27  carriage 1648

82 Triumpher] Triumuir AD29 BDE4 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 HM19 NE25 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648  trium-vir BD26  Triumviri BDR1 BL33

loue] both ⁓ RO27

wonderment] blandishment BL30  merriment BL33

CHA3 does not copy ll. 83–6.

83 my] thy FL96

nerves] feeble AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

with spiritt] SAG7  sinewes AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 FL97 RO27 SL17 YA35

84 runne] hast FL97

my] the BDR1  thy BL72

vaynes] braines SL14

a] an AD29 BDE4 FL96 SL17 YA35

hasty] lusty BD26 ED40 FL27 SL14  winter FL97

Flow, as did Nilus in her purple flood. FL17

ffill each part full of Fire, let all my good BLHi

pg 326

85 fill] Till BDE4  Still BL72  And ED40 FL27 SL14

fire] actiue AD29 BL30 ⁓! FL96

active] fire AD29 BL30  apt BL33

Parts to be encouraged, actiue to do BLH1

86 selfe] soule AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 HM19 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648 state BDR1 BL33

putt] prompt SAG7

it] mee AD29 BDR1 BL19 BL33 BLH1 FL17 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA35  thee BL30

87 till] whyle BL72 RO17  when HM19 NE25

88 which] ( ⁓ AD29 BD26 BDE4 BDR1 BL22 BL30 BL33 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL96 SL14  serve]⁓ )AD29 BD26 BDE4 BDR1 BL22 BL30 BL33 BLH1 CHA3 ED40 FL96 SL14

doe not] neuer AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 RO27 SL17 YA35  do thou NE25

89 fiers] blessings AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 NE25 SL17 YA35  fauours CHA3   blessing FL17 RO27

from] om. SL14

mee] om. SL14

but] does not copy BL72 NE25 RO17 RO27 om.  SL14 And FL96 CHA3

lett] does not copy AD29 BDE4 BL19 BL30 BLH6 ED40 FL17 FL27 RO16 SL17 SAG7 YA35 1648  om. SL14  if I proue worse CHA3

CHA3 does not copy ll. 90–7.

90 all] these-like 1648

my] mine BD26 BDE4 BL19 FL17 SL17  cuts 1648

or] and AD29

that's] that AD29  that is BL19

91 when] whence ED40

these] those BL30 BLH6 FL27 RO17  the RO16

circumstances] circumstants AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL33 BL72 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 NE25 RO16 RO27 SAG7 SL14 SL17 YA35 1648

haue] shall ⁓ AD29 BD26 BDE4 BDR1 BL22 BL30 BL33 BL72 BLS4 ED40 FL27 FL96 HM19 NE25 RO16 RO17 SAG7 SL17  haue the BL19 BLH1 FL17 FL97  haue a RO27  haue ⁓ YA35 shall but 1648

power] fate AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL30 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL14 SL17  the fate BL19 BLH1 FL17 YA35  the face FL97  a face RO27 live 1648

92 that] when AD29 BD26 BDE4 BL19 BL22 BL30 BLH1 ED40 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA35

pg 327prevaricate] prebaricate YA35

from] with FL97 RO16

93 the] does not copy ED40  that RO16

sonne] sum FL27

beere] Bease ED40

and] om. RO27

then] does not copy SL14 om. RO27

confine] lett wine RO27

94 tapp] turf BDR1 BL22 BL33 BL72 HM19 NE25 RO17

the] and RO16

tost] turfe FL17

turfe] turse BL19  tappe BDR1 BL22 BL33 BL72 HM19 NE25 RO17  toast! FL17  whiffe SAG7

RO27 does not copy l.94.

95 nere] never BL33  More FL27

vpon] on BL33

lett] may SAG7 1648

verses] Numbers 1648

96 hast] Run 1648

death] change BDE4

funerall] funtrall YA35

97 deare spouse] ( ⁓ ) AD29 BDR1 BL22 BL30 BLH1 FL17 HM19 SL17  when thee BD26 BDE4 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL14 1648  my spouse YA35

when I thee] (deare spouse) BD26 BDE4 SAG7 1648  deare spouse  SL14 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16  I do thee BL72

disavowe] disallow AD29 BL19 BL30 BLH1 FL17 RO27 SL17 YA35  I disavow BD26 ED40 FL27 FL96 RO16 SAG7 SL14 1648  I disa BDE4

98 nere] May BL19 BLH6 FL17 RO27 YA35

may] n'ere BL19 BLH6 FL17 RO27 YA35  lett HM19

then promise, ffortune crowne me with a purse CHA3

Subscription: finis] BDR1 CHA3 HRC7 Herick BD26 R: H: SL14 R. J. ED40 finis. Ro: Herrick. SAG7 no subscription AD29 BD53 BDE4 BDR1 BL19 BL22 BL30 BL33 BL72 BLH1 FL17 FL27 FL96 FL97 HM19 NE25 RO16 RO17 RO27 SL14 SL17 YA20 YA35 1656

Bodleian MS Rawlinson.poet. 142, f.44v

This version of the poem, seventy-eight lines shorter than the longest MS version, may be a response to a deteriorating exemplar, although the copyist gives similar treatment to 'King Oberon's Clothes' and 'Oberon's Feast', which are conflated and shortened into a single poem entitled 'The Fayrie Kings, Diet and apparrell' (see 2.358–9). It maypg 328 alternatively or simultaneously speak to a practice of deliberately shortening poems, which both reduces scribal labour and allows the copyist to demonstrate a degree of inventiveness. If so, this argues for both the popularity and wider circulation of Herrick's poem, since the effects of this kind of shortening are most visible when applied to a well-known poem.

Emendations to the copytext

Italics supplied. Line numbers supplied.

Herricks Sack
  • 1Springs meet with smiles
  • 2After a long divorcement made by Isles
  • 3So Kings and Queens meet, when desire convinces
  • 4All thoughts, but those that tend to getting princes
  • 5As I meet the my most illustrious spowse
  • 6Wellcome as is the soile when chimneyes say
  • 7The Mariner is neere his Ithaca:
  • 8Where hast thou bin pore exile? doe but show
  • 9Thy buxome smiles, thy amberlooks, or how
  • 10Haue I prophand the, tell me and for that fault
  • 11Ile expiate with Sulphur haire and salt
  • 12And with the christall humour of the spring
  • 13Purge hence the guilt, and kill the quarrelling
  • 14What wilt not smile, yet know the vine shall lack
  • 15Grapes before Herrick leave Canary sack
  • 16Sack is my life, my Leven, salt to all
  • 17My dearest daintyes nay tis principall.
  • 18Fire unto all my functions maks my bloud
  • 19Sprightly, and airy, me apt to be borne
  • 20Like Icarus upon the tops of corne.
  • 21And ride the sun beams, O what can præsent
  • 22My Genius with a fuller blandishment?
  • 23Had not Joues son that vast Tyrinthian swaine
  • 24Drunke Goblets of thy bloud? his lustfull sprite
  • 25Had not kept heat for 50 maids that night.
  • 26And if I turne Apostate, call me then
  • 27The son of beare; and so you may confine
  • 28Me to the tap, the tost, or turf, let wine
  • 29Ner shine upon Me. 'c

MS 13 His Meditation upon Death

Sources Collated:

MS: British Library Add. MS 29492, f. 5r

Print: 1648, p. 66 (sig. Ee1b)

pg 329Historical Collation

Title: none] His Meditation upon Death 1648

BLg2 does not copy ll. 1–8 of1648

1 withstood]⁓; 1648

2 good]⁓: 1648

3 effect]⁓, 1648

4 Perswade] Possesse 1648

me] my thoughts 1648

tis] next comes 1648

dying] dolefull 1648

knell]⁓: 1648

5 inuites] perswades 1648

bed]⁓,, 1648

6 buried]⁓: 1648

1648 swops ll. 7–8 with ll. 11–12. The lines are collated here in their MS ordering.

7 hath] shall 1648

bath'd] bath 1648

eyes], 1648

9 will] I 1648

I] will 1648

greete] meet 1648

10 sheetes] sheet 1648

lye] sleep 1648

in], 1648

11 that] which 1648

12 the Earth] those Turfs 1648

that] which 1648

shall] must 1648

13 But] And 1648

14 Resurrection], 1648

BL92 does not copy ll. 23–36 of1648.

MS 14 A Nuptiall Song, or Epithalamie, on Sir Clipsbie Crewe and his Lady

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b356, pp. 228–30 Bodleian Library MS Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 86v—89r; MS Firth.e.4, pp. 75—82; British Library Add. MS 21433, ff. 126r—131v; Add. MS 25303, ff. 141v—145r; Harley 6917, ff. 10r—13v; Houghton Library,pg 330 Harvard fMS Eng 626, ff. 26r-29r; bMS Eng 1107 (14); National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey 7.a.29, ff. 121r-v; 124v-127r

Print: 1648, pp.128–133 (sig. I8b-K3a); Joshua Poole, The English Parnassus: Or, A Helpe to English Poesie (London: Printed for Thomas Johnson, 1657), pp. 279–81 (sig. Y5a-Y6a).

Transmissional History

The 227-line witnesses to 'A' are BL Add. MS 25303 (BL25), BL Add. MS 21433 (BL24), and BL Harley MS 6917 (BLH7/the Calfe MS). BL24 is a copy of BL25 and BLH7 is a copy of BL24 with probably an intervening MS between them, now lost. A badly damaged but highly important 47-line witness is Harvard bMS Eng 1107 (14) (HA11), a leaf from a miscellany owned by the Gell family. The MS witnesses to 'B' are NLSA Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7/the Spelman MS), Yale Osborn b 356 (YA35/the Jacob MS), Bodl MS Firth.e.4 (BDE4/the Harflete MS), Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.50 (BDC5/the Daniell MS), and Harvard fMS Eng 626 (HA62/the St John MS). The print witness is Joshua Poole's 1657 The English Parnassus, a 'how-to' manual for writing poetry, which conflates a section of 'B' with another poem in order to create an example of an epithalamium for would-be poets to consult. The texts in SAG7, BDE4, BDC5, HA62, and YA35 have a common ancestor, and within this group YA35 and BDE4 and HA62 and BDC5 are each paired.

A's 227-line 23-stanza version is reduced in B to a 190-line poem of 19 stanzas, which omits stanzas 6, 9, 10, and 13. 1648 is a 160-line poem of 16 stanzas that omits stanzas 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, and 21, placing stanza 14 in the latter's place. The seven readings shared by 1648 and B, including at least one substantive variant, suggest that B is witness to an authorially revised version which included the omission of stanzas 6, 10, and 13. B is subsequently revised again, probably scribally, and almost all of the extant witnesses date from this revision, which circulated within the Crum archetype (see 2.10–13 ). A is an earlier version close to the original holograph but it contains several errors of its own.

