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general books on greek tragedy

P. E. Easterling (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy (Cambridge, 1987) (henceforth Cambridge Companion); Simon Goldhill, Reading Greek Tragedy (Cambridge, 1986); Rush Rehm, Greek Tragic Theatre (London, 1992); Charles Segal, Interpreting Greek Tragedy: Myth, Poetry, Text (Ithaca, NY, and London, 1986); Oliver Taplin, Greek Tragedy in Action (London, 1978); J. P. Vernant and P. Vidal-Naquet, Tragedy and Myth in Ancient Greece (English trans., Brighton, 1981); John J. Winkler and F. I. Zeitlin (eds.), Nothing to do with Dionysos? Athenian Drama in its Social Context (Princeton, 1990).

general books on Euripides

P. Burian (ed.), New Directions in Euripidean Criticism (Durham, NC, 1985); Christopher Collard, Euripides (Greece & Rome New Surveys in the Classics 24; Oxford, 1981); D. J. Conacher, Euripidean Drama (Toronto, 1967); Euripide (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 6, Fondation Hardt, Geneva, 1960); Helene P. Foley, Ritual Irony: Poetry and Sacrifice in Euripides (Ithaca, NY, 1985); G. M. Grube, The Drama of Euripides, 2nd edn. (London, 1962); M. Halleran, Stagecraft in Euripides (London, 1985); A. N. Michelini, Euripides and the Tragic Tradition (Madison, Wis., 1987); Judith Mossman (ed.), Oxford Readings in Euripides (Oxford, 1999); E. Segal (ed.), Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, 1968); P. Vellacott, Ironic Drama: A Study of Euripides' Method and Meaning (Cambridge, 1976); C. H. Whitman, Euripides and the Full circle of Myth (Harvard, 1974).

euripides' life and biographies

Hans-Ulrich Gösswein, Die Briefe des Euripides (Meisenheim am Glan, 1975); J. Gregory, Euripides and the Instruction of the Athenians (Ann Arbor, 1991); P. T. Stevens, 'Euripides and the Athenians', JHS 76 (1956), 87–94; M. R. Lefkowitz, The Lives of the Greek Poets pg xlii(London, 1981), 88–104, 163–9; R. E. Wycherley, 'Aristophanes and Euripides', G&R 15 (1946), 98–107.

opinions and interpretations

R. B. Appleton, Euripides the Idealist (London, Toronto, and New York, 1927); Robert Eisner, 'Euripides' use of Myth', Arethusa, 12 (1979), 153–74; for 'historicist' approaches see E. Delebecque, Euripide et la guerre du Péloponnèse (Paris, 1951), and V. di Benedetto, Euripide: teatro e societa (Turin, 1971); E. R. Dodds, 'Euripides the Irrationalist', CR 43 (1929), 97–104; H. Reich, 'Euripides, der Mystiker', in Festschrift zu C. F. Lehmann-Haupts sechzigsten Geburtstage (Vienna, 1921), 89–93; K. Reinhardt, 'Die Sinneskrise bei Euripides', Eranos, 26 (1957), 279–317—Euripides as a nihilist; in his Existentialism and Euripides (Victoria 1977) William Sale draws on both Heidegger and Freud; A. W. Verrall, Euripides The Rationalist (Cambridge, 1895).

reception of euripidean tragedy

Peter Burian, 'Tragedy Adapted for Stages and Screens: The Renaissance to the Present', in Easterling (ed.), Cambridge Companion, 228–83; Stuart Gillespie, The Poets on the Classics (London and New York, 1988), 90–4; K. Mackinnon, Greek Tragedy into Film (London and Sydney, 1986); Martin Mueller, Children of Oedipus and other Essays on the Imitation of Greek Tragedy 1550–1800 (Toronto, 1980), 46–63; Helga Geyer-Ryan, 'Prefigurative Racism in Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris', in Francis Barber et al. (eds.), Europe and its Others (Colchester, 1985), 112–19; Robert Heitner, 'The Iphigenia in Tauris Theme in Drama of the Eighteenth Century', Comparative Literature, 16 (1964), 289–309; F. L. Lucas, Euripides and his Influence (New York, 1928); Sally MacEwen (ed.), Views of Clytemnestra, Ancient and Modern (Lewiston, Queenston, and Lampeter, 1990); Fiona Macinstosh, 'Tragedy in Performance: Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Productions', in Easterling (ed.), Cambridge Companion, 284–323; Diane Purkiss (ed.), Three Tragedies by Renaissance Women (Harmondsworth, 1998), which includes Jane Lumley's The Tragedie of Iphigenia.

pg xliiivisual arts

Vase-paintings illustrating scenes from Euripides are collected in A. D. Trendall and T. B. L. Webster, Illustrations of Greek Drama (London, 1971), 72–105, and supplemented in the articles under the names of each important character (e.g. 'Iphigenia') in the multi-volume ongoing Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (Zurich/Munich 1984–?). See also Oliver Taplin, 'The Pictorial Record', in Easterling, Cambridge Companion, 69–90; Kurt Weitzmann, 'Euripides scenes in Byzantine art', Hesperia, 18 (1949), 159–210.

production and performance contexts

Giovanni Comotti, Music in Greek and Roman Culture (Eng. trans., Baltimore and London 1989), 32–41; E. Csapo and W. J. Slater, The Context of Ancient Drama (Ann Arbor, 1995), 79–101; S. Goldhill, 'The Great Dionysia and Civic Ideology', in J. Winkler and F. I. Zeitlin (eds.), Nothing to do with Dionysos? Athenian Drama in its Social Context (Princeton, 1990), 97–129; John Gould, 'Tragedy in Performance', in B. Knox and P. E. Easterling (eds.), The Cambridge History of Classical Literature, i (Cambridge, 1985), 258–81; E. Hall, 'Actor's Song in Tragedy', in S. Goldhill and R. Osborne (eds.), Performance and Democracy (Cambridge, 1998); Nicolaos C. Hourmouziades, Production and Imagination in Euripides: Form and Function of the Scenic Space (Athens, 1965); Maarit Kaimio, Physical Contact in Greek Tragedy (Helsinki, 1988); Solon Michaelides, The Music of Ancient Greece: An Encyclopaedia (London, 1978), 117–19; A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 3rd edn. rev. J. Gould and D. M. Lewis (Oxford, 1988); Erika Simon, The Ancient Theater (London and New York, 1982); Oliver Taplin, The Stagecraft of Aeschylus (Oxford, 1977), and 'Did Greek Dramatists write Stage instructions?', Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 23 (1977), 121–32.

On satyr drama see P. E. Easterling, 'A Show for Dionysos', in Easterling (ed.), Cambridge Companion, 36–53; Richard Seaford (ed.), Euripides' Cyclops (Oxford, 1984), 1–45; E. Hall, 'Ithyphallic Males Behaving Badly: Satyr Drama as Gendered Tragic Ending', in M. Wyke (ed.), Parchments of Gender: Reading Ancient Bodies (Oxford, 1998).

pg xlivsocial and historical context

See J. K. Davies, Democracy and Classical Greece (Glasgow, 1978), 63–128, and 'Athenian Citizenship: The Descent Group and the Alternatives', CJ 73 (1977–8), 105–21; Anton Powell, Athens and Sparta: Constructing Greek Political and Social History from 478 BC (London, 1988); Paul Cartledge, The Greeks (Oxford, 1996) and (ed.), The Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece (Cambridge, 1997).

For an overview of the problems in reconstructing Athenian women's lives, see Josine Blok's survey in J. Blok and H. Mason (eds.), Sexual Asymmetry: Studies in Ancient Society (Amsterdam, 1987), 1–57. For a recent range of views on gender issues see D. Cohen, Law, Sexuality, and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens (Cambridge, 1991); John Gould, 'Law, Custom, and Myth: Aspects of the Social Position of Women in Classical Athens', JHS 100 (1980), 38–59; Virginia Hunter, Policing Athens (Princeton, 1994), 9–42; R. Just, Women in Athenian Law and Life (London and New York, 1989); Elaine Fantham et al. (eds.), Women in the Classical World (New York and Oxford, 1994).

specific aspects of euripidean drama

Rachel Aélion, Euripide. Héritier d'Eschyle, 2 vols. (Paris, 1983); W. G. Arnott, 'Euripides and the Unexpected', G&R 20 (1973), 49–63; Francis M. Dunn, Tragedy's End: Closure and Innovation in Euripidean Drama (New York and Oxford, 1996); H. Erbse, Studien zum Prolog der euripideischen Tragödie (Berlin, 1984); M. Fusillo, 'Was ist eine romanhafte Tragödie? Überlegungen zu Euripides' Experimentalismus', Poetica, 24 (1992), 270–99; Richard Hamilton, 'Prologue, Prophecy and Plot in Four Plays of Euripides', AJP 99 (1978), 277–302, and 'Euripidean Priests', HSCP 89 (1985), 53–73; Martin Hose, Studien zum Chor bei Euripides (Berlin, 1990–1); E. O'Connor-Visser, Aspects of Human Sacrifice in the Tragedies of Euripides (Amsterdam, 1987); Bernd Seidensticker, 'Tragic Dialectic in Euripidean Tragedy', in M. S. Silk (ed.), Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond (Oxford, 1996), 377–96; Sophie Trenkner, The Greek Novella in the Classical Period (Cambridge, 1958), 31–78; R. P. Winnington-Ingram, 'Euripides: poiētēs sophos', Arethusa, 2 (1969), 127–42.

pg xlvFor the lost plays of Euripides see C. Collard, M. J. Cropp, and K. H. Lee (eds.), Euripides: Selected Fragmentary Plays, i–ii (Warminster, 1995, 1999); T. B. L. Webster, The Tragedies of Euripides (London, 1967).

On slaves in Euripides see K. Synodinou, On the Concept of Slavery in Euripides (Eng. trans., Ioannina, 1977); E. Hall, 'The Sociology of Athenian Tragedy', in Easterling (ed.), Cambridge Companion, 93–126; D. P. Stanley-Porter, 'Mute Actors in the Tragedies of Euripides', BICS 20 (1973), 68–93. On children see G. Sifakis, 'Children in Greek Tragedy', BICS 26 (1979), 67–80. On women see H. Foley, 'The Conception of Women in Athenian Drama', in H. P. Foley (ed.), Reflections of Women in Antiquity (London and New York, 1981), 127–67; Ruth Herder, Die Frauenrolle bei Euripides (Stuttgart, 1993); Nicole Loraux, Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman (Eng. trans., Cambridge, Mass., 1987); Richard Seaford, 'The Structural Problems of Marriage in Euripides', in A. Powell (ed.), Euripides, Women and Sexuality (London and New York, 1990), 151–76; Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz, Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women (Ithaca, NY, and London, 1993); Froma Zeitlin, Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature (Chicago and London, 1996).

For religion in Euripides see C. Sourvinou-Inwood, 'Tragedy and Religion: Constructs and Meanings', in Christopher Pelling (ed.), Greek Tragedy and the Historian (Oxford, 1997), 161–86. For sceptical discussions see M. R. Lefkowitz, 'Was Euripides an Atheist?', Studi Italiani, 5 (1987), 149–65, and '"Atheism" and "impiety" in Euripides' dramas', CQ 39 (1989), 70–82; G. E. Dimock, 'God or Not God, or between the Two': Euripides' Helen (Northampton, Mass., 1977—Euripides' evangelism); Harvey Yunis, A New Creed: Fundamental Religious Beliefs in the Athenian Polis and Euripidean Drama (= Hypomnemata 91, Göttingen, 1988). On supplication scenes, see J. Gould, 'Hiketeia', JHS 93 (1973), 74–103.

On the sophists, philosophy, and the intellectual background see J. H. Finley, 'Euripides and Thucydides', in Three Essays on Thucydides (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), 1–24; S. Goldhill, Reading Greek Tragedy (Cambridge, 1986), 222–43; G. B. Kerferd, The Sophistic Movement (Cambridge, 1981); W. Nestle, Untersuchungen über die philosophischen Quellen des Euripides (Philologus suppl. 8.4 (1901), 557–655, and Euripides: der Dichter der griechischen Aufklärung (Stuttgart, 1901); F. Solmsen, Intellectual Experiments of the Greek Enlightenment (Princeton, 1975), 24–31, 132–41.

pg xlviOn rhetoric see V. Bers, 'Tragedy and Rhetoric', in I. Worthington (ed.), Greek Rhetoric in Action (London and New York, 1994), 176–95; Richard Buxton, Persuasion in Greek Tragedy (Cambridge, 1982); C. Collard, 'Formal Debates in Euripidean Drama', G&R 22 (1975); D. J. Conacher, 'Rhetoric and relevance in Euripidean drama', AJP 102 (1981), 3–25; E. Hall, 'Lawcourt Dramas: The Power of Performance in Greek Forensic Oratory', BICS 40 (1995), 39–58; M. Lloyd, The Agon in Euripides (Oxford, 1992).

On characterization, see H. P. Stahl, 'On "Extra-Dramatic" Communication in Euripides', YCS 25 (1977), 159–76; J. Griffin, 'Characterization in Euripides', in C. Pelling (ed.), Characterization and Individuality in Greek Literature (Oxford, 1990), 128–49.

On speech, language, style, and imagery, see Shirley Barlow, The Imagery of Euripides (London, 1971); I. J. F. de Jong, Narrative in Drama: The Art of the Euripidean Messenger-Speech (Leiden, 1991); P. T. Stevens, Colloquial Expressions in Euripides (Wiesbaden, 1976); Ernst Schwinge, Die Verwendung der Stichomythie in den Dramen des Euripides (Heidelberg, 1968).

individual plays Iphigenia among the Taurians

Editions: M. Platnauer (ed.), Euripides: Iphigenia at Tauris (Oxford, 1938); Martin Cropp (ed.), Euripides' Iphigenia in Tauris (forthcoming, Warminster, 1999).

Studies: R. Caldwell, 'Tragedy Romanticized: The Iphigenia Taurica', CJ 70 (1974–5), 23–40; Dietrich Ebener, 'Der humane Gehalt der Taurischen Iphigenie', Altertum, 12 (1966), 97–103; Karelisa Hartigan, 'Salvation via Deceit: A New Look at the Iphigenia at Tauris', Eranos, 84 (1986), 119–25; A. O. Hutton, 'Euripides and the Iphigenia Legend', Mnemosyne, 15 (1962), 364–8; David Sansone, 'The Sacrifice-Motif in Euripides' Iphigenia among the Taurians', TAPA 105 (1975), 283–311; D. F. Sutton, 'Satyric Qualities in Euripides' Iphigenia at Tauris and Helen', RSC 20 (1972), 321–30; J. T. Svendsej, 'The Letter Device in Euripides and Shakespeare', in K. Hartigan (ed.), Legacy of Thespis (University of Florida Comparative Drama Papers), iv (1984), 75–88; C. Wolff, 'Euripides' Iphigenia among the Taurians: Aetiology, Ritual, and pg xlviiMyth', Classical Antiquity, 11 (1992), 308–34; Froma Zeitlin, 'Figures of Dreams, Figures of Doubles: Mortals and Immortals in Euripides' Iphigenia in Tauris', in her Vision, Figuration, and Image: From Theater to Romance (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1999).


Commentaries: E. R. Dodds (ed.), Euripides' Bacchae, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1960); Richard Seaford (ed.), Euripides' Bacchae (Warminster, 1996).

Studies: M. Arthur, 'The Choral Odes of the Bacchae of Euripides', YCS 22 (1972), 145–79; S. des Bouvrie, 'Euripides' Bacchae and Maenadism', Classica et Medievalia, 48 (1997), 75–114; A. P. Burnett, 'Pentheus and Dionysus: host and guest', CP 65 (1970), 15–29; R. Buxton, 'News from Cithaeron: Narrators and Narratives in the Bacchae', Pallas, 90 (1970), 39–48; G. Devereux, 'The Psychotherapy Scene in Euripides' Bacchae', JHS 90 (1970), 35–48; H. Foley, 'The Masque of Dionysus', TAPA 110 (1980), 107–33; H. Oranje, Euripides' Bacchae: The Play and its Audience (Leiden, 1984); W. C. Scott, 'Two Suns over Thebes: Imagery and Stage Effects in the Bacchae', TAPA 105 (1975), 333–46; R. Seaford, 'Dionysiac Drama and the Dionysiac Mysteries', CQ 31 (1981), 252–75; B. Seidensticker, 'Comic Elements in Euripides' Bacchae', AJP 99 (1978), 303–20, and 'Sacrificial Ritual in the Bacchae', in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Arktouros: Hellenic Studies Presented to Bernard M. W. Knox (Berlin and New York, 1979), 181–90; John Whitehouse, 'The Dead as Spectacle in Euripides' Bacchae and Supplices', Hermes, 114 (1986), 59–72.

Iphigenia at Aulis

Commentaries: C. Collard (ed.), Euripides' Iphigenia in Aulis (Warminster, forthcoming).

Studies: Dale Chant, 'Role Inversion and its Function in the Iphigenia at Aulis', Ramus, 15 (1986), 83–92; H. Foley, 'Marriage and Sacrifice in Euripides' Iphigenia in Aulis', Arethusa, 15 (1982), 159–80; J. Ferguson, 'Iphigenia at Aulis', TAPA 99 (1968), 157–63; Bernard Knox, 'Euripides' Iphigenia in Aulide 1–163 (in that order)', YCS 22 (1972), 239–62; C. A. E. Luschnig, 'Time and Memory in Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis', Ramus, 11 (1982), pg xlviii99–104, and Tragic Aporia: A Study of Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis (= Ramus Monographs 3, 1988); Gudrun Mellert-Hoffman, Untersuchungen zur 'Iphigenie in Aulis' des Euripides (Heidelberg, 1969); Herbert Siegel, 'Self-delusion and the volte-face of Iphigenia in Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis', Hermes, 108 (1980), 300–21; Herbert Siegel, 'Agamemnon in Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis', Hermes, 109 (1981), 257–65; Wesley D. Smith, 'Iphigenia in Love', in Arktouros (see above under Bacchae), 173–80; F. Wassermann, 'Agamemnon in the Iphigenia at Aulis', TAPA 80 (1949), 117–86; F. I. Zeitlin, 'Art Memory, and kleos in Euripides' Iphigenia in Aulis', in B. Goff (ed.), History, Tragedy, Theory: Dialogues on Athenian Drama (Austin, Tex., 1995), 174–201.


Commentaries: W. H. Porter, The Rhesus of Euripides, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1929); Edith Hall (ed.), The Rhesus attributed to Euripides (Warminster, forthcoming).

Studies: Francesca Bernacchia, 'Il Reso: eredità rituali ed elaborazione drammaturgica', Dioniso, 60 (1990), 40–53; Anne Burnett, 'Rhesus: Are Smiles Allowed?', in P. Burian (ed.), Directions in Euripidean Criticism (Durham, 1985), 13–51; Dietrich Ebener, Rhesos: Tragödie eines unbekannten Dichters (Berlin, 1966); B. Fenik, Iliad X and the Rhesus: The Myth (= Latomus 73, Brussels, 1964); H. D. F. Kitto, 'The Rhesus and Related Matters', YCS 25 (1977), 317–50; Grace Macurdy, 'The Dawn Songs in Rhesus (525–556) and in the Parodos of Phaethon', AJP 64 (1943), 406–18; Guido Paduano, 'Funzioni drammatiche nella struttura del Reso', Maia, 25 (1973), 3–29; G. Pagani, 'Il Reso di Euripide: il dramma di un eroe', Dioniso, 44 (1970), 30–43; Hugh Parry, 'The Approach of Dawn in the Rhesus', The Phoenix, 18 (1964), 283–93; W. Ritchie, The Authenticity of the Rhesus of Euripides (Cambridge, 1964); V. J. Rosivach, 'Hector in the Rhesus', Hermes, 104 (1978), 54–73; H. Strohm, 'Beobachtungen zum Rhesus', Hermes, 87 (1959), 257–74.

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