Main Text

pg 463INDEX

This index refers, by page-number, to the Introduction, Commentary, Appendixes, and Glossary; for individuals named or referred to in the text of the speech itself, see the list of Persons, where reference is by section- number. Men and women who participated in Roman public life are listed here by clan-name (nomen gentilicium), with the RE number (where available) given in parentheses.

 

Accius, Lucius (poet), Atreus of, 327
Brutus of, 351, 355
Eurysaces of, 351–3
Acilius (RE 35) Glabrio, Manius, 249
Acilius Glabrio (RE 38), Manius, 251
Actors, status of, 347
Advocates, identification of, with defendants, 118, 391–2
multiple, use of, 118
Aediles, games given by, 116, 291, 349, 400 n. 25
plebeian, 344
Aelius (RE 75) Lamia, Lucius, banishment of, 185–6, 412
family of, 186, 372
Aelius (RE 83) Ligus, 266, 270, 314
Aemilius (RE 81) Lepidus Paullus, Lucius, 373
witness against Sestius, 22
Aemilius (RE 72) Lepidus, Marcus, 244, 265
opposed by Quintus Catulus, 3 n. 4
Aemilius (RE 140) Scaurus, Marcus, 383
as historical exemplum, 209, 325
Aemilius (RE 141) Scaurus, Marcus, aedilician games of, 347
defended by Cicero, 117–18, 325
kinsman of Metellus Numidicus, 204
presiding officer at Sestius' trial, 20, 324–5, 388
Aesopus (actor), 347, 351–4
Afranius, Lucius (poet), 350
ager Gallicus, 133
ager publicus. See Public land
Albanius (RE 'Albinius' 1), Gaius, 124
Albinovanus (RE 3), Publius, 20
Alcibiades, 411 n. 2
Alfius (RE 7) Flavus, Gaius, 343
Allies (socii), 186–7
'Ally' (title: socius), 247–8
Ancestors, appeals to, 325, 358, 368–9
Ancharius (RE 3), Quintus, 343
Annius (RE 67) Milo, Titus, 11
activity of, on 23 Jan. 57, 286
as champion of Cicero, 110
attempts to prosecute Clodius, 31, 301–6, 315–17, 399, 402
pg 464attempts to prosecute Sextus Cloelius, 305, 374, 403
career of, 302–3
character constructed for, by Cicero, 301–6
compared by prosecutor with Sestius, 19, 31, 301, 306–7
defended by Cicero in senate in 53, 321
elected tribune for 57, 9
exile of, 127
'godlike', 233
house of, attacked by Clodius early in 57, 114, 275, 292, 301, 399
house of, attacked by Clodius late in 57, 11, 114, 315, 402
imprisons gladiators guilty of riot, 300
imprudence of, 305
'manliness' of, 301–2, 304
marries Sulla's daughter, 325
murders Clodius, 302
obstructs Clodius' election as aedile, 11, 316, 402, 424
present at Sestius' trial, 110, 390
street demonstrations by partisans of, 410
tried by Clodius before the people, 11, 110, 315, 403
use of gangs by, 14, 113, 316
Antiochus III (of Syria), 249, 386
Antonius (RE 19) ('Hibrida'), Gaius, as consul, 16, 129
as governor of Macedonia, 16, 140
defended by Cicero, 16, 129
provincial assignment of, 164
pursues Catiline, 132, 139
suspected Catilinarian sympathies of, 129, 131
Antonius (RE 28), Marcus, 129
Antonius (RE 30), Marcus ('Mark Antony'), 129
Apamea, peace of, 249
Apennines, as site of violence, 140
Apostrophe (rhetorical device), 191
Apotheosis, 388
apparitores. See Scribe
Appuleius (RE 29) Saturninus, Lucius, as exemplum, 206
as quaestor, 208
expulsion from senate of, attempted, 3 n. 4
legislation of, 205–6
suppression of, 3 n. 4, 172, 176, 206, 362
Arausio, disaster at, 338
argumentatio (forensic), function of, 23
Aristides, 385
Army, private, 213
Arpinum, 10, 205, 233, 349, 365
Artaxata, 250–1
Asicius, Publius (defended by Cicero), 38, 403
Assembly of the people. See contio
Assembly of the plebs (concilium plebis), alleged procedural irregularities of, 334
as site of legislation, 10, 33, 174, 195, 239, 248, 286, 415
dismissed in excursus on optimates and populares, 332
elective competence of, 342, 344
not a gathering of the populus, 263, 336
Assembly, centuriate (comitia centuriata), 21, 33, 213, 293
pg 465competence of, in capital matters, 262–3
elective competence of, 342
votes law for Cicero's recall, 11, 336, 366, 370, 401
Assembly, curiate (comitia curiata), site of transfer to plebs, 150
Assembly, tribal, of the people (comitia tributa), as site of consular legislation, 33, 292
as site of trials, 213
elective competence of, 342
ignored in excursus on optimates and populares, 33, 334–5
Assembly, voting, of the people (comitia), 32, 332, 428
question put before, 357–8
Association of Roman citizens (conventus), 134
Association, right of free, 200
Ateius (RE 7) Capito, Gaius, 276
Athens, 412
Atilius (RE 51) Regulus, Marcus, 224, 361
Atilius (RE 70) Serranus ('Gavianus'), Sextus, 279–80, 284–5, 300, 336, 365, 402 n. 27
Attacks, personal, in forensic oratory, 143
See also Invective
Attalus I (of Pergamum), 249
Attalus II (of Pergamum), 249
Attalus III (of Pergamum), 249
Atticus. See Pomponius (RE 102) Atticus, Titus
Audience. See Listeners
Augurs, college of, 117, 391 See also auspices
Aurelius (RE 102) Cotta, Lucius, 281–2
Aurelius (RE 107) Cotta, Marcus, 251
Auspices, 149, 175, 181, 286, 316, 344, 366, 415–16
allegedly overturned by Clodius' law, 112, 194–7
'sought after', 415
See also Obnuntiation
Authority, 416
of judges, 114
personal, 114, 257, 325, 328, 333, 381
Autronius (RE 7) Paetus, Publius, 184

 

Ballot, secret, 328
Banishment (relegatio), 184–5, 384
Bankruptcy, horror of, 321
basilica Opimia, 382
Beards, 161
'Beast' (belua), as term of political abuse, 110–11, 149, 416
Beast-fighters, 376
'Best Sort'. See optimates
Boasting, Cicero criticized for, 115
Bona Dea, rites of, profaned by Clodius, 3–4, 112, 146–7, 209, 264, 305, 349, 409
'Breed of the Best Sort' (natio optimatium), phrase used by Sestius' prosecutor, 31, 36, 318
Bribery, electoral. See Corruption, electoral
pg 466Brigand, 417
Catiline as, 140
Clodius' supporters as, 110–11, 113
Brogitarus, 246, 265
Brow (supercilium), as mark of character, 163
Brundisium, 370–1, 397, 401
Budget, provincial, for army, 173
Byzantium, 246

 

Caecilia (RE 'Caecilius' 134) Metella, 325
Caecilius (RE 110) Rufus, Lucius, 400 n. 25
Caecilius (RE 82) Metellus Balearicus, Quintus, 369
Caecilius (RE 86) Metellus Celer, Quintus, 178
actions of, against Catiline, 133, 139, 369
authority of, 257
husband of Clodia, 409
relations of, with Cicero, 369–70
Caecilius (RE 91) Metellus Dalmaticus, Lucius, 325
Caecilius (RE 94) Metellus Macedonicus, Quintus, 367
Caecilius (RE 96) Metellus Nepos, at temple of Castor, 292–4
attempts transfer of command against Catiine to Pompey, 257–8
blocks Milo's prosecution of Clodius, 305–6, 402
clashes with Cato, 257–8
drops opposiition to Cicero's recall, 10, 281, 399
elected consul for 57, 9, 270–1, 398
kinsman of Clodius, 10, 281
prevents Cicero from addressing the people, 335, 364
reconciled with Cicero, 367–9
regrets having 'saved' Clodius, 316
relations of, with Cicero, 9, 143, 281, 335, 364
tribunate of, 138, 172, 176, 200, 253, 255
Caecilius (RE 97) Metellus Numidicus, Quintus, 356
as exemplum, 203–4, 325–6, 383
attempts to expel Saturninus and Glaucia from senate, 325
enmity with Marius of, 205
rejects claim of Lucius Equitius, 325–6
treated ungenerously by Cicero, 204, 239
voluntary exile of, 180, 203–4, 256, 369
Caecilius (RE 98) Metellus Pius, Quintus, 356
Caecilius (RE 99) Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Quintus, 342
Caecilius. See also Statius Caecilius
Caelius (RE 35) Rufus, Marcus, 278
defended by Cicero, 20 n. 45, 24, 38, 124, 403
insurrection led by, 302
prosecutes Gaius Antonius, 129
protégé of Crassus and Cicero, 211
Calendar, Roman, 393–4 manipulation of, 176
Calpurnia (RE 'Calpurnius' 126), 161
Calpurnius (RE 25) Bestia, Lucius, credited by Cicero with saving Sestius' life, 294
trial of, 20, 403
pg 467Calpurnius (RE 28) Bibulus, Marcus, 133, 215, 269
accused of plotting against Pompey, 373
obstructs Caesar in 59, 197, 200, 204, 206, 344
postpones consular elections in 59, 173, 394 n. 1
Calpurnius (RE 90) Piso Caesoninus, Lucius, addressed in present speech, 191
advice of, to Cicero in 58, 220
alleged hedonism of, 167–71
alleged hypocrisy of, 12–13, 152, 160, 165–71
alleged link to Catiline of, 160
alleged passivity of, as consul, 13
anticipated prosecution of, 192, 237
appears at contio of Clodius, 193–4, 395–6
as a 'fury', 193
attacked in Cicero's Against Piso, 161
career of, 12, 160–1
caricature of, 12
clashes with Cato, 255
conspires with Clodius, 8, 12–13, 145–75 passim
father-in-law of Caesar, 8, 155, 160, 173, 378
governor of Macedonia, 9–10, 276–7, 412
governorship assailed by Cicero, 160–1, 313–14
invective against, 12–13, 160–71
role of, in 58, 12–13
tokens of friendship with Cicero of, 164
unreconciled with Cicero, 161
Calpurnius (RE 93) Piso Frugi, Gaius, 232, 242, 395
accused of plotting against Pompey, 373
death of, 242, 267, 399
devotion of, praised, 126–7
distant cousin of Cicero's enemy, 164
Calpurnius (RE 96) Piso Frugi, Lucius, 166
Calpurnius (RE 63) Piso, Gaius, 363
Calpurnius (RE 99) Piso, Lucius, 161
Calventius (grandfather of Piso), 166
Capital punishment, use and legality of, 2, 8, 137, 335
Capua, 16
association of Roman citizens at, 133
Cicero as patron of, 133
civic statuses of, 189
colony established at, 135
gladiatorial schools at, 133
history and strategic importance of, 132
Carthage, 234, 313
Cassius (RE 58) Longinus, Gaius, 244
Cassius (RE 72) Longinus Ravilla, Lucius, 328
Catilinarians, as 'public enemies', 137
execution of, 137
in exile, 184, 264
prosecutions of, 18 n. 40
Sestius' actions against, 16, 26
pg 468Catullus. See Valerius Catullus, Gaius
Censorship, Clodius' alleged annulment of, 195, 243
Ceres (tutelary god of plebs), 268
Cestilius (RE 1), Gaius, 278
Character, defendant's, treatment of, 23, 120
See also ethos
Charybdis, 158
Chrysogonus (freedman of Sulla), 113
Cilicia, and Cyprus, 240
Cimon, 384
circus Flaminius, as meeting place, 193, 395
Cispius (RE 4), Marcus, 278, 286
Citizenship, extended during Social War, 187
Civic crown (corona civica), 231
Claudius (RE 91) Caecus, Appius, 155, 359, 365, 368–9
Claudius (RE 295) Pulcher, Appius, 358
Claudius (RE 300) Pulcher, Gaius, 358
Claudius (RE 296) Pulcher, Appius, 288, 339, 358
Claudius (RE 297) Pulcher, Appius, 290, 402 n. 27, 410
allegedly restrained by Pompey from harming Cicero, 149
allegedly supplies gladiators to Clodius, 287–9, 300
blocks Milo's prosecution of Clodius, 305–6
career of, 287–8
meets with Caesar at Ravenna, 150
not named by Cicero, 287
plays off crowd responses in contio, 358
presides over extortion court as praetor, 305
Claudius (RE 303) Pulcher, Gaius, 216
Claudius, Titus (supporter of Sestius' prosecutor), 20
clivus Capitolinus, 184
Cloak, commander's (paludamentum), 153, 176
Clodia (RE 'Clodius' 67) Luculli, 409
Clodia (RE 66) Metelli, 130, 369
accused of poisoning husband, 369
alleged debauchery of, 152
alleged incest of, 4, 348, 409–11
called 'Ox-Eyes' by Cicero, 410
character blackened by Cicero, 24, 38, 348
Clodia (RE 'Clodius' 72) Tertia, 410
Clodiani (supporters of Clodius), 10–11, 293–4, 248–9
'Clodius' vs. 'Claudius', 146
Clodius (RE 48) Pulcher, Publius, aedileship of, 291
alleged adultery of, with Caesar's wife, 4, 7, 146
alleged crimes of, 206, 209, 238
alleged incest of, 4, 152, 348, 375, 409–11
alleged 'levy' of slaves by, 198–9, 223
alleged use of temple as 'citadel' by, 200–1
allegedly restrained by Pompey from harming Cicero, 7, 148–9
as 'fury', 193
as 'gladiator', 243–4
pg 469as leader of 'pirates', 221
as 'public enemy', 365
assails Milo early in 57, 275, 292
assails Milo late in 57, 11, 301, 315
attacked by Cicero as 'new Catiline', 4, 26, 110
attempted assassination of Pompey, 149, 268–9
breaks with Pompey and Gabinius, 13, 246, 251, 265, 268, 275, 300, 306, 397
candidate for aedileship, 349
censorship allegedly annulled by, 195, 243
compared with Catiline, 4, 16, 146, 184, 199, 217–18, 341, 396 n. 5
consecrates goods of Gabinius, 266
conspires with consuls of 58, 12–13, 145–75 passim, 239, 255
contio convened by, 183
contio of, in circus Flaminius, 193–4, 372, 395–6
dedicates shrine of Liberty, 261, 315, 335
destroys Cicero's house, 112
drives Cicero into exile, 3–4, 6–9 and passim
elected aedile, 11, 403
funded by Crassus in 56, 212
goods of, consecrated by Lucius Ninnius, 266
instigates Sestius' prosection, 11, 291
insulted as 'actor', 347
invective against, 145–52
joined by Cicero in defense of Scaurus, 118
legislation of, 8–9, 112, 112, 172, 174–5, 188, 192, 194–7, 199–201, 222, 238–64 passim, 395
makes 'pact' with consuls for provincial assignment, 171–3
mocked as cross-dresser, 348
motive of, for mandating Cyprus' annexation to Cato, 252–3
murdered by Milo, 302
not named by Cicero, 145–6
offenses against human and divine institutions of, 112
plebeian status sought by, 4 n. 7, 6–7
political use of clubs by, 199–200
profanes Bona Dea rites, 3–4, 112, 146–7, 179, 209, 264, 305, 349, 409–10
prosecutes Milo, 11, 314, 403
prosecutions of, attempted by Milo in 57, 31, 301–6, 315–17
protects Vatinius, as tribune, 377
right of veto allegedly annulled by, 195, 197
seeks tribunate of the plebs, 6–7
speaks at contio before vote for Cicero's recall, 334
still threatens Cicero after his return, 11, 199, 315, 402
supplicates senate, 180
supports Cicero in 63, 146
transfer to the plebs of, 6–7, 145–52
aided by Pompey, 6, 13, 148, 150
trial of, for sacrilege, 4
turns against Metellus Nepos, 316
pg 470use of gangs by, 10, 14, 32, 113, 200–1
uses triumvirs' names in attack on Cicero, 211–16, 221
Cloelius (RE 'Clodius' 12), Sextus, 199, 305, 395, 374–5
prosecution of, by Milo, 305, 374, 403
Clubs (collegia), 190, 417–18
senate's suppression of, 199–200
coercitio, 185, 188
collegia. See Clubs
Colony (colonia), 189
established at Capua, 135
Column of Maenius (columna Maenia), 158, 356
Comedy. See fabula togata
comitia centuriata. See Assembly, centuriate
comitia curiata. See Assembly, curiate
comitia tributa. See Assembly, tribal, of the people
Comitium, 232, 286, 289
Command, extraordinary, 255
Commonplace (rhetorical device), 226, 307
Commonwealth. See res publica
concilium plebis. See Assembly of the plebs
concordia ordinum. See 'Harmony of the orders'
Conditional clauses, as framing device, 107–8, 230
Consensus, political, representations of, 30, 36, 321, 331–59 passim, 350
'Consensus of all patriots' (consensio omnium bonorum: Ciceronian shibboleth), 34, 36
Conservatives, senatorial. See optimates
consilium publicum. See 'Public policy'
Conspirators, Catilinarian, execution of, 2–3, 136–7
urged by Cato, 256–7, 259
Consuls, as ministers of the senate, 12, 27, 137, 239, 260, 380
coercitio of, 185, 188
conniving of, with Clodius, 12–13, 145–75 passim, 239, 255, 260
'crimes' of, in 58, 239
in relation to tribunes, 13, 175–6, 196–7
letters of, 10
responsibility and authority of, 8, 12–13, 175–6, 196–7
tokens of office of, 153
contio ('assembly of the people'), 32, 183–4, 332, 363, 365, 366, 368–9, 373, 395–6, 401, 415
convened by Lentulus Spinther, 332–3
crowd response orchestrated at, 350, 358
ideology of, 334
in circus Flaminius, 193, 395–6
oaths sworn before, 256
transcripts of speeches delivered in, 19
visual aids used at, 313
Contractualism, as premise of Republicanism, 108, 115, 207, 227, 297, 302, 315, 387
pg 471Cornelius (RE 89) Cethegus, Gaius, 134, 136, 160
Cornelius (RE 106) Cinna, Lucius, 230, 235, 238, 288, 339
Cornelius (RE 141) Dolabella, Publius, 232
Cornelius (RE 228) Lentulus Marcellinus, Gnaeus, 176, 316, 338, 391
Cornelius (RE 234) Lentulus Niger, Lucius, 373
Cornelius (RE 238) Lentulus Spinther, Publius, 233
asks Cicero to explain his political stance, 272, 372
career of, 271–2
games given by, 349, 351, 400 n. 24
leads move for Cicero's recall, 275
praised by Cicero, 271
elected consul for 57, 9, 270, 398
praised by Cicero, 388
supported by Cicero, 402–3
supports Cicero, 10, 332
Cornelius (RE 239) Lentulus Spinther, Publius, 390–1
Cornelius (RE 240) Lentulus Sura, Publius, 136, 146, 217
Cornelius Nepos (Roman biographer), 387
Cornelius (RE 335) Scipio Africanus Aemilianus, Publius, 233, 367, 387–8
Cornelius (RE 336) Scipio Africanus, Publius, 387
Cornelius (RE 338) Scipio Asiagenes, Lucius, 126–7
Cornelius (RE 337) Scipio Asiaticus, Lucius, 249
Cornelius (RE 354) Scipio Nasica Serapio, Publius, 289, 362, 382–3
Cornelius Scipio Nasica, Publius. See Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Quintus
Cornelius (RE 377) Sulla, Faustus, 391
Cornelius (RE 392) Sulla Felix, Lucius, 5, 247, 339
cancels grain dole, 244
clashes with Marius, 234
marries Caecilia Metella, 325
proscriptions of, 221–2
repels Mithradates, 250
Cornelius (RE 385) Sulla, Publius, 132–3
Cornelius (RE 18), Gaius, 362
defended by Cicero, 300
Corruption, electoral (ambitus), 17 n. 39, 159–60
Cosconius (RE 5), Gaius, 342–3
Court of inquiry, special (quaestio extraordinaria), 300
Court of inquiry, standing (quaestio perpetua), 20, 300, 426
Cowardice, charges of, made against Cicero, 202–3, 282–3
Criminal law, Roman, and political consensus, 4 n. 7
Crowds, reliability of, 345–6
Cunnilingus, 341, 375, 411
Curius (RE 9) Dentatus, Manius, 387
Curtius (RE 23), Manius, 278
Curule seat (sella curulis), 153
Cybele. See Great Mother
Cyprus, and Cilicia, 240
annexation of, 238, 240, 244, 247–60 passim, 252–60
Cyrene, annexation of, 244, 247

 

pg 472Dardanus, treaty of, 250
Death, opposing philosophical views of, 227
Debt-bondage, 208
Decius (RE 9), Publius, 382
Decius (RE 15) Mus, Publius, 229, 387
Decius (RE 16) Mus, Publius, 229, 387
Decree, consuls'. See Edict
Decree, senate's, 297, 353–4, 418–19
of immunity for actions taken against Catilinarians, 139, 207
preserved as bronze inscription, 29, 366
stored in treasury, 29
supporting Cicero, 10–11, 115, 196, 284, 348, 362–7, 398, 400–1
Defamation, from the stage, 350
Deification. See Apotheosis
Deiotarus (tetrach of Galatia), 246
delatio nominis, as stage in criminal prosecution, 17 n. 29
Demonstrations, public, 8, 29–30, 31 n. 67, 32, 177
Demosthenes, 385
Desperadoes (perditi), 419
Clodius' supporters as, 32, 35, 113–14, 319
devotio (military ritual), 221, 229
'Devotion' (pietas), 118, 126, 271, 303
dignitas. See 'Worthy standing'
Dio (Alexandrian ambassador), murder of, 38, 403
Dius Fidius, 164
Documents, introduction of, at trial, 19, 136, 138
'Dominion' (imperium), senses of, 109, 419
Domitius (RE 22) Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus, 364
Domitius (RE 27) Ahenobarbus, Lucius, 214, 373, 395
Domitius (RE 43) Calvinus, Gaius, 343
Doublets, Cicero's use of, 109
Drama, historical. See fabula praetexta
Due process, institutions of, 213–14
Duumvirate (municipal office), 162
Dyrrachium, 370
Piso's alleged extortion of, 314
site of Cicero's exile, 9, 141, 383, 399, 412–13

 

Edict, magistrates', 190–1, 305, 395–6
Egypt, bequest of, 247–8
Embassies, received by senate in February, 275
Emotion, forensic appeals to, 23
in the theatre, 352
place of, in rhetorical theory, 118–19, 352
Stoic view of, 231, 259, 352
Enmity, personal (inimicitia), 222–3, 305
inherited, 136
See also Vengeance
Ennius, Quintus (poet), Andromacha of, 353
Annals of, 386
Medea of, 327
Epicureanism, Cicero's hostility to, 167–70
pg 473political quietism of, 168, 170
tenets of, 168–9, 254
Epicurus, 163
Equestrians (equites), as judges, 21, 175, 179, 320
as publicans, 189–90
status of, 153–4, 419
support of Cicero by, in 63, 184, 194
'trappings' of, 338
Equitius (RE 3), Lucius, 325–6
Erechtheus (king of Athens), daughters of, 228–9
Erudition, displays of, avoided by Cicero, 168, 228–9
ethos (rhetorical), 120, 23–4
eudaimonia (Greek ethical term), 322
Eumenes II (of Pergamum), 249
Euripides, 228
Example, historical (exemplum), 182, 203–6, 209, 224–5, 228–30, 230–5, 237, 324–7
Exile, as punishment for 'public violence', 112
consequences of, 9
voluntary, of Metellus Numidicus, 180
exordium, function of, 22–3
in the present speech, 107

 

Fabia (RE 'Fabius' 172) (half-sister of Terentia), 232, 241
Fabius (RE 116) Maximus Verrucosus, Quintus, 387–8
Fabricius (RE 9) Luscinus, Gaius, 387
Fabricius (RE 7), Quintus, 277, 285–7, 289, 292
fabula praetexta (historical drama), 355
fabula togata (comedy), 350
Fadius (RE 9) Gallus, Titus, 129, 277–8
Fannius (RE 7), Gaius, 187
Fannius (RE 9), Gaius, 343, 373
fasces, appearance and function of, 153
shattering of, 268, 293, 398
'Father of the fatherland' (pater patriae), 326, 353–4
Fathers, virtues attributed to, 123, 125
Favour, popular, 35, 327, 330, 346–7
Fellation, 341
Fidulius (Clodian henchman), 335
Firmidius (Clodian henchman), 342
Flaminius (RE 2), Gaius, 193, 320
Flavius (RE 88) Fimbria, Gaius, 230, 250
Fonteius (RE), Publius, 6, 150, 411
'Foremost man of the community' (princeps civitatis), as informal honourific, 209, 333
'Foremost man of the senate' (princeps senatus), as formal position, 209
Fortune (goddess), 121
'Free community' (civitas libera), 247, 314, 413 n. 3
Freedmen, 320–1, 351
Freedom, and rights, 188
claimed by Cicero, 143
political condition of, 295, 419–20
Fulvius (RE 58) Flaccus, Marcus, 3 n. 4
Furius (RE 54) Crassipes, 232, 403
Furius (RE 44) Camillus, Marcus, 383, 387
pg 474'Fury' (furia), as term of abuse, 192–3

 

Gabinius (RE 6), Aulus, 155, 328
Gabinius (RE 11), Aulus, alleged corruption of, 152, 156–9, 179
anticipated prosecution of, 237
appears at contio of Clodius, 193–4, 395
as a 'fury', 193
as the 'lover' of Catiline, 157
as tribune in 67, 155, 192, 197, 313
avoidance of prosecution by, 159–60
breaks with Clodius, 13, 155, 268, 300, 306, 398 n. 13
career of, 155–6
caricature of, 12
clashes with Cato, 255, 155
connection to Pompey, 8
conspires with Clodius, 8, 12–13, 145–75 passim
contio of, 183–4
defended by Cicero, 156, 312
goods of, consecrated by Clodius, 266
governorship of Syria assailed by Cicero, 156, 276–7, 312–3
his provincial assignment changed, 240, 245
humiliation by senate in 56, 155, 277, 404 n. 40, 405 n. 41
invective against, 12–13, 155–60
makes 'pact' with Clodius for provincial assignment, 171–3
prosecutions of, 156
rebuffs delegation on Cicero's behalf, 179
reconciles superficially with Cicero, 156
Games, 32, 420
given by aediles, 116, 291, 349
Megalesian (ludi Megalenses), 199, 246, 291, 327, 347, 400 n. 24, 403, 404 n. 40
of Apollo (ludi Apollinares), 10, 350, 353, 357, 363, 400 n. 25, 401 n. 26
of Flora (ludi Florales), 400 n. 25
of the Crossroads (ludi Compitales), 199, 257, 374, 395
of the plebs (ludi plebeii), 420
political interpretation of, 344–55 passim
popular reception at, 11, 346–7, 401, 420
temporary venues of, 358
Gangs, perhaps financed by Cicero, 113
political role of, 14, 18, 113, 200–1
Gellius (named in poems of Catullus), 411
Gellius (RE 1) (witness against Sestius), 22, 37
invective against, 336–42
Gellius (RE 17), Lucius, 231, 337–8
Gellius (RE 18) Publicola, Lucius, 337, 341
Generosity (liberalitas), 420
contrasted with 'largesse', 329
ethical ambivalence of, 128
Gladiator, as term of abuse, 243–4, 376
Gladiatorial shows, 32, 356–9
horses in, 359
not part of public games, 291
temporary venues of, 356–7
pg 475Gladiators, fearless death of, 295
specialized roles of, 376
Glory, 182, 204, 207, 226, 235, 311, 362, 387, 389
distinct from 'popular favour', 330, 346
true, 381
'Godlike' (epithet: divinus), Cicero's use of, 233
Gods, called to witness, 219
Good Goddess. See Bona Dea
Grain supply, 39, 147, 208, 244–5, 401 n. 26
Gratitude, Cicero's, for Sestius, 38
in Roman political thought, 114–15
Great Mother, 246
Greek, Attic, 340
Greeks, Cicero's view of, 314, 340, 357–8, 384
Grief, 118, 231, 237, 259, 352, 390
Guardian, legal (tutor), 341–2
Guest-friend, public (hospes publicus), 136

 

Hair, ethical symbolism of, 156, 162
Hannibal, 386–7
'Harmony of the orders' (concordia ordinum: Ciceronian shibboleth), 34, 331
Hedonism, Epicurean, distorted by critics, 169
Hercules, 389
Hire, working for, stigmatized, 330–1
'Hired henchmen' (operae), 421
Clodius' supporters as, 32, 35, 183, 248–9, 319, 330–2, 357, 359
Hissing, 347
Honos, festal day of, 400 n. 25
Honour, as compensation for political action, 108, 302
as motive, 224, 227–8, 230, 235, 302
See also Glory
Hortensius (RE 13), Quintus, advice of, to Cicero in 58, 210
believed by Cicero to have betrayed him, 117, 221–3, 253
career of, 116–17
'fishpond fancier', 117, 322
helps block Milo's prosecution of Clodius, 317
nominates Cicero to college of augurs, 117
praised by Cicero in his rhetorical works, 117
opposition to Caesar of, 215
opposition to Pompey of, 5
speaks on Sestius' behalf, 20, 25, 117
supports Cicero in 58, 179
Hostilius (RE 20) Mancinus, Lucius, 313
hostis. See 'Public enemy'
House, atrium-, arrangement of, 170–1
Household gods (lares, penates), 187, 219–20
humanitas, 310

 

Iarbas (Numidian king), 364
Ill-will (invidia), 222–3, 236–7, 294, 313, 326
of the plebs, for Cicero, 260
Imagination, appeal to audience's, 154–5
imago. See Wax mask
pg 476Incest, alleged, of Cato, 411
of Clodius, 4, 152, 348, 375, 409–11
Insults, based on appearance, 376, 378
based on family origin, 279–80
based on mother's origin, 166
based on profession, 129
based on rural origin, 278–9, 296
based on sexual behavior, 157, 179, 341, 375, 409–11
based on wife's origin, 341
Intercalation, 393–4
Invective, 12–13, 142–3, 336–42, 372–8
allegations of prostitution in, 157, 179, 410–11
incest as subject of, 409–11
Irresponsibility (levitas), of the people, 386, 421
Italy, unity of, as motif, 175, 280, 363, 366–7
Iulius (RE 131) Caesar, Gaius, agrarian legislation of, 33, 39, 132, 135, 206, 256, 378, 395
allegedly dismissive of Vatinius, 344
and formation of 'First Triumvirate', 5–6
and the Bona Dea scandal, 4, 146, 411
appears at contio of Clodius, 193–4, 213, 372, 395
as 'father of the fatherland', 353–4
as pontifex maximus, 150, 326, 374
attack upon, Dec. 63, 268
bribed by Ptolemy XII Auletes, 248
departure for Gaul of, 396 n. 7
facilitates Clodius' transfer to plebs, 6–7, 150–2
implicitly treated as an enemy, 221–2
in Gaul, 150
meets with Appius Pulcher and Crassus at Ravenna, 150
meets with Pompey at Luca, 39, 404
obliquely criticized by Cicero, 22, 151, 212, 373, 377
provincial commands of, 39
seeks consulship of 59, 5–6
Sestius' mission to, 272–3
son-in-law of Piso, 8, 155, 160, 173, 378
treatment of, in present speech, 147
Iulius (RE 132) Caesar Octavianus, Gaius, 233
as 'father of the fatherland' (when 'Augustus'), 353–4
Iunius (RE 46a) Brutus, Lucius, 355
as historical exemplum, 387
Iunius (RE 62) Bubulcus, Gaius, 370–1
Iunius (RE 123) Pennus, Marcus, 187
iustitium, 10, 267, 275, 292, 305, 399, 421
Iuventius (RE 16) Laterensis, Marcus, 373

 

Judges (iudices), as Cicero's conservative audience, 35
authority of, 114
called on to take sides, 113
pg 477Cicero's 'prompts' for, 122–3, 131, 175, 188, 284, 287, 345, 356
emotions of, appeals to, 23
indulgence of, requested, 345, 351
oaths of, 21, 114
selection of, 21
work of, 108–9
Juno, shrine of, 364, 392
Jupiter, 164
Justice, and property rights, 309, 321

 

Labienus (RE 6), Titus, 313
Laenii (family of Brundisium), 371
Lares familiares, 187
Largesse, as bribery, 330–1
Law, 'natural' vs. 'civil', 308–9
Legates, military commander's, 15, 139, 362, 378, 422
selection of, 192
Legislation, lex Aelia (on voting procedures: mid-2nd c. BCE?), 194–7, 344
lex Aemilia (on grain: 78), 244
lex Appuleia (on land distribution: 100), 205–6
lex Aurelia (on the courts: 70), 21
lex Caecilia Didia (on legislative procedure: 98), 245, 377
lex Calpurnia (on electoral corruption: 67), 375
lex Clodia (declaring that Cicero had been exiled: 58) 9, 112, 175, 188, 222, 238, 240, 242, 260–1, 267–8, 282, 335, 371, 375, 396–7, 412
lex Clodia (on Byzantine exiles: 58), 245–7, 395
lex Clodia (on Cato's mission: 58), 245, 254–5, 258, 395 n. 3, 397
lex Clodia (on censorship: 58), 195, 243, 395
lex Clodia (on clubs: 58), 199–200, 243
lex Clodia (on Cyprus' annexation: 58), 245–6, 258, 395
lex Clodia (on Gabinius' province: 58), 240, 397
lex Clodia (on Great Mother's cult: 58), 246, 397
lex Clodia (on the consular provinces: 58), 8, 172, 192, 238, 240, 395–6
lex Clodia (on the grain dole: 58), 244–5, 247, 374, 395
lex Clodia (on the 'life' of a citizen: 58), 8–9, 174–5, 194, 201, 238, 239–40, 256, 262, 282, 395–6
lex Cornelia (on treason: 81), 312
lex Cornelia (on Cicero's recall: 57), 11, 336, 367, 401
lex Fannia (barring aliens from Rome: 122), 187
lex Fufia (on voting procedures: mid-2nd c. BCE?), 194–8
lex Fufia (on reporting judicial verdicts: 59), 109
lex Gabinia (on Acilius Glabrio's command in Bithynia and Pontus: 67), 155, 313
lex Gabinia (on Pompey's command against the pirates: 67), 155, 192
lex Hortensia (regulation of civil calendar: 287), 198
lex Iulia (on citizenship: 90), 187
lex Iulia (on land distribution: 59), 33, 39, 132, 206, 256
pg 478lex Iulia (on provincial extortion: 59), 312, 314, 377–8
lex Iunia (on Italian non-citizens: 126), 187
lex Licinia Iunia (on legislative procedure: 98), 377, 397 n. 9
lex Licinia Mucia (on wrongful claims of citizenship: 95), 187
lex Licinia Sextia (on public land: 367), 328
lex Lutatia (against the insurrection of Marcus Lepidus: 78), 18
lex Mamilia (on conduct of the war against Jugurtha: 109), 383
lex Manilia (on Pompey's command in Asia Minor: 66), 155
lex Papia (on resident aliens: 65), 187
lex Plautia (on public violence: 70?), 18, 21
lex Plautia Papiria (on citizenship: 89), 187
lex Pompeia (on public violence: 52), 21
lex Porcia (on grain: 62), 244, 257
lex Porcia Maria (on triumphs: 62), 257
lex Sempronia (on public land: 133), 328
lex Sempronia (on capital punishment: 123 BCE), 3, 239, 335
lex Sempronia (on grain: 123 BCE), 244
lex Sempronia (on assignment of consular provinces: 123/2), 172, 175, 192
lex Terentia Cassia (on grain: 73), 244
lex Titia (establishing 'Second Triumvirate': 43), 5 n. 9
lex Trebonia (on consular provinces: 55), 172
lex Tullia (on electoral corruption: 63), 17 n. 39, 375
lex Varia (on treason: 90), 325
lex Vatinia (on Caesar's provincial commands: 59), 172, 192, 378
promulgation of, 9–10, 174
Lentidius (RE 1) (Clodian henchman), 294
levitas. See Irresponsibility
liberalitas. See Generosity
libertas. See Freedom
Licinius (RE 113) Calvus (Macer), Gaius, 21, 117
Licinius (RE 68) Crassus, Marcus, and formation of 'First Triumvirate', 5–6
defends Caelius, 24
departure of, for Syria, 276
funding Clodius in 56, 212
house on Palatine bought by Cicero, 211
insults Cicero as 'exile', 212, 226
meets with Caesar at Ravenna, 150
relations with Cicero of, 211–12
speaks on Sestius' behalf, 21, 117
Licinius (RE 61) Crassus, Publius, 225, 229–30
Licinius (RE 63) Crassus, Publius, 212
Licinius (RE 104) Lucullus, Lucius, 409, 411
pg 479accused of plotting against Pompey, 373
advice of, to Cicero in 58, 210
campaigns of, in East, 250–1
opposition of, to Pompey, 5
Tusculan villa of, 313
Licinius (RE 122) Murena, Lucius, 250
Licinius (RE 123) Murena, Lucius, 117, 170, 253
Licinius (RE 161) Stolo, Gaius, 328
Lictors, function of, 153, 185
Listeners, circle of (corona), at speech, 202
Literary studies, pursuit of, 322, 340
Livius Drusus (RE 18), Marcus, 339
Luca, renewal of 'triumvirate' at, 39
Lucretius, Titus (poet), Epicurean anthropology of, 308
ludi. See Games
Lutatius (RE 7) Catulus, Quintus, 123
Lutatius (RE 8) Catulus, Quintus, 237, 326, 353–4, 399
opposition of, to Marcus Lepidus, 3 n. 4
Luxury, as 'effeminate', 156

 

Maelius (RE 2), Spurius, 383–4, 387
Magistrates, right of, to obnuntiate, 194–6, 290, 366, 424
maiestas ('treason'), 16, 300
Malta, 412
Manliness (virtus), 422
instances of, 201, 269
lack of, 324, 355, 381
of Cato, 254
of Milo, 301–2, 304
Manlius (RE 51) Capitolinus, Marcus, 384
Manlius (RE 18), Gaius, 131, 133, 137
Marcellus, Gaius (Catilinarian insurgent), 133–4
Marcius (RE 52) Crispus, Quintus, 192
Marcius (RE 75) Philippus, Lucius, 337–9
Marcius (RE 76) Philippus, Lucius, 337–8
Marius (RE Suppl. 6, 14), Gaius, 230, 288
as exemplum, 205, 383
enmity with Numidicus of, 205
Marius (RE 14), Gaius, 230, 288
as exemplum, 233–5, 349
builds temple of Honos and Virtus, 348, 400 n. 25
called 'father of the fatherland', 354
clashes with Sulla, 234
exile of, 233–5
savior of Rome, 10
suppression of Lucius Saturninus by, 3, 206, 362
Marius (RE 19), Lucius, 257
Mark Antony. See Antonius, Marcus
Market-days, relation of, to voting procedures, 174, 269, 277, 393, 395, 396 n. 8, 397 n. 9, 401 n. 26
Masses, political 'ignorance' of, 288–9, 331, 333, 421
Massilia, as destination for exiles, 127, 302
Memmius (RE 8), Gaius, 214, 395
Memory, 182
Messius (RE 2), Gaius, 277–8
Mevulanus (RE 1), Gaius, 113, 132–3
Miltiades, 384–5
pg 480Minerva, shrine of, 364, 371, 392
Minting, 263
Minturnae, 234
misericordia. See Pity
Mithradates VI Eupator (king of Pontus), 5, 147, 250–1, 364
mos maiorum. See 'Ways of our ancestors'
Mother's origin, insults based on, 129, 166
Mourning dress, assumption of, as political gesture, 29–30, 177–8, 181, 190, 240–1, 391, 395
by defendants, 111, 267, 390
Mucius (RE 10) (Cordus) Scaevola, Gaius, 229
'Mule-driver' (mulio), as insulting term, 129

 

Nares Lucanae, 397 n. 9
narratio (forensic), function of, 23
in the present speech, 141–2
natio optimatium. See 'Breed of the Best Sort'
Nerius (RE 3), Gnaeus, 403
'New man', 379, 423
Cicero as, 168, 222
Marius as, 205
Nicomedes III (of Bithynia), 250
Nicomedes IV (of Bithynia), 250
Ninnius (RE 3) Quadratus, Lucius, 180, 266
Notability (nobilitas), 423
electoral advantage conferred by, 165, 168
novus homo. See New man
Numerius (RE 5) Rufus ('Gracchus'), Quintus, 278–9, 296–7, 311–14, 365, 402 n. 27
nundinae. See Market-days

 

Oaths, exacted by legislation, 205, 256
in common speech, 164, 352
sworn by judges, 21, 114
Obnuntiation, 150, 175, 181, 285–6, 289–90, 292–4, 423–4
by magistrates, 194–6, 290, 366, 424
suspended by senate, 366
use of auspices in, 194–7
use of, by tribunes, 197
Octavius (RE 20), Gnaeus, 238, 288
Offices, municipal, held by Roman dignitaries, 162
operae. See 'Hired hands'
Opimius (RE 4), Lucius, 178
exile of, 382
suppression of Gaius Gracchus by, 3, 178, 325, 382
Oppius (RE 28) Cornicinus, Gnaeus, 285
optimates, definition of, 32–3, 113–14, 319, 381–2, 416
malice toward Cicero of, 144
opposition to Caesar of, 214–15
opposition to Pompey of, 5, 11
optimates and populares, Cicero's excursus on, 25, 31–7
as element of speech's argument, 35–6, 319
not added after delivery, 36–7
viewed as political 'programme', 31 n. 70, 33–4
Order, of citizens (ordo), concept of, 204, 320
Ostracism (Athenian institution), 384
otium. See Tranquillity
pg 481'Ox-Eyes' (Boöpis: epithet of Juno), applied to Clodia, 410

 

Pacuvius, Marcus (poet), Iliona of, 359
Papius (RE 5), Gaius, 187
Parricide, punishment of, 295–6
pater patriae. See 'Father of the fatherland'
'Paternal power' (patria potestas), 123–4, 150
Patriot, obligations of, 108
just reward of, 29, 32
Patronage of towns, 134–5
Peace of the gods (pax deorum), 240, 310, 424
Peducaeus (RE 5), Sextus, 278
Penates, 187, 219–20
People (populus), assumption of mourning dress by, 29–30, 177, 395
perduellio ('treason'), 3 n. 4
Pericles, 385
peroratio (forensic), function of, 23, 117
Personification (rhetorical device), 239, 363
Petreius (RE 3), Marcus, 139
Pharnaces II (of Pontus), 251
Philodemus (Epicurean philosopher), 168–9
Philosopher, austerity of, 339
Picenum, 133, 278, 369
pietas. See 'Devotion'
Pirates, 221, 252, 364
Pisaurum, 133
Pity (misericordia), arousal of, in audience, 23, 119, 178, 389–90
'Plague' (pestis), as term of political abuse, 192–3, 218, 242
Plancius (RE 4), Gnaeus, 9, 141, 343, 413
Plator of Orestis, 314
Plebiscites, legal force of, 174, 418
pomerium. See 'Sacred boundary'
Pompeii, Catilinarian sedition at, 132
Pompeius (RE 15) Magnus, Gnaeus, 233
and formation of 'First Triumvirate', 5–6
as augur aids Clodius' transfer to the plebs, 6, 13, 148, 150
as maker of kings, 251
as suppliant of the people, 333
assumes supervision of grain supply, 39, 147, 244, 401, 403
attempted assassination of, 149, 268–9, 299, 398
breaks with Clodius, 13, 246, 251, 265, 275, 306, 397
bribed by Ptolemy XII Auletes, 248
calls Cicero Rome's 'unique saviour', 363–5
Cicero's debt to, 115
claims to restrain Clodius from harming Cicero, 7, 148–9
coerces Cicero to defend Gabinius, 156
compared with Alexander, 265
dealings with Cicero after Luca, 39, 404
disingenuous statements of, in 58, 215
embarrassed at games, in 59, 350, 353
fears assassination, 216, 287, 373
pg 482made to suspect Cicero of plotting his death, 14, 216, 373–4, 396 n. 6
meets with Caesar at Luca, 39, 404
member of Caesar's agrarian commission, 135
names Cicero legate on grain commission, 402
nomenclature of, 147
nominates Cicero to college of augurs, 117
offended by Cicero, in 62, 5, 365
offers testimonial for Sestius, 22, 147
'perfidy' of, 14, 148
planned assassination of, 373
political frustration of, 5–6
praises Cicero, 30, 40
receives pledge of Cicero's political tractability, 283
relations of, with Cicero, 5–9, 30, 147–8
resettlement of East by, 190
return from East of, 4–5, 371
role of, before Cicero's exile, 13–14, 148, 210, 396
speaks at contio in support of Cicero, 333–4
speaks on Cicero's behalf at Capua, 281, 283, 398
supersedes Lucullus in East, 250–1
supports Cicero on 1 Jan. 57, 283–4, 399
takes credit for defeating Spartacus, 211, 265
treatment of, in present speech, 147–8
triumphs of, 364
Pompeius (RE 8) Rufus, Quintus, 132–3
Pompeius (RE 14) Strabo, Gnaeus, 147
Pomponius (RE 102) Atticus, Titus, 40, 130, 224, 231, 281, 410
Popillius (RE 10) Laenas, Publius, 383
populares, definition of, 32, 423
label claimed for optimates, 332
'true' and 'false', 34, 332
populus. See People
Porcius (RE 18) Cato, Gaius, 195, 391, 403
Porcius (RE 20) Cato (Uticensis), Marcus, 233
accused by Caesar of incest, 411
advice of, to Cicero in 58, 210, 220
as tribune in 62, 138, 200, 253, 257–8
authority of, 253, 257–8
boycotts senate meetings in 59?, 258–9
clashes with consuls of 58, 255
clashes with Metellus Nepos, 257–8
Cyprus annexed by, 238, 252–60
execution of Catilinarians urged by, 256–7, 259
'manliness' of, 254
motives of, for accepting Cyprian command, 256
opposition to Caesar of, 215, 253, 255
opposition to Pompey of, 5, 254
prosecutes Murena, 170, 253
relations of, with Cicero, 253–4, 256–7
pg 483Stoicism of, 231, 253–4, 259
suicide of, 225, 253
Porcius (RE 10) Cato (Censorinus), Marcus, 253
Porsenna, Lars, 229
porta Capena, 371
'Portents' (prodigia), as term of abuse, 208
portoria. See Transit-dues
postulatio, as stage in criminal prosecution, 17 n. 29, 304
Postumius (RE 7), 341
'Practical intelligence' (prudentia), 151, 424–5
praemunitio (forensic: 'advanced fortification'), function of, 23
in present speech, 121–2
praeteritio (rhetorical device), 183, 241
praevaricatio ('collusive prosecution'), 19, 301
Praise, uses of, 29–30
Prayer, gesture of, 349
Prefecture (administrative category), 132, 143, 189
princeps senatus. See 'Foremost many of the senate'
privilegium, 188, 262, 266, 282, 425
Procedure, judicial, 17 n. 29, 19–20, 108–9, 357–8
Procedure, voting, and auspices, 194–7
'Prodigies' (monstra), as term of abuse, 240
Prompting, Cicero's, of judges, 122–3, 131, 175, 188, 284, 287, 345, 356
Promulgation, 151, 174, 195, 243, 269, 285, 334, 363, 375, 377, 397 n. 9, 425
Property rights, and justice, 309, 321
Proscription, 425
Cicero's exile viewed as, 221–2, 262, 282, 375
Prostitution, male, alleged in invective, 157, 179, 411
political, 159
Provinces, assignment of, 12, 159, 172–3
provincia, senses of, 128
Ptolemy (king of Cyprus), 247–9
Ptolemy Apion, 247
Ptolemy IX Soter, 247
Ptolemy X Alexander I, 247
Ptolemy XI Alexander II, 247
Ptolemy XII Auletes, 156, 247–8, 312
Public enemy (hostis), 425
Catilinarians as, 137, 210
Public land (ager publicus), distribution of, 5, 39, 173
tenancy of, 328–9
Public policy (consilium publicum), established by senate, 181–2
Public revenue (vectigal), collection of, 189–90
Public violence. See vis
Publicans (publicani), 153, 425
corporations of, 189–90
Purple, grades of, 162

 

quaestio perpetua. See Court of inquiry, standing
Quaestor, 425
relation of, to supervising magistrate, 130, 362
Saturninus as, 208
Sestius as, 16, 122, 129–38
Quinctius (RE 8), Kaeso, as historical exemplum, 383
pg 484Quirinus, 388

 

Rabirius (RE 5), Gaius, 3 n. 4
Reciprocity, and reconciliation, 369
in Roman Republicanism, 108, 297, 311
in Roman social relations, 20, 29, 114–15, 118
Reference to persons by name, patterns of, 147, 303
relegatio. See Banishment
Remus, 415
Republicanism, and glory, 226–7, 235, 297, 302
communitarian and legal bases of, 309
contractualist premise of, 108, 115, 207, 315, 387
res publica, 309, 418
and 'people's advantage', 328
identified with Cicero, 26–9, 35, 37, 110, 122, 141–2, 144–5, 173, 181, 188, 235, 241, 273, 362–3, 366
metaphors of embodiment used of, 110, 154, 173, 189, 218, 336, 378
See also Republicanism
Rhetorical question, use of, 225
Righteous indignation (invidia), arousal of, in audience, 23, 119, 269
Romulus, 388, 415
Roscius, Quintus (actor), 347
Roscius, Sextus (of Ameria), 113
Rostra, as sacred precinct, 286, 292
Rutilius (RE 27) Lupus, Publius, 378, 402

 

Sacred boundary (pomerium), Rome's, 193, 293
'Sacrosanct legislation' (leges sacratae), 149, 262, 292
Salii, brotherhood of, 304
Scirocco, 370
Scribe (magistrate's assistant), 374
Scribonius (RE 10) Curio, Gaius, 179, 373
Scribonius (RE 11) Curio, Gaius, 373
Scripts, dramatic, chosen for political meaning, 351
Scylla, 158
Self-reference, etiquette of, 189
sella curulis. See 'Curule seat'
Semo Sancus, 164
Sempronius (RE 47) Gracchus, Gaius, 325
grain law of, 178, 329
suppression of, 3 n. 4, 178, 382
Sempronius (RE 53) Gracchus, Tiberius, 178, 320, 328, 382, 388
Senate, assumption of mourning dress by, 29–30, 178, 181, 190, 240–1, 395
authority of, 2, 12–13, 137, 190–1, 207, 240–1, 283, 284, 317, 366, 367, 379
decree of, 18, 297, 353–4, 418–19
as 'public policy', 182
granting immunity for actions taken against Catilinarians, 139, 207
preserved as bronze inscription, 29
stored in treasury, 29, 365
supporting Cicero, 10, 196, 284, 348, 362–7, 398, 400–1
discusses Cicero's recall, 9
pg 485establishes 'public policy', 181
matters referred to, 177, 180
meeting site of, 178
open in principle to all citizens, 380
order of precedence in, 164, 228, 271, 281–2
'packed' meeting of, 181, 365
protests by, 267, 275
role of, in assigning provinces, 12, 159, 172–3
role of, in Catilinarians' execution, 194
role of, in dealing with foreign nations, 245
supports Cicero, 10–11, 267
supports iustitium early in 57, 10
suspends obnuntiation, 366
'ultimate decree' of, 2–3, 172, 176, 178, 206, 215, 237, 261, 382
Senators, as judges, 21
tokens of rank of, 111
senatus consultum ultimum. See Senate, 'ultimate decree' of
Seplasia (square in Capua), 162
Sergius (RE 23) Catilina, Lucius, as 'brigand', 110–11, 140
as 'lover' of Gabinius, 157
as 'public enemy', 137
calls for cancellation of debts, 321
Clodius compared with, 4, 26, 110, 122, 146, 184, 199, 217–18, 341
conspiracy of, 2–3, 16, 18
defeated at Pistoria, 139
sermocinatio (rhetorical device), 223, 256, 339
Serranus, as cognomen, 279
Sertorius (RE 3), Quintus, 265, 364
Servilia (RE 'Servilius' 101), 411
Servilius (RE 32) Ahala, Gaius, 383–4, 387
Servilius (RE 65) Glaucia, Gaius, 325, 362
Servilius (RE 80) Rullus, Publius, 161
Servilius (RE 93) Vatia Isauricus, Publius, 125, 368–9
Sestia (daughter of Sestius), 124
Sestius (RE 1), Lucius, 15, 122
Sestius (RE 2), Lucius, 38, 124–5, 135–6, 390
Sestius (RE 6), Publius, actions against Catilinarians of, 16, 26
as champion of Cicero, 110
as informant of Cicero in 63 and after, 16, 130
as military tribune, 15, 128–9
as proquaestor in Macedonia, 140–1
as quaestor, 16, 122, 129–38, 218
as recipient of popular favour, 35
as speaker in his own defence, 21 n. 47
assaulted in 57 as tribune, 17, 19, 200
attacked at temple of Castor, 273, 275, 292–8, 399
career of, 14–17, 37–8
charged with ambitus in 52, 21 n. 47, 38
charged with electoral corruption in 56, 17 n. 39, 375, 403
charged with vis, 17–20, 26–7, 403
charges against, instigated by Clodius, 11
commercial interests of his family, 15
pg 486compared by prosecutor with Milo, 19, 31, 122, 301, 306–7
corresponds with Cicero in exile, 272
drafts legislation for Cicero's recall, 16–17, 277, 399
elected tribune for 57, 9, 16
goes over to Caesar after Pharsalus, 38
irritates Cicero, 20, 116
loyalty of, to former father-in-law, 126
marriages of, 15
mission to Caesar in 58, 272–3, 399
mission to Capua in 63, 16, 131–6
praised by Cicero at trial of Calpurnius Bestia, 20, 254, 294, 403
publicly praised by Cicero, 116
receives testimonial from Pompey, 22, 147
rejoins Antonius in Jan. 62, 139
service in Macedonia, 16
tribunate of, 26
unanimous acquittal of, 36, 109, 403
use of gangs by, 14, 18–19, 113, 292, 298, 361
Sextius (RE 36) Sextinus, Lucius, 328
Shaving, 161
'Ship of state' (metaphor), 127, 145, 177, 220–1, 321
Slaves, Clodius' alleged political use of, 198–9, 223, 286
fears of uprisings by, 133, 140
trained, as readers, 340
Sociability, 'natural', 308
Social life, origins of, 307–8
societates. See Publicans (publicani), corporations of
Socrates, 123
Space, social organization of, in atrium-house, 170–1
Spartacus, 133, 140, 198, 211, 221, 265
Speech Against Piso 161
On His House 402
On the Consular Provinces, 40, 172, 201–2, 404 n. 41, 405
On the Soothsayers' Responses, 404
To the People, 365, 401
To the Senate, 401
Speech for Sestius, 'all Italy' in, 175, 280, 363, 366–7
appeals to imagination in, 154–5
Cicero's 'self-sacrifice' in, 219–35
Cicero's apologia in, 201–35 passim
Clodius as foil for Milo in, 312
compound peroration in, 379
conditional clauses as framing device in, 107–8, 230
contractualist premise of, 108
deception in, 12–14, 211, 274–6, 294, 300, 305–6, 311
departure from chronological sequence in, 195, 201, 238
elements of farce in, 296
euphemism in, 126, 185–6, 202, 236, 283, 292, 298, 306, 316, 362
exchange with imagined interlocutor (sermocinatio) in, 163, 256, 339
exordium of, 107
generalization in, 185
glancing blow at 'triumvirs' in, 381
gods invoked in, 219
pg 487invective in, 12–13, 142–3, 145–75 passim, 336–42, 372–8
jokes in, 296–7, 359, 376–7
judges questioned aggressively in, 295, 345
judges' indulgence requested in, 351
metonymy in, 139, 312, 335
mixed metaphors in, 141, 208, 241
moments of 'punctuation' in, 141, 210, 216–17, 311–12, 351
narratio in, 141–2
oxymoron in, 297
personification in, 36, 239
poetry quoted in, 327
prayer to gods in, 312
prompt circulation of, 37 n. 77
puns in, 177, 263, 280, 348, 377
references to prosecutor in, 288, 317–18, 319 n. 2
responses to the prosecutor in, 36, 360–1
rhetorical questions in, 225
shaming gestures in, 295, 324
stance of 'triumvirs' represented in, 211–6
strategy of, 25–7, 273–4
structure of, 22–5
suppression of fact in, 193–4, 213
tactful omission of names in, 150, 257
transitions in, 37 n. 77, 235–6, 311–12, 359–60
use of exempla in, 203–5 and passim
use of parable in, 171, 220–1
use of Roman political landscape in, 159
word play in, 177
Speech, forensic, typical parts of, 22–3
Speeches, read from prepared statements, 364
Statius Caecilius (poet), 327
Statues, honorific, 297–8
Status quo, Cicero's defense of, 33, 35, 322
Stoicism, and emotion, 231, 259, 352
and essential human traits, 308, 310
and suicide, 224
Suicide, Cicero's rejection of, 224–30
of Cato, 225
of Publius Crassus, 225
Sulpicius (RE 95) Rufus, Servius, 297
supplicatio. See 'Thanksgiving'
Supplication, 179–80, 242, 285, 333–4

 

tabula Bantina, 205
tabula Valeria, 232
Tarquin the Proud, 229, 355
Tax, direct (tributum), 189–90
Temple, of Castor, 200–1, 257–8, 292–3, 298
of Concord, 178, 382
of Fortuna, 121
of Honos and Virtus, 10, 348, 362, 400 n. 25
of Jupiter Best and Greatest, 364, 371, 392
pg 488of Nymphs, 315, 403
of Penates, 220
of Salus, 370
of Vesta, 220
Terentia (RE 'Terentius' 95), 232, 241
Terentius (RE 'Licinius' 109) Varro Lucullus, Marcus, 244
Terentius (RE 84) Varro, Marcus, 228
Testimonials for defendants, 22, 135–6, 147
Thanksgiving (supplicatio), 181, 253, 349, 426
senate refuses to grant, 155, 277, 404 n. 40
voted for Caesar, 317
Theatrical shows. See Games
Themistocles, 384–5
Thessalonica, site of Cicero's exile, 9, 141, 398–9, 412
Tigranes (son of Tigranes II), 250–1, 265, 374, 397
Tigranes II (of Armenia), 250–1
Tigranocerta, 250–1
Titius (RE 2) (Clodian henchman), 294, 342
Toga, bordered (toga praetexta), 124, 153, 182, 390–1, 416
white (toga virilis), 124, 391
Town (municipium), 189
Tranquillity (otium), 120, 322–3, 427
Transfer to plebs, procedure for, 150
Transit-dues (portoria), 189, 314
Treason. See maiestas, perduellio
Treasury (aerarium), as archive, 29
Treasury tribunes (tribuni aerarii), 427
as judges, 21, 320
Trebellius (RE 3), Lucius, 197
Trial, before the people (iudicium populi), 11, 110, 112, 213
of Aemilius (RE 140) Scaurus, for treason, 325
of Aemilius (RE 141) Scaurus, for electoral corruption, 325
of Aemilius (RE 141) Scaurus, for extortion, 117–18, 325
of Annius (RE 67) Milo, before the people, 11, 110, 314, 403
of Annius (RE 67) Milo, for electoral corruption, 305
of Antonius (RE 19) ('Hibrida'), for treason(?), 16, 129–30
of Autronius (RE 7) Paetus, for electorial corruption, 184
of Autronius (RE 7) Paetus, for vis, 184
of Caecilius (RE 99) Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, electoral corruption, 342
of Caelius (RE 35) Rufus, for vis, 20 n. 45, 24, 38, 124, 403
of Calpurnius (RE 25) Bestia, for electoral corruption, 20, 254, 294, 403
of Cispius (RE 4), for electoral corruption, 286
of Claudius (RE 303) Pulcher, for extortion, 216
pg 489of Clodius (RE 48) Pulcher, for sacrilege, 4, 146–7, 300
of Clodius (RE 48) Pulcher, for vis (I), obstructed, 301–6, 399 488
of Clodius (RE 48) Pulcher, for vis (II), obstructed, 31, 315–17, 402
of Cloelius (RE 'Clodius' 12), charge unknown, 305, 374, 403
of Cornelius (RE 18) for treason, 300
of Cornelius (RE 69) Balbus, for illegally claiming citizenship, 118, 211
of Gabinius (RE 11), for electoral corruption (in 54), 156
of Gabinius (RE 11), for electoral corruption (in 59), 159
of Gabinius (RE 11), for extortion, 156, 160, 312
of Gabinius (RE 11), for treason, 17 n. 39, 156, 343
of Gabinius (RE 11), on unknown capital charge (perhaps a fiction), 155
of Licinius (RE 123) Murena, for electoral corruption, 117–18, 170, 211, 253, 375
of Opimius (RE 4), for death of a citizen, 3 n. 4, 382
of Opimius (RE 4), for collaborating with Jugurtha, 383
of Plancius (RE 4), for electoral misconduct, 343
of Propertius (RE 1), for murder, 266–7
of Rabirius (RE 5), for treason, 3 n. 4
of Sestius (RE 6), for electoral corruption (I), 17 n. 39, 375
of Sestius (RE 6), for electoral corruption (II), 21 n. 47
of Tullius (RE 31) Cicero, for extortion (anticipated), 232
of Vatinius (RE 2), for electoral corruption, 372
of Vatinius (RE 2), for legislative irregularity, 377
of Verres (RE 1), for extortion, 116, 118
political, 26, 114
Tribunal, Aurelian, 199
praetor's, 158
Tribunes, military, 15, 128, 423
Tribunes, of the plebs, 428
Clodius seeks to become, 6–7
in relation to consuls, 13, 175–6
promulgate bill for Cicero's recall, 9–10, 269–70, 277–8, 399
protection of (auxilium), 377
sacrosanct status of, 149, 218, 286, 292
veto used by, 175–6, 181, 284–5
creation of, 149
tribuni militum. See Tribunes, military
'Triumvirate, First', 8
formation of, 5–6
name of, 5 n. 9
Trustworthiness (fides), 115, 323, 361, 422
Tullia (RE 'Tullius' 60), 232, 242, 370, 403
death of, 227–8, 231
Tullius (RE 29) Cicero, Marcus, accused of 'tyranny', 3, 335
and trial of Clodius for sacrilege, 4, 146–7
apologia of, 201–35 passim
as exemplum, 230–5, 237
pg 490as patron of towns, 133–34
as saviour of the commonwealth, 5, 231, 283, 363–5
assumption of mourning dress by, 30, 174, 177, 194
attacks on Clodius by, in 61–60, 4
attitude toward gladiatorial shows of, 356
avoids using the term 'exile', 226, 230
blames Caesar for Clodius' transfer to the plebs, 7, 150–2
calls Marius 'father of the fatherland', 354
charged with forging a senatorial decree, 260–1
children of, threatened, 241–2
chooses exile to spare the commonwealth, 9, 225–30
claims to have suffered proscription, 221–2
compared with Metellus Numidicus, 203–4, 206–7
conceit of, 27–9
concern of, for 'worthy standing', 227–8, 323
confidence of, in 59, 7
contemplates suicide in 58, 9
creates 'standard version' of his exile, 8–14
critical of laws drafted for his recall, 17, 277, 399
criticized for boasting, 115
criticizes tribune's bill for his recall (Nov. 58), 269–70
dealings of, with Gaius Antonius in 63, 129
debt of, to Pompey, 115
dedicates statuette of Minerva, 364, 371, 396 n. 7
defends Asicius, 38, 403
defends Caelius, 20 n. 45, 24, 38, 124, 403
defends Gabinius, 156, 312
defends Gaius Antonius, 16, 129
defends Gaius Cornelius, 300
defends Lucius Murena, 117, 170, 375
defends Marcus Scaurus, 117–18, 325
defends Milo in senate in 53, 321
defends Sextus Roscius of Ameria, 113
defends Valerius Flaccus, 108, 113
defends Vatinius, 372
defense of, against charges of cowardice, 202–3, 282–3
delivers First Catilinarian, 131
dispatches Sestius to Capua in 63, 131–6
displays of erudition avoided by, 168, 228–9
enemies of, in 58, 222–3, 324
exile of, 1–11
exile of, and return, as 'drama', 2
fond of quoting poetry, 327
gratitude toward Lentulus Spinther of, 271
Greeks viewed by, 314, 340
grief of, in exile, 231
his pamphlet against Clodius and Curio, 179
his ungenerous treatment of Metellus Numidicus, 204, 239
hostility of, to Epicureanism, 167–70
hostility of, latent, toward Pompey, 269
pg 491house of, on Esquiline, 372
house of, on Palatine, 11, 112, 211, 241–2, 326, 354, 371, 402
humiliation of, 40, 405 n. 42
identified with res publica, 26–9, 35, 37, 110, 122, 141–2, 144–5, 173, 181, 188, 235, 241, 273, 362–3, 366
implicates Clodius in incest, 152, 348, 375, 409–11
informants of, 130
interrogates Vatinius, 22
irritation of, at Sestius, 20, 116
joined by Clodius in defense of Scaurus, 118
lampoons Stoic behavior, 170
leadership vs. responsibility of, in execution of Catilinarians, 137, 207
legal vulnerability of, 4 n. 7
loyalty of, to Aelius Lamia, 185–6
murder of, in 43, 129, 232
named Pompey's legate on grain commission, 402
nominated to college of augurs by Hortensius and Pompey, 117
obliquely accused of plotting against Pompey, 373
obliquely criticizes Caesar, 22, 150–1, 212, 372, 377
offends Pompey in 62, 5, 365
offers defence of political stance to Lentulus Spinther, 217, 272, 372
on place of emotion in oratory, 118–19
on use of veto, 176
plays off crowd responses in contio, 358
political independence of, 254
possible payment for gangs by, 113
praised by Pompey, 30
proposes discussion of Caesar's agrarian legislation, 39, 378, 403
prosecutes Verres, 116
reasons of, for rejecting use of force, in 58, 210–11, 216–24
'recantation' of, 40, 404 n. 41, 405 n. 42
reconciled with Metellus Nepos, 367–9
reconciled with Vatinius, 372
reconciliation with Gabinius of, merely formal, 156
rejects participation in 'First Triumvirate', 6
rejects suicide, 224–30
relations of, with Cato, 253–4, 256–7
relations of, with Metellus Celer, 369–70
relations of, with Metellus Nepos, 335, 364
relations of, with Pompey, 5–9, 30
return of, 11, 370–2
'self-sacrifice' of, 219–35
senatorial position of, 12–13
shame and regret of, in exile, 202–3, 220, 224, 231
shifting position of, after Luca, 38–9, 151–2, 201–2
speech of, Against Piso, 161
On His House, 402
On the Consular Provinces, 404 n. 41, 405
On the Soothsayers' Responses, 404
To the People, 401
To the Senate, 401
pg 492still threatened by Clodius after his return, 11, 199, 315, 402
supplicates Pompey, 13–14, 180, 396 n. 6
support for, in senate, 267
supported by Clodius, in 63, 146
supported by equestrians, in 63, 184
supports Caesar's Gallic command, 40, 404–5
supports Lentulus Spinther, 402–3
supports Pompey, in 66, 6, 147
tends to conflate events of 63 and 58, 206–7, 226
terms of his exile, 261
treatment of Caesar in present speech, 147, 272–3
treatment of Pompey in present speech, 147–8
unreconciled with Piso, 161
writes poem on exile and return, 271, 276
Tullius (RE 30) Cicero, Marcus, 124, 232
Tullius (RE 31) Cicero, Quintus, 7, 11, 178, 287
actions of, against Catilinarians, 133
as emissary of Pompey to Cicero, 39, 231
as governor of Asia, 296, 352
career of, 232
house of, burnt by Clodius, 199, 315, 402
leaves governorship of Asia, 267, 397
pledges Cicero's political cooperation to Pompey, 283
Tullius (RE 52) Tiro, Marcus, 377
Tullius (RE 13), Marcus (accuser of Sestius), 17, 19–20, 403
Tullius, Servius (king of Rome), 355
Tusculum, 313
tutor. See Guardian, legal
Twelve Tables, 239, 261–2, 335
Tyranny, accusations of, 3, 335, 357

 

Uprightness (integritas), 140, 273, 428
Usury, Roman view of, 158

 

Valerius Catullus, Gaius (poet), 166, 338, 411
Valerius (RE 176) Flaccus, Lucius, 362
Valerius (RE 179) Flaccus, Lucius, defended by Cicero, 108, 113
legate of Piso, 192
Varius (RE 1) Severus, Quintus, 325
Vatinius (RE 2), Publius, accuses prosecutor of collusion with defence, 19
as legate of Caesar, 378
defended by Cicero, 372
deformity of, 378
electoral defeat of, 343–4
interrogated by Cicero, 22
invective against, 372–8
legislation of, 196
reconciled with Cicero, 372
testimony of, against Sestius, 19, 22, 37, 360
tribunate of, 151, 206, 373
vectigal. See Public revenue
Vengeance, 12, 115, 136
invective as, 12, 142
judicial, 113
See also Enmity
Vergilius (RE 2) Balbus, Gaius, 192
Verres (RE 1), Gaius, 116, 127
pg 493Veterans, Pompey's, settled at Capua, 135
Veto, 286, 428
Clodius' alleged annulment of, 195, 197, 245
legislative use of, 175–6, 181
use of, by consuls, 190
use of, by tribunes, 197
Vettius (RE 6), Lucius, 373, 216
via Appia, 11, 371
Vibo, 397 n. 9
Violence, in public life, 10, 14, 113–14, 274–5, 285–9, 292–8, 357, 399, 401 n. 26
See also Gangs
virtus. See 'Manliness'
vis ('public violence'), charges of, 17–18, 24, 218, 300, 305, 374
Cicero's approach to charge of, 26–7, 114
defined, 18
penalty for, 111–12
Visellius (RE 2) Varro, Gaius, 277
Voting, scheduling of, 197–8
use of auspices to obstruct, 194–6, 316, 344

 

War, just grounds for, 249
Watching the heavens. See Auspices, Obnuntiation
Wax mask (imago), 162–3, 171, 429
Ways of our ancestors (mos maiorum), 149
Weeping, 119, 369
Well-Head of Libo (puteal Libonis), 158
Witnesses, in Sestius' trial, 22
'Worthy standing' (dignitas), 429
Cicero's, respected by Piso, 228
individual's relation to, 170, 227–8, 303
joined with tranquillity, 34 n. 72, 322

 

'Youth, the', as notional audience of Cicero's speeches, 33, 35, 142, 312, 315, 328, 351, 360, 379
Cicero's general view of, 142

 

Zeus Pistios, 164
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