The 'A'group

A so-called 'parent-child' relationship, when one MS is directly copied from another, can be established if the copied MS contains all the errors of the parent and some of its own, and BL25 and BL24 do agree consistently together and share distinctive errors, including 'the' (1), and 'most siluer' (77), for 1648's 'molt silver' (77). What confirms their relationship are the errors in BL24 which arise from mistranscriptions of BL25's text. BL24's error of 'gentle Carte' for 'gentle harte' (166), is created when BL25's scribe, who uses a 'h' with an ascender which curves slightly to the right, overwrites the bowl of his 'h' when adding the following line so that at first glance the letter 'h' appears to be a majuscule 'C', and that is what BL24's copyist duly reproduces. Similar errors occur at lines 173 where BL 25's copyist, transcribing 'dynn', contracts his first three minims so closely together that BL24's reproduces the word as 'dym'; at line 177, where BL24's reading of 'thousands Cupids' may be the transcription of BL25's 'thousand' and the comma of the line above it; and at line 213, where BL25's 'ribbs' is transcribed as 'ribb': the 's' in BL25 is slightly apart from the remainder of the letters and impinged upon by the descender of a letter above, so BL24's copyist may have read it as a flourish. pg 331BL25 is a 191-leaf miscellany containing 161 poems that appears to have been copied over a period of years.98 Scribblings and pentrials on the flyleaf include the phrases 'for Mr Bowyer', 'for Mr John Bowyer', and a trial of the address 'To the Right hono:ble the Lorde Thomas Darcy Viscount Colchester'. Since Colchester became the Earl Rivers in November 1626, this gives the miscellany a terminus ad quem of 1626.99 Both it and BL24 are products of an Inns of Court environment, but it is the links which Mary Hobbs makes between BL25 and the circulation of Henry King's poetry that may indicate how Peter Calfe, the copyist of BLH7, came by his copy of Herrick's poem. Calfe, a London apothecary, was an assiduous and well-connected copier of King's work and Hobbs notes that BL25 and other MS miscellanies closely related to it (which she calls the 'legal tradition MSS') copy a group of four early poems by Henry King using titles which appear to indicate a special knowledge of King's circumstances. Calfe may have obtained his copy of 'A Nuptial Song' from the intersection of Inns of Court copyists with Henry King's own circle of amanuenses. Calfe had access to both traditions through a number of possible acquaintances, including King himself, an honorary member of Lincoln's Inn at the time of the Crewe marriage, his brother Philip, or through King's amanuensis, Thomas Manne.100

The textual evidence here indicates that Calfe's text came from a copy of BL24. Calfe copies two of BL24's key errors, 'Carte' and 'ribb', and three independent changes BL24 makes to its exemplar: 'that' for 'thee' (l. 140: 'and loue the damnation of that place') 'you' for 'yee' (l. 171 'And to enchant you more') and 'yee' to 'yo:w, (ll. 217: 'I'll tell yee noe but like a'). However, the comparatively high number of unique readings in BLH7, which contrasts with BL24's very accurate copy of BL25, supports the idea of an intervening MS. BLH7 reads 'spireing' for 'spirting' (34); 'ashe-heapes' (38) for 'ashes'; 'burne' (40) for 'burnes'; 'disparkling' for 'besparkling' (46); 'of' (60) for 'with'; 'banks' for 'ranks' (61); 'drawing' for 'doleing' (82); and 'Apostate' for 'Apostata' (87). These variants might be ascribed to careless copying or a difficult hand, although the clarity of the script in BL24 makes this less likely. The error of 'most siluer' (77) is amended to 'siluer waters', and the copyist also writes 'dread that you doe more' for 'dread you more' (109) and rewrites 'and though you slow- | ly goe' (89–90) as 'y'are slow | in going'. Broadly speaking then, these alterations clarify the sense of a line rather than emend obvious errors, a practice which produces reasonable if occasionally pedestrian readings. However, Hobbs observes that Calfe appears to be a copyist who is strikingly faithful to his exemplars' orthography, except in respect of punctuation, and the punctuation of the poem in BLH7, which is careful, occasionally heavy, and at times unnecessary, is characteristic of Calfe's usage.101 Therefore it is more likely that Calfe obtains a scriballypg 332 amended copy of BL24's text which neglects to amend the glaring error of 'Carte', and scrupulously copies it, supplying his own punctuation. The relationship of these three witnesses to A is therefore posited to be one of direct descent from a single ancestor that lacked lines 56–8 and read 'molt siluer' at line 77.

The other witness, HA11, was badly torn at one point and the remaining leaves, originally bound within the Gell family's commonplace book and now detached from it, are crumbling at the edges. The only lines visible are from stanzas 1–5 and stanza 7 and so there are only forty-seven lines or parts of lines which may be compared to the other witnesses. It omits all of stanza 6 but leaves a gap for its later insertion, hinting at an ancestor with a degrading stanza 6 for all four witnesses to A. Despite these omissions there is enough text present to note five agreements with the A texts against B: 'marke' (12), 'ash-heapes' (38) 'more towring, and' (46), 'or like a fyrebrand' (50), and 'If soe glide through ye banks of Virgins, passe' (61). However it also shares one substantive variant with B against the other 'A' witnesses: 'who therein would not consume' (37), a reading which is also used in 1648. Therefore in its current state HA11 might be thought to distinguish in the first instance between good readings in the ancestor which have been dropped by A and to indicate that some original readings are retained by B.

However, as B also has six additional readings which it shares only with 1648, it may also have been transcribed from an authorially revised copy. Not all of its readings can be a product of scribal revision, error, or lucky guesses: its reading 'or else to nothing' (50) is much closer to 1648's 'or else to ashes' than A's reading here of 'like a firebrand'; its agreement with 1648 of 'Glide … then and passe' (61) against A's 'If so glide … and passe' is much closer to 1648's 'Glide by … then, and pass'. A number of its readings, once compared with A, clearly are errors: 'pair of Nymphs' (21) for 'paranymphs'; 'fame' for 'some'; the conflicting readings of 'Cindars' and 'Ashes' at lines 38 and 49 may be an instance of transposition, but it is more likely that B derives from an authorially tweaked version that subsequently undergoes its own mutations at the hands of copyists. It accurately transmits 'molt silver' (77) and 'gentle-hart' but is distinguished from A by reading 'see' (12), 'cindars' (38), 'ash-heaps' (49), 'clouds' (63), 'covering' (66), 'fair' (71), 'so as' (79), and by the clear error 'soft maiden and blush' (167). On occasion, it varies from A only for 1648 to vary again at the same point (see lines 116 and 146 in Table 2 below), a pattern which reoccurs in Herrick's poems. This suggests that the B version is a product of serial composition by Herrick. As the table indicates, it is difficult to avoid this conclusion but the comparison also makes clear that the B witnesses represent a second wave of revision, probably by a scribe, and these readings can be identified when A, HA11, and 1648 agree against B.

The 'B' version

The B version drops or loses four stanzas (51–60, 81–100, and 121–30), and three of its six witnesses omit further lines either through deliberate omission (1657), by transcribing part of the poem into a now lost miscellany (YA35) or receiving an incomplete text (BDE4, YA35). St John (HA62), Spelman (SAG7), and Daniell (BDC5) are complete witnesses to B and these three along with Jacob (YA35) andpg 333 Harflete (BDE4) also bear witness to another step in amending the poem's readings, this time almost certainly by a scribe. The close relationship of four witnesses, SAG7, HA62, BDC5, and BDE4, is confirmed by their shared omission of 'thron'd' (102), which 1657 does transmit. But SAG7 is at a slight distance from HA62, BDC5, and BDE4: these latter three all agree in reading 'from his torrid Zone doth praie and look' (112) whereas SAG7 accurately reads 'Runs from his torrid zone'. SAG7 also has the slightly odd reading of 'flame repeates' (65) whereas HA62, BDC5, and BDE4 have a more convincing reading of 'fame' here and these three agree again in reading 'smirking' (117), while HA62 and BDC5 have an even closer relationship since they agree in reading 'coddshead' (111) for 'coddled'. Even YA35, a partial copy, can be slotted into this group. This text in this MS begins at line 141 accompanied by a note which states 'That wch is wanting of ye Epithalamium in your black book. //.'102 Though this is now lost, the version transcribed in it was probably very close to that in BDE4. In the portion of text they do share, both agree in reading 'when you ar gone' (145), 'to bed to bed' (179), 'into the flow' (188), and both end the poem at line 200. Jacob, though, has a number of unique variants of its own, which is also characteristic of this MS's other Herrick poems.

Clearly, though, all five texts are copied from a common source, and given the use by BDC5 and HA62 of the Crum archetype, either all five are borrowing from Crum at varying removes or the compiler of Crum takes his text from that source. The evidence from Spelman suggests something of the nature of one copyist's exemplar and a possible reason for the poem's steady shortening. In SAG7 the poem is transcribed as two separate works, separated by a copy of Walton Poole's 'If shadows be a picture's excellence'. Each section is headed 'An Epithalamie' and each attributed to Herrick, and it appears the copyist believed he was dealing with two separate epithalamia both by Herrick. The first section ends at line 80 with the attribution 'finis R. Her:' and this is also the point where two complete stanzas are dropped by all the witnesses to B. The poem may have circulated initially on loose sheets, at least one of which was lost, causing subsequent copyists either to close up the gap or assume, as the copyist of SAG7 did, that he was dealing with two separate poems. Alternatively, the evidence of YA35 points to a tendency on the part of copyists to break the text up into sections, increasing the likelihood of losing not lines (which is more common) but whole stanzas, and Herrick's retention for print of stanza 9, dropped by all the B witnesses, may support the argument that this stanza is lost during circulation as it comes just at the point where SAG7 breaks off copying the first section.

pg 334Table 2. Table of Variant Readings of MS 14 between A, HA11, B, and 1648

A

HA11

B (HA62)

1648

Noble (6)

Another (6)

Nobler (6)

Nobler (6)

marke (12)

mark (12)

See (12)

mark (12)

Paranimphs (21)

Leaf mutilated/line lost

pair of Nymphes

Cuts from text

ripe (22)

Mutilated/lost

guild

Cuts from text

begett (26)

lost

Create

Cuts from text

Hyr harts at home, how ere (30)

lost

There is his heart, where ere

Cuts from text

would not

Who therein

whoe therein

Who therein

then (37)

would not (37)

would not (37)

wo'd not (27)

ashe-heaps (38)

Ash-heapes (38)

Cindars (38)

Ash-heapes (28)

that (38)

That (38)

This (38)

That (28)

and (46)

and (46)

more (46)

more (46)

cinders (49)

Cinders (49)

Ashes (49)

cindars (39)

fyrebrande (50)

fire brand (50)

Nothing (50)

Ashes (40)

If soe glide through (61)

If soe glide through (51)

Glide through (51)

Glide by (41)

'Virgins, passe' (61)

lost

then, and passe (51)

then, and passe (41)

Some repeate (65)

lost

Fame repeates (55)

Some repeate (45)

that others (67)

lost

while others (57)

While that others (47)

the fishe (70)

lost

a Fishe (60)

a fish (50)

poynte out (114)

lost

Whisper (84)

point out (64)

god sheild

lost

peace sheild

Love sheild

her (116)

her (86)

her (66)

you (131)

lost

Wee (91)

we (131)

You (132)

lost

It (91)

It (132)

this the (142)

lost

and this (102)

and this (72)

Hearing (146)

lost

Numbring (106)

Telling (75)

we (152)

lost

I (112)

we (82)

lends (153)

lost

teach (113)

tends (83)

tender (161)

lost

Soft (121)

Tender (91)

pg 335

thus (169)

lost

Then (129)

Then (99)

hyr they'll tyre (179)

lost

they will tire (139)

her they'l tire (109)

risinge (182)

lost

Rises (142)

swelling (112)

towre (214)

lost

Fould (174)

Towre (144)

Fig. 16. All witnesses to 'A Nuptiall Song'.

Fig. 16. All witnesses to 'A Nuptiall Song'.

Historical Collation

Title: Epithalamie] Epithalamium BDE4 1657   An Epithalamium BLH7  Hericks Epithalamie HA11  An Epithalamie HA62 SAG7  does not copy YA35  A Nuptiall Song, or Epithalamie, on Sir Clipsbie Crewe and his Lady 1648

YA35's copy begins at line 141.

1 farr!]⁓? BDE4 HA11 HA62 1648 1657 ⁓, BLH7 SAG7

2 from] out 1648

the] from ⁓ 1648

enamel'ed] Injewel'd 1648

3 of] does not copy BDC5

6 Noble] another HA11  nobler BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

8 Goddesse] Gods BDC5

10 emerginge] Emergent 1648

11 T'is] lost from HA11

shee,]⁓! 1648

pg 336shee,]⁓! 1648

else] rather BDE4

more] does not copy BDE4.

12 marke] see BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

13 paces] passes BDE4 paceth SAG7 1657

14 throwinge] Treading 1648

aboute] upon 1648.

15 spice-] Spice BDC5

16 -inge] In BDC5  lost from HA11

the] lost from HA11

18 a sauor] lost from HA11

vnto] does not copy BDE4.

a] the 1657

blessed] does not copy 1657

20 washes] washeth 1657

golden] does not copy 1657

1648 cuts lines 21–30.

21 Leade one fayre] lost from HA11

Paranimphs] Payre of nimphs BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  lost from HA11

the] and BDC5

while] whilst BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7  whilest 1657

22 (guilty] ^⁓ BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1657  lost from HA11

to] of BLH7 1657  lost from HA11

somewhat)]⁓^ BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1657  lost from HA11

ripe] guild BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  lost from HA11

Lines 23–30 partially lost or illegible in HA11.

