Elizabeth Goldring, Faith Eales, Elizabeth Clarke, Jayne Elizabeth Archer, Gabriel Heaton, and Sarah Knight (eds), John Nichols's The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth I: A New Edition of the Early Modern Sources, Vol. 1: 1533–1571

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THE PROGRESS INTO ESSEX, SUFFOLK, AND HERTFORDSHIRE, JULY-SEPTEMBER 1561

Edited by Gabriel Heaton. The principal source for the route of the royal progress of 1561 (see Map 3) is the set of accounts of the daily expenses—or diet—of the Royal Household. They are here taken from BL, Cotton MS Vespasian C.XIV, vol. 2, fos. 188–96, a copy of the Cofferer's accounts from 10 July to 22 Sept. 1561, covering the period from the court's departure from Greenwich until its return to St James's Palace. This edition is supplemented with a number of other early documents—including letters and administrative records—which are used to illustrate aspects of this progress. The Cofferer's accounts are in Latin. Translations, by the editor of the present edition, appear as footnotes to the text.

Another copy of the Cofferer's accounts, covering the eleven months from Oct. 1560 to Sept. 1561 and including a daily breakdown of expenses (where the Cotton MS often only provides a sum total), is found in NA, E 101/429/12 (see Fig. 6). The same expenses are also recorded in the accounts of the Controller of the Household (NA, E 101/429/13). The locations visited on the progress can be independently confirmed by the records of payments made to gentlemen ushers for making ready the Queen's lodgings, which are found in the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber (NA, E351/541, mem. 28); however, this account does not list the lodgings in the order in which they were visited. Nicholspg 185

Map 3. The Essex progress, 1561. Drawn by Nigel James

Map 3. The Essex progress, 1561. Drawn by Nigel James

supplements the household diet with a number of other sources that describe some of the principal locations visited on this progress or provide insight into the issues concerning Queen and court during the summer of 1561. The early modern sources cited by Nichols have mostly been incorporated into the text, while antiquarian sources and Nichols's own comments in notes have been retained only when they provide significant additional information.

The 1561 progress was easily the most ambitious of the reign so far. For the itinerary of the progress, see Miller Christy, 'The Progresses of Queen Elizabeth Through Essex', and F. G. Emmison, Tudor Secretary: Sir William Petre at Court and Home, 237–45. Comparison of the costs recorded in the Royal Household's accounts with the costs incurred by those who hosted the Queen show that most of the expense fell to the Household: the costs incurred by the Household averaged £112 per day, whereas hosts spent an average of around £37 per day. The costs of this progress were substantially less than those incurred during progresses from the 1570s onwards. See Cole, The Portable Queen, 75–6.

pg 186

Fig. 6. A manuscript leaf from the cofferer's accounts, June 1561. (National Archives, Kew)

Fig. 6. A manuscript leaf from the cofferer's accounts, June 1561. (National Archives, Kew)

pg 1873. Elizabeth Progrees into Suffolke

In particularibus Computis Thome Weldon36 Armigeri Coferarij Hospicij domine Regine Elizabeth per vno integro anno finito ad vltimum diem Septembris anno regni sui tercio:./37

Charterhowse38

Iouis39 Decimo die Iulye ibidem40 & Charter howse

Cvijli xjs viijd

Veneris41 Duodecimo42 die Iuly ibidem Charter howse

Cli xixs

Sabbati43 Duodecimo die Iulij ibidem

Cijli ixs jd ob44

Strond45

Dominica46 decimo tercio die Iulij ibidem & Stronde C dispenss47 fower poundes iiijs iiijd. ob Buttellaria48 - xxli xs ijd ob Gardaroba49 xvijli xvjs vd Coquina50 xIli xvs xjd pulletria51 xixli iijd Scuttellarium52 xlviijs Salssaria53 xxvs xd Aula54 <cs vjli xixs viijd Stabulum55 xli xviijs vjd vadia56 xli Elimozina57 iiijs

Cxxxiiijli 4s 2d

Wansted & Hauering58

Lunes59 Decimo quarto die Iulij ibidem Wansted and Havering

Ciiijli ijs xjd ob

pg 188Martis60 Decimo quinto die Iulij ibidem Havering

Cvijli xviijs jd

Pugo61

Mercurij62 decimo Septo die Iulij ibidem & Purgo Cxij vjs iijd ob quadrans63

Hauering Lowtenhall64

Iouis Decimo Septimo die Iulij ibidem Haveringe and Lowtenhall

Cxjli xiiijd quadrans

Veneris Decimo Octavo die Iulij ibidem Havering

iiijxxxvli xijs vijd

Ingerston65

Sabbati xix Iulij ibidem & Ingerstone

Cijli viijs vijd ob

Dominica Vicesimo die Iulij ibidem Ingerstone

Cxiiijli vijs ixd ob

Newhall66

Lune Vicesimo primo die Iulij ibidem & Newhall

Cvli xviijd

pg 189This67 New Hall appertained sometime to the Butlers Earles of Ormond, and then hereditarily to Sir Thomas Bollen Earle of Wiltshire,68 of whom King Henrie the Eighth getting it by way of Exchange69 inlarged it to his exceeding great charges, and called it by a new name Beaulieu, which for all that was never currant among the people.

He70 also erected it unto an Honour, and greatly adorned and improved it. Here he kept the feast of St. George, 1524… . Mr Morant71 thinks it most probable that the old house here was either new built or repaired by Thomas, earl of Ormond.72 But it was greatly adorned and improved by Henry VIII. who built, in particular, the noble gate-house leading into the grand court, as appeared by his arms over the gate, carved in stone, supported by a lion and griffin, with this inscription under them:

  • Henricus rex octauus rex inclitus armis
  • Magnanimus struxit hoc opus egregium73

They are said to have been brought from the gateway in one of the courts erected by this king, and are now over a door opposite the grand entrance, which door formerly led into a spacious court… . Over the house door were the arms of England as before, in a garter, supported by a crowned lion and a griffin sided by cariatides;74 over them this inscription.

viva elizabetha.

Under the arms,

in terra la piu savia regina, en cielo la piu lucenta75 stella.

virgine magnanima, dotta, divina, legiadra, honesta, e bella.76

Newhall

Martis Vicesimo Secundo die Iulij ibidem Newhall

Cxiiijli xixs 3d ob

Mercurij Vicesimo tertio Iulij ibidem

pg 190Cixli xvs vijd

Iouis Vicesimo quarto die Iulij ibidem ut supra77

iiijxx xvijli 13s 5d ob quadrans

Veneris Vicesimo quinto die Iulij ut ibidem ut supra

iiijxx xvli xvijs viijd

Felixhall & Colchester78

Sabbati Vicesimo Sexto die Iulij ibidem felixhall & Colchester

Cjli xijs vd ob quadrans

Dominica Vicesimo Septimo die ibidem Colchester dispenss vjli xiijs iijd Buttellaria xvjli ijs ijd Gardaroba xvijli ixs viijd quadrans Coquina xxxvijli ijs viijd pulletria xixli xvs xjd ob Sutt xlviijs iiijd Salssaria xvs ijd Aula &cs Vjli xvijs vjd Stabulum xli xviijs vjd vadia xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxviijli vijs vjd ob quadrans

Lune Vicesimo octavo die Iulij ibidem ut supra

Cvijli xiijs ob

Martis Vicesimo Nouo die Iulij ibidem ut supra

Cvli vs

St Ossyes79

Mercuriij Tricesimo die Iulij ibidem & St Osyes

Cli vjs iiijd ob quadrans

Iovis Vltimo die Iulij ibidem St Osyes

Cvli ixs vd

Anno regni domine Regine nunc Elizabeth tertio80

Colchester

Diett

Die Veneris primo die Auggustij ibidem

iiijxx xixli iiijs vd ob quadrans

pg 191Harwiche

Die Sabbati secundo die Augusti ibidem nts81 et Harwich dispenss Cs vijd Buttellaria xliijli xixs ijd Garder vjli iiijs viijd quadrans Coquina xljli viijs iiijd pullia Ciijs xd Scuttellarium xvjs viijd Salsaria xixs xd Aula &ces xlvs stabulum xvli vs jd ob Vadea. xli Elimozina iiijs

Cvjli vijs ob quadrans

August 12. 1561.82 Queen Elizabeth came hither and accepted of an Entertainment from the Borough, lodging, as it is said, for several Days at a House about the middle of the High-Street, and being attended by the Magistrates at her Departure as far as the Windmill out of Town, she graciously demanded of them, what they had to request of her, from whom she received this Answer, Nothing, but to wish her Majesty a good Journey: Upon which she turning her Horse about, and looking upon the Town said, A pretty Town and wants nothing, and so bad them farewel.

Harwich

Die Dominica tertio die Augusti ibidem Harwich dispenss Cvs vjd Buttillaria xvjli ixs ixd Garderoba xiiijli xixs jd ob Coquina. xlvjli xvs ijd Pullia. xviijli xiijs ixd Scuttellarium xxxs Salsaria xxiiijs Aula &ces xxvjs xd Stabulum xiijli vs jd ob vadea xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxixli xiijs viijd

Die Lune Quarto die Augusti ibidem

Cxiijli vjs ob

Ippeswiche

Die Martis quinto die Augusti ibidem et Ippeswiche

Cixli xvjs 7d ob quadrans

Die Mercurye Septo Die Augusti ibidem Ippeswich

Cviijli ixs viijd ob

Die Iouis Septimo die Augusti ibidem

Ciiijli xiiijs iijd

Die Veneris Octavo die Augusti ibidem

Cli iijs ixd ob

Die Sabbati Nouo Die Augusti ibidem

Cviijli xs 6d ob quadrans

Ad huc Ippeswiche

Die Dominica decimo die Augusti ibidem nts Dispenss Cvs iijd Buttillaria xixli vijs xjd Garderoba xvjli xixd Coquina xxx iiijli xixs ijd pullia xixli xijd ob Scuttiliapg 192 - vjli vs Salsaria xxiijs Aula & Camera83 Liijs viijd Stabulum xixli viijs viijd ob vadea xli Elimozina - iiijs

Cxxxiiijli ixs 4d

Shelly hall84 & Smalebridge85

Die Lune Vndecimo die Augusti ibidem nts shelly hall et Smalebridge Dispenss Cvs iijd Buttillaria xixli Garderoba Viijli iiijs ixd Coquina xxixli vjs Viijd pullia xvli xvijs xd Scuttellarium Vijli xs Salsaria xxiijs Aula & Camera xxxs Stabulum xxxli xxjd ob Vadea xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxviijli 3s 3d ob

Die Martis Duodecimo die Augusti ibidem Smalebridgge dispenss vijli xs Viijd Buttillaria xixli ixd Gardor Vijli xviijs ijd ob quadrans Coquina xxviijli xiiijs pullia xvjli ixs viijd Scuttellarium Vijli Salsaria xxs viijd Aula &ces xxiijs Stabulum xxvli vs vd ob vadea xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxiiijli vjs 5d quadrans

Die Mercurij decimo tertio die Augusti ibidem nts dispenss vijli xs viijd Buttilia xviijli vs vd Gardor vijli xvjs xjd quadrans Coqina xxixli xvijs xd Pullia xvjli vijs ijd Scuttellarium Cxixs iiijd Salsaria xixs iiijd Aula &ces iiijli ixs vjd Stabulum xixli xvijs vjd ob vadea - xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxjli vijs 8d ob quadrans

Hemingham86

Die Iouis Decimo quarto die Augusti ibidem nts et Hemingham Dispenss xiijli xvjs vijd Buttilia xviijli xiiijs Gardor Vijli xvjs iijd quadrans Coqina xxviijli xs vjd Pullia xvli vjs xjd ob Scuttellarium Ls Salsaria xxiijs viijd Aula &ces xxs vjd Stabulum. xxviijli xvjs vijd ob Vadea xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxvijli xixs jd quadrans

Ad huc Hemingham

Die Veneris Decimo quinto die Augusti ibidem Hemingham

Ciiijli ijs vjd ob

Die Sabbati Decimo Septo die Augusti ibidem

pg 193Cxli xvs xd ob quadrans

Die Dominica Decimo Septimo die Augusti ibidem

iiijxx xijli ijd ob

Die Lune Decimo octavo die Augusti ibidem nts Dispnss. Cvijs xjd Buttillaria xxli xs ijd Gardor. xviijli ixs xjd Coquina xxixli xvjs Pulii xviijli iijs ixd Scuttillarium Ls Salsaria xxiiijs Aula & Camera xxxiijs iiijd Stabulum xiijli vs jd ob Vadea xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxjli iiijs ijd ob

Gosfeld87

Die Martis Decimo Nouo die Augusti ibidem et Gosfeld

Cvijli ixs 11d ob quadrans

Die Mercurij Vicesimo die Augusti ibidem Gosfeld

Ciiijli xijs xjd

Lees88

Die Iouis Vicesimo primo die Augusti ibidem & Lees

Cviijli 13s jd ob quadrans

Die Venis Vicesimo Secundo die Augusti ibidem Lees

iiijxxxvijli 13s 11d quadrans

Die Sabbati Vicesimo tertio die Augusti ibidem

iiijxxxixli 13s 6d ob quadrans di89

Die Dominica Vicesimo quarto die Augusti ibidem

iiijxxiijli xd quadrans

Allingbury Morley90

Die Lune Vicesimo quinto die Augusti ibidem et allingbury morley

Cixli xvs xd quadrans

Ad huc Allingbury Morley

Die Martis Vicesimo Sexto die Augusti ibidem

Cijli vs 8d ob quadrans

pg 194Standen91

Die Mercurij Vicesimo Septimo die Augusti ibidem et Standen

Cxijli xvs 7d ob quadrans

Die Iouis Vicesimo octavo die Augusti ibidem Standen

Cijli xs iiijd quadrans

Die Veneris Vicesimo Nouo die Augusti ibidem

iiijxxxiijli 4s 3d quadrans

Hartford92

Die Sabbati Tricesimo Die Augusti ibidem et Hartforde

Cvli xjs vijd

Die Dominica Vltimo die Augusti ibidem Hartford dispenss Cs iijd Buttillaria xv li xvjs jd Garderoba xiijli xs vd ob Coquina xxxixli xviijs Pullia xvijli xijs vd Scuttellarium xlvs xd Salsaria xxixs ijd Aula &ces xxxiiijs Stabulum xiijli vs xjd quadrans Vadea - xli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxli xvs jd ob quadrans

Hertford

Lune Primo Die Septembris ibidem Herforde dispenss iiijli xijs vjd Buttellaria xli ixs jd ob Gardaroba xxli xijs ixd Coquina xxxvijli iijs iiijd Pullia xvjli xiijs jd Scuttillarium xlixs Vjd Salssaria xxvs Aula & Camera xlviijs Stabulum xli vs xjd ob quadrans Vadea xvli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxjli iijs iijd quadrans

Martis secundo die Septembris ibidem ut supra Dispenss iiijli xijs vjd Buttellaria xiiijli vijs ijd Garderabo xiiijli xijs vd Coquina xljli iiijs vjd Pullia xviijli xvijs vijd Scuttellarium L.s vd Salssaria xxijs xd Aula &ces xxxjs stabulum xli vs xjd ob quadrans Vadea xvli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxiiijli viijs 4d ob quadrans

Mercurij tertio die Septembris ibidem ut supra

pg 195Cxvijli vjs 8d ob quadrans

Iouis Quarto die Septembris ibidem vt supra

Cxijli xjs ijd

Veneris Quinto die Septembis ut supra

Ciijli iiijs ixd quadrans

Sabbati Septo die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cxjli ixs vjd ob quadrans

Dominica Septimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra dispenss iiijli xviijs ijd

Buttellaria xiiijli ijs vjd Garderoba xvjli xjs vjd Coquina xxxixli iijs iiijd Pullia xixli ijs vijd ob. Scuttellarium Ls Salsaria xxviijs iiijd Aula &ces Camera iiijli vijs vjd Stabulum xiijli vs xjd ob quadrans Vadea xvli Elimozina - iiijs

Cxxxli xiijs xjd quadrans

Lune Octavo die Septembris ibidem ut supra dispenss iiijli xvjs ijd Buttellaria xvli xjs xd Garderoba Viijli xvd ob quadrans Coquina xliijli xiiijs ixd Pullia xiijli xs jd Scuttellarium Ljs Salsaria xxiijs iiijd Aula & Camera xxixs Stabulum xiijli vs xjd ob quadrans Vadea xvli Elimozina - iiijs

Cxixli vijs vd ob

Martis Nouo die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cxvjli vs 6d ob quadrans

Mercurij Decimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cixli iiijs vd ob

Iouis Vndecimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cviijli xviijs iijd

Veneris Duodecimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra

iiijxxxvijli 4s 9d ob

Sabbati Decimo tertio die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cli xvijs iijd ob

Dominica Decimo quarto die Septembris ibidem ut supra dispenss iiijli ijs viijd Buttellaria xiijli xs vd Garderoba xvli vs iiijd Coquina xxxli xs ixd Pulletria xviijli xiiijs vjd Scuttillarium Liijs Salsaria xiiijs xd Aula & Camera vjli xijs ijd Stabulum xiijli vjs ixd ob Vadea xvli Elimozina iiijs

Cxxli xiiijs vd ob

Lune Decimo quinto die Septembris ibidem ut supra

Cli ixs xd ob quadrans

Enduile93

Martis Decimo Sexto die Septembris ibidem Endvile dispens iiijli xixs

Buttellaria xvli viijd Garderoba xviijli vijs ob Coquina xxijli xijs viijd Pullia xviijli iijs iijd Scuttellarium Cxs iiijd Salssaria xviijs viijd Aula & Camera xli xxd Sabulum xli vjs ixd quadrans Vadea xixli xxd Elimozina iiijs

Cxxvli vs 8d ob quadrans

pg 196Enfeld94 a house of the Kings is here to be seene, built by Sir Thomas Lovel knight95 (of the order of the Garter and one of King Henrie the Seaventh his priuie counsell) and Durance neighbour thereunto a house of the Wrothes of ancient name in this Countie.96 To Enfeld-house, Enfeld-chace is hard adioining, a place much renowned for hunting.

Mercurij Decimo Septimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra Dispenss iiijli xiijs iiijd ob Buttilia xviijli xijs vjd Garderoba ixli vs ijd ob Coquina xlli xvjs viijd ob Pullia xijli xs vd Scuttellarium Vijli iiijs vd Salssaria xvs viijd Aula & Camera Cxijs Stabulum xli vijs ixd quadrans Vadea xviijli Viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxxviijli xs ob quadrans

Iouis Decimo Octavo die Septembris ibidem ut supra dispenss Viijli xvjs jd ob Buttellaria xviijli ixs vjd Garderoba xixli vjs iijd ob quadrans Coquina xxxjli viijs viijd Pullia xvjli ixd ob. Scuttellarium Viijli xviijs Salsaria xiijs iiijd Aula &ces vjli Vijs ixd Stabulum xvli vijs ob quadrans Vadea xviijli viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxlijli xixs xd ob

Die Veneris Decimo Nouo die Septembris ibidem ut supra Dispenss Vjli ijs iiijd ob Buttellaria xvli xs vijd Garderoba xviijli vs jd Coquina xxxviijli xjs ijd Pullia xiijli xjs xd Scuttellarium Cs Salsaria xiiijs Aula & Camera Vijli ijs ixd Stabulum xli xiiijs ob Vadea xviijli Viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxxxiiijli iijs xd

Sabbati Vicesimo die Septembris ibidem ut supra Dispenss Vjli xviijs jd ob Buttellaria xvjli iiijs ixd ob Gardaroba xiiijli iiijs ixd ob quadrans Coquina xlli ijs vijd Pullia xiijli xjs ixd Scuttellarium iiijli xviijs vd Salsaria xiiijs ijd Aula & Camera Lxs iijd. Stabulum xijli iiijs ob Vadea xviijli Viijs Elimozina iiijs

pg 197Cxxxli xs xjd quadrans

Dominica Vicesimo primo die Septembris ibidem Dispenss Ciijs xjd ob Buttellaria xiijli vs ob Garderoba xijli iiijs ixd ob quadrans Coquina xlvjli xijd Pullia xiiijli Viijs xd ob quadrans Scuttellarium vjli vs ijd Salsaria xiijs xd Aula & Camera viijli xvijs iiijd Stabulum xvijli ixs iiijd ob Vadea xviijli viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxliijli 11s 5d

St Iames97

Lune Vicesimo secundo die Septembris ibidem & St Iacobus dispenss vjli vjs iijd ob Buttellaria xvijli ijs iijd Garderoba xixli ixs iiijd Coquina xlvli vd Pullia xiiijli vs vijd Scuttellarium Cijs xd Salsaria xiijs viijd Aula & Camera vjli xs Stabulum xijli xixs ijd ob quadrans Vadea xviijli viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxlvjli xixd quadrans

Martis Vicesimo tertio die Septembris ibidem Sti Iacobus Dispenss vjli iiijs vd Buttellaria xiiijli xs iijd Garderoba xvjli xijs vd Coquina xxxixli xvs ixd Pullia xviijli xvjs viijd ob Scuttellarium vjli xvjs ijd Salssaria xiijs viijd Aula &ces Lxviijs vjd Stabulum xli iiijs xd ob quadrans Vadea xviijli Viijs Elimozina iiijs

Cxxxvli xiiijs ixd quadrans

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
36 Thomas Weldon had been appointed Cofferer of the royal household by Edward VI in 1552. He stayed in post through the reign of Mary and was to remain until 1567. The Cofferer's position in the Household was under that of the Controller, and he had oversight of other household officers.
Editor’s Note
37 Trans.: 'In the private accounts of Thomas Weldon, Esq., Cofferer of the household of the lady Queen Elizabeth for one whole year finishing on the last day of September in the third year of her reign.'
Editor’s Note
39 Iouis: Thursday.
Editor’s Note
40 ibidem: in the same place. The court had previously been residing at Greenwich (see NA, E 101/429/12).
Editor’s Note
41 Veneris: Friday.
Editor’s Note
42 'Duodecimo' (twelfth) should read 'Vndecimo' (eleventh).
Editor’s Note
43 Sabbatis: Saturday.
Editor’s Note
44 obolos: halfpenny.
Editor’s Note
45 Strand. For descriptions by John Norden of the Savoy and Somerset House, both possibly visited by Queen Elizabeth at this time, see vol. v, App. 6.
Editor’s Note
46 Dominica: Sunday.
Editor’s Note
47 dispensator; dispensarius: steward.
Editor’s Note
48 buttellaria: buttery.
Editor’s Note
49 gardaroba: wardrobe.
Editor’s Note
50 coquina: kitchen.
Editor’s Note
51 pulletria: poultry.
Editor’s Note
52 scutellarium: scullery.
Editor’s Note
53 salsaria: saucery or salsary, department of the royal household charged with the preparation of sauces.
Editor’s Note
54 aulea: hangings.
Editor’s Note
55 stabulum: stable.
Editor’s Note
56 vadia: wages.
Editor’s Note
57 eleemosyna: alms.
Editor’s Note
58 For Wanstead, see n. 29. The manor and park of Havering was a royal liberty, confirmed by charter in 1465 and remaining with the crown until 1828. It usually formed part of the jointure of a queen consort. See HKW, iv. 150–3; VCH: Essex, vii. 11; and vol. v, App. 9.
Editor’s Note
59 Lunae: Monday.
Editor’s Note
60 Martis: Tuesday.
Editor’s Note
61 In 1559 the crown had granted Pyrgo, near Havering, to Lord John Grey (d. 1564), youngest son of Thomas Grey (1477–1530), 2nd Marquess of Dorset (1501–30). Lord John was a committed Protestant; both of his elder brothers had been executed for involvement in Wyatt's Rebellion. He was the uncle of Ladies Jane and Katherine Grey (who was to be imprisoned at Pyrgo, 1563–4).
Editor’s Note
62 Mercurij: Wednesday.
Editor’s Note
63 quadrans: farthing (a quarter of a penny).
Editor’s Note
64 Loughton Manor had belonged to the monastery of Waltham, at the dissolution of which it passed to the crown. It was on a long lease to John Stonard (Stoner) (d. 1579), and the Queen would visit Stonard at Loughton again in 1578. John Stonard's daughter and heir, Susan (d. in or after 1606), was to marry Sir Robert Wroth (c.1539–1606). See William Chapmen Waller, 'An Extinct County Family: Wroth of Loughton Hall'.
Editor’s Note
65 Ingatestone was the property of Sir William Petre (1505/6–72), who had worked closely with men such as Richard Rich in the dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s and had been Principal Secretary from 1544 until his retirement in 1557. He had been granted Ingatestone by the crown in 1539 and built the house there between c.1540 and 1544. Petre's household accounts for the royal visit of 1561 survive in Essex Record Office (Chelmsford Branch), D/P 94/5/1. They include payments for food, wages, rewards, and sundry other expenses and are quoted extensively in Emmison, Tudor Secretary: Sir William Petre at Court and Home, 237–43.
Editor’s Note
66 New Hall, Boreham, to the north-east of Chelmsford in Essex. After the developments of the Henrician period described in Camden, New Hall became the principal residence of Princess Mary during the reign of Edward VI. It was in poor structural condition by the time Elizabeth came to the throne and repairs were carried out by Surveyor of the Works prior to her visit in 1561 (and again in 1565–7). In 1573 the Queen was to grant New Hall to Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex. See HKW, iv. 172–5 (which includes a plan of the house). Much of the Henrician house was pulled down in the 18th c. but some parts remain. At the time of Elizabeth's visit the chapel at New Hall included a magnificent Flemish-made stained glass window commemorating the marriage of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon, depicting them with patron saints in the outer windows and the Crucifixion in the central panels. This was later removed and is now the east window of St Margaret's Church, Westminster.
Editor’s Note
67 This description of New Hall is taken from Camden, Britain (1610), 446.
Editor’s Note
68 Thomas Boleyn (1476/7–1539), father of Anne Boleyn, cr. Earl of Wiltshire in 1529.
Editor’s Note
69 Henry VIII purchased the estate of New Hall from Boleyn in 1516 for the sum of £1,000.
Editor’s Note
70 Henry VIII. The source for the following description of New Hall is George Vertue, Vetusta Monumenta, ii, text accompanying Plates XLI and XLII, 2–3.
Editor’s Note
71 Philip Morant (1700–70), author of The History and Antiquities of Colchester and The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex.
Editor’s Note
72 Thomas Butler (d. 1515), 7th Earl of Ormond (1477–1515).
Editor’s Note
73 Trans.: 'King Henry VIII, a king renowned in arms,/ Nobly erected this outstanding work'. The text here is taken from a photograph of the surviving inscription (HKW, iv, frontispiece) rather than Vertue's occasionally inaccurate transcription.
Editor’s Note
74 cariatides: columns in the form of female figures.
Editor’s Note
75 Sic; should be lucente.
Editor’s Note
76 Trans.: 'On earth the wisest Queen, in Heaven the brightest star/ Noble, learned, divine, graceful, honourable, and fair virgin'.
Editor’s Note
77 ut supra: as above.
Editor’s Note
78 Felix Hall, or Filliols Hall, in Kelvedon, belonged to a minor, Henry Long (1544–73). His father, Sir Richard Long (c. 1494–1546), had died in his early childhood and his mother, Margaret, née Donington (1508/9–61), married John Bourchier (1489–1561), 2nd Earl of Bath (1539–61). It is possible that Margaret, who had been widowed in Feb. 1561, was also in attendance at Felix Hall. The Treasurer's Accounts reveal that a gentleman usher, Pierce Pennante, was paid for making ready Layer Marney Tower for the Queen to stay there (NA, E351/541, m. 28). However, this location, which lies between Kelvedon and Colchester, is not noted in the Cofferer's Accounts. Layer Marney was the property of George Tuke.
Christy, 'Progresses of Queen Elizabeth through Essex', 119, suggests that the Queen probably resided at St John's Priory, property of Thomas Lucas (1531–1611), during her time at Colchester. Thomas was the son of John Lucas (1512?–56), who, like many of the Queen's hosts in 1561, had become a major landowner as a result of his involvement in the administration of the massive land redistribution of the 1530s and 1540s.
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79 St Osyth's Priory was the property of John Darcy (c.1532–81), 2nd Baron Darcy of Chiche. Elizabeth returned to St Osyth's in 1579.
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80 Trans.: 'Now in the third year of the reign of our present queen, the lady Elizabeth'.
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81 nts: noctis, or noctes (other forms of the noun would have been more grammatical).
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82 The following paragraph is taken from Samuel Dale, The History and Antiquities of Harwich and Dovercourt, 249–50. Dale quotes from a 'MS. of Collections' on Harwich made in about 1676 by Silas Domville, alias Taylor (1624–78), Master of the King's Stores and antiquary.
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83 camera: chamber.
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84 The Queen's host during her short visit to Shelley Hall, Suffolk, where she did not stay the night, was Philip Tilney (1540/1–1602). See William Hervy, The Visitation of Suffolk 1561, ed. Joan Corder, 192. Philip Tilney's son Charles (1561–86) was a Gentleman Pensioner but was later executed for his involvement in the Babington conspiracy of 1586.
Editor’s Note
85 Smallbridge Hall in Bures was the seat of the Waldegrave family. Sir Edward Waldegrave (1516/17–61) had been a Privy Councillor and close personal adviser to Queen Mary. He refused to conform under Elizabeth: he and his wife Frances, née Neville (1518/19–99), were indicted for harbouring priests and hearing Mass in Apr. 1561. At the time of the Queen's visit to Smallbridge, Sir Edward was imprisoned in the Tower, where he died in Sept. 1561. It is possible that his son, William Waldegrave (1540–1613), took a prominent role in entertaining the Queen; while most of the Waldegrave family remained Catholic throughout Elizabeth's reign and beyond, William conformed. He was, however, a minor who came of age in Nov. 1561.
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86 Hedingham Castle, Essex, seat of John de Vere (1516–62), 16th Earl of Oxford (1540–62).
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87 Gosfield Hall had been built by Sir John Wentworth (d. 1567). The west wing of the Tudor house still stands.
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88 Leigh's Priory, Little Leighs, had been granted by the crown to Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, in 1536, and formed the centre of his extensive estate (see nn. 29, 58). The house was demolished in the mid-18th c., with the exception of the gatehouse.
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89 ob quadrans di: one-eighth (of a penny).
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90 Morley Place (later known as Hallingbury Place), Great Hallingbury, on the edge of Hatfield forest, had been built by Henry Parker (1480/1–1556), 10th Baron Morley, and was inhabited by his grandson and heir, also called Henry Parker (1531/2–77), 11th Baron Morley. The Parkers were connected to the Boleyn family: Jane (d. 1542), daughter of the 10th Baron Morley, had married George Boleyn (?1504–36), Viscount Rochford (1529–36) and brother of Anne Boleyn. The 11th Baron Morley was, however, a committed Catholic, who was later linked to the revolt of the Northern Earls and fled to Bruges in 1570. He died an exile in Paris.
Editor’s Note
91 The manor of Standon, Hertfordshire, had been purchased in 1544 by the diplomat and administrator Sir Ralph Sadler (1507–87), who built a great mansion there. Sadler had been a member of Elizabeth's Privy Council since 1558 and was particularly concerned with Anglo-Scottish relations (he was Warden of the East and Middle Marches). Nichols gives a brief account of the house as it appeared in the early 19th c.: 'His [i.e. Ralph Sadler's] initials are over the hall door in the wooden spandrils, and over the porch in the right hand spandril is R. S. with a lion rampant sinister in a field Ermine, dated 1546. The house forms a quadrangle, built entirely of brick, entered by a gate sided by two octagon embattled towers, and two more at the end of the front. On the right is an oriel window to the hall: most of the windows are sashed. The offices form a second quadrangle on the right, but have been partly pulled down' (The Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, 1st edn., i. 12 (irreg. pag.). Sadler's magnificent funerary monument stands in St Mary's Church, Standon. It is described in vol. v, App. 21.
Editor’s Note
92 Elizabeth stayed at Hertford Castle, which had descended to the crown through the Duchy of Lancaster. In 1559 it had required £800 of repair, but only £311 had been spent by the time of the Queen's visit. The Castle continued to decline through Elizabeth's reign: she visited again in 1576, but the law courts' sojourn at the castle in 1592, when plague prevented them sitting in London (as had also occurred in 1563 and 1581), was the Castle's last official use, and it was demolished in the early years of James I's reign. See VCH: Hertfordshire, iii. 501–6 (which includes a plan of the castle) and HKW, iii. 254–7.
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93 Enfield. The Queen continued to make use of Enfield House. See the Memoirs of Robert Carey, under 1593–4 (vol. iii, pp. 738–9).
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94 The following passage is taken from Camden, Britain (1610), 437. Lovell's house, known as Elsings, then passed to Thomas Manners (c.1497–1543), 1st Earl of Rutland (1525–43), and to the crown in 1539. Elizabeth had a long association with Enfield, described in 1590 as 'Enfield house that longes vnto our Queene' (William Vallans, A Tale of Two Swannes (1590), sig. B2r). She had been residing there when her father died, and in 1550 Edward VI had granted her both Elsings and the manor of Worcester, which is the source of John Norden's reference to 'Enfielde house … Queene elizabeths, builded by an Earle of Worcester' (Norden, Speculum Britanniæ (1593), 19). The name derives from its ownership by John Tiptoft (1427–70), 1st Earl of Worcester. Elsings was demolished in the 17th c. and its remains are in the grounds of Forty Hall (now a museum). Some fittings, notably a chimney-piece, were removed from Elsings into a room in a later building. The Elizabethan fittings in the later building are described by Nichols: 'it has a lofty square parlour wainscoted with oak curiously pannelled. The chimney-piece is decorated with three compartments of the same work, supported by a pillar. In the middle compartment are the Arms of England in a Garter, supported by a Lion and Griffin. Motto. "Dieu & mon droit;" [God and my right] and underneath,
"Sola salus servire Deo;
Sunt cetera fraudes." [The only salvation is to serve God;/ Others are mere deceits.]
At the side the Rose and Portcullis crowned, and under them E. R. for Elizabetha Regina. The mantle-piece is stone, charged with foliage and birds, and supported by two similar pillars' (The Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, 2nd edn., i. 102). This building was known as 'The Palace', so Nichols understandably believed that it had formed part of the Tudor palace. However, see HKW, iv. 86–9.
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95 Sir Thomas Lovell (c.1449–1524).
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96 Durants had been the property of the Wroth family since 1401; the head of the family in 1561 was Sir Thomas Wroth (1518?–73). Early 17th-c. Durants was celebrated by Jonson in his poem 'To Sir Robert Wroth'.
Editor’s Note
97 For John Norden's description of St James, see vol. v, App. 6.
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