Main Text

pg 450General Index

 

aegritudo
mental illness, 406–7
Agrippina the Younger 8–11, 404, 432–3, 434–6
Ahenobarbus, G. Domitius 281
Alexander the Great, 56, 164, 178, 203, 213, 268, 278, 367–71 passim
see also Stoicism, tyrant
ambitiosus 209
amplificatio per ratiocinationem 369
analogy
bee 214, 340–6 passim
ruler : citizens :: father : children 44, 162, 171, 179, 217–18, 278, 285, 306, 317, 363
ruler : citizens :: mind : body 58, 69, 73, 162, 195, 206–8, 213–14, 219, 220, 268, 301, 328, 387
anger see ira
animals
cruelty to 332
as exempla of ira 228–9
Stoic view on 378
see also imagery, animal
animus 303
and anima 206
location within the body 208
arbiter
contrasted with iudex 42, 160–1, 420
hypocrisy of judges 235–6
argumentum ex coniugatis 196
Armisen-Marchetti, M. 58 n. 186, 171, 176, 184, 193, 201, 202, 224, 246, 405
Augustus 61–4, 258–94 passim
and Vedius Pollio 339
compared with Sulla 298
deification 174, 284–5
lack of clementia in youth 37, 82, 290–1
model of clementia 32, 33–4, 37, 376
in the Cinnan conspiracy 59, 258–79 passim, 424–30 passim
in the case of Lepidus 282–3
in the case of Tarius 321–8 passim
whom Nero can surpass 62–4, 174, 260, 262
positive consequences of his clementia 284–7 passim
thwarted assassins of 269–71

 

beneficium 203, 248, 315
blood
drinking of 299
shedding of 171–2, 221, 294
bonitas 172–3, 176–7, 400, 412
Britannicus
displacement and murder of 9–10, 17, 294, 296, 354
Burrus, Sex. Afranius 2–3, 384
Busiris 397

 

Cairns, F. 18, 27 nn. 88–9
Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 41, 251
criticism of Seneca 51
cruelty of 283, 367–8, 371, 375, 376, 386–7
Calvin, John 79, 79 n. 245, 88, 154, 182–3, 190, 196, 201, 204, 208, 226, 227, 245, 266, 268, 280, 285, 301, 305, 315, 317, 323, 355, 356, 357, 369, 373, 378–9, 382, 384, 388, 389, 396, 415
caput 267–8
Cato the Younger (M. Porcius Cato Uticensis) 65–6
Chrysippus 6–7, 22, 65, 67, 228, 333, 393, 417
Cicero, M. Tullius 282
Cinna (Cn. Cornelius Cinna Magnus) 264–5
Cinnan conspiracy 62, 258–94 passim
contrasting accounts of in Seneca and Dio 259–60, 263–4, 425
date of 263–4
in later literature 83–6
ciuilitas 179, 322
ciuis
as emotive term 299, 377
Claudius (Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus) 9–10
and Seneca 2, 5
illegality of reign 168, 285
pg 451infirmity of 206
praise of clementia 159
violent conduct of 171, 202, 326, 363–4, 378, 386–7
clementia
pability to be mimicked 176
and Julius Caesar 34–7, 42–3
and Nero 11, 13, 16, 38, 159–60, 182
and the law 40–2
antitheses of 39, 153, 164, 167, 190, 222, 225, 230, 392–3
arbitrariness of 40, 418
as a uirtus 30–2, 182–3, 184, 243
beneficial to the ruler 294–5, 340–1
beneficial to the state 233
definition of 38–40, 66–8, 392–4
exercise of in triumph 358–60
in military use 34
pre-Senecan usage 33–8
Stoic views on 66–70
Clementia, cult and temple of 36–7, 182
clupeus uirtutis 31–2, 184, 354
Cocceii 280–1
conscientia 156–7, 310
consensus 204–5, 365, 386
consilium
consilium principis 265–6
in deciding legal cases 322–3
contextus 217
contumacia 165
contumelia 285
Cooper-Procopé 6 n. 22, 46 n. 163, 64 n. 204, 72, 89, 166, 171, 178, 180, 190, 193, 248, 252, 275, 288, 296, 318, 330, 334, 337–8, 344, 353, 380, 393, 405, 409, 411, 414
corona ciuica
and clementia 42–4, 381
and the title Pater Patriae 317
on coinage 317, 381–2, 433, 435, 436
correctio (rhetorical device) 166
Corvinus, M. Valerius Messala 282
Crook, J. A. 3 n. 8, 41 n. 145, 44 n. 156, 265, 273, 323
crucifixion 365
crudelitas
antithesis of clementia 35, 37, 39, 62, 72, 190, 257, 291, 367–8
confined to punishment 396–400 passim
consequences of 372–4 passim
contrasted with seueritas 396
cupiditas 178
Curtius, M. 210
De Clementia
date of composition 16–17, 261–2
genre 17–23
and De Ira 70–3, 227
scope 45–7
structure 47–51, 71–2, 191–2, 195–6 see also Préchac, F.
decorum 199, 222, 226, 230, 340
deification 174, 250–2, 284–5
Q. Dellius 281
demonstratio (ἐνέργεια‎) 233
Dentatus, L. Siccius/Sicinus 213
deprecatio 185, 225–6
desire see cupiditas; uoluptas
Dialogi
generic qualities 21–3
didactic strategy 53–7, 219–20, 226, 247, 256, 382
praise strategy 153, 154, 159, 170–9 passim, 225, 244, 293, 294, 389, 394
dignitas 231
Dionysius I of Syracuse 297–8, 309–10
divination 239
dolor 242
dominari 217
Dowling, M. B. 33–8, 58 n. 189, 283, 298

