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pg 19Editor’s Notesermon 2Critical Apparatus| Preached at Lincolns Inne.[N2v]

  • 2Matth. 18. 7.
  • 3Wo unto the world, because of offences.

Editor’s Note4The Man Moses was very meeke, above all the men which were upon the faceNumb. 12.3. 5of the Earth. The man Moses was so; but the Child Jesus was meeker then Editor’s Note6he. Compare Moses with men, and Moses will scarce be parallel'd; Compare 7him with him, who being so much more then man, as that he was God too, was 8made so much lesse then man, as that he was a worme and no man, and Moses 9will not be admitted. If you consider Moses his highest expression, what Editor’s Note10he would have parted with for his brethren, in his Dele me, Pardon them, or blot 11my name out of thy book, yet Saint Pauls zeale will enter into the balance, and Editor’s Note12come into comparison with Moses in his Anathema pro fratribus, in that he 13wished himselfe to be separated from Christ, rather then his brethren should Editor’s Note14be. But what comparison hath a sodaine, a passionate, and indigested Editor’s Note15vehemence of love, expressed in a phrase that tasts of zeale, but is not done, 16(Moses was not blotted out of the book of life, nor Saint Paul was not separated 17from Christ for his brethren) what comparison hath such a love, that was but 18said, and perchance should not have been said (for, we can scarce excuse Moses, Editor’s Note19or Saint Paul, of all excesse and inordinatenesse, in that that they said) with a Editor’s Note20deliberate and an eternall purpose in Christ Jesus conceived as soon as we can 21conceive God to have knowen that Adam would fall, to come into this world, 22& dye for man, and then actually and really, in the fulnesse of time, to do so; 23he did come, and he did dye. The man Moses was very meeke, the child Editor’s Note24Jesus meeker then hee. Moses his meeknesse had a determination, (at least an Critical Apparatus25interruption, a discontinuance) when hee revenged the wrong of anotherExod.2. 12. Editor’s Note26upon that Egyptian whom he slew. But a bruised reed might have stoodEsay 42.3. 27unbroken, and smoking flax might have lien unquenched for ever, for all Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus28Christ. And therefore though Christ send his Disciples to School, to theMat.23.2. Editor’s Note29Scribes and Pharisees, because they sate in Moses seat, for other lessons, yet 30for this, hee was their School-master himselfe, Discite à me, learne of mee, for11.29. 31I am meek. In this Chapter hee gives them three lessons in this doctrine of 32meeknesse; Hee gives them foundations, and upperbuildings, The Text, and a Editor’s Note33Comment, all the Elements of true instruction, Rule and Example. First, hee 34findes them contending for place, Quis maximus, who should be greatest inver.1. 35the kingdome of heaven. The disease which they were sick of, was truly an 36ignorance what this kingdome was; For, though they were never ignorant that pg 2037there should bee an eternall kingdome in heaven, yet they thought not that the 38kingdome of Christ here should onely be a spirituall kingdome, but they Editor’s Note39looked for a temporall inchoation of that kingdome here. That was their 40disease, and a dangerous one. But as Physitians are forced to doe sometimes, to Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus41turne upon the present cure of some vehement symptome, and accident, and 42leave the consideration of the maine disease for a time, so Christ leaves the 43doctrine of the kingdome for the present, and does not rectifie them in that Editor’s Note44yet, but for this pestilent symptome, this malignant accident of precedency, 45and ambition of place, he corrects that first, and to that purpose gives them Editor’s Note46the example of a little child, and tells them, that except they become as humble, Editor’s Note47as gentle, as supple, as simple, as seely, as tractable, as ductile, as carelesse of 48place, as negligent of precedency, as that little child, they could not onely not 49be great, but they could not at all enter into the kingdome of heaven. He gives 50them a second lesson in this doctrine of meeknesse against scandals, and 51offences, against an easinesse in giving or an easinesse in taking offences. For, 52how well soever we may seeme to be in our selves, we are not well, if we Editor’s Note53forbear not that company, and abstaine not from that conversation, which by 54ill example may make us worse, or if wee forbear not such things, as, though 55[N3r]they bee in-|different in themselves, and can do us no harme, yet our example 56may make weaker persons then we are, worse, because they may come to doe 57as we do, and not proceed upon so good ground as we doe; They may sin in 58doing those things by our example, in which we did not sinne, because we 59knew them to be indifferent things, and therefore did them, and they did them 60though they thought them to bee sinnes. And for this Doctrine, Christ takes Editor’s Note61vers.8.an example very near to them, If thy hand, or foot, or eye offend thee, cut it off, 62pull it