24 gleame] gleane BDC5

26 begett] create BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

27 to] does not copy 1657

29 homwards] homeward BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

30 hyr] There BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

harts] is BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

at] her BDC5 BDE4 SAG7 1657  his HA62

home] heart BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

how] where BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

31 Smell] smels 1657

pg 337

32 ô] and BDE4

sweete]⁓! 1648

33 fyr'd] fixed BDC5

is] in BDC5 SAG7

34 spiringe] Springes BDC5  spirting BLH7  Perspiring 1648  Breathing 1657

forth] does not copy 1648 1657

pounded] powdred BDE4

36 of] with BDE4

37 would] therein BDC5 BDE4 HA11 HA62 SAG7 1648

not] would BDC5 BDE4 HA11 HA62 SAG7 1648

then] not BDC5 BDE4 HA11 HA62 SAG7 1648  there 1657

38 ashe-heapes] Cindars BDC5 BDE4 HA62 1657  ashes BLH7  embers SAG7

that] this BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

39 bestrokinge] does not copy 1657

fate] the ⁓ SAG7 does not copy 1657

40 embers] Cindars BDE4

one] in HA62 1657

41 hymen]⁓! 1648

grounde] round BLH7

44 thy] the BDC5 BDE4 HA11 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

46 more] Towringe BDC5 BDE4 HA62 1657

towringe] more BDC5 BDE4 HA62 1657

and] more BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

disparklinge] sparkling BDE4  besparkling BLH7

then] than 1657

thy] the 1657

47 turne] burn 1657

48 burne] turn 1657

49 cinders] Ashes BDC5 HA62 SAG7  ash-heapes BDE4 1657

50 like] els BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

a] to BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

fyre brand] nothinge BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  ashes 1648

waste] lost from HA11

BDC5, BDE4, HA11, HA62, SAG7, 1648, and 1657 all omit lines 51–60.

55 (your mayden knight)] ^⁓^ BLH7

All witnesses omit lines 56–8.

pg 338

60 of] with BLH7

61 If] Glide BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

soe] through BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657 by 1648

glide] the BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

throughe] Banks BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

the] of BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

bankes] Virgins BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657  rankes BLH7

of] then BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

Virgins] and BDC5 BDE4 HA62 1648 1657  does not copy SAG7

passe] lost from HA11  does not copy SAG7

62 grasse] lost from HA11

63 while] whiles 1657

cloude] clouds BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

cloude of younglings sing] lost from HA11

64 you] ye BDE4 1648

with a flowry springe] lost from HA11

65 while] (⁓ SAG7 whilest 1657

some] fame BDC5 BDE4 HA62 flame SAG7

repeate] repeats BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

66 praise]⁓) SAG7 Remainder of line lost from HA11

you] yee BDC5 HA62 SAG7

sprinklinge] couering BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

wheate] wheats BDC5

Line 67 is lost from HA11

67 whilst] while BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 1648  whilest 1657

that] do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

68 is] be 1657

Bryde on whom the Sunn doth shine] lost from HA11.

All remaining lines lost from HA11.

70 doth] doe BDE4 BLH7

the] a BDC5 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

1648 cuts lines 71–80.

71 goe] on BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

(sweet] fayre BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

Bride)]⁓^ BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1657

72 your] the BDE4 1657

74 mix] and ⁓ BDC5 BDE4 BL21 SAG7  more 1657

lose] loose BDC5 BDE4 BL21 BLH7 SAG7 1657

soules] selves 1657

pg 339

75 which] that BDE4

77 in] does not copy BDC5

most] molt BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  siluer BLH7

siluer] waters BLH7

run] do not copy BLH7 1657

79 Or] and BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

as] soe BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1657

that] as BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1657

BDC5, BDE4 HA11, HA62, SAG7, YA35, and 1657 all omit lines 81–100.

81 (Beatious] ^⁓ BLH7 1648

Bryde)]⁓^ BLH7 1648

you'r] you BLH7  y'are 1648

82 dolinge] drawing  BLH7 dealing 1648

those] these 1648

86 indeede] in deed BL24

87 Apostate] Apostata BLH7

89 you] y'are BLH7

90 -ly goe,] in going BLH7

1648 omits lines 91–110.

91 C:]⁓^ BL21  does not copy BLH7

93 (ah pardon)] oh pardon BLH7

95 (with] ^⁓ BLH7

and Wine)] ^⁓ BL24

99 house]⁓? BLH7

101 vnto] into BDC5 HA62

102 thron'd] do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

106 neglecte] contempts 1657

only] does not copy BDC5

108 not] No BDE4 1657

mylde] miler HA62  wild 1657

would] will HA62

109 you] that ⁓ BLH7

more] doe ⁓ BLH7

offend] t'offend HA62

110 that] what BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

pg 340

111 you'r] y'are BDC5 BLH7 SAG7 1648  you are BDE4 1657  yee are HA62

codled] Codshead BDC5 HA62

112 rung] runnes BLH7 1648 1657  runne SAG7  do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62

from] from's BDC5

his] does not copy BDC5

to] doth BDC5 BDE4 HA62

prye] pray BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

114 how] Now 1657  does not copy 1648

the] th' BDE4 BLH7 1657

poynte out] whisper BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

115 must] does not copy BDC5

116 vs] does not copy BDC5  The 1648

(and] House 1648  do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

god] Peace BDC5 1657  (peace BDE4 HA62 SAG7  Love 1648

sheilde] (⁓ BDC5

hyr)] vs) BDE 4 ⁓^, 1657

117 smirke] Smirking BDC5 BDE4 HA62

thinks] thinkest BDC5

it] does not copy BDC5

118 in's] in his BLH7 1657

Napery] wappery 1657

to] t' BLH7 1657

120 gynn] game SAG7

wherwith] wherby BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1648  does not copy 1657

catch] take BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657

hyr] your 1648

BDC5, BDE4, HA11, HA62, SAG7, 1648, and 1657 omit lines 121–130.

131 But] Now BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  do not copy BLH7 1648

you] wee BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 1657  needs 1648

must] we 1648

needes] do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7  must 1648

132 (lucke] ^⁓ BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

you)] it BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 1648 1657

133 quickly] quietly BDC5

134 Magicks] Magick BL21 BLH7 BDC5 1657

136 and] does not copy BDC5

of] with 1657

137 for] and ⁓ 1657

pg 341

138 I] Yea 1657  does not copy 1648

140 damnacon] confusion 1648

the] that BL24 BLH7 YA35 begins here.

141 (sweete Turtles)] ^⁓ ^BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1657  kind Turtles 1648

142 the] does not copy BDE4

shortest] longest BDE4 HA62 YA35 1657

this] and BDC5  and that 1657  and ⁓ BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1648

longest] shortest BDE4 YA35 1657

143 and] But 1648

yet] though YA35 ⁓ though 1657

too] does not copy 1657

tis] yet YA35  for 1657

wee] me 1657

58 peacefull] power ^peace^full SAG7

144 whoe] which BDE4 HA62 SAG7  does not copy YA35

count] Account YA35

1657 ends here

145 lyinge alone] When you ar gone BDE4 YA35

146 hearinge] numbringe BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35  Telling 1648

goe] does not copy BDE4  strike 1648

148 men] man BDC5

149 the] Their YA35

150 encircle] Incircled YA35

151 eyes] eye YA35

the] his YA35

152 we] I BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

153 (farther] further BDC5 BLH7 HA62 YA35 ^⁓ BDE4 SAG7

virtue] Gentlenes 1648

lends)] tends BL21  teach BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SA67 YA35  ^⁓ BLH7

154 amonge] At YA35

yee] you BDE4 BLH7  the YA35

catching] striving 1648

at] of YA35 for 1648

155 not] but ^not^ HA62

156 these] those YA35

yee] you BLH7  shee YA35

pg 342

158 gentle] youthfull 1648

fragrous] fragrant BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1648

159 forfende] BDE4 SAG7 YA35

but] and YA35

spoken] spoke YA35

160 peace] pace YA35

broken] broke YA35

tender] soft BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

whimpringe] and whispering BDC5 and ⁓ BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

Maydes] mayde YA35

162 those] the YA35

164 Lady smock] ladieis BDC5  Ladies smocke, YA35

that] the YA35

Pancy] Pawney BDE 4

that] the YA35

166 harte] Carte BLH7 BL24  Gentle-heart 1648

167 and] BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

Mayden] maydes and BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7  maide and YA35

blush] soft-Maidens-blush 1648

168 all] and ⁓ YA35

others] other BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG 7  else YA35

laye] lays YA35

169 thus] then BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1648

171 yee] you BDC5 BDE4 BL24 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 YA35

173 (as] ^⁓ BDC5 BDE4 BL21 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1648

thinke)] ⁓ ^ BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 YA35

dynn] dym) BL 24

175 list] O 1648

ô] Marke 1648

list] Listen YA35  yee 1648

176 his] its YA35

betwen] betwixt YA35

yee] you BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 YA35

The soule of Nature melts in numbers: now 1648

177 marke] Make YA35  See 1648

how] a BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35 1648

178 theyre] the YA35

at] on BDE4

pg 343

179 bed] ⁓ , to bed BDE 4 YA35

hyr] they BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

theyle] will BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

180 were] Here BDE 4  Her BDC5 HA62 SAG7 YA35

shee] were she BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

an] on YA35

181 bewitchinge] bewitchings BDC5 BDE4 HA62

182 bear] bears BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7  pranks YA35

vp] and YA35

risinge] rises BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7  riseth YA35  swelling 1648

183 too] does not copy YA35

184 yee] you BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 SAG7 YA35

brussell] bristle BDC5  lusty BDE4  bustles YA35

186 it?] ⁓ ^ BDC5 BL24 BLH7 HA62 ⁓, BDE4 SAG7 YA35 1648

wooes] comes HA62  seems YA35

and] to YA35

seems] wooe YA35

to] and YA35

187 you;] ⁓: BDC5 BL24 ⁓? BLH7 SAG7 ⁓, HA62 ⁓^ YA35 it? 1648

throw] ⁓, BDC5 BDE4 BLH7 HA62 1648  throw] oh throw YA35

188 that] this BDC5 BDE4 SAG7 the HA62 YA35 1648

maine] Sea BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35  mighty 1648

in the full flowe] into the flow BDE 4 YA35  over-flow 1648

189 the] this YA35  that 1648

pride] Bride BDC5  Ocean YA35

190 starrs] night 1648

191 You] The 1648

see] bed 1648

tis] its YA35  is 1648

192 is] it BDC5

woue] moue BDC 5

193 mistery] HA62 misteryes

194 in] into HA62 1648

to] does not copy YA35

195 wyle] while BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7

196 or] and YA35

smile] finde YA35

pg 344

197 doe] to BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35

to] in BLH7

198 owne] does not copy YA35

conceytes] concerts YA35  conceipt 1648

rather] do not copy BDC5 BDE4 HA62 SAG7 YA35  some way 1648

200 sporte] Play 1648

then] does not copy YA35  than 1648

they] these BDC 5  neuer YA35

1648 cuts lines 201–10; BDE4 and YA35 do not copy lines 201–30.

201 y'aue] ye haue BDC 5 SAG7

the] you BLH7

202 that] of BDC5 HA62

the] these BDC5 HA62 SAG7

203 know] Leaue BDC5

207 this] that BDC5 HA62 SAG7

that] this BDC5 HA62 SAG7

210 hath] had BDC5 HA62 SAG7  hat BL21

213 it bee] do not copy BDC5 HA62 SAG7

ribbs] ribb BL24 BLH7  Rock 1648

of] or 1648

Rocke] rocks SAG 7  walls 1648

and] or BDC5 HA62 SAG7 of 1648

214 yee] you BDC5 HA62 SAG7  yea BL 24 BLH7

towre] fould BDC5 HA62 SAG7

Danae] Danan BDC5

215 yee] you BLH7 1648

216 is] ⁓? BLH7 SAG7 1648

217 tell] dare be bold to tell SAG 7

yee] you BDC5 BL24 BLH7 SAG7

noe] naye BDC5 SAG7

but like a] does not copy BDC5 HA62 SAG7

218 bolde] But like a BDC5 HA62 SAG7

will make] his BDC5 HA62 SAG7

219 and rende the Clowde] will make BDC5 HA62 SAG7

220 sheete] sheets BDC5 BLH7 HA62 SAG7

223 which] and BDC5 HA62 SAG7

that's] it BDC5 SAG7  its HA62

pg 345

224 extracte] extracts BL24

wee] wee canne BDC5 HA62 SAG7 1648

228 you] yee BDC5 HA62

that] the BDC5 BLH7

230 blaze] ⁓ forth 1648

Subscription: RHer] ffinis BDC5 HA62  R: Her BL24  R. Hearicke BDE4 R: Herrick BLH7  finis. R. Her: finis. Ro: Herrick SAG 7  none H A11

MS 15 * Oberon's Apparel

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197, pp. 1–2; Osborn b 356, ff. 5r-6r; Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 38, pp. 99–100; MS Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 45v-46r; MS.Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 63r-v; MS Firth.e.4, pp. 20 -2; MS Malone 16, pp. 1–2; MS Rawl.poet.142, f. 45r; MS Rawl. poet.147, pp. 102–3; MS Rawl.poet.160, ff. 168v-169v; MS Top.Oxon.e.380, ff. 175v-176r; British Library Add. MS 11811, f. 18v, f. 20r Add. MS 22118, ff. r-v; Add. MS 22603, ff62r-63r; Add. MS 25303, ff. 172r-173r; Add. MS 28644, ff- 72v-73r; Egerton MS 2725, ff. 144r-145r; Folger Shakespeare Library, MS V.a.322, pp. 184–7; University of Leeds, Brotherton Collection MS Lt.q.ii, No. 29; Universitätsbibliotek Kassel, Germany 2° MS poet. et roman. 4, pp. 16–18 Mitchell Library, Glasgow MS N19, pp. 34–6; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town MS Grey 7 a 29, pp. 113–14; Archives of the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick Castle, DNP MS 118, f. 240r; Rosenbach Library and Museum, Philadelphia MS 243/4, pp. 152–4.

Print: R.S., A Description of the King and Queene of Fayries, their habit, fare, their abode, pomp, and state (London: Printed for Richard Harper, 1634), pp. 1–3; Musarum Deliciae (London: Printed for Henry Herringman, 1655), sig. C8b-Dib. Sources Recorded:

Musarum Deliciae, 2nd edn (London: Printed for Henry Herringman, 1656), sig. C8b-D1b.

Transmissional History

There are twenty-six witnesses to 'King Oberon's Apparell', five of which transmit the longest version, of seventy-eight lines (A). A second group of eleven descend from a witness to A which omits lines 63–4 (B) and within this group six witnesses copy an exemplar in which line 67 is damaged. An exemplar ending at line 60 (C) is the source for the final nine witnesses, and each of these nine also drops additional lines and/or rearranges the remainder. It should be stressed that this loss of lines does not take place progressively over time: most of the A, B, and C witnesses appear to have been copied in the late 1620s or later but the latest witness whose date can be confirmed, Musarum Deliciae (1655A), belongs to the A group, whilst the 1634 A Description of the King and Queene of Fayries is a witness to C, and uses a title for the poem that dates it to 1626. The copyist of one C group witness (BDR7) uses an A witness to supplement his truncated text, supplying all the missing lines in the margin, so A, B, and C exemplars circulated simultaneously. There is no evidence of any authorial revision during the process ofpg 346 circulation and most changes, as the evidence of line 67 of the B group will demonstrate, appear to be in response to exemplars with missing or illegible lines.

The 78-line text (A)

The five witnesses to A appear to be radially copied and all are remarkably uniform in their agreements, with only the slightly later source, Musarum Deliciae (1655A), occasionally at variance with the others. The remaining four witnesses draw on the same source for all three Oberon poems (and indeed for all the Herrick poems they copy; see 2.13–15): YA19, BDA3, BDR1, and BL22. All five read 'doe' (14), 'and' (29), and 'faire' (60) against all other witnesses and alone copy lines 63 -4. The few variants that occur are occasional scribal substitutions of pronouns or the introduction of monosyllables to correct perceived errors in metre. All call the poem a version of 'King Oberons Apparell'. The only substantial difference in meaning comes when BDR1 reads 'punished' instead of 'pinch'd' (59). BDR1 and 1655A agree together against the other three only once, reading 'dawn' for 'drone' at line 77, probably stemming from an intervening corruption of 'drone' to 'drawne'. This is the only point at which two witnesses agree together in a variant. All five witnesses attribute the poem to Steward but BL22 gives it to 'Edmond Steward', an attribution repeated by two B-group witnesses. 1655A is attributed on its title-page to 'Sr J: M: and Ja: S:', that is, Sir John Mennes (526) and Dr. James Smith, the convenors of the Order of the Fancy, a London network of the 1620s and 1630s to which Herrick, his best friend at Cambridge John Weekes, and possibly Steward belonged. Whilst it is not a publication authorized by either Mennes or Smith, it does publish poetry associated with the circle, which suggests at least the possibility that the 78-line text represents a version from within or close to the poets' own circles, something also supported by the version's presence in the Alston MS (YA19), the miscellany owned and compiled by Tobias Alston, the half-brother of Herrick and Steward's Trinity Hall peer, Edward Alston. The relationship between these five is repeated for all three 'Oberon' poems.

The 76-line text (B)

The parent of the twelve-strong B group (and possibly of the nine-strong C group) is almost certainly a copy of the A group which inadvertently drops lines 63–4 and misreads 'faire' (60) as 'cleane'. The introduction of 'soft' to line 48 so that it reads 'and lin'd with soft dandelion plush' probably also occurs in this parent since the reading of 'soft' characterizes all the witnesses to B and C with one exception. This is the 1640s miscellany Kassel 2° poet. et roman. 4 (KSL 4). However, its other variants agree consistently with B witnesses (see below) and its odd reading of line 48 as 'Dardanian plush' suggests the copyist had a problem reading this line in his exemplar and so rewrote it.

One or more copies of the B parent read 'powdered o're with spots of jett' (67) with the A group, and these are the sources for three witnesses, Grey 7.a.29 (Spelman/SAG7), the c. 1631 Bodleian Malone 16 (BDM6), and Bodleian Firth.e.4 (BDE4), a miscellany presented to Lady Harflete.103 BDM6's title 'The Clothing of Oberon King of the Fairiespg 347 by Sir Simeon Steward' is probably close to the parent's; SAG7 cuts it down to 'Oberons Clotheing', and BDE4 to 'Oberon attired'. Another copy of the B parent reads 'inlayd with inkie spotts of jett' and this is the source used by another seven witnesses, dating between the 1620s and 1650s. These are a badly-torn copy in British Library Add. 22118 (BL21), BL Add. 25303 (BL25), Add. 28644 (Montagu/BL28), British Library Egerton 2725 (Meres's miscellany/BLE4), Folger V.a.322 (Busfield/FLA 2), Yale Osborn b 356 (Jacob/YA35), and KSL4. BL21, BL28, BLE4, KSL4, and YA35 read together at several points, including 'with' (47); BL28, YA35, KSL4, and BL21 agree together again in reading 'through' (15), and BL21, BL28, and KSL 4 even more closely by reading 'whitest snow' (13). BLE4, although compiled in the mid-1640s (probably between 1645 and 1648), may be the most accurately copied of these five, or at least that is what is implied by its agreement with SAG7, BDM6, and BDE4 in reading 'made of the' (18), and so it is taken to precede the other four.104 These remaining four are copied from a parent reading 'through' (15), 'faire' (27), 'was' (59), and 'pleated' (70). BL21 is a miscellany compiled by a Cambridge student in which Randolph and Carew's poetry predominates along with some poems by Crashaw.105 'King Oberon's Apparell' and 'Oberon's Feast' open the miscellany but the first leaf is badly torn. It dates probably to the later 1630s. YA35 is a late 1630s-early 1640s miscellany which, despite its list of owners, is difficult to assign to any origin.106 Both BL28 and KSL4 have interesting claims to be court miscellanies. Peter Beal suggests that KSL4, which is dominated by Waller's poetry, may have belonged to Charles Louis (1617–80), the Elector Palatine, who could have acquired it whilst at Charles I's court between 1635 and 1649.107 BL28 is a miscellany belonging to and partly in the hand of the politician Charles Montagu, second Earl of Halifax (1661–1715), although MS 15 * is entered in a different hand. The text in the 1620s miscellany, BL25, compiled in a professional-looking hand, agrees only with the mid-seventeenth-century Busfield miscellany, FLA 2, in reading 'yet' (12), 'could' (12), by' (56), 'eye' (58), and 'with' (70), and its title—'The Fayres Revelling'—is unique.

The last copy of the 76-line text to produce extant witnesses drops lines 66 -7 and had a difficult-to-read line 68. The two witnesses to this copy are both in the Daniell MS (Bodleian Eng.poet.c.50/ BDC5), copied by different hands on ff. 45v-46r (BDC5) and on f. 63r-v (BDCO). The pair agree in reading 'rich' (27), 'of the' (28), and 'hee' (73) against all other MSS. The copyist of the version on ff. 45v-46r initially does not transcribe the whole of line 68, but writes half and then leaves a space, in which he later inserts the full line, presumably having at some point consulted another copy. The linepg 348 is accurately transcribed on ff. 63r-v but it is not clear that the copyists actually consulted one another's transcriptions.

This pattern is best read as the circulation of two slightly different versions of the poem, one witnessed by SAG7, BDM6, and BDE 4, the other by the remaining eight miscellanies. Both are produced by errors and omissions in copying rather than by active rewriting.

Witnesses to C

As all of the C group read 'soft', their likely parent is a truncated or damaged witness to B. Busfield, a witness to B, has the C group's characteristic reading of the full line: 'lyn'd by Bumble-bees soft plush' (48). However, since it reads 'by Bumble-bees soft plush' rather than 'with', which is used by the C group, and because it does not read consistently with any of this group's members, this is more likely to be memorial substitution or a copyist's own preferred reading, rather than a pointer towards C's relationship with B. The number of lines per witness to C varies from twenty to sixty and there are nine extant witnesses to C, all using the word 'fairy' in their titles. One additional distinction is that the C witnesses transmitting lines 29–30 switch the two lines around. The only two witnesses to a 60-line text of C, the MS miscellany Rosenbach 243/4 (Thomas Finch's miscellany/RO 24) datable to 1634 at the latest, and a transcript made by Robert Jamieson around 1800 (Mitchell Library, Glasgow N19 /GW19), are closely related, using the same title (and spelling) of 'The Pharyes Clothing' as well as errors such as 'loue' (2), the repetition of 'had seene' (3) and 'glittering' (30), and a reading of 'Troue-flyes' (18) for 'Trout-flyes' in RO 24, which Jamieson amends to 'Proue-flyes'. Alone of all the C witnesses, this pair transmits lines 37–8. Both attribute the poem to Steward and it is possible that GW19 is copied directly from RO24 (see 2.360–1), reducing the number of independent witnesses to one.

Five of the remaining witnesses to C introduce a fresh variant, 'bee's soft plush' (48), and the couplet to which this phrase belongs is moved to become part of the description of the Fairy King's breeches rather than his cloak. The only exceptions are British Library Add. 11811 (BL18) and Bodleian MS Rawlinson.poet.147 (BDR7), which drop the lines. However, both share a title, 'The Fairy King', and other readings with two of the witnesses which do make these changes: Bodleian Top.Oxon.e.380 (Matthew Crosse's miscellany/BDTO) and Brotherton MS Lt.q.11 (LEBL/Newdegate). BDR7's copy is 48 lines long, BDTO's 46, and BL18's 44. LEBL's is 52 lines. BDR7's copyist supplements his truncated copy with a source copied, it would appear, from the parent of Ashmole 38 (BDA3/ Burghe), given that both share the readings 'for's' (61) and 'to' (63), writing the additional lines in the margin of his copy. (Ashmole itself is not copied from BDR7, as the latter omits lines 37–8.) This copyist, H.S. (see fn. 125), also copies BL22, which transmits an A version very closely related to BDA3, and either this exemplar was not available to him or it may be that both times H.S. made the same (very small) mistakes as Burghe did when copying out his exemplar again. BL18, BDTO, and BDR7 agree in reading 'wrought' (22), and BDR7 and BL18 in the distinctive reading of 'shaued three leaue grass' (26). LEBL is the longest of the seven, has several unique readings, and splits its lines into irregular stanzas which are placed in a unique order by the compiler to create a progression within the poem from item to item of the king'spg 349 clothing. It has a series of agreements with LEBL, including 'new taken' (23) and 'could' (44), and LEBL reads 'sight' (6) with BL18 and BDR7. LEBL also has one agreement of 'wondrous' (54) with Bodleian Rawlinson.142 (BDR 4, once owned by William Bloys), Alnwick Castle MS 118 (Percy/AL18), and the printed text A Description of the King and Queen of Fayries (1634). Only two copies of this print are extant, one from 1634 and one from 1635, and we have been able to examine and thus collate only the latter.

BDR 4 copies the shortest version of the poem (twenty lines) and uses the title 'The Fayrie Kings Diet and Apparell' for this poem and its text of 'Oberon's Feast'. The 44-line separate now bound into AL18, a composite anthology of separates constructed in the eighteenth century, uses 'The king of Fayries Dress', whilst the 44-line printed text (1635) offers an elaborate occasional title beginning A Description of the king of Fayries Clothes… 1626. This latter date may reflect the composition of the long poem, or, given the evidence of these witnesses, the creation of the version from which all nine of these descend. The copy now in the Bodleian library (Arch.A.f.83 (3)) has been trimmed for binding and several initial letters are lost. 1635, AL18, and the 20-line fragment in BDR 4 read together in 'chang'd' (27) and 'his necke' (57), and AL18 and 1635 agree again in reading 'beflowered' (51) and 'diamond stars' (52).

Conclusions

'King Oberon's Apparell' is a poem which exists in three versions, classified A, B, and C, with the latter two having been created by scribal error or innovation in response to material damage to exemplars. As copying proliferates within the tradition, the number of variants increases and the text shortens, and this happens exceptionally quickly. The B text is clearly descended from a copy of A, and C is probably a product of B, but all these versions circulate within the same time period and at least one copyist had access to copies of A and C. The poem's willingness to break down its topic into fine detail is echoed in its own treatment at the hands of copyists.

Fig. 17. All witnesses to 'King Oberon's Apparell'.

Fig. 17. All witnesses to 'King Oberon's Apparell'.

pg 350Historical Collation

Heading: King Oberons Apparell] A Description of the King of Fayries Clothes, brought to him on New-yeares day in the morning, 1626. by his Queenes Chambermaides 1635 K Oberons his Apparrell BL22 King Oberon his Cloathing FLA2 Oberon Attired BDE4 Oberons Clothing SAG7 Oberon his Clothing YA35 Oberon King of the fairies by Sr Simon Stewart BL28 The apparelling of Oberon king of the Fayries BL21 The Clothing of Oberon King of Fairies by Sir Simeon Steward BDM6 The ffayry King BDTO BDR7 BL18 The fairy king's apparel AL18 The Fayrie Kings diet, & apparrell BDR4 The Fayres Reuelling BL25 The Kinge of ffairies Dresse LEBL The Pharyes clothing RO24 GW19 No heading BLE4 KSL4

BDTO does not copy ll. 1–6; AL18, BDR4, and 1635 do not copy ll. 1–10.

1 Queene] Moone KSL 4

2 Grew] Grow BL28

Jealous] in loue GW19 RO24

3 Her rising] Had seene ⁓ ⁓ GW19 RO24

4 In] Enrag'd BDE4 ⁓ her KSL4

she] did BLE4

throwes] threw BDE4 BDM6 BDR7 BL21 BL28 GW19 KSL4 LEBL RO24 YA35  throw BLE4

Misty] Misticke LEBL  does not copy KSL4

6 Dimme] fade LEBL

her] theire BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDM6 BDR1 BDR7 BL18 BL22 BL25 FLA2 LEBL SAG7 1655 A the BL21 BL28 BLE4 YA35

curious] pryeing SAG7  does not copy BL25

pryeng] curious SAG    peping BDA3

light] lights GW19  sight BDR7 BL18 KSL4 LEBL

7 Then] On BDTO  There FLA 2

did] a BDTO

the] time BDTO

dwarfish] the BDTO

8 Hauing … . themselues] (⁓) BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDM6 BDR1 BLE4 KSL4 RO24 1655A

9 Prepare] thought it fit BDTO  prepar'd BDC5 BLE4 FLA2 YA35

dresse] cloath LEBL

Oberon] does not copy BDTO

pg 351

10 In] ⁓ his BDA3

light] highest 1655A  lightest GW19 RO24  does not copy BDTO LEBL

for] fitt for BDR7 BL18 ⁓ their BDE4  fora YA35

11 In] First 1635  With BDR7 BL18

more] most BDR4

thinne] thine BL25  light BL21

12 Then] than AL18 BDA3 1635

ever] Spider LEBL

Spider] since BLE4  ever LEBL

since] could BLE4  yet BL25 FLA2

could] spider BLE4

BDR7 writes ll. 13–16 in the margin.

13 Bleacht] Adged AL18  Blancht BL25 BLE4 LEBL  Chang'd GW19 RO24 1635  cleerd BDTO

by the] to AL18 1635  with BLE4

whitenesse of the] whitest BL21 BL28 KSL4

14 As] Which BLE4  By 1635

Stormy] northerne LEBL

winds] wind BDM6 BL21 KSL4 LEBL

doe] did BBTO BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE4 BL21 BL25 BL28 FLA2 GW19 KSL4 LEBL RO24 SAG7 YA35 1655A   that 1635

15 It] does not copy AL18 BDTO BLE4 SAG7 1635

in] through BL21 BL28 KSL4 YA35 vpp LEBL

the] and LEBL

vast] waste BL25  downe LEBL

and] does not copy GW19 the LEBL

freezing] frisking BLE4  frozen AL18 BDTO 1635

16 No … fayre] (⁓) BL25 FLA2

No shirt] was never Shirt LEBL

so white] halfe so white BDA3 BDR1 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 BL22 BLE4 BL28 FLA2 GW19 KSL4 RO24 YA35  halfe so fine AL18 BDTO 1635 1655A  is halfe so white SAG7

so] or halfe soe BL25  lost from BL21

17 they did] next they BDTO

18 Made] do not copy BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BL21 BL28 FLA2 KSL4 YA35

of] o'th' BL18

the] does not copy BL18 BDR7

Trout flyes] Proue-flyes GW19  Troue-flyes RO24

wing] skyn BDTO  wings BL28

pg 352

19 At] As BL21  Lost from 1635

that] this BDC5 BDCO BL28 KSL4 YA35  which AL18 BDTO BDE4 BDM6 LEBL 1635

to] does not copy BDR7

20 Swearing it] swearing that BDA3  and swore that LEBL

sweett] sweet AL18

21 Euen] E'en AL18 BDE4 BDTO SAG7  That BL21 (⁓ RO24  does not copy BDR7 KSL4

with] being BL21 it AL18 1635

its] alternative reading lost from BL21  the SAG7 LEBL

weight] ⁓) RO24

and] he AL18 LEBL 1635  then BL28 KSL4  does not copy BL21

would] he'd BL21  must BDTO BL18  needs ⁓ AL18 LEBL 1635

22 His] A AL18 BDTO LEBL  lost from 1635

wouen] woue BDR1 BL22 BDC5 BDCO BL28 FLA2 SAG7 YA35 1656 made AL18 BDM6 LEBL 1635  of GW19 RO24  wrought BDTO BDR7 BL18  Lost from BL21

of] with BDA3 ⁓ the GW19 RO24

downey] dawnie BDCO  downish KSL4

23 New] First BDR7 BL18 A BDR4

shauen] taken BDTO LEBL  waste cote shaud BDR4  lost from BL21

from] of AL18 1635  lost from BL21

an] a BL18 BL22 BL25 1655A  does not copy BDR4  lost from BL21

chin] Chine BDCO  skinne LEBL

BL25 and BDR4 do not copy line 24.

24 It] That AL18 BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 BDR7 BL18 BL21 BL22 BL28 BLE4 GW19 RO24 SAG7 YA35 1635 1655A  Remainder of line lost from BL21

well] for BDM6

t'was] was SAG7

wonderous] passing FLA2

25 his] Line partly lost from BL21

26 Made] do not copy BDC5 BDCO BDR7 BL18 BL21 BL25 BL28 BLE4 FLA2 KSL4 YA35

four leau'd] faire-leau'd KSL4  true loue BDM1 FLA2  shaued BDR7 BL18  lost from BL21

true loue] four leav'd BDM6 FLA2  three leau'd  BDR7 BL18  true loues BDCO LEBL SAG7  true lov'd 1635

BDTO, BL11, and LEBL do not copy ll. 27–30.

pg 353

27 On] Chang'd AL18 BDR4 1635

which was sett] into AL18 BDR4 1635  lost from BL21

fine] rich BDC5 BDCO  rare BDE4 BDM6 SAG7  faire BL28 BLE4 FLA2 KSL4 YA35  lost from BL21

28 By] (⁓ RO24  of BDC5 BDCO  with BDR4 1635  Remainder of line lost from BL21

Crispy] wispye BDM6

Mosse] ⁓) RO24  grasse BL25

AL18, GW19, RO24, and 1635  swop ll. 29–30 around.

29 mist] mid BL22  mistie BLE4

and] by BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL25 BL28 FLA2 KSL4 SAG7 YA35

starry] gloomie BLE4  stormy SAG7  line lost from BL21

light] Night BLE4

More glittering then the Sarry-light RO24

More glittering then the Starry-light GW19

Which gave a lustre passing light. 1635

Which a lustre passing bright AL18

Line 29 lost from BL21

30 in] for BDR7 with BLE4  every 1655A

night] light BLE4

Line lost from BL21

31 On] In BDR4 BL22 SAG7 YA35  Vpon BDTO FLA2 LEBL

euery] each BDC5 BDCO BDTO BLE4 BL25 BL28 FLA2 KSL4 LEBL SAG7 YA35

Remainder of line lost from BL21

32 Drawne] Draw BL22  Made BLE4

by] of BLE4

vnctious] crawling BL28

slow] lowe BDTO

trace] pace ^trace^ BDA3 BL25  pace AL18 BDM6 BDR4 BDR7 BDTO BL18 BL28 BLE4 KSL4 LEBL 1635

Line lost from BL21

BDTO, BL18, BLE4, and LEBL do not copy ll. 33–4; BDR4 does not copy ll. 33–46; BDR7 writes ll. 33–4 in the margin.

33 To] With BL28

it] which AL18 BDM6 1635

purest] fin'st pur'st 1635

siluer] seamsters KSL4

Line lost from BL21

pg 354Lines 34–42 lost from BL21individual words remain and are collated below.

34 Compar'd] Compass'd YA35

did] with BL25  does not copy BDE4

look] look't BDE4 it BL25

like] did BL25

dull] looke BL25  pale AL18 FLA2  does not copy BL25

payle] like BL25  dull AL18 FLA2  does not copy BL25

AL18 and 1635 do not copy ll. 35–40; BL11, BDTO, BDR7, and LEBL do not copy ll. 37–8.

37 Which] within BL28

a] the BDC5 BDCO  does not copy BLE4

Gloomy] bloomy BLE4

39 for] for his BLE4

coolenesse] a ⁓ BL18  cooling GW19  softenes BDM1

next] ( ⁓ RO24

his] the BDR7 BL18 BLE4

skin] ⁓) RO24

40 Twas] it was BDTO  was BDC5

white] does not copy BDCO

Poppey] popilar BL28

41 the] that BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDR1 BL18 BL21 BL22 BL25 BLE4 FLA2 GW19 KSL4 RO24 SAG7 YA35 1655A

was] were AL18 BDC5 BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 BDTO BL25 FLA2 KSL4 YA35 1655A

42 from Cholchos] (⁓ ⁓) RO24

BDR7 writes ll. 43–4 in the margin.

43 Spun] Spun'd BDC5  But⁓ BDTO FLA2 LEBL

into] unto FLA2

fayre] fine BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 BDR7 BDTO BL21 BL22 BL25 BL28 FLA2 GW19 KSL4 LEBL RO24 SAG7 YA35 1635 1655A

44 That] as LEBL  No AL18 1635  does not copy YA35

Mortalls] mortall Eye AL18 LEBL  mortall wight 1635

might] could BDTO BL21 LEBL

it] not BLE4  does not copy LEBL

not] it BLE4  does not copy AL18 1635

45 Wouen] woue AL18 BBTO BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDR1 BL21 BL22 BL25 BL28 FLA2 GW19 KSL4 RO24 SAG7 YA35 1655A  Won BL18  Weav'd 1635

Arachne] Ariadne BL21 KSL4

on] in AL18 BDM6 BLE4 FLA2 1655A (⁓ RO24

pg 355loome] ⁓) RO24

BL18 does not copy ll. 46–8.

46 Iust] the Eue LEBL

had] met AL18

BDR7 writes ll. 47–8 in the margin.

47 Dyed] made LEBL

by] with BL21 BL28 BLE4 KSL4 YA35 1655A in AL18 BDR4 1635

Maydens] Ladies BDC5 BDCO  mayden BL21

58 And] do not copy AL18 BDR4 1635

with] by BDC5 FLA2 ⁓ a BDR4

Dardalian] Dandalyon BDA3 BDR1 BDR7 1655A  Dardanian KSL4 Dandalus soft GW19 RO24 soft ⁓ BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 BL25 BLE4 SAG7 YA35  soft Pandalion BL28  bumble-bees soft AL18 BDR4 FLA2 LEBL  humble bees soft BDTO 1635

plush] blush BDA3  Push 1655A

49 he] she AL18

50 Made] do not copy BDC5 BDCO

the] do not copy AL18 BDR4 BDTO BLE4 BL25 1635 1655A

Tinsell] mole sell BDM6  tinselld LEBL

Gossomere] Grassamere KSL4

51 Bestarred] Beflowred AL18 1635  Besprinkled BL21 BL28  Bespangled KSL4  Beshrowed FLA2  Bestrew'd BL18  sprinckled BDTO  dipped LEBL

few] shew BDC5

52 drops] stars AL18 1635

Morning] illeg. BL21 mourning YA35

53 all] made BDR4 BDR7 BL18  does not copy AL18

of] lost from BL21

Ladyes] a ⁓ AL18

54 passing] wondrous AL18 BDR4 LEBL 1635

light] bright AL18  white KSL4

it] lost from BL21

would] did AL18 BDE4 BDR4 1635 1655A

55 If] By BL25

any] that a BLE4  the BL25

humming] flamming BDA3  mumming KSL4  Gnatt LEBL

natt] or LEBL

or] ( ⁓RO24

Flye] ⁓) RO24  humminge ⁓ LEBL

pg 356

56 But] Had BL21  does not copy AL18 BDTO BDR4 FLA2 1635

busd] buzze BDR7 BL18  hus'd BLE4

the] in ⁓ FLA2  i'th' SAG7

in] by BL25 FLA2  as LEBL

passing] peping AL18  it past LEBL

57 it] his AL18 BDR4 1635

was] neck AL18 BDR4 1635

58 eye] eyes BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE4 BL21 BL28 KSL4 SAG7 YA35 1635 1655A  Cheeks AL18 BDR4

59 Who] Being GW19 RO24 Was BLE4 BL28 KSL4 YA35  New BL21  do not copy AL18 BDTO BDR4 BDR7 BL18 BDE4 LEBL 1635 1655A

pinch't] punished BDR1

she] lost from BL21

60 leaue] put SAG7

fayre] clayne BDC5  cleane BDTO BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 BL25 BL28 FLA2 KSL4 LEBL SAG7 YA35 1635  cleare BLE4

AL18 BDR4 BDTO BL18 LEBL GW11 RO24 1635 do not copy ll. 60–78. BDR7 supplies ll. 61–78 from a different source

61 And] does not copy BDM1

for] for's BDA3 BDR7 for a BL22 BDC5 BDCO BDM6 BLE4 BL25 KSL4  for his BDE4

BDC5, BDCO, BDE4, BDM6, BL21, BL25, BL28, BLE4, FLA2, KSL4, SAG7, and YA35 do not copy ll. 63–4.

63 on] to BDA3 BDC5 and BDCO omit ll. 64–67.

66 Of] Made ⁓ BDE4

cowladys] Lady-Cows BDE4 FLA2  Ladycoms BLE4  ladie-byrdes BL25 Loue-Ladyes BL21 BL28 KSL4

corroll] gilded BLE4

67 Powderd] Inlaid BL21 BL25 BL28 BLE4 FLA2 KSL4 YA35

ouer] o're BDA3 BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 SAG7 1655A  with BL21 BL25 BL28 BLE4 FLA2 KSL4 YA35

with] inkie BL21 BL25 BL28 FLA2 KSL4 YA35  many BLE4

Jett] lost from BL21

68 Underlined in BDC5

69 made] all BL21

Mirtle] purple BDC5 BDCO BL28 BLE4 KSL4 YA35 p[urple] BL21

leaues] lost from BL21

pg 357

70 Plated] placed BDCO  painted BL25  pleated BL21 BL28 KSL4 YA35

in] with BL25 FLA2

threaues] sheaues BLE4 BL28  wreathes KSL4  lost from BL21

71 Besett] sett ore BDC5 BDCO

Amber] Cows BDC5 BDCO

cowslap] Amberlip BDC5 BDCO

72 fringd] stringd BL25 FLA2

Dasy buds] lost from BL21

73 In] On BDC5 BDCO

was] he BDC5 BDCO

horne was hunge] lost from BL21

74 babblinge] gabling BLE4

Echoes Tounge] lost from BL21

75 sett] let BL25

Mooneburnt] Moone-burn'd 1655A  Moone bright BLE4  lost from BL21

lipps] lip 1656  lost from BL21

76 and then] lost from BL21

Fairyes] fayrie BDC5 BDE4 BDM6 BLE4 KSL4 SAG7  lost from BL21

skipps] skip 1656  lost from BL21

77 that] which BDE4  last BL21  when YA35

droane] dawne BDR1 1655A  droanes KSL4  drowne YA35  lost from BL21

gan] can BL22 BDCO  gave BL28  doeth YA35  lost from BL21

78 And] Each YA35

each] one YA35

did] doeth YA35

trip] lead BLE4  lost from BL21

Remainder of line lost from BL21.

Subscription: Sr Simmion Steward] Sr Simon Steward BDR7 BDR1 BL18 GW19 RO24  Sr Edmond Steward BL22 BL25  finis Ro: Herrick ^Sr Si: Steward^ SAG7  finis Sr Simon Steward BDA3 BDCO  Ro: Herricke FLA2  finis BDM6 LEBL  no subscription BDC5 BDE4 BDR4 BDTO BLE4 BL28 KSL4 YA35 1635 1655A  lost from BL21

MS 16 Oberon's Feast

Sources Collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale Osborn b 197, pp. 6–7; Osborn b356 pp. 3–5; Bodleian Library Ashmole 38, pp. 100–1; MS Eng.poet.c.50, ff. 46r–v; MS Eng. poet.c.50, ff. 63v–64r; MS Firth.e.4, pp. 23–5; MS Malone 16, pp. 3–4; MS Rawlinson. poet.142, ff. 45r–v; MS Rawlinson.poet. 160, ff. 169v–70r; British Library Add. MSpg 358 22118 ff. 1v–2v; Add. MS 22603, ff. 61r–62r; Egerton MS 923, ff. 43v–44v; Huntington Library HM 198 (1), pp. 26–7; Mitchell Library, Glasgow N19, pp. 33–4; National Library of South Africa, Cape Town Grey MS 7.a.29, pp. 87–8; National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth NLW MS 12443A, part ii, pp. 259–63; Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia MS 243/4.2, pp. 150–2; West Yorkshire Archive Service: Bradford 32D 86/17 (Hopkinson MSS), ff. 38r–v.

Print: R. S., A Description of the King and Queene of Fayries, their habit, fare, their abode, pomp, and state (London: Printed for Richard Harper, 1635), p. 4, p. 6; 1648, pp. 136–7 (sig. K4b–K5a).

Transmissional History

'Oberon's Feast' is not an answer poem per se, but a continuation of a poetic narrative, in which the friends and rival poets seek to outdo each other's increasingly imaginative conceits. Although the poem degrades during the process of copying and is also shortened, there is no evidence of authorial revision during MS circulation. The longest version of the MS poem is fifty-eight lines long, eight lines longer than 1648, which cuts lines 13–14 and 37–45 and revises lines 2–3, 23–4 and 27–8. Seven witnesses, all dating from the 1630s–1650s, transmit the 58-line version. All the remaining witnesses are shorter. In some cases, they are the result of using sources that inadvertently drop a line or couplet but at least two appear to be made from a fragmented (damaged?) copy of the poem, and one eighteenth-century transcription is deliberately cut down by the copyist on grounds of taste.

The versions which circulate divide up consistently according to title and shared textual variation. All the witnesses to the longest version (58 lines), except one, call the poem, 'Oberon's Feast' (the title in 1648) or 'King Oberons feast'. The exception is Rosenbach 243/4 (RO24), whose copy is entitled 'The Pharyes Supper'. It is the second-earliest witness in terms of date of copying, since it must have been finished before 1634, the date of the death of its owner, Thomas Finch, Earl of Winchelsea. Its distinctive title is matched by some distinctive variants and it shares both with a much-shortened, eighteenth-century copy of the poem in Mitchell MS N19 (Jamieson/GW19), and GW19 may well be copied directly from Finch (see below). Another text of 'Oberons Feast' is retitled 'The fairies feast at his marriage', and this text is copied by National Library of Wales MS 12443A part ii (NLW1), formerly Wigfair 43, a miscellany from the 1630s or later, and containing poems in Latin, English, and Welsh. The copy in BL Egerton MS 923 (BLE9) is made directly from NLW1. Four other witnesses— Bodleian MS Firth.e.4 (BDE4), Bodleian MS Malone 16 (BDM6), and the two copies in Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.50 (BDC5 and BDCO)—share a parent MS which dropped two lines when transcribing a 58-line version and introduced a number of minor textual variations. The copy in West Yorkshire Archive Service, Bradford, 32D 86/17 (WYH1), drops nine lines but its title ('Oberon's Feast') and its lack of textual variation suggests it, like the previous four, is a product of careless copying, rather than deliberate omissions or rewriting.

A third text, reduced to only twenty-six lines, is copied by both the first print copy, A Description of the King and Queene of Fayries, their habit, fare, their abode, pomp, andpg 359 state (1635), and Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.142 (BDR4). Both use the phrase 'The Fayrie King's Diet' in their title. The state of their texts suggests that their source was textually fragmented, and, having lost significant numbers of lines and phrases, was scribally reconstructed by running surviving phrases together and occasionally adding new ones (such as 'Nits carbonadoed') to fill gaps. Both witnesses freely reorder the lines and 1635 adds four new concluding lines. None of the 'versions' appears to be authorially revised; the textual variation is small-scale—the biggest deliberate change made is to the title— except in the case of BDR4 and 1635. Their dramatically reworked version appears to be a response to a damaged source (see 2.327–8 for evidence of the source used by BDR4 for its copy of 'The Welcome to Sack', which was also probably badly damaged).

The 58-line text

The full-length texts are textually very similar with one exception. RO24 appears to be the sole witness to one copy, which in addition to its distinctive title reads 'sauory' (4), 'liueing-dorr' (13), and 'more' (15). Of the remaining six—Osborn b 197 (YA19), Huntington HM 198 (1) (HM19), Bodleian Ashmole 38 (BDA3), Bodleian Rawlinson. poet.160 (BDR1), NLSA Grey 7.a.29 (SAG7), and British Library Add. MS 22603 (BL22)—all except SAG7 share an error in reading 'of' for 'up' (56). Five—YA19, HM19, BDA3, BDR1, and BL22—read 'pussing' or 'passing' (11) for the correct reading of 'puling' and again, only SAG7 supplies the correct reading. YA19, BL22, and BDR1 also share a unique reading of 'aglads' (40). SAG7, BDA3, and BDR1 read 'bewitching' instead of 'betickling' (42), but copyists might easily have made this change independently.

The text in NLW1 reads 'he had' (9), 'with which' (21), 'juspin' (38), and 'gliding' (44). It is fifty-seven lines long: line 34 is dropped, probably due to eyeskip. British Library Egerton 923 (BLE9) shares both title and variants, including 'he had in Place' (9), 'with which' (21), and in the omission of 'mixt' from line 43 and the shared errors 'mise' (6), 'witch' (56) and 'belickling' (42). BLE9 is clearly the copy. It fails to transcribe line 12 in full, and has a number of errors stemming from its copyist's misreading of NLW1's text, which is written in a secretary hand, including mistranscriptions of 'Purkie' as 'Purlie' (3). NLW1 retains the reading 'of' (56) and corrects 'to bewitch' to 'to the witch' (56) in order to make sense of the line. Like SAG7, it reads 'puling', so 'pussing' is a distinctive error uniting five witnesses.

The logical process of copying then suggests that exemplars reading 'Oberon's Feast' that read 'up' (56) and 'puling' (11) are the source for SAG7 and RO24, although RO24 is retitled and emended; an exemplar reading 'of', 'puling', and 'gnatts' (33) is the source, subsequently retitled and emended, for NLW1, and an exemplar reading 'of', 'pussing', and possibly 'aglads' (40) is the source for the other five. YA19, BL22, BDA3, BDR1, and HM19 are copying from the same parent MS (see 2.13–15 for a comment).

The 56-line text

This is created by the omission of a couplet (45–6) by the parent, but the parent already had a number of minor but distinctive variants—'but' (15), 'seem'd' (27), 'gnats' (33),pg 360 'will' (34), 'eyeball' (38), and 'streyned' (53)—as well as 'up' and 'puling'. A reading of 'gnats' (33) suggests a link with NLW1's parent, but given the relative ease with which 'newts' is altered to 'gnats', it is not particularly reliable evidence. The witnesses are the copies in Bodleian.Firth.e.4 (BDE4) and Bodleian Malone 16 (BDM6), the two copies in different hands in Bodleian MS Eng.poet.c.50 (Daniell/BDC5 and BDCO), and the damaged copy in the late 1630s, Cambridge miscellany BL Add. 22118 (BL21). Four of the five—BDE4, BDM6, BL21, and BDCO—also share an error in reading 'lagg' (29), but BDC5 corrects to 'bagg'. Daniell is compiled in five hands, from a number of smaller collections, with each copyist supplying a selection or transcribing wholesale, and since both its copies of 'Oberon's feast' agree closely (including reading 'betrusted' for 'bestrutted' (30) and 'commanded' (57) for 'commended' and sharing a title 'The feast of Oberon, King of the ffayries'), the two copyists either had their own copies of a shared source or inadvertently twice copied out a poem from the same source.

These five all seem to have been radially copied given the differing practices of attribution: BDM1 in a confusion of names and colleges ascribes the poem to 'Rich: Hiericke of Clare Hall', the college next to Trinity Hall, and BDCO attributes the poem to Simeon Steward. The copyists of BDC5 and BDE4 do not attribute the poem. BL21's copyist, on the other hand, does consistently attribute his poems, so presumably he received it as an anonymous companion to 'King Oberon's Apparel'.108 Lines 7–12 and line 40 are also missing from his copy. Both were probably lacking in his source, since the copyist scrupulously supplied a colon after line 39 in order to smooth the transition to line 41 and it is unlikely that such a careful copyist would inadvertently introduce a five-line omission that makes the meaning of lines 13–14 obscure.

Shorter versions

WYH1, a 49-line copy made by the antiquarian John Hopkinson late in the century, shares a textual error of 'fragrant' (19) with SAG7, but this is one which could easily have been made independently. It correctly reads 'up' (56) and 'puling' (11) but it does not copy lines 13–14 and lines 39–46, and from a textual point of view it appears to be another witness copied from a 58-line exemplar similar to that used by SAG7. It loses lines during circulation (possibly inadvertently, although part of the section omitted refers to Oberon's sexual arousal so this may be deliberate censorship) and it introduces occasional variant readings but neither is it recontextualized through a new title or reworked in any significant way.

Robert Jamieson (1780–1844), the likely transcriber of the copy of the poem in GW19, notes that he made the transcription from a 'small MS collection in Mr Boucher's possession'. That collection, now lost, contained a text of 'Oberon's Apparell' attributed to Simeon Steward and 'Oberon's Feast'. The latter is very similar to that of RO24, and both are either copied directly from the same source or Jamieson copies the poem directly from RO24. Jamieson's copy reproduces some of the distinctive spelling and punctuation of pg 361RO24, including 'minstrellcye;' (12), 'immagine' (15), and 'braught' (18). A note in N 19 (p. 11), written in the same hand that copies the poems, and placed underneath the title 'The Pharyes Clothing by Sir Simion Steward', states: 'Immediately preceding this neat little trifle is the Pharyes Supper by Robert Herrick, some parts of which is [sic] pleasing enough; for instance:'. This is followed by lines 1–22 of the poem in full. Line 23 is written as 'Of which he eates, &c. &c'. Jamieson's note concludes, 'The rest of the entertainment is by no means delicate, consisting chiefly of maggots, insects, cuckoo spittle, &c. Some of the ingredients are curious, such as—mandrakes eares'. He then copies lines 48 and 50–7, concluding with '&c'. In RO24 'Oberon's Feast' precedes 'Oberon's Clothes' and on the leaf in question an asterisk has been inserted in pencil just after 'eates'. This is not conclusive (a full comparison of both miscellanies is needed for confirmation) but sufficient to warrant the argument that Jamieson is copying directly from RO24.

Fragmented texts are also a characteristic of transcriptions made much earlier than GW19. A text shared by the early and unauthorized print 1635 contains only twenty-six lines of H's poem and six new lines. The MS miscellany, Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.142 (Bloys/BDR4), contains seventeen lines of H.'s poem and one of the new lines used by 1635. 'R.S', who signs the preface to 1635, concedes that the reader's reception of the poems will rely on 'thy connivance at the faults therein contained' (sig. A3b). Both 1635 and BDR4 are versions of a parent which reads 'watrie' (BDR4, 22) or 'water'd' (1635, 22), 'prepare' (16), 'carbonadoed' (41), 'skarlet' (46), and uses the term 'diet' in its title. They also share a confused reading of line 33, rendering it as 'A Spinners Gamme, berd of mice' (BDR4) and 'A Spinners ham, the beards of mice' (1635). Both also contain similarly shortened versions of 'Oberon's Clothes' (see 2.349). 1635 is the product of 'cheap print', printed using gothic type and simple woodcuts, and issued by Richard Harper, whose primary output at the time was ballads and popular pamphlets. He made particularly industrious use of his probably much damaged copy of 'Oberon's Feast': fragments are used again in the ballad 'The Fairies Fegaries', the second last item in this irregularly paginated print. Similar practices are also followed in MS copying. Phrases from the poem also reappear in a pastiche entitled 'The ffayrie Queene' found on pp. 69–70 of Yale Osborn b 356 (YA35) and also on pp. 218–19 of The Academy of Complements (1646; Wing G1401B) and subsequent editions (not collated here).

Selection of copytext

This must come from one of the 58-line texts and the choice of copytext here is British Library Add. 22603 (BL22), a MS dating from the 1640s which nonetheless is the most carefully copied transcript of the 58-line source, having fewer unique errors than any other witness to the source. Corrections to minor transcriptional errors, amended on the authority of the other witnesses to the same source, and other changes to the text are detailed in the emendations to the text.

Historical Collation

Title: King Oberons his Feast] A Description of his Dyet 1635 Kinge Oberons Feast BDA3 BDR1 Oberon his Banquet BDE4 Oberons Feast BDM6pg 362 HM19 SAG7 YA19 WYH1 Oberons ? Remainder of title lost from BL21 The fayries feast att his mariage BLE9 NLW1 The Fayrie Kings diet, & apparrell BDR4 The feast Oberon Kinge of fayries BDC5 The Feast of Obron Kinge of the ffayries BDCO The Pharyes supper by Mr. Robert Herrick GW19 The Pharyes Supper RO24

BDR4 does not copy lines 1–14; 1635 does not copy lines 1–4.

1 Musrumpe table] Table-Musrumpe YA19  lost from BL21

2 the daunce] short prayers 1648

Remainder of line lost from BL21

3 A yellow corne] A Moon-parcht grain 1648  remainder of line lost from BL21

Perky] Pearlie BLE 9  Turky GW 19 RO24  Furkey SAG7  purest 1648

4 With] (⁓ RO24 remainder of line lost from BL21

sandy] savory GW19 RO24  glitt'ring 1648

greetes] grit BDCO BDE4 BDM6 GW19 SAG7 WYH1 1648  greete) RO24

5 His] Which WYH1  Now 1635

choyce] Choycer GW19 RO24  Choycest BDA3  they 1635

Bitts] the 1635

with] all SAG7  did WYH1  which HM19  Elves 1635

which] and BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 GW19 RO24  then 1648  within HM19 1635  does not copy BDC5 NLW1 WYH1

in] does not copy HM19 1635

6 They make] make him WYH1  Prepar'd 1635

nice] mise BLE9 NLW1

1635 does not copy ll. 7–14; BL21 does not copy ll. 7–12.

7 the] this BLE9 NLW1 1648

his] that HM19

eye] this HM19

was] is BLE9 GW19 HM19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 1648

8 dare] must BDE4 1648

eares] eare BDA3 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 GW19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648

were] was BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 GW19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648

9 there] he NLW1 BLE9

was] had NLW1 BLE9

10 fire] fires BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6  Spleen 1648

the] this BLE9

pitteringe] pittying BDCO BDM6  chirring 1648

pg 363

11 pusing] puissing BDA3  pulkinge BDCO  puling BDC5 BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 GW19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648  passing BDR1 ^bussing^ HM19

12 Gnat:] ⁓^ BDA3 BDC5 BDM6 BDR1 BLE9 GW19 NLW1 SAG7 1648 ⁓, BDE4 RO24 WYH1  does not copy HM19

minstralcy] does not copy BLE9  minstralrye WYH1

1648 cuts ll. 13–14; WYHI does not copy ll. 13–14.

13 Humminge Dorre] livinge-Dorr GW19 RO24

the] and BDR1 BLE9 HM19

dyinge] dyning YA19

15 And] But BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 does not copy BDR1 (⁓ RO24 Where 1635

now] you BDR4  new YA19 does not copy 1635

we] you BDR4 BLE9 GW19 NLW1 RO24 1635

must] may 1635

first] ) RO24

16 present] prepare 1635

to] (⁓ RO24

thirst] ⁓) RO24

17 A] Some BDR4  In 1635

Infant] instant BLE9 NLW1

18 Brought] Cold BDR4

beswetted] besweeted BDA3 GW19 RO24 SAG7  besweetned BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 BLE9 NLW1 1648  sweetned BDR4 1635

in] with 1635

19 pregnant] fragrant SAG7 WYH1

which donne] then he spies BDR4

BDR4 does not copy line 20.

20 Kitlinge] Kitlings SAG7  killing BL21 1635

begin] begun BDA3 SAG7 WYH1  beganne BDCO

21 through] ore WYH1 1635

where] with which BLE9 NLW1

22 Papry] watrie BDR4  water'd 1635

GW19 cuts lines 23–47.

23 but with] and tastes 1648

24 Neate-coole Allay] neat coole array BDR1  of that we call 1648

of] the 1648

Cuckoes] Cukowe BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDR4 HM19 RO24 SAG7 WYH1pg 364 BDR4  does not copy lines 25–8; 1635 does not copy lines 25–9.

25 a] And BDCO

fusd-ball] fustball BDA3 BDR1 YA19  fusball BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1  fuss ball HM19  Fuz-ball 1648

26 yet] but RO24

by] with BDA3 BDE4 BDM6BDR1 SAG7 WYH1

27 was] seem'd BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21

course] curse BLE9 NLW1  grose RO24

not spares] then forthwith 1648

28 To feede vpon] He ventures boldly 1648

the] on 1648

Candid] curled BDC5  the 1648

hares] pith 1648

29 Of] The BDR4

a] silkewormes BDR4 sugred 1648

Cancker] spinn BDR4 Rush 1648

with] and BDC5 BDM6 BL21  and eates 1648  besides BDR4

a] the BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BDR4 BLE9 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 1648

sagg] fagg YA19  lagge BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21  lagg^bag^ BDC5

30 And] of WYH1

bestuffed] bestrutted BDA3 BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 BLE9 HM19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 YA19 1648 betrusted BDCO BDC5 BDR4

1635 does not copy lines 31–2.

31 Strokinge] Stirring WYH1  Gladding 1648

32 Emetts] Ewts WYH1

what] nor BDA3

would] will BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21

33 But] and BDM1 A BDR4 1635

beards] Spinners BDR4 1635

of mice] ham BDR4 1635

an] the BDR4 1635  and HM19 a BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 BL21 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 1648

Eu'ts] gnats BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 BL21 NLW1  berd BDR4 beards 1635

stewd] of BDR4 1635

thigh] mice BDR1 1635

BDR4 and 1635 do not copy line 34.

pg 365

34 Pickled] puiblinge BDC5  bloated 1648

a] the RO24

dry] Flie 1648

35 Hippe] hips BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 NLW1 RO24 WYH1  Next BDR4 1635 cuts 1648

with] this BDR4 1635  and BLE9 NLW1

a] the BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BDR4 BLE9 NLW1 RO24 1635

red-cap worme] red-capt worme BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 BL21 NLW1 SAG7 YA19 1648  red-capt-worme  RO24 redcap worm 1635

36 Within] In BDR4

1635 and BDR4 do not copy lines 37–8.

1648 cuts lines 37–45.

37 and] does not copy BL21 1648

with] A 1648

the] a BL21  little 1648

fat] Moth 1648

38 And] do not copy BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 a'WYH1

well-boyled] well broyld BDA3 BDR1 HM19 SAG7 WYH1 YA19  well roasted BDCO  well rooted BDC5 BDE4 BL2i  well rated BDM6

inkepin] eyeball BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21  inchpin BDA3 BDR1 HM19 SAG7 inspin RO24  juspin BLE9 NLW1  iuckpinne YA19

WYH1 does not copy lines 39–46.

39 bloated] bloter BL21

with] and BLE9 NLW1 SAG7 1635 does not copy BDR4

the Pith] Adders ears BDR4

BDR4 and BL21 do not copy line 40.

40 aglads] he glads BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BLE9 HM19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 1635

41 But most of all the Glowwormes fire] Nits carbonadoed and the mites BDR1 Nits carbonado'd, a device 1635

42 As] (⁓ BDA3 BDR1 HM19 YA19

beticklinge] bewitching BDA3 BDR1 SAG7  belicking YA19  belickling BLE9 NLW1  tiklinge BDC5

desire] ⁓) BDA3 BDR1 HM19 YA19

Before unknowne; the blood of fleas 1635

43 know] see SAG7

Queene] ⁓) BDA3

mixt] and BLE9 NLW1

Which gave his Elveships stomacke ease 1635

pg 366

44 ffetcht] fetch BDA3  fetch'd BDR1 RO24

bindinge] bideing SAG7  bending BDC5 BDCO  gliding BLE9 NLW1 BDC5, BDCO, BDE4, BDM6, and BL21 do not copy lines 45–46.

45 The silke:wormes seede] ⁓ ⁓ feede YA19

Then He eats a little Moth BDR4  Then he takes a little Mothe 1635

46 Lately] Late BDA3 BDR1 BDR4 BLE9 HM19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 YA19 1635 1648

fatted] fatned RO24 1648

piece of] scarlet BDR4 1635

BDR4 and 1635 do not copy line 47.

47 Withered] with ⁓ BDCO BDC5 BDE4 BDM6 BL21 RO24 1648  with with'red BLE9 NLW1  Blasted WYH1

48 Moles eyes] And for BDR4

to these] he tastes 1635  to them BDR1  his sauce BDR4

The slayne stagges tears' then Adders eares 1635

BDR1 does not copy lines 49–58.

49 Dulaps] dewe-heapes RO24  dew tops 1635

50 broke : heart] broken heart WYH1

51 Orecome] (⁓ BDM6

on] in BDA3 YA19 BDE19 BDR1 GW19 1648 1635  with BDC5 BDCO BDM6 BDR1 BLE9 NLW1 WYH1 SAG7  orecoming HM19

musicke] ⁓) BDM6

a] the BLE9 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 1635

wine] ryne WYH1 sagge 1635

1635 does not copy line 52.

52 flatteringe] fruittfull BDA3  fluttering BDCO   flatt'ring BDM6 RO24

vine] wine BLE9

53 prest] straind BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21

soft] does not copy BL21

54 the] a BLE9 NLW1 GW19 RO24 SAG7

sweet] neate BDCO

and] (⁓ RO24

daynty] ⁓) RO24

Conserves of Atomes, and the mites 1635

55 Dazy] does not copy BDM6  dainty 1648

challice] daizie 1648

The silke wormes sperme, and the delights 1635

pg 367

56 fully] filled WYH1

quaffes] quafte WYH1

of] up BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BL21 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648

bewitch] the witch BLE9 NLW1

Of all that ever yet hath blest 1635

57 high] height BDA3 BDC5 BDCO BDE4 BDM6 BDR1 BLE9 GW19 HM19 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648

this done comended] ⁓ ⁓ commanded BDC5 BDCO ( ⁓ RO24

Fayrie land: so ends his feast 1635

58 Grac't] grace BDC5 BDCO BDM6 BLE9 NLW1 RO24 SAG7 WYH1 1648 does not copy BDE4

Priest] ⁓)) RO24

Subscription: Herrecke] finis Ro:bt Herricke BDA3  Sr Simon Stewarde BDCO ffinis: Rich: Hiericke of Clare Hall BDM6  Ro: Her: SAG7 Robert Herrick RO24  Rob: Hericke YA19  no subscription BDC5 BDE4 BDR4 BL21 BLE9 NLW1 WYH1 1635

MS 17 Oberon's Palace

Sources collated:

MS: Beinecke Library, Yale, Osborn b 197, pp. 2–5; Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 38, pp. 101–3, 105 ; MS Firth.e.4, pp. 52–7; MS Rawlinson.poet.160, ff. 167r– 168v; British Library Add. MS 22603, ff. 59r–61r; Add. MS 25303, ff. 157r–159r; University of Nottingham Portland Pw v 6, f. 120r.

Print: 1648, pp. 191–4 (sig. N8a–O16).

Transmissional History

The longest MS text of this poem is 135 lines long, 21 lines longer than the print copy, and Herrick also substantially revises lines 38–42 for 1648. There are five witnesses to the 135-line text, all of which are copied from the same source, one 133-line witness copied from a different source, and one incomplete copy, which transcribes only 17 lines. There is no evidence of any revision of the text taking place during MS circulation, although it now seems clear that it circulated independently before being grouped with the 'Oberon's Apparell' and 'Oberon's feast' poems and copied as a sequence covering the fairy king's dressing, dining, and bedding.

Its independent circulation is suggested by the text of the 133-line copy in the Inns of Court miscellany, BL Add. 25303 (BL25), which was compiled in the 1620s (see MS 14), and the fragmentary copy in University of Nottingham, Portland Papers Pw v 6 (UNPP/Clare). BL25 also copies 'King Oberon's Apparell', but some twenty leaves later, and it is using a different source to that used by the witnesses copying the three 'Oberon' poems consecutively. The fragmentary copy is in a composite MS of three table books belonging to and partly in the hand of Gervase Holles 1607–75), a cousin ofpg 368 John Holles, first Earl of Clare.109 MS 17 appears in the final section of the MS alongside the sole extant copy of the 'Essex House masque', commissioned by James Hay, Viscount Doncaster, and performed before King James and the French Ambassador on 8 January 1620/1, extracts from Vaughn's 'Elegie', incomplete texts of three Donne poems, and one of Gervase Holles' own poems. The Oberon poem is copied in what Timothy Raylor calls Scribal Hand 'B', which also appears in the transcription of the masque, and the date of copying may be quite late. Raylor suggests that this particular book was copied in the 1630s or later, something supported by Holles' notes on the death of the Earl of Strafford (d. 1641) on the verso of f. 120, although these could have been added well after the copying of MS 15.110 What exists of the copy shows a high number of agreements with 1648, for example this is the only MS to agree with 1648 in reading 'know' (9).

The five 135-line witnesses, all copied in the 1630s or 1640s from the same parent are Yale Osborn b 197 (Alston/YA19), British Library Add. 22603 (BL22), Bodleian Rawlinson.poet.160 (BDR1), Bodleian Library Ashmole 38 (Burgh/BDA3), and Bodleian MS.Firth.e.4 (Harflete/BDE4). All five have 'sly' (78) and 'reflection' (93) as common errors, but this group also has an additional couplet dropped by BL25. Tobias Alston (YA19) draws a line underneath line 122 and writes a marginal note 'optantur cætera', but obviously managed to locate another copy of the poem. He also writes 'Tapers', 'Bedd', 'Sheets', 'Blanketts', 'Rugge', 'Canopy and Curtans', 'Fringe', and 'Musicke' in the margins of the description of the fairy bedroom. Burgh (BDA3) copies out one section of the poem twice, apparently realizing that he was running out of space on the leaf (p. 103 of the MS) and switching to a fresh sheet and transcribing the passage (83–135) again. This second transcription (on p. 105) is collated here. The copyist of BDE4 apparently received a difficult-to-read, illegible, or damaged copy, as lines and parts of lines in the poem are filled in later in a darker ink, including lines 13–14, 64–6 and 69–71.

Historical Collation

Heading: Kinge Oberons his Pallace] King Oberons Pallace BDA3 BDR1 YA19 1648  Oberon his Pallace by Mr Hearick BDE4  Oberons Pallace BL25  Oberons Pallace by R. H. UNPP

2 high] full BDE4

3 heele goe] hee goes BL25

5 hath] ha's 1648

7 flinges] slinges YA19

pg 369

8 Amonge] Amonst BDE4

9 pettish] hellish BDE4  peltish BDA3 BL25 UNPP YA19 1648

well] we'l 1648

knowne] know UNPP 1648

10 though] (⁓ BDA3

hated] ⁓) BDA3  hatred YA19

11 led] lead UNPP 1648  leads YA19

on] ⁓! BL25 UNPP

12 (Sometime] ^sometimes BDE4  (sometymes BDE4 BDR1 BL25 UNPP 1648

Loue)] ⁓^ BDE4

14 shine] shines BDA3

15 by] with Ω‎

numerous] num'rous 1648

17 many] and man' 1648

UNPP does not copy ll. 19–135.

19 Swellinge] Spungie 1648

spungy] swelling 1648

20 grasse of] finest 1648

21 Soberly] seemely BDR1  Mildly 1648

sparklinge] disparkling 1648

22 breake] breaking BDA3

from] does not copy BDE4

23 the] those 1648

25 his Conuerse] this Conuex Ω‎

26 (Nature]^⁓ BDE4 YA19

and] or BL25

showers)] ⁓^ BDE4 YA19

27 in] to 1648

28 (As⁓^ BDE4 BDR1 BL25 YA19 1648

here] there BDR1

were] was BL25 1648

29 girdle] Coston 1648

30 the eyes of all] All with temptation 1648

strayte] cut from 1648

bewitch.)]⁓^ BDE4 BDR1 YA19 1648

pg 370

31 moues] moue BDA3 BDR1 BL25 YA19 1648

33 lowe] plough BDA3

in pearle] impearle BDE4 BL25 1648

34 and] the YA19  or 1648

36 are] make YA19

37 cense] cause BDA3  om. BDE4

38 some ort of Peare] and every where 1648

39 Apple or Plumme is neately layd] Throughout the Brave Mosaick yard 1648

40 (As] ^⁓ BDE4 YA19

was] were BDA3 BDE4 BL25

payd)] ⁓^ BDE4 BDR1 YA19

Those Picks or Diamonds in the Card: 1648

41 By] To YA19

the] this BDE4

With peeps of Harts, of Club and Spade 1648

42 That] In BDE4  The BDA3 BL25 YA19

Are here most neatly inter-laid 1648

1648 cuts lines 43–60

43 Daffe] deafe BDA3 BDE4

44 chippinge] Chippings BDE4 BL25

46 scraps] scraggs YA19

48 sometimes] sometime YA19

49 there] those BL25  theis BDA3 BDR1 YA19  then BDE4

50 pucker'd] om. BDE4

52 the] does not copy BDE4

53 As] old BDR1

54 cryinge] does not copy BL25

56 higher] greater BDE4

57 shreakes] streaks BL25  shreake BDE4

58 Barley-breakes] Barlybreake BDE4

60 there] thers YA19

62 an] does not copy BDE4

pg 371

63 here about here abouts 1648

and as we guesse] and for to pave 1648

1648 cuts ll. 64–6.

64 seeme] seemes BDR1

65 worke] Workes BDE 4

66 easy] cut from 1648

the] this 1648

68 Serue] Are 1648

here] both YA19  neatly 1648

both] the YA19  here 1648

which] cut from 1648

1648 cuts ll. 69–70.

69 they] ⁓) BDE 4

70 away)] ⁓^ BDE 4

71 Browne] With brownest 1648

ferrets eyes] cut from 1648

the] and ⁓ 1648

73 of] does not copy BDE4

Whit-flawes] ⁓ ⁓; BDE4 BDR1 ⁓ ⁓, BL25 YA19 ⁓ ⁓: 1648

74 Hand] Wise ⁓ 1648

enchasinge here] here enchasing BDE4

75 to] from YA19

from] ( ⁓ 1648 to YA19

our-selues] ⁓) 1648  ouer selues YA19

76 the] these BDA3

78 the] a BDE4

sly] shy BL25 1648

mayden] Virgin 1648

79 and] where 1648

80 the] a BDE4

81 snakes] snake 1648

82 eyes] the ⁓ BDA3

84 punyes] pennyes BL25  Puisneirs BDA3  silver-pence 1648

are] does not copy BDA3 BL25 1648

cut] rusts BL25

85 (choycely] (Richly BDA3 (closely BDE 4 ^ ⁓ BDR1  neatly 1648

hunge)] ⁓^ BDR1 1648

pg 372

86 the] and YA19

87 syluer] silv'rie 1648

Roache] fish 1648

straws] stawes YA19

88 Kitlinges] kitchins YA19

89 here] there BDE4

for] to BL 25 YA19

90 fac't] face BDA3

91 Noe] Nor BDA3 BDE4 BL25  Or 1648

ouer] our YA19

92 Ransackes] ransacke BDE4