 

ἐπιείκεια‎ 28, 33–8, 67–8
Erasmus 45, 79, 88, 344, 353, 371, 388, 400
error 182, 239
exemplarity 61–2, 154, 174–5, 238, 260, 322, 344, 353

 

Faider, P. 45, 46, 88, 193, 209, 262, 292, 345, 398
Fannius Caepio 271
fatherhood 44, 58–9
disinheritance 315–16
ruler : citizens :: father : children
analogy 44, 162, 171, 179, 217–8, 278, 285, 306, 317
see also Pater Patriae
felicitas 180, 312
and clementia 225
and cupiditas 178
pg 452feritas 39, 72, 311, 367, 375, 397
as pleasure in bloodshed 398
flattery 155, 159, 173, 174, 225, 317, 341, 355, 358, 382, 384, 388
fortuna/Fortuna 162, 182, 185–6, 249, 296, 383
caprice of 405
mala fortuna 224, 351
frugalitas 365
see also temperantia
furor 346
Fürstenspiegel, see Mirror of Princes

 

gods
as models of clementia 232
Golden Age 351, 365, 386
associated with Nero's accession 12–15

 

Hellenistic world 17–19, 26–7, 160, 168, 184, 203, 250–2
humanitas 67–8, 191, 196, 339, 405

 

ignoscere
definition of 279–80
differentiated from clementia 30, 69–70, 414–15, 419–21
pardon not granted by a sapiens 416–18 passim
used as synonym for clementia 188, 272
see also punishment, uenia
imagery 57–61
amputation 319
animal
masses diminished to status of animals 58, 60, 158, 283–4, 307
exempla of ira 228–9
animal handling 284, 331–2, 336–7
arboriculture 422
ascent 179
astronomy 202–3
bees 214, 340–6 passim
bestial (of tyrants) 60, 202, 257, 303, 367–8, 371, 373, 377, 380
bodily care 205
botanical 176
contagion 413–14
farming 256–7
height 226–7, 230, 249
hunting 304
mask 176
medical/surgical 59, 73, 184–5, 188–9, 198, 221, 311, 316, 332–6
metallurgy 305
meteorology 240–1, 407
military 167–8, 201, 281
mirror 1, 54, 73, 154–5, 238
organic 58, 69, 73, 162, 195, 206–8, 213–14, 219, 220, 268, 301, 328, 387
paths of morality 308
visual 156, 181, 182, 312
water 234
wounding 213, 335–6
imagines 277
imperator
ruler in military capacity 213
synonym for ruler in any capacity 222
imperium 328–9
improbitas 179
incolumitas
as a reprieve 358
in the context of clementia 212
informers 376
innocentia 172, 182, 327, 365
able to be re-established 185–7 passim
Inwood, B. 68, 161, 197, 341, 390, 415, 417
iugum 158–9, 216

