Main Text

pg 389General Index

See also the Synopses and Biographical Notes not included here. Persons marked with an * are also listed in the Biographical Notes, where the references to them in De beneficiis are given. Authors other than Cicero and Seneca are given under their commonly used names. [Anonymous references are given in square brackets.]

 

Academic philosophy, 46, 135–6, 199
accessio, 53, 152, 233, 234
Aebutius Liberalis, Seneca's addressee, 46, 60, [75], [92n.], 93, 96, 97, 142, 253, 299; his name, 96–7, 142, 263; portrayal in De beneficiis, [132], 142–5, 148, 157, [177], 197, 262–3, 264, 273, 288, 291, 292, 293, 297, 303, 305, [314], 324; possibly a centurion later, 98.
Aemilius Lepidus, Marcus, the triumvir, 193
*Aemilius Scaurus, Mamercus (cos. AD 21), 252–3
*Aemilius Scaurus, Marcus (cos. 115 BC), 253
*Aeneas, 122, 227, 311, 314, 338
Aetna, hexameter poem, 227
Afranius Burrus, Sextus, 12n., 85, 93
Agrippa, see Vipsanius
Agrippina the Elder, 252
Agrippina the Younger, 12, 93, 94
*Alexander III the Great, 83, 85, 96, 185, 193, 194–5, 250, 265, 266, 267–8, 307, 322, 323, 324, 328, 330
Altruism, 37, 45, 46, 246
amici, 13, 33, 34, 35, 38, 52, 56, 59, 61, 66–7, 68, 69, 73, 133, 216, 298, 304, 310, 323–4, 330, 331; imperial 14, 67, 73, 82, 85, 309
amicitia, see Friendship
Amphinomos, 227, [311]
Anapias, 227, [311]
Anaxagoras, 268, 340
Anchises, 227, 293
animals, 40n., 198, 203, 220, 222, 235, 241, 244, 293, 294, 302
Annaeus Cornutus, Stoic philosopher, 101, 103
Annaeus Mela, Seneca's younger brother, 13
Annaeus Seneca, Lucius, the Elder, 36, [135n.], 136–7, 166, 193, 199, 210, 218, 306
*Annaeus Seneca, Lucius
as adviser to the Princeps, 12, 13, 14, 81–7, 192, 267, 309
bathing, 294
career, 12, 93, 216, 251
consulship, 12
correspondence with St. Paul, 165, 167
death, 158n.
dialogi 1n., 93, 112, 143n., 145
extant prose works, 1, 95–6, and see under titles
generosity, 13, 164
knowledge of Cicero's works, 7
landed properties, 13, 93
attitude to logic, 133–5, 143–4, 180, 226, 262–3, 273, 292, 320, 326
lost works: Quomodo amicitia continenda sit, 38; De matrimonio, 236–7; Libri Moralis Philosophiae, 2, 3, 93n., 94, 134n, 147–8, 161, 326; De officiis, 2, 21, 107, 166
mistakes, 227, 251
name, 237
origin, 12, 251
relegation 12, 247
Stoicism of, 9, 24, 123, 131, 203, 210, 232, 238, 247
tragedies, 47, 85, 94, 166, 319, 321
wealth, 12, 13, 73, 92–3, 94, 95, 202
will, 13–14, 73
Annaeus Serenus, 11n., 97, 142, 146, 204
*Antigonus Monopthalmos, 83, 227
Antiochus of Ascalon, 199
Antiochus, king of Syria, 225
Antistius Labeo, jurist, 220, 281, 334
Antonius, Iullus (cos. 10BC), 308
*Antonius, Marcus, 193, 276, 278, 289, 290
Antonius Musa, 294
Antonius Pallas, Marcus, imperial freedman, 202
Apocolocyntosis, 93, 253, 299
Apollo, 278, 284, 308
*Apollodorus, tyrant of Cassandrea, 336
Archedemos, 137n.
*Archelaus, king of Macedonia, 83, 266, 267, 268
pg 390*Aristippus of Cyrene, 338
Aristo of Chios, 35n., 125, 126n., 235
Aristotle, 8, 15, 21, 23n., 25, 26, 30, 31, 34n., 36, 38, 45n., 73, 178, 195, 198, 204, 209, 220, 225, 235, 241, 242, 272, 282–3, 311, 322; the '.mean', 181
Categories, 140n.
Eudemian Ethics, 18
Nicomachean Ethics, 18, 40, 101, 102, 121, 191, 224
Politics, 8, 21n.
Rhetoric 17, 102;
Topica, 135, 136n.
Arius Didymus, 101n., 127
Arrianus Maturus, Marius, 66n.
Artabanus, Xerxes' uncle, 306
Asia, 81, 279, 307
Asinius Gallus, Gaius (cos. 8 BC), 329
Athens/Athenians, 42n., 76, 102, 200, 211, 214, 241, [269], 312, 313, 325, 333
Atilius Crescens, 67
*Atilius Regulus, Marcus (cos. 267 BC), 266
Atticus, see Pomponius
Augustine, 165, 244
*Augustus, Emperor, 58, 59n., 62, 63, 67, 68n., 72n., 73–4, 76n., 82, 83, 85, 86, 95, 185, 192, 193, 199, 201, 212, 221, 222, 223, 236, 251, 252, 253, 289, 290, 304, 307–9, 329, 333; marriage legislation, 225, 241, 308–9; nomenclature, 225; Res gestae, 75