out. His third lesson in this doctrine of meeknes is against hardnesse of Editor’s Note63heart, against a loathnesse, a wearinesse in forgiving the offences of other men, Editor’s Note64vers.21.against us, occasioned by Peters question, Quoties remittam, How oft shall my 65brother sinne against me, and I forgive him? and the example in this rule Christ 66vers.28.hath wrapped up in a parable, The Master forgave his servant ten thousand Editor’s Note67Talents, (more money then perchance any private man is worth) and that Editor’s Note68servant took his fellow by the throat, and cast him into prison, because he did 69not presently pay an hundred pence, perchance fifty shillings, not three pound 70of our money: in such a proportion was Christ pleased to expresse the Masters Editor’s Note71inexhaustible largenesse and bounty, (which is himselfe,) and the servants Editor’s Note72inexcusable cruelty, and penuriousnesse, (which is every one of us.) The root 73of all Christian duties is Humility, meeknesse, that's violated in an ambitious 74precedency, for that implyes an over-estimation of our selves, and an under-75value of others; And it is violated in scandals, and offences, for that implies Editor’s Note76an unsetlednesse and irresolution in our selves, that we can bee so easily 77shaked, or a neglecting of weaker persons, of whom Christ neglected none; Editor’s Note78and it is violated in an unmercifulnesse, and inexorablenesse, for that implies an Editor’s Note79indocilenesse, that we will not learn by Christs doctrine; & an ungratefulnesse, 80that we will not apply his example, and do to his servants, as he, our Master, pg 21Editor’s Note81hath done to us: And so have you some Paraphrase of the whole Chapter, as it 82consists of Rules and Examples in this Doctrine of meeknes, endangered 83by pride, by scandall, by uncharitablenes. But of those two, pride & Critical Apparatus84uncharitablenes (though they deserve to be often spoken of,) I shal have no 85occasion from these words of my text, to speak, for into the second of these 86three parts, The Doctrine of scandals, our text fals, and it is a Doctrine very 87necessary, and seldome touched upon.

88As the words of our Text are, our parts must be three. First, that heavyDivisio. 89word , woe; Secondly, that generall word, Mundo, Woe be unto the world; Editor’s Note90And lastly, that mischievous word, A scandalis, Woe bee unto the world because Critical Apparatus91of scandals, of offences. Each of these three words wil receive a twofold con-92sideration; for the first, , is first Vox dolentis, a voice of condoling and 93lamenting, Christ laments the miseries imminent upon the world, because of Editor’s Note94scandals, and then it is Vox minantis, a voice of threatning, and intermination, Editor’s Note95Christ threatens, he interminates heavy judgements upon them, who occasion 96and induce these miseries by these scandals; This one denotes both these; Editor’s Note97sorrow, and yet infallibility; They always go together in God; God is loath to 98doe it, and yet God will certainly inflict these judgements. The second word, 99Mundo, Woe be unto the world, lookes two ways too; Væ malis, woe unto evill 100men that raise scandals, væ bonis, woe unto them who are otherwise good Editor’s Note101in themselves, if they be so various, as to be easily shaked and seduced by Editor’s Note102scandals. And then upon the last word A scandalis, Woe be unto the world, 103because of scandals, of offences, wee must look two ways also; first, as it denotes 104Scandalum activum, a scandall given by another, and then, as it denotes 105Scandalum passivum, a scandal taken by another.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus106First then, our first word, in the first acceptation thereof, is 1. Part. 107dolentis, the voice of condoling and lamentation; God laments the necessity Editor’s Note108that he is reduced to, and those judgements which the sinnes of men have 109made inevitable. In the person of the Prophets which denounced the Editor’s Note110judgements of God, it is expressed so, Onus Babylonis, Onus Egypti, Onus 111Damasci; O the burthen of Damascus, the burthen of Egypt, the burthen of Editor’s Note112Babylon; And not only so, but Onus visionis, Not onely that that judgment 113would be a heavy burthen, when it fell upon that Nation, but that the very Editor’s Note114pre-contemplation, and pre-denunciation of that judgement upon that people, Editor’s Note115was a burthen and a distastfull bitternesse, to the Prophet himself, that was Editor’s Note116sent upon that message. In reading of an Act of Parliament, or of any Law that Editor’s Note117inflicts the heaviest punishment that can be imagined upon a delinquent, and 118transgressour of that Law, a man is not often much affected, because hee needs 119not, when he does but read that law, consider that any particular man is fallen 120under the penalty, and bitternesse thereof. | But if upon evidence and verdict[N3v] 121he be put to give judgement upon a particular man that stands before him, at 122the bar, according to that Law, That that man that stands there that day, must 123that day be no