 

Julia the Elder 286–7
iustitia
separate from clementia 354

 

Kaster, R. A. 266, 315–16, 321, 330, 353, 360, 386
kingship
and the Sun 250–3
as 'an honourable slavery' 68 n. 221, 243, 245–7
assimilated to role of the gods 230–2, 238, 253–4, 351, 382
conferred by divine election 160, 170, 211, 232, 238, 284–5
Cicero on 29–30
contrasted with tyranny 294–314 passim Greek ideas of 25–7
in Seneca's tragedies 73–6
Philodemus on 28–9
relationship with the law 40–2, 168, 226, 230, 361, 383
Stoic views on 64–6, 68–9, 168, 205, 246
'kingship treatise' 17–19, 23, 67, 307–8
pg 453laetitia 162
legal terminology 162, 164, 195, 224–5, 226, 228, 235–6, 243, 272–3, 289, 320, 322, 394–5, 419–21
lenitas
synonym for clementia 3, 35, 39, 326, 383, 393–4
Lepidus, M. Aemilius the younger 271
Lepidus, M. Aemilius the elder 282
liberalitas 35, 321
libertas 158–9, 181, 313, 325, 419
see also securitas
licentia 181, 293
Livia Augusta 258–9, 272, 269–70, 426–30 passim
Lysimachus, 368–9

 

magnanimitas 223–4, 285, 354–5
antonyms 324
magnus animus 226–7, 293, 306, 407
magnitudo 200, 249
maiestas 244, 318
Malaspina, E. 86–7, 89, 91, 153, 155, 157, 158, 160, 170, 171, 176, 180, 186, 187, 192, 193, 196, 198, 205, 209, 212, 217, 220, 221, 223, 227, 228, 243, 246, 247, 248, 250, 252, 254, 257, 260, 261, 262, 272, 273, 281, 285, 288, 289, 292, 296, 299, 307, 309, 310, 317, 319, 323, 326, 328, 331, 333, 337, 338, 345, 347, 349, 350–1, 352, 359, 366, 368, 370, 371, 372, 376, 379, 380, 381, 382, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 395, 400, 405, 407, 408, 411, 415, 417, 419
mancipium 337
see also slavery
mansuetudo
quasi-synonym for clementia 243, 402
Manuwald, G. 80 n. 250, 82 n. 254
the masses
as self-destructive 211
dehumanized/bestialized 158–9, 216, 234, 284
insignificance of 232, 246–7
see also multitudo, populus
materia
opportunity for the exercise of uirtus 222
mehercules 220
merit 42, 407, 411–13 passim
Millar, F. 40–1, 161, 174, 230, 259, 273, 312, 323, 383
mirror see imagery
Mirror of Princes 1, 18 n. 61, 77–9
misericordia 29, 35, 39, 90, 169–70, 393, 400, 402, 406–7, 413–14
mitis 240
moderatio 290, 395
quasi-synonym for clementia 189
modum tenere 190
multitudo
disparaging term for the masses 157, 210
see also populus
Murena, A. Licinius 271
Mus, P. Decius 210

 

nature/ natura/Natura
Stoic divinity 7, 211, 341
Stoic life in accordance with natural law 7–8, 69, 221–2, 338, 340–6 passim
nefas 309
Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 153
accession of 8–16, 432–3, 434–6
anxiety about whether he is teachable 220
as Seneca's addressee 53–7
claims to eschew violence 165
competitiveness of 172
contrasted favourably with
Augustus 61–4, 171–2, 174, 288–92 passim
initial doubts about 177
like a god himself 161, 163
praise of in literature 12–16
tangential descendant of Augustus 280
youthfulness and predictions of longevity for 173–4, 180, 206, 294
see also Augustus; kingship

 

Panaetius 7, 22, 27, 56, 64, 68 n. 221, 166
parcere 418
pardon see ignoscere, uenia
parricidium 278, 320
traditional punishment for 325–6, 363–5
Pater Patriae 44, 61, 278, 284, 285, 306, 314–15, 317, 318, 363, 381
patientia 315–16
Persaeus of Citium 246
pg 454pertinacia 229–30
Phalaris 399
philosophical treatises see Dialogi
pleasure 155
see also feritas
Pollio, G. Asinius 282
Pollio, Vedius 339
populus
the masses as political agent 157, 215
the masses as a quasi foreign enemy 283
potentia 200
potestas of political power 226
Préchac, F. 89, 187, 197, 209, 220, 221, 262, 263, 275, 311, 345, 352, 378, 411
views on structure of De Clementia 45–6, 191–2
princeps 172
Emperor's relationship with the law 40–2
identified with res publica 218–19, 220
modifies 'rex' to denote the good ruler 199, 217
priuatus
opposed to publicus 222, 323
Procrustes 397
proscriptions 263
prosopopoeia 159, 245, 258
punishment 164, 352–3
correlation with crime 363–5
effects of on malefactors 360–2
effects of on the state 362
good ruler's reluctance to inflict 363, 384
leniency linked to clementia 395
promotes resistance when excessive 255, 256, 319–20, 329–32, 337
symbolic punishments as ruler's clementia 357
see also torture
quietism 197–8, 305

 

religio
contrasted with superstitio 402
remedia 316–17
rex
modified by princeps 199, 217
Roman revulsion to the term 18, 205
used negatively in contrast to imperator 239, 240
used positively in contrast to tyrannus 205, 294–5
see also kingship; princeps
Roller, M. B. 42 n. 151, 56 n. 180, 58 n. 186, 59, 61, 246, 314, 376
Rufus, M. Egnatius 271
the ruler
as model of behaviour for the state 387
capability of preserving life 222, 226, 231
conspicuousness of 244–5, 340
contrasted with tyrants 230, 294, 294–5, 297–303 passim, 306–8 passim
ideal ruler like a good father 314–20 passim, 329
like a good doctor 332–6 passim
like a master of slaves 336–40
like a teacher 330–1
like an animal-handler 331–2
moral revival created by 351
mortality of rulers 239
mutual dependency with the people 203–4, 212, 248–9, 306, 314, 318, 335–6, 349–51, 409
necessity of the people's submission to 215
open to entreaty 230
panegyrical disquisitions on the ideal ruler 310–14 passim, 349–52 passim protection of ruler by his citizens 204–6, 210, 248–50, 346
reaction to insult compared with private individuals 242, 254
relationship with the sapiens 201, 255–6, 402, 404, 419–20, 421–2
rumor 247

 

saeuitia 39, 222, 230, 332, 339, 367
denotes rage typical of tyrants 256
pleasure taken in 371–2, 398
G. Sallustius Crispus 280
Q. Saluidienus Rufus 271
salutaris 200, 203, 347
salutatores 281
sapiens
austerity of 407
beneficiaries of 411–12
contrasted with the imperitus 396
controls facial expressions 410
pg 455like a farmer 256–7
like a god 157, 160, 413
relationship with the good ruler 198, 201, 255–6, 402, 404, 419–20, 421–2
Stoic concept of 65, 155, 237–8, 393
Scaeuola, G. Mucius 209
Scipio Aemilianus 7, 27, 56, 68 n. 221
securitas 180, 255, 305–6, 346–8, 361
unattainable from vengeance 355–6
self-control see temperantia
self-examination (recognitio) 267
self-vindication 265
Seneca, L. Annaeus
brand of Stoicism 7–8, 68–70, 196, 197–8, 333, 335, 395, 401, 406, 417
influence on Nero 2–3, 53–7, 159
life and works 2–6
praise of Nero 2–4, 53–6, 155, 173, 225, 341, 355, 358, 382, 388
style 22, 51–3, 153, 191–2
see also flattery; Stoicism
Setaioli, A. 169, 207, 227, 310, 330, 343, 344, 353
seueritas 167, 189
contrasted with crudelitas 396
slavery 164, 193, 207–8, 336–7, 374
see also mancipium
solacium 355
solitudo ac uastitas 233, 235
sors 161
spiritus 211, 213
stability 200–1
Stacey, P. 54, 79, 154, 176
Stevenson, T. R. 44 nn. 157–8, 59, 314, 317
Stoicism
agreements with Epicureanism 196, 197–8
and Alexander the Great 367–8
apatheia 407, 409
clementia in 395
cosmopolitanism 384
definitions in 393
doctrine of natural inclination (ὁρμή‎) 389–90
equal status of all virtues and vices in 183, 223, 335, 396, 401
fortune 186, 405
life in accord with nature in 221–2
limit for odia in 303
kingship in 64–6, 68–9, 168, 205, 246
magnanimitas in 223
man as a 'political animal' 197
medical analogy in 185
mental disorders in 333
mockery of 403–4
nature/Natura 211, 221–2, 341, 344
on animals 378
pleasure 155, 178
predetermination 161
Seneca's heterodoxy 197–8, 333, 335, 395, 401, 406, 417
slavery 336–7
syllogism 340, 407, 417
tranquillitas (εὐθυμία‎) in 227
unity of humankind in (οἰκείωσις‎) 166–7, 197
views on women 403
withdrawal from public life in 66, 197–8, 305
Sulla, L. Cornelius, 164, 298–300, 309, 367, 379–80
Syme, R. 36, 172, 183, 261, 263, 271, 276, 280–1, 287, 339

 

L. Tarius Rufus 320
temeritas 164–5
temperamentum 190–1
temperantia 32, 244, 292, 303, 354, 393–4
see also frugalitas
theatres 234–5
Thrasea Paetus 198, 420
torture 165, 209, 277, 307, 330, 369
see also punishment
Trajan (M. Ulpius Nerva Traianus) 20, 38, 41, 54, 68 n. 221, 168, 172–3, 174, 179, 204, 312, 313, 347, 349, 363, 376, 412
cognomen 'Optimus' 318, 352
tranquillitas
equivalent to Stoic εθυμα‎ 227
Tricho 319–20
triumph
and clementia to defeated enemies 358–9
turbidus 241
tyrant
contrasted with the good ruler 44, 230, 294, 294–5, 297–303 passim, 307–8
fearfulness of 307–8, 309, 373
like a wild beast 60, 202, 257, 303, 367–8, 371, 373, 377, 380
Stoic attitude towards 64–5, 205
topic for declamation 374
violence of regime of 200, 256, 307, 371
uenia 236, 413
see also ignoscere
uilitas sui 205
uinculum
ruler as 213
uirtus, uirtutes 30–2, 304–5
equality of uirtutes in Stoicism 183–4, 223 396, 401
its own reward 156
possible confusion with uitium 194
render what is due 395
social egalitarianism of the virtues 224
uitium 194, 401
uituperatio 367
unitas 217
uolgo 189
uoluntas Stoic doctrine 307
uoluptas 155, 197, 375
uota publica 177
universalism 201–2
utilitas 197

 

vengeance 242
for one's own sake 355–6
on behalf of others 360–1

 

Wallace-Hadrill, A. 31 n. 101, 36 nn. 117 & 119, 162, 179, 180, 184, 201, 230, 312, 317, 322, 355
Weinstock, S. 33, 36, 43, 203, 216, 250–2, 317, 380, 381
Wiseman, T. P. 13–14, 163, 171, 172, 278
women
as exempla uirtutis 269–70
lack of self-control 228, 403

 

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