 

Barea Soranus, Q. Marcius (cos. suff. AD 52), 320, 346
beneficarii, 109
De beneficiis
scholarship on, 3–4, 8, 111–13
length, 21n.
Letter 81 as an Appendix, 158–61
pedagogic strategy, 47, 60–1, 92, 95, 109, 112–13, Ch. 7 passim, 151, 177, 337
publication date of, 13, 91–4, 98, 149, 225, 321, 331
sources, 3, 15n.1, 19, 23, 24–5, 196
structure, 1, 4, Ch. 6 passim, 176, 183, 190, 231, 258, 282, 319
textual transmission, 1, 4, 166–7, 171
title, 4, Ch.5 passim
Beneficence
communal benefits, 61, 70, 74–6, 149–50, 185, 186, 195, 250, 298–9, 302
discrimination in, 18, 19, 27, 51, 62–5, 76, 81, 82, 83, 86n., 94, 115, 119, 152, 176, 177–8, 182–3, 185–6, 190, 192, 202, 235, 238, 239, 248, 250, 257, 264, 334, 338
imperial, 61–6, 70–4, 82, 108, 165, 185–6, 195, 266, 299
language used, 47, 54, 67, 68, 69, 74, 191, 201
vs. largitio, 22n., 178
as philosophical topic, 2, 8, Ch. 2 passim, 30, 44, 52, 53, 74, 78, 197
in Seneca's other works, 2–3, 95–6, Ch. 8 passim
social function, 3, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 41, 43–5, 46, 52, 54, 59, 74, 154, 161, 193, 195, 214, 243, 244, 272, 332, 334, 338–9, 340
see also Friendship, creation of
Beneficium
as correlative of gratia, 104
definition, 19, 106, 109–10, 115, 122, 138, 171–2, 176, 181, 197, 210, 213, 233, 250, 266, 281, 288, 334
denoting both sides of exchange, 37n., 105
vs. ministerium, 27, 38n., 217, 218, 220
vs. officium 22, 23, 27, 28, 36–7, 105, 106n., 218, 220, 241
image of sowing, 45, 119, 123, 155, 176, 193, 238
translation, 2n., 171–2
*Bion, 328
Boccaccio, 166n.
De brevitate vitae, 93, 118n., 145, 165
Britannicus, Claudius' son, 13n., 92
Brutus, see Junius
Buying/selling, 40, 42, 78, 327

 

Caecilius Africanus, Sextus, jurist, 333
Caecilius Metellus Pius, Q. (cos. 80 BC), 34n. Calestrius Tiro, 66
Caligula, see Gaius Caesar
*Callistratus, 311, 312
Calpurnius Piso, Gaius (cos. suff.), 69–70; Laus Pisonis, 69–70; Pisonian conspiracy, 13, 92, 337
Calpurnius Piso, Gnaeus (cos. 7 BC), 69
Campania, 13n., 93, 278, 325
*Caninius Rebilus, Marcus (cos. suff. AD 37), 91, 93n., 200
Carthaginians, 266
Cassius Dio, historian, 12, 164n., 193
Cassius Longinus, Gaius, 278
Cassius Severus, 211
Casuistry, 47, 120–2, 137, 211, 320
Catiline, see Sergius
Cato, see Porcius
charis, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20n., 21, 22, 23, 45n., 99–104, 105n., 107, 130, 179, 196, 209; and euergesia, 15–16, 37n., 102, 107
pg 391Charites, cult of, 45n., 76, 101–2, 103; see also Graces
Charmis of Marseilles, 294
Children, 24, 27, 35, 37, 43, 51, 108, 116, 122–3, 128n., 195, 196, 211, 214, 217, 218, 223–4, 225, 242, 245, 267, 281, 282, 284, 290, 302, 311, 325, 326
Christian, 47, 92, 121, 234, 165, 167, 235
*Chrysippus, 15, 19–20, 24, 76, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 107, 226, 236, 237, 240, 247, 327, 336; allegory of the Graces, see under Graces; image of ball-game, 18n., 24, 29, 44, 109, 196, 204, 332, 335; image of racing, 201–2; image of the theatre, 331
Cicero, see Tullius Cicero, Marcus
Cinna, see Cornelius
citizenship, grants of, 33n., 61, 70, 185, 186, 213, 221, 298–9; marriage and 255
civilitas, 65–6, 68–70, 74, 192
Claudia, sister of Publius Claudius Pulcher (cos. 249 BC), 313
Claudia Marcella, Augustus' niece, 309
*Claudius, the Emperor, 11n., 12, 58, 62, 63, 81, 86, 91, 164n., 185, 186, 192, 202, 203, 252, 253, 299, 327, 334
Claudius Drusus, Nero, brother of Emperor Tiberius, 252, 253
Claudius Marcellus, declaimer, 306
Claudius Marcellus, Marcus, Augustus' nephew, 85
Claudius Nero, Gaius (cos. 207 BC) 253–4
Claudius Nero, Tiberius, father of the Emperor Tiberius, 252, 253
*Cleanthes, 20, 27, 40n., 99, 126n., 204, 233, 245, 247, 296, 297, 336
De clementia, 2, 3, 7n., 9, 10, 25, 60, 84, 96,143n., 151, 153–4, 164, 198, 199, 212, 216, 250, 277, 304; date, 93; structure, 113, 122n., 131–2, 146; textual transmission, 1, 166–7
Cleomenes, king of Sparta, 306
Cleopatra, 278
cliens, 32, 33–4, 35, 37, 55, 66, 68, 69, 71, 193, 201, 265, 308, 310, 331, 333, 339
Clodius Pulcher, Publius, 279
Comum, 51, 75
congiarium, 61, 75, 76, 195, 250
Consolationes, 7, 93, 144–5; ad Helviam matrem, 118n., 144–5; ad Marciam, 144, 253, 279, 339, ad Polybium, 11n., 145
De constantia sapientis, 146, 204, 205, 255
Consul/consulship, 79, 104, 203, 216, 222, 225, 251, 252–3, 339
Corellius Rufus, Q. (cos. suff. AD 78), 66
Corfinium, 222
Coriolanus, see Marcius
*Cornelius Cinna, Gnaeus (cos. AD 5), 199, 251
Cornelius Cinna, Lucius (cos. suff. 32 BC), 199, 251
*Cornelius Lentulus Gnaeus (cos. 14 BC), 'the augur', 83, 86, 202
Cornelius Nepos, 48
Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, Publius, 38n., 46n., 62
*Cornelius Scipio Africanus Maior, Publius, 225, 279, 311
Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, Lucius, 225
*Cornelius Sulla, Lucius, 240, 276, 277, 278, 312
Cornutus, see Annaeus
Crispus Passienus, see Sallustius
Curio, see Scribonius
*Curius Dentatus, Manius, 328
Cynicism/Cynics, 84, 194–6, 203, 267, 320, 321–322, 329, 330
Cyrenaics, 134, 338
*Cyrus, 220

 

Darius I, king of Persia, 306
Debt/loan, 39–40, 41, 42, 43, 56n., 157n., 177, 181, 192, 196, 197, 201, 202, 216, 238, 239, 240, 253, 270, 283, 290, 291, 299–300, 304–5, 313–4, 327, 335, 336; and the law, 212, 213, 216, 219, 239, 240, 257, 290, 291, 299–300, 332–4, 335
*Decius Mus, Publius, 249, 311
Declamation, 136–7, 211, 224, 278, 279, 306, 307, 323, 332–3
*Demades, 312–13
*Demaratus, king of Sparta, 305, 306, 307
Demetrius of Phalerum, 20, 99
Demetrius Poliorcetes, 227
*Demetrius the Cynic, 140, 141, 142, 153, 195, 320–22, 328, 329, 330
*Democritus, 198, 321
Dido, 280, 338
Dio Chrysostom, 51
*Diogenes the Cynic, 47, 195, 266, 267, 268, 328, 330
Dionysius, Stoic philosopher, 20, 99
Dionysus, 237, 323
Doctors, 37, 50n., 141n., 154, 186, 294; fees, 57, 58, 226, 297–8, 311, 313; Seneca on, 37, 226, 311
domine, 70
Domitian, the Emperor, 53n., 67, 81, 284
*Domitius Ahenobarbus, Lucius (cos. 54BC), 222
Domitius Corbulo, Gnaeus (cos. suff. AD?39), 72
pg 392Domitius Marsianus, 64n.
Ducenius Geminus, A. (cos. AD 61 or 62), 98

 

Ennius, 48, 249
Epictetus, 20, 26n., 53, 61, 79, 80, 81, 127n., 185, 191, 255, 331
Epicureanism 26, 96n., 100n., 119, 134, 146, 148, 152, 203, 204, 210, 231, 232–5, 240, 241, 242–7, 340
*Epicurus, 20, 26n., 36, 50, 99, 122, 131n., 146, 179, 233, 238, 241, 242, 320, 339 Epistulae Morales, 2, 3, 7, 13n., 48n., 50, 85, 93, 94, 95, 96, 104n., 133, 155, 233; dramatic date of, 13n., 92, 93, 97, 149, 158n., 161, 164; pedagogic strategy, 122, 131–2, 146–8, 288; on logic, 133
Epimetheus, 244
Eprius Marcellus, T. Clodius (cos. suff. II AD 74), 73
Equites, 11, 50, 75n., 97, 213, 279, 331
Erasmus, 111, 113n., 133–4, 166, 241
Eudorus, Academic philosopher, 2n., 20, 23, 126, 127, 130n., 141n.
Euergetism, 10, 51n., 60, 61, 65, 75–6, 185
Eurylochus of Larissa, 269
*Eurynome, 103

 

*Fabii, 252, 266
*Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, Quintus (cos. 121 BC), 252, 295
*Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Quintus, 191, 252
*Fabius Persicus, Paullus (cos. AD 34), 91n., 200, 251–2

 

Fabricius Veiento, A. Didius Gallus (cos. suff. III AD?83), 62, 79
Favorinus of Arles, 333
fictive interlocutor, 60, 112n., 113n., 123, 144n., 210, 215, 224, 253, 280, 281, 282, 324, 335
fides (good faith), 40, 56, 310, 331, 332, 335
Fire of July AD 64, 13, 92, 93, 95, 97, 225, 299
fiscus (imperial treasury), 257, 327
Flamininus, see Quinctius
Flavius Archippus, 81
Formula vitae honestae, see Martin, Bishop of Braga
Freedmen, 33, 48n., 50n, 55, 59n., 67, 68, 69, 202, 210, 211, 216, 243, 271, 282; imperial, 11n., 12, 33, 55, 79, 81, 86, 202, 211; Junian Latinity, 211
Friends, see amici
Friendship (amicitia, philia), 17–18, 19n., 21, 23n., 27, 28, 30, 31, 34–5, 37–9, 40, 52, 55–8, 64, 66–8, 69–70, 73, 79, 85, 108, 119, 121, 147, 197, 244, 246, 290, 304, 305, 310, 311, 323, 331; creation of, 17–18, 28, 36, 54n., 79, 83, 117, 191, 196, 197, 201, 240, 241, 296, 310, 314, 336, 337; improper demands, 76–7, 194.
Fronto, 19n., 67–8, 70, 81, 84n., 164, 305
*Furius Camillus, Marcus, 278–9
*Furnius, Gaius (cos. 17 BC), 72n., 201

 

*Gaius Caesar, Emperor, 66, 76n., 81, 111n., 164n., 190, 193, 200, 201, 222, 252, 253, 328, 330
Galen, 295
gaudium (joy), 106, 133n., 152, 153, 210, 241, 242, 322
Gaul/s, 199, 252, 277, 278, 298–9, 300, 302
Gavius Clarus, 67
Gellius, Aulus, 28n., 40n., 164, 198, 333
Germanicus, see Julius
Gift-exchange, 1, 40–5, 55–7, 65, 74, 101n.
glory, 10, 28, 46, 51, 53, 64n., 86, 110, 134n., 152, 204, 231, 239, 251, 254, 264, 312, 313, 323
god (s), 26, 27, 100n., 101, 120, 133, 150–1, 184, 185, 190, 202, 203, 234, 236, 244–5, 252, 253, 264, 280, 300, 301, 302, 304, 321, 323, 326, 328, 333, 340; as exemplars 25, 119, 123, 151, 152, 154, 176, 177, 191, 232, 234, 235, 248, 338, 340; sacrilege, 275, 294, 328, 340
Gracchus, see Sempronius
Graces (Gratiae, Charites), Chrysippus' allegory of, 29, 99n., 100–101, 103, 104, 114, 115, 178–80, 191, 201, 237, 262
Graecinus, see Julius
Greece, 30n., 72, 305–6
Greeks, 193, 214, 225, 237, 268, 299, 306
Grumentum, 166, 221

 

Hadrian, Emperor, 69n., 223, 274
Hannibal, 225, 252, 254, 279, 311
Hasdrubal, 254
Heavenly bodies (sun, moon, stars, planets), 149, 154, 236, 246, 247, 294, 297, 298, 300, 301, 340; solar eclipse, 268
*Hecato, 3, 15, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 28n., 112, 117n., 121, 179, 195, 196, 200, 218, 272, 309, 312
Hegel, 8
Helvia, Seneca's mother, 93, 144–5
*Hercules, 185, 323
Hermagoras, rhetorician, 135, 137n. Herodotus, 306, 307
*Hesiod, 180, 284
pg 393Hiring/leasing/renting, 42, 56n., 57, 211, 220, 290, 326–7
*Homer, 30n., 100, 180, 284
Horace, 33, 34, 45n., 67, 73, 201, 245

 

indulgentia, 68–9
Ingratitude, 16, 25, 42, 49, 54n., 55, 59, 83, 86–7, 91, 100, 105, 107, 115, 116, 118, 119, 122, 123, 130, 136–7, 139, 143, 149–50, 151, 154, 155, 158, 176, 177, 184, 190, 198, 199, 209–10, 243, 244, 248–58, 262, 264, 272–4, 276, 284, 303, 311, 332, 337, 338–40; and the law, 156, 210–16
Inheritance, see Wills
Interlocutor, see fictive interlocutor
De ira, 2, 21n., 25, 62, 93, 96, 113, 151, 153–4, 166, 191, 203, 212, 222, 243, 246, 264, 274, 276, 277, 307, 336, 337, 339; structure, 113

 

Jason of Pherae, 195
Jerome, 165
*Julia, daughter of Augustus, 308–9
Julia, granddaughter of Augustus, 308
*Julius Caesar, Gaius, the Dictator, 9, 10, 14, 33n., 71, 83, 193, 212, 225, 276, 277, 278, 283, 337; his Bellum Civile, 109; his clemency, 198–9, 278, 304.
*Julius Caesar Germanicus, 68n., 193, 252, 253
*Julius Graecinus, Lucius, 54n., 62, 200
Julia Livilla, sister of Caligula, 12
Julius Naso, 66n
Julius Ursus Servianus (cos. III AD 134), 109n.
Junius Avitus, 67
*Junius Brutus, Marcus, 59n., 83, 128n., 132, 198–9, 218, 278
Junius Gallio, Lucius, declaimer, 36, 218
Junius Gallio Annaeanus, Lucius, Seneca's elder brother, 12 n., 218
*Jupiter, 236–7, 247, 328
Justinian, 55, 211
Juvenal, 13, 81, 164, 211, 340

 

kathēkon/kathēkonta, 15, 20, 22, 23, 28n., 49n., 100n., 122n., 125, 127, 130n., 141n., 181, 196, 242, 335; kata peristasin/officium ex tempore, 140n., 248, 251, 255
katorthōmata, 20, 23, 127, 130n., 133, 181, 196, 197, 242, 249, 331, 335
king (rex), 10, 34, 61, 250, 253, 266, 304, 326, 327

 

Lactantius, 165
largitio 22n.
Law, 321;
in declamation, 210–11
enforcement by, 41, 42, 55–7, 59, 78, 153–4, 156, 157, 191, 197, 203, 205, 209, 210–16, 220, 243, 282–3, 292, 332–4
'law of life' (lex vitae), 3, 25, 115, 176, 179, 180
lawyers' fees, 57, 58, 213; see also Lex Cincia
natural law, 9, 26, 223, 240, 281, 306
Roman law, 200, 280, 295. 324, 325, 334; arbiter, 212, 292; terminology, 141n., 156n., 159n., 191, 201, 203, 213, 239, 242, 255, 256, 278, 304–5, 322, 324, 325, 327, 335, 338; exceptio, 255, 258, 291; formula, 141n., 159n., 205, 212, 213, 214, 255, 291 judge (iudex), 158–61, 212–13, 292, 295; jurists/jurisconsults, 108–9, 144, 184, 184, 191, 197, 281, 292, 333; Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis, 274–5; political crimes, 11, 222, 283–4, 308; procedure, 42, 56, 157, 212, 213, 215–16, 222, 240, 257–8, 283, 289, 290, 291, 292, 308, 327–8; XII Tables, 278, 333
Letters to Lucilius, see Epistulae Morales
Lex Cincia, 58, 77, 213, 280
*Liber (Pater), 308
liberalia studia;, 225–6, 298, 302
Licinius Crassus, M. (cos. 70 BC), 277–8
Lipsius, Justus, 3, 71n., 91n., 11, 116, 177, 178, 197, 218, 221, 241, 252, 253, 254, 264, 268, 270, 275, 278, 279, 283, 288, 299, 302, 313, 328, 329
Livia (Julia Augusta), wife of Emperor Augustus, 69, 72, 253
*Livius Drusus, Marcus the younger, tribune of the plebs, 310
Lucan, 13, 222, 276
Lucilius Iunior, 11n., 92, 97; portrayal in the Epistulae morales, 60, 91, 92, [122], 131, 146–8, 155, 197, [288], 292; his poetry, 227; portrayal in the Natural Questions, 143n., 145
Lucilius Longus (cos. suff. AD 7), 283
Lucretius, 26, 100n., 203
Lugdunum, 75, 93, 95, 145; the fire, 97, 98, 299
Lycurgus of Sparta, 265

 

Macrobius, 166
*Maecenas, Gaius, 82, 85, [86], 309
maiores, 59
*Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus, Lucius, (dict. 363 BC) 227
Manlius Torquatus Imperiosus, Titus, 227
pg 394Marcia, daughter of Cremutius Cordus, 93, 144
*Marcius Coriolanus, Gnaeus, 276, 277
Marcus Aurelius, 26n., 64n., 70, 81, 84n., 102n., 164n., 185, 255, 265, 267, 290, 305, 322, 339
*Marius, Gaius, 276, 277, 312
*Marius Nepos, Quintus, 192
Market exchange, 38n., 40, 41, 42
*Marsyas, 308
Martial, 13, 38n., 39n., 45n., 49, 81, 164, 165, 265, 289
Martin, Bishop of Braga, 21, 166, 181
Megalopsuchia/megalopsuchos, 18, 19n, 30, 34, 46n.
*Mercury, 180, 237
Military service, 295
Minicius Fundanus, Gaius (cos. suff. AD 107), 69
'Mirror of Princes' tradition, 1, 167–8
Mithridates, king of Pontus, 232
Moral philosophy, subdivisions, 2, 9, 20, 23, 125–8, 130n., 141n., 154, 183
*Mucius Scaevola, Gaius, 249, 333
Mucius Scaevola, Quintus (cos. 95 BC), 279, 295
Musonius Rufus, Gaius, 36, 130n.

 

Narcissus, imperial freedman, 202
Naturales Quaestiones, 2, 93, 94, 112n., 151, 302, 306, 321; addressee, 143n., 145
Nero, the Emperor, 9, 12, 13, 14, 33, 55, 62, 63, 70, 72, 73, 79, 82–7, 93, 94, 95, 131, 146, 158n., 165, 202, 222, 225, 263, 294, 299, 309, 321, 327, 329, 330, 331, 337
Nerva, Emperor, 53n., 69, 72, 109n., 299, 328
nobilitas, 251
nomenclator, 180, 310
Nympidius Lupus, 66n.

 

Octavia, Nero's wife, 93; the tragedy Octavia, 93n., 164
Octavian, see Augustus
*Octavius, Gaius, 225
Ofonius Tigellinus, Praetorian prefect, 93n.
oikeiōsis, 26, 27, 120, 243, 269, 271
*Onesicritus, 323
De otio, 84, 85, 146
*Ovid, 276, 338

 

Pallas, see Antonius
Panaetius, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 26n., 28n., 100n., 121, 122, 181, 194, 204, 247, 249, 263, 265
Parents, 24, 26, 27, 35, 36n., 37, 43, 68–9, 108, 116, 128n., 132, 139, 158n., 196, 197, 199, 203, 211, 214, 216, 217, 218, 223–4, 226, 227, 242, 243, 245, 267, 280, 281, 300, 302, 303, 311, 326, 331
parricidium, 198, 221, 277
patria potestas, 42n., 200, 214, 217–18, 223, 224–5, 227, 249, 290, 302, 308, 326
Patronage, 31, 32–7, 38n., 41, 55, 59, 63–5, 75n.; defined, 32;'second-order' (brokerage), 78–81, 82
patronus, 32, 33, 34, 270
Paul, jurist, 57, 58, 282
Pericles, 268
Peripatetics, 9, 15, 23n., 46, 101n., 102, 136, 140n., 179, 180, 209, 274
Persia/Persians, 185, 193, 211, 305–7, 323
Persius, 339
persona (role), 194–5, 265
Pertinax, Emperor, 98
Petrarch, 166
Petronius, 164
*Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, 96, 121n., 336
*Phidias, Athenian sculptor, 106n.
philia, see Friendship
*Philip II, king of Macedonia, 136, 211, 256–7
Philo of Larissa, 130n., 135, 137, 141n.
Philodemus, 15n., 20, 99, 100n., 103
Philosophers, 50n., 52–3, 57, 149–50, 328, 330
Philosophy, 2, 60, 96, 149, 225, 243; branches of, 2, 9, 125n., 126, 134, 147, 183, 195, 231, 321, 322; political, 8–9, 16, 167; written in Latin, 1, 26n., 99, 103–4, 107, 112, 127
Phylarchus, historian, 307
Pirates, 59, 83, 106, 295
Pisonian conspiracy, 13n.
Plancina, wife of Cn. Calpurnius Piso, 69, 72
*Plato, 8, 9, 16, 26, 154, 178, 181, 198, 219, 234, 236, 239, 242, 244, 248, 254, 265, 267, 268, 296, 298, 334, 338
Plautus, 103, 104
Pliny the Elder, 198, 203, 226, 244, 328, 329
Pliny the Younger, 10, 34, 36, 49–53, 57, 58, 60, 64–5, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 78, 79, 264, 329; letters of recommendation, 50–1, 64–5, 69, 71, 78–80; letters of Book X, 50, 68, 69, 70, 72, 108, 201; Panegyricus, 64, 70, 75, 299, 327
Plutarch, 19, 51, 102, 185, 198, 199, 214, 265, 268, 272, 273, 274, 307
Polybius, historian 9, 26, 46n., 62, 266
Polybius, imperial freedman, 11n., 93, 145
*Pompeius Magnus, Gnaeus, 11, 198, 251, 277, 278, 295
pg 395Pompeius Paulinus, 11n., 97, 145
*Pompeius Pennus, 193
Pompeius Strabo, Gnaeus, 222
Pompilio, Paolo, 166n.
Pomponius Atticus, Titus, 33n.,48
Popular morality, 44, 46n., 48, 109, 129n., 181, 265, 337
*Porcius Cato, Marcus, the elder (cos. 196 BC), 76–7, 226, 270
*Porcius Cato, Marcus, the younger, 47, 136, 159, 198, 199, 278, 279
*Porsenna, Lars, 278, 333
Posidonius, 26n., 100n., 127, 226, 237
Precepts/praecepta, 35n., 48, 51, 121, 122, 125–133, 142, 145, 147, 151, 183, 192–3, 248, 281, 282, 320; linguistic features vs. decreta, 128–130; relation to decreta, 132–3, 140, 320
Pythagoras/Pythagorean, 248, 337
Priesthoods, 64, 251–2, 339–40
Principate: ideology, 10–11, 31
Proculeius, friend of Emperor Augustus, 279 procurator, 11n., 62n. 64n., 69n. 227, 290, 293, 328
Providence, 1, 25, 26, 27, 43, 44, 101, 120, 122, 150–1, 161, 231, 233, 234, 235–8, 243, 244, 246, 252, 269, 300, 301, 303, 321, 328, 340
De providentia, 96, 151, 165, 301, 339
Ptolemy XIV of Egypt, 278
Publilius Syrus, 48, 109, 191
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, 328

 

quaestiones infinitae, 118, 135–142, 155n, 231–2, 264, 319, 333; vs. quaestiones finitae, 135–6, 254, 280, 281; subdivisions, 137, 231–2, 248, 262, 269, 280, 288, 323–4, 331–2
Quinctilius Varus, Publius (cos. 13 BC), 309
Quinctius Flamininus, Titus cos. 193 BC), 102
Quintilian, 1n., 53n., 58n., 112, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 226, 251

 

*Rabirius, Gaius, 289
Renting/leasing, 42, 56
rex, see king
Roman governing class (elite, aristocracy), 9, 10–11, 46, 56–7, 202
etiquette, 35, 38n., 46, 52, 54, 65, 66–70, 71, 73, 74
relations with the Princeps, 31, 35n., 50n., 54, 59n., 61, 62–5, 67, 70–74, 76, 79, 82–7, 108, 168
social code, 10–11, 31, 35, 48–50, 53, 54, 61, 67, 71–2, 74, 75, 109, 168
Roman Republic, 11, 14, 39n., 49, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 67, 68, 73, 75, 108, 135, 195, 199, 212, 214, 219, 222, 223, 225, 276, 278, 295, 308, 310, 328; exempla from, 59, 266, 328; exile under, 279
Romulus, 236
*Rutilius Rufus, Publius, 220, 279, 311, 312

 

Sallust, historian, 232
*Sallustius Crispus Passienus, Gaius (cos. suff. ad 27; cos. II ord. 44), 62, 309 salutatio, 13, 34, 35, 180, 201, 310
Sardis, 307
Scopas of Crannon, 269
Scribonius Curio, Gaius, 258
Sempronius Gracchus, lover of Julia, 309
*Sempronius Gracchus, Gaius (tribune of the plebs 123–2 BC), 310
Septimius Severus, Emperor, 221
*Sergius Catilina, Lucius, 276, 277, 279
Servius, commentator on Virgil, 179
Sextius, Roman philosopher, 148, 322
Sidonius Apollinaris, 166
Silius A. Caecina Largus, Gaius (cos. AD 13), 71
Slavery/slaves, 61, 79, 194, 195, 211, 216, 217–18, 219, 220, 221, 223, 241, 280–1, 289, 295, 310, 325, 326, 327, 329; manumission, 37, 48, 220, 221, 223, 296, 297; Seneca on, 11, 24, 28n., 35, 37, 38n., 55n., 96, 108, 138, 164, 166, 167, 180, 216, 218, 219, 224
Social War, 221–2, 312
*Socrates, 83, 85, 86, 182, 197, 235, 265, 266–9, 338; his pupil Aeschines, 182
Solon, 214
Spain, 166, 167, 278, 283, 298–299
Spartans, 265, 306
Sphaerus, 254
Statius, 164
Stoa, Stoicism: 17, 18, 19–20, 26n., 44, 46, 53n., 76, 100, 101, 102–3, 109, 119, 140n., 144, 147, 177, 179, 180, 183, 195, 197, 223, 224, 231, 234, 246, 249, 255, 275, 276, 282, 300, 323, 331
conflagration, 235–6, 300, 301
divination, 203, 237, 247
epistemology, 253
etymology, 236, 271, 291
exceptio (reservation), 255–8
fortune, 150–1, 152, 210, 237–8, 255, 289, 290, 294, 305, 321, 336
hyperbole, 47, 61, 110, 123, 145m 205, 282, 319, 337
incorporeals, 106, 289
pg 396indifferents, 106, 151, 152, 153, 182, 226, 237, 273, 274, 275, 282, 307, 312, 322
joy, 101, 106, 127, 119, 133n. 152, 158, 179, 210, 216, 231, 241, 288, 322 (see also gaudium)
language, use of 203–4, 249, 269–70, 272, 273, 274, 335
logic, 226, 262, 273
Logos, 236, 240
moral progress, 118, 131, 142, 143, 145–8, 159n., 197, 275, 284, 319, 321–2, 323
moral reasoning, 127, 141n.
paradoxes, 1, 40, 61, 100, 107, 108, 109, 110, 115–16, 118, 122, 123, 135, 136, 149–50, 158, 184, 190, 202, 203, 248, 249, 262, 272, 274, 319, 322, 323, 324, 326, 332, 335, 337
political thought, 8n., 198
propatheiae, 191
social bond, 24, 27, 52, 109, 154, 231, 244, 250, 255, 336
style, 180
telos, 247–8, 268
Subrius Flavus, praetorian tribune, 93n.
Suetonius, 12, 64, 66n., 80, 108, 164, 192
Suicide, 13, 91, 200, 219, 221, 283
Suillius Rufus, P.(cos. suff. c. AD 44), 12, 153, 164n.
Sulla, see Cornelius
Sulpicius Rufus, Servius (cos. 51 BC), jurist, 219
Syllogisms, 135, 147, 226, 231, 232, 233, 243, 248, 272–3, 292, 324, 326, 328

 

Tacitus, historian, 10, 12, 13, 71, 73, 93, 97, 158n., 164, 168, 183–4, 185, 192, 200, 202, 216, 222, 247, 305, 309, 319, 320, 321, 327; dialogue between Seneca and Nero, 14, 83–7, 165, 197, 309, 321
Tattooing, 256
Teachers, 60, 86; fees, 57, 58, 217, 284, 297–8, 320; Seneca on, 11, 37, 339
Terence, 48, 193
Terentius Varro, Marcus, 236, 298, 326, 357
Tertullian, 165
Thales, 268
Theon, rhetorician, 139
Theophrastus, 20
Thrasea Paetus, P. Clodius (cos. suff. AD 56), 264, 320
Thucydides, historian, 36, 204, 333
*Tiberius, the Emperor, 14, 63, 68n., 69, 71, 82, 94, 192, 200, 201, 222, 252, 283, 284, 309, 313, 327
Tibur, 241
Titus, Emperor, 69
Trajan, Emperor, 49, 53n., 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 75, 79, 108, 109n., 201, 257, 299, 310, 327
De tranquillitate animi, 84, 85, 97n., 142, 146, 152, 279
Trimalchio, 67
Triumphs, 61, 182, 254, 276
*Tullius Cicero, Marcus (cos. 63 BC), Ch. 1 passim, 25n., 28, 33, 34, 36, 40, 41n., 47, 48n., 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 68, 74, 100n., 104, 107, 184, 204, 209, 234, 237, 238, 245, 251, 258, 263, 277, 279, 290, 322, 324, 326, 329, 331
Laelius de amicitia, 28n., 38, 66, 73, 77–8, 159n., 193
De divinatione, 237, 247
De legibus, 9 letters of recommendation, 65, 78
Pro Marcello, 7n., 9, 10
Pro Murena, 36n., 47, 255, 310, 337
De officiis, Ch. 1 passim, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21n., 22, 23, 25, 26, 28; 35, 36, 45n., 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 59, 61, 77–8, 79, 81, 107, 108, 116n, 132, 140, 141, 142, 178, 181, 193, 194, 195, 209, 220, 227, 239, 255, 256, 257, 263, 265, 266, 275, 295, 298, 322, 336–7, 339; Middle Ages, 167; structure, 121, 166; title, 100n.
Paradoxa Stoicorum, 203, 205
De re publica, 7n., 9
on rhetoric, 135, 137, 138n., 140, 232
*Tullius Cicero, Marcus (cos. suff. 30 BC), son of above, 46, 251
Tuscany, 329
Tusculum, 241
tyrant/tyrannical, 83, 95, 198, 199, 244, 268, 293, 326, 330, 333, 336–337

 

Ulpian, jurist, 56, 57, 58, 77, 195, 220

 

Valerius Maximus, 25, 178, 211, 265, 278, 328
Varro, see Terentius
Veranius, Quintus (cos. AD 49), 79
Verginius Rufus, Lucius (cos. AD 63, cos. II 69, cos. III 97), 64
Vespasian, Emperor, 320
*Vettius Scato, Publius, 221, 222
Vibius Crispus, L. Junius Q. (cos. III 82 or 83), 73
Vindolanda, 70
pg 397*Vipsanius Agrippa, Marcus, 61, 82, 85, [86], 95, 225, 309
vir bonus, 49, 159–61, 273, 292, 301
Virgil, 182, 227, 235, 280, 293, 319, 338
Virtues, 38n., 233; cardinal, 7, 22, 25, 166; clemency, 2n., 35n., 60, 212, 221, 223, 251, 263, 271, 304, justice, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 78, 107, 133, 160n., 161, 194, 209, 212, 215, 239, 244, 331; sapientia, 24n., 129n., 141, 203, 320, 329; unity of (and of vices), 238, 249, 275, 279
Vistilia, 308
De vita beata, 3, 82n., 84, 85, 95, 96, 152, 159, 233, 339; structure, 113–14; purpose, 152–3
Vitellius, Emperor, 63n., 86
Voconius Romanus, Gaius, 64, 66n.
Volusius Saturninus, Lucius (cos. suff. AD 3), 86

 

Wills and inheritance, 12, 13, 14, 53, 72, 73–4, 191, 202, 210, 213, 219, 223, 225, 239–40, 242, 245, 246, 249, 292, 325; legacy-hunters, 49, 245, 290, 299, 313

 

*Xenophon, 15, 16–17, 19n., 25, 36, 45n., 211, 235, 258, 338
*Xerxes I, 304, 305–7

 

*Zeno, 136, 235, 247, 284
Zeus, 236, 237, 240, 244, 248, 301
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