man; that that breath breathed in by God, to glorify him, must pg 22Editor’s Note124be suffocated and strangled with a halter, or evaporated with an Axe, he must Editor’s Note125be hanged or beheaded, that those limbs which make up a Cabinet for that 126precious Jewell, the image of God, to be kept in, must be cut into quarters, or Editor’s Note127torne with horses; that that body which is a consecrated Temple of the Holy 128Ghost, must be chained to a stake, and burnt to ashes, hee that is not affected Editor’s Note129in giving such a judgment, upon such a man, hath no part in the bowels of Editor’s Note130Christ Jesus, that melt in compassion, when our sinnes draw and extort his 131Judgements upon us in the mouth of those Prophets, those men whom God Editor’s Note132Esa.1. 24.sends, it is so, and it is so in the mouth of God himself that sends them. Heu Critical Apparatus133vindicabor, (says God) Alas, I will revenge mee of mine enemies; Alas, I will, is 134Alas, I must, his glory compels him to doe it, the good of his Church, and the 135sustentation of his Saints compell him to it, and yet he comes to it with a Editor’s Note136condolency, with a compassion, Heu vindicabor, Alas, I will revenge mee of mine Editor’s Note137Ezech.6.11.enemies: so also in another Prophet, Heu abominationes, Alas for all the evill 138abominations of the house of Israel; for (as it is added there) they shall fall, (that Editor’s Note139is, they will fall) by the sword, by famine, by pestilence, and (as it follows) I will 140accomplish my fury upon them; Though it were come to that height, fury, and 141accomplishment, consummation of fury, yet it comes with a condolency, and 142compassion, Heu abominationes, Alas for all the evill abominations of the house of 143Israel, I would they were not so ill, that I might be better to them. Men sent by 144God do so, so does God that sends those men, & he that is both God and man, 145Christ Jesus does so too: We have but two clear records in the Scriptures of Editor’s Note146Ioh. 11.33.Christs weeping, and both in compassion for others; when Mary wept for her 147dead brother Lazarus, and the Jews that were with her wept too, Jesus also Editor’s Note148wept, and he groan'd in the spirit, and was troubled. This was but for the dis-Editor’s Note149comfort of one family, (it was not a mortality over the whole Country) It was Editor’s Note150but for one person in that family, (it was not a contagion that had swept, or did Editor’s Note151threaten the whole house) it was but for such a person in that family, as he Critical Apparatus152meant forthwith to restore to life again, and yet Iesus wept, & groaned in the Critical Apparatus153Spirit, & was trobled; he would not lose that opportunity of shewing his Editor’s Note154tendernesse, and compassion in the behalf of others. How vehement, how 155Luke. 19.41.passionate then, must we beleeve his other weeping to have been, when hee 156had his glorious and beloved City Jerusalem in his sight, and wept over that Editor’s Note157City, and with that stream of tears powred out that Sea, that tempestuous Sea, 158Mat. 23.34.those heavy judgements, which, (though he wept in doing it) he denounced Editor’s Note159upon that City, that glorious, that beloved City, which City (though Christ 160charge, to have stoned them that were sent to her, and to bee guilty of all the 1614. 5.righteous blood shed upon the earth) the holy Ghost cals the holy City for all 162that, not onely at the beginning of Christs appearance, (The Devill took him up 163into the holy City) (for at that time she was not the unholyer for any thing that 164shee had done upon the person of Christ,) but when they had exercised all 165their cruelty, even to death, the death of the Crosse upon Christ himselfe, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus166Mat. 27. 53.the Holy Ghost calls still the holy City; Many bodies of Saints, which pg 23Editor’s Note167slept, arose, and went into the holy City. When the Fathers take into their 168contemplation and discourse, that passionate exclamation of our Saviour upon Editor’s Note169the Crosse, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? those blessed Fathers, 170that never thought of any such sense of that place, that Christ was, at that 171time, actually in the reall torments of hell, assign no fitter sense of those words, Editor’s Note172then that the foresight of those insupportable, and inevitable, and imminent 173judgements upon his City, and his people, occasioned that passionate 174exclamation, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? That as, after he Editor’s Note175was ascended into heaven, he said to Saul, Cur me persequeris? He called SaulsActs 9.4. 176persecuting of his Church, a persecuting of him, so when hee considered that 177God had forsaken his people, his Citie, his Jerusalem, he cryed out, that God 178had forsaken him. God that sent the Prophets; the Prophets that were sent; Editor’s Note179Christ who was both, the person sent, and the sender, came to the inflicting 180and denouncing of judgements, with this Væ dolentis, a heart, and voice of 181condoling and lamentation.

Editor’s Note182Grieve not then the holy Spirit of God, says the Apostle; extort not from himEph. 4.30. 183those Judgements, which he cannot in justice forbear, and yet is grieved to 184inflict. How of-|ten doe we use that motive, to divert young men from some ill[N4r] 185actions, and ill courses, How will this trouble your friends, how will this grieve 186your Mother, this will kill your Father? The Angels of heaven who are of a 187friendship and family with us as they rejoyce at our conversion, so are they Editor’s Note188sorry and troubled at our aversion from God. Our sins have grieved our Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus189Mother; that is, made the Church ashamed, and blush that she hath washed 190us, and clothed us, in the whitenesse and innocency of Christ Jesus in our 191baptisme, and given us his bloud to drinke in the other Sacrament. Our sins 192have made our mother the Church ashamed in her selfe, (we have scandalized 193and offended the Congregation) and our sinnes have defamed and dis-Editor’s Note194honoured our mother abroad, that is, imprinted an opinion in others, that that 195cannot be a good Church, in which we live so dissolutely, so falsely to our first Editor’s Note196faith, and contract, and stipulation with God in Baptisme. Wee have grieved 197our brethren, the Angels, our mother, the Church, and we have killed our Editor’s Note198Father: God is the father of us all; and we have killed him; for God hathMal. 2. 10. 199purchased a Church with his bloud, says Saint Paul. And, oh, how much more isAct. 20.28 200God grieved now, that we will make no benefit of that bloud which is shed for 201us, then he was for the very shedding of that bloud! We take it not so ill, Editor’s Note202(pardon so low a comparison in so high a mystery; for, since our blessed 203Saviour was pleased to assume that metaphor, and to call his passion a Cup,Mat.20.22 204and his death a drinking, we may be admitted to that Comparison of drinking 205too) we take it not so ill, that a man go down into our Cellar, and draw, and 206drinke his fill, as that he goe in, and pierce the vessells, and let them runne Editor’s Note207out, in a wastfull wantonnesse. To satisfie the thirst of our soules, there was 208a necessity that the bloud of Christ Jesus, should be shed; To satisfie Christs Editor’s Note209own sitio, that thirst which was upon him, when he was upon the Crosse, there 210was a necessity too, that Christ should bleed to death. On our part there was pg 24211an absolute and a primary necessity; God in his justice requiring a satisfaction, 212nothing could redeem us, by way of satisfaction, but the bloud of his Sonne. 213And though there were never act more voluntary, more spontaneous, then Editor’s Note214Christs dying for man, nor freer from all coaction, and necessity of that kind, Editor’s Note215yet after Christ had submitted himselfe to that Decree and contract that passed 216between him, and his Father, that he, by shedding his bloud, should redeem 217Mankind, there lay a necessity upon Christ himselfe to shed his bloud, as Editor’s Note218Luke 24.26.himselfe says first to his Disciples that went with him to Emaus, Nonne 219oportuit, ought not Christ to suffer all these things? do ye not find by the Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus220verse 46.prophets that he was bound to do it? and then to his Apostles at Jerusalem, Sic 221oportuit, Thus it behoved Christ to suffer. There was then an absolute necessity Editor’s Note222upon us, an obedientiall necessity upon Christ, that his bloud must be shed; Editor’s Note223But to let him dye in a wantonnesse, to let out all that precious liquor, and Editor’s Note224taste no drop of it, to draw out all that immaculate and unvaluable bloud, and Editor’s Note225make no balsamum, no antidote, no plaister, no fomentation in the application 226of that bloud, to labour still under a burning fever of lust, and ambition, and Editor’s Note227presumption, and finde no cooling julips there, in the application of that 228bloud, to labour under a cold damp of indevotion, and under heartlesse Editor’s Note229desperation, and find no warming Cordialls there, to be still as farre under 230judgements and executions for sinne, as if there had been no Messias sent, no Critical Apparatus231ransome given, no satisfaction made, not to apply this bloud thus shed for us, 232by those meanes which God in his Church presents to us, this puts Christ to Editor’s Note233his wofull Interjection, to cast out this wo upon us, (which he had rather have 234left out) wo be unto the world, which, though it begin in a væ dolentis, a voice of 235condoling and lamenting, yet it is also væ minantis, a voice of threatning, and 236intermination, denoting the infallibility of Judgements, and that's our next 237consideration.

238Væ minantis.I thinke we find no words in Christs mouth so often, as , and Amen. Each 239of them hath two significations; as almost all Christs words, and actions have; Editor’s Note240consolation, and commination. For, as this signifies (as before) a sorrow, 241(wo, that is, wo is me, for this will fall upon you) and signifies also a Judgment 242inevitable and infallible, (wo, that is, wo be unto you, for this Judgement shall 243fall upon you) so Amen is sometimes vox Asserentis, and signifies verè, verily, 244Verily I say unto you, when Christ would confirm, and establish a beleefe in Editor’s Note245Iohn 14. 12.some doctrine, or promise of his, (as when he says Amen, Amen, verily verily 246I say unto you, he that beleeveth on me, the works that I doe, shall he doe also, and Editor’s Note247greater works then these shall he doe) so it is vox Asserentis, a word of assertion, 248[N4v]and it is also vox Deserentis, a word of desertion, when God denounces an | Critical Apparatus249Mat. 5. 26.infallibility, an unavoydablenesse, an inevitablenesse in his judgements, Amen 250dico, verily I say unto thee, thou shalt by no meanes come out thence till thou hast Editor’s Note251paid the uttermost farthing; so this Amen signifies Fiat, this shall certainly be 252thus done. And this seale, this Amen, as Amen is Fiat, is always set to his , 253as his , as his is vox minantis; whensoever God threatens any Judgement, pg 25254he meanes to execute that Judgement as farre as he threatens it; God threatens 255nothing in terrorem onely, onely to frighten us; every hath his Amen, every 256Judgement denounced, a purpose of execution. This then is our wofull case; 257every man may find upon record, in the Scriptures, a denounced upon that 258sinne, which he knows to be his sinne; and if there be a , there is an Amen 259too, if God have said it shall, it shall be executed, so that this is not an 260execution of a few condemned persons, but a Massacre of all: It is not Editor’s Note261a Decimation, as in a rebellion, to spare nine, and hang the tenth, but it is a 262washing, a sweeping away of all: every man may find a Judgement upon record 263against him. It doth not acquit him that he hath not committed an adultery; Editor’s Note264and yet, is he sure of that? He may have done that in a looke, in a letter, in a 265word, in a wish: It doth not acquit him, that he hath not done a murder; and yet, 266is he sure of that? He may have killed a man, in not defending him from the 267oppression of another, if he have power in his hand, and he may have killed 268in not relieving, if he have a plentifull fortune. He may have killed in not 269reprehending him who was under his charge, when he saw him kil himself in Editor’s Note270the sinful ways of death. As they that write of Poysons, and of those creaturesArdoinus. 271that naturally maligne and would destroy man, do name the Flea, as well as 272the Viper, because the Flea sucks as much bloud as he can, so that man is a 273murderer that stabs as deep as he can, though it be but with his tongue, with 274his pen, with his frowne; for a man may kill with a frowne, in withdrawing Editor’s Note275his countenance from that man, that lives upon so low a pasture as his 276countenance, nay he may kill with a smile, with a good looke, if he afford that 277good looke with a purpose to delude him. And, beloved, how many dye of this Editor’s Note278disease; how many dye laughing, dye of a tickling; how many are overjoyed 279with the good looks, and with the familiarity of greater persons then them-280selves, and led on by hopes of getting more, wast that they have? An adultery, a 281murder may be done in a dreame, if that dreame were an effect of a murderous, 282or an adulterous thought conceived before. The Apostle says, I know nothing1 Cor.4.4. Editor’s Note283by my selfe, yet am I not thereby justified, we sinne some sinnes, that all the 284world sees, and yet we see not, but then, how many more, which none in Editor’s Note285the world sees but our selves? Scarce any man scapes all degrees of any sinne; 286scarce any man some great degree of some great sinne; no man escapes so, but 287that he may find upon record, in the Scriptures, a , and an Amen, a 288Judgment denounced, and an execution sealed against him. And, if that be our 289case, where is there any roome for this milder signification of these two words, 290, and Amen, which we spoke of before, as they are words of Consolation? If Editor’s Note291because God hath said Stipendium peccati mors est, the wages of sinne is death, 292because I have sinned, I must dye, what can I doe in a Prayer? can I flatter 293God? what can I doe in an Almes? Can I bribe God, or frustrate his purpose? Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus294Can I put an Euge upon his , a vacat upon his Fiat, a Nonobstante upon his Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus295Amen? God is not man; not a false man that he can lie, nor a weake man that 296he can repent. Where then is the restorative, the consolatory nature of these 297words? In this, beloved, consists our comfort, that all Gods væ's and Amens, all pg 26Editor’s Note298judgments, and all his executions are Conditionall; There is a Crede & vives, Editor’s Note299Beleeve and thou shalt live; there is a Fac hoc & vives, doe this and thou shalt Editor’s Note300live; If thou have done otherwise, there is a Converte & vives, turne unto the 301Lord and thou shalt live; If thou have done so, and fallen off, there is a Editor’s Note302Revertere & vives, returne againe unto the Lord, and thou shalt live. How 303heavy so ever any of Gods judgements be, yet there is always roome for Davids 3042 Sam.12.22.question, Quis scit, who can tell whether God will be gracious unto mee? What 305better assurance could one have, then David had? The Prophet Nathan had Editor’s Note306told David immediately from the mouth of God, this child shall surely dye, and Editor’s Note307ratified it by that reason, because thou hast given occasion to the enemies of the Editor’s Note308Lord to blaspheme, this child shall surely dye, yet David fasted, and wept, and 309said, who can tell whether the Lord will be gratious unto me, that the child may 310live? There is always roome for Davids question, Quis scit, who can tell? Nay 311there is no roome for it, as it is a question of diffidence and distrust; every man 312may and must know, that whatsoever any Prophet have denounced against any 313[N5r]sinne | of his, yet there are conditions, upon which the Lord will be gracious 314and thy soule shall live. But if the first condition, that is Innocency, and the 315second, that is Repentance, be rebelliously broken, then every man hath his , 316and every hath his Amen, the judgements are denounced against him; and 317upon him they shall bee executed; for God threatens not to fright children; Editor’s Note318but the Mountains melt, and Powers, and Thrones, and Principalities tremble 319at his threatning. And so have you the doubled signification of the first word 320, as it is vox Dolentis, and as it is Vox minantis, God is loath, but God will 321infallibly execute his judgement, and we proceed to the extension of this , 322over all, væ mundo, woe unto the world, and the double signification of that 323word.

3242. Part. MundoI have wondred sometimes that that great Author, and Bishop in the Roman Editor’s Note325Church, Abulensis, is so free, as to confesse that some Expositors amongst 326them, have taken this word in our Text, Mundo, adjectivè, not to signify 327the world, but a clean person, a free man, that it should be væ immuni, woe 328unto him that is free from offences, that hath had no offences; perchance they Editor’s Note329mean from crosses. And so, though it be a most absurd, and illiterate, and Editor’s Note330ungrammaticall construction of the place that they make, yet there is a 331doctrine to bee raised from thence, of good use. As God brought light out 332of darknesse, and raises glory out of sin, so we may raise good Divinity out of 333their ill Grammar; for væ mundo, indeed, væ immuni, woe be unto him that Editor’s Note334hath had no crosses. There cannot be so great a crosse as to have none. I lack 335one loaf of that dayly bread that I pray for, if I have no crosse; for afflictions 336are our spirituall nourishment; I lacke one limb of that body I must grow into, Editor’s Note337which is the body of Christ Jesus, if I have no crosses; for, my conformity to 338Christ, (and that's my being made up into his body) must be accomplished in 339my fulfilling his sufferings in his flesh. So that, though our adversaries out of 340their ignorance mislead us in a wrong sense of the place; the Holy Ghost leads 341us into a true, and right use thereof. But there is another good use of their 342error too, another good doctrine out of their ill Grammar; Take the word 343mundo, adjectivè, for an adjective, and væ mundo, væ immuni, wo unto him that pg 27344is so free from all offences, as to take offence at nothing; to be indifferent to 345any thing, to any Religion, to any Discipline, to any form of Gods service; Editor’s Note346That from a glorious Masse to a sordid Conventicle, all's one to him; all one to Editor’s Note347him, whether that religion, in which they meet, and light candles at Noon; or Editor’s Note348that, in which they meet, and put out candles at midnight; what innovations, Editor’s Note349what alterations, what tolerations of false, what extirpations of true Religion 350soever come, it shall never trouble, never offend him; 'Tis true, Væ mundo Editor’s Note351indeed, wo unto him that is so free, so unsensible, so unaffected with any thing 352in this kinde; for, as to bee too inquisitive into the proceedings of the State, 353and the Church, out of a jealousie and suspicion that any such alterations, or 354tolerations in Religion are intended or prepared, is a seditious disaffection to Editor’s Note355the government, and a disloyall aspersion upon the persons of our Superiours, Editor’s Note356to suspect without cause, so, not to be sensible that the Catterpillars of the 357Roman Church, doe eat up our tender fruit, that the Jesuites, and other Editor’s Note358enginiers of that Church, doe seduce our forwardest and best spirits, not to be 359watchfull in our own families, that our wives and children and servants be not 360corrupted by them, for the Pastor to slacken in his duty, (not to be earnest in 361the Pulpit) for the Magistrate to slacken in his, (not to be vigilant in the 362execution of those Laws as are left in his power) væ mundo, væ immuni, woe Editor’s Note363unto him that is unsensible of offences. Jealously, suspiciously to mis-interpret 364the actions of our Superiours, is inexcusable, but so is it also not to feel how 365the adversary gains upon us, and not to wish that it were, and not to pray that Critical Apparatus366it may be otherwise; væ mundo, væ immuni, wo to him that is un-offended, 367unsensible, thus. But as I have wondred that that Bishop would so easily Editor’s Note368confesse, that some of their Expositors were so very unlearned, so barbarously 369ignorant, so enormously stupid, as to take this væ mundo adjectivè, so doe I 370wonder more, that after such confessions, and acknowledgements of such 371ignorances and stupidities amongst them, they will not remedy it in the cause, 372but still continue so rigid, so severe in the maintenance of their own Editor’s Note373Translation, their Vulgate Edition, as in places, and cases of doubt, not to 374admit recourse to the Originall, as to the Supreme Judge, nor to other 375Translations: for, by either of those ways, it would have appeared, that this 376mundo could not be | taken adjectivè, but is a cloud cast upon the whole[N5v] 377world, a woe upon all, no place, no person, no calling free from these scandals, Editor’s Note378and offences, from tentations, and tribulations; when there was a væ Sodom, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus379that God raigned fire and brimstone upon Sodom, yet there was a Zoar, whereGen. 19. Critical Apparatus380Lot might be safe. When there was a væ Egypto, wo and wo upon wo upon Editor’s Note381Ægypt, there was a Goshen, a Sanctuary for the children of God in Egypt. Editor’s Note382When there is a væ inhabitantibus, a persecution in any place, there is a Fuge 383in aliam, leave to fly into another City. But in such an extension, such an 384expansion, such an exaltation, such an inundation of woe, as this in our text, 385Væ mundo, woe to the world, to all the world, a tide, a flood without any ebbe, 386a Sea without any shoare, a darke skie without any Horizon; That though I doe pg 28Editor’s Note387withdraw my selfe from the wofull uncertainties, and irresolutions and Editor’s Note388indeterminations of the Court, and from the snares and circumventions of Editor’s Note389the City; Though I would devest, and shake off the woes and offences 390of Europe in Afrique, or of Asia in America, I cannot, since wheresoever, or 391howsoever I live, these woes, and scandals, and offences, tentations, and 392tribulations will pursue mee, who can expresse the wretched condition, the Editor’s Note393miserable station, and prostration of man in this world? væ mundo.

394Take the word, World, in as ill a sense as you will, as ill as when Christ says, Editor’s Note395Ioh.17. 9.I pray not for the world, (and they are very ill, for whom Christ Jesus who 396prayed for them that crucifyed him, would not pray:) Take the word world, in Editor’s Note3976.51.as good a sense as you will, as good as when Christ says, I give my flesh for the Editor’s Note398life of the world, (and they are very good that are elemented, made up with his Editor’s Note399flesh, and alimented and nursed with his blood:) Take it for the Elect, take it 400for the Reprobate, the Reprobate and the Elect too are under this , wo to the 401world, from tentations, and tribulations, scandals, and offences.

402So it is if the world be persons, and it is so also, if it be times; Take the world Editor’s Note4031 Ioh.2. 18.for the times wee live in now, and it is Novissima hora, this is the last time, and Editor’s Note404the Apostle hath told us, that the last times are the worst. Take the world for 4052. 2. 5the Old world, Originalis mundus, as Saint Peter call's it; the Originall world, of 406which, this world, since the flood, is but a copy, and God spared not the Old 407world, says that Apostle. Take it for an elder world then that, the world in 408Paradise, when one Adam, the Son of God, and one Eve produced by God, Critical Apparatus409from him, made up the world: or take it for an elder world then that, the world 410in heaven, when onely the Angels, and no other creatures made up the world; 411Take it any of these ways, we in this latter world do, Noah in the old world did, 412so did Adam in the world in Paradise, and so did the Angels in the oldest world 413of all, find these woes from offences, and scandals, tentations, and tribulations.

414So it is in all persons, in all men, so it is in all times, in all ages, and so it is in 415all places too; for hee that retires into a Monastery upon pretence of avoiding 416tentations, and offences in this world, he brings them thither, and hee meets Editor’s Note417them there; Hee sees them intramittendo, and extramittendo, he is scandalized 418by others, and others are scandalized by him. That part of the world that 419sweats in continuall labour in severall vocations, is scandalized with their Editor’s Note420laziness, and their riches, to see them anoint themselves with other mens 421sweat, and lard themselves with other mens fat; and then these retired and Editor’s Note422cloistrall men are scandalized with all the world, that is out of their walls. Editor’s Note423There is no sort of men more exercised with contentious and scandalous 424wranglings, then they are: for, first, with all eager animosity they prefer their 425Monasticall life before all other secular callings, yea, before those Priests, Editor’s Note426whom they call Secular Priests, such as have care of souls, in particular 427parishes, (as though it were a Diminution, and an inferiour state to have care 428of souls, and study and labour the salvation of others.) And then as they Editor’s Note429undervalue all secular callings, (Mechaniques, and Merchants, and Editor’s Note430Magistrates too) in respect of any Regular order, (as they call them) so with the pg 29431same animosity doe they prefer their own Order, before any other Order. 432A Carthusian is but a man of fish, for one Element, to dwell still in a Pond, in Editor’s Note433his Cell alone, but a Jesuit is a usefull ubiquitary, and his Scene is the Court, as 434well as the Cloister. And howsoever they pretend to bee gone out of the world, Editor’s Note435they are never the farther from the Exchange for all their Cloister; they buy, 436and sell, and purchase in their Cloister. They are never the farther from Editor’s Note437Westminster in their Cloister, they | occasion and they maintain suits from their[N6r] 438Cloister; and there are the Courts of Justice noted to abound most with suits, 439where Monasteries abound most. Nay, they are never the farther from the Editor’s Note440field for all their Cloister; for they give occasions of armies, they raise armies, 441they direct armies, they pay armies from their Cloister. Men should not Editor’s Note442retire from the mutuall duties of this world, to avoid offences, tentations, 443tribulations, neither doe they at all avoid them, that retire thus, upon that 444pretence.

Critical Apparatus445Shall we say then, as the Disciples said to Christ; If the case of the man be soMat. 19. 10. Editor’s Note446with his wife, it is not good to mary? If the world be nothing but a bed of Adders, 447a quiver of poysoned arrows, from every person, every time, every place, woes 448by occasion of offences, and scandals, it had been better God had made no 449world, better that I had never been born into the world, better, if by any 450meanes I could get out of the world quickly, shall we say so? God forbid. As Critical Apparatus451long as Job charged not God foolishly, it is said, in all this Job sinned not;1. 22. 452but when he came to curse his birth, and to loath his life, then Job charged 453God foolishly. When one Prophet (Eliah) comes to proportion God the meas-Editor’s Note4541 Reg. 19.4.ure of his corrections, Satis est, Lord, this is enough; Thou hast done enough, Editor’s Note455I have suffered enough, now take away my life. When another Prophet comesIon. 4. 456to wish his own death in anger, and to justify his anger, and dispute it out 457with God himselfe, for not proceeding with the Ninivites, as he would have 458had him doe; nay for the withering of his gourd that shadowed him, in all 459these, they did, in all such, we doe charge God foolishly; And shall we that are Editor’s Note460but wormes, but silke-wormes, but glow-wormes at best, chide God that hee Editor’s Note461hath made slow-wormes, and other venimous creeping things? shall we that Editor’s Note462are nothing but boxes of poyson in our selves, reprove God for making Toads 463and Spiders in the world? shall we that are all discord, quarrell the harmony of Editor’s Note464his Creation, or his providence? Can an Apothecary make a Soveraign triacle 465of Vipers, and other poysons, and cannot God admit offences, and scandals 466into his physick? scandals, and offences, tentations, and tribulations, are our Editor’s Note467leaven that ferment us, and our lees that preserve us. Use them to Gods glory, 468and to thine own establishing, and then thou shall be a particular exception to Editor’s Note469that generall Rule, the Væ mundo à scandalis, shall be an Euge tibi à scandalis, 470thou shalt see that it was well for thee, that there were scandals and offences 471in the world, for they shall have exercised thy patience, they shall have 472occasioned thy victory, they shall have assured thy triumph.pg 30

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
Text. F50, N2v–N6r (no. 17, 136–43). There are no other witnesses. Collation of copies reveals no variants.
Headnote. This sermon is closely linked with Sermon 3 in this vol.; the two sermons were preached on the same text (Matt. 18: 7), probably on the same Sunday (since D preached twice on that day in term-time), and Sermon 3 deals with the final section of the tripartite textual divisio set out at the beginning of this sermon. The two sermons are among the sixteen that D preached on the Gospel of St Matthew, a biblical book to which he turned throughout his preaching career, in different venues and for a variety of occasions. (Another pair of sermons on Matthew survives from D's sojourn in The Hague (PS ii.13 and 14); unlike the present pair, however, which focuses on a single verse of Scripture, the two sermons from the embassy are devoted to Matt. 4: 18–20.) Sermons 2 and 3 are both undated in F50; PS argue that 'the general tone . . . indicates that they were preached in the winter of 1620, probably soon after November 24, 1620, when the first news of the defeat of the Elector Palatine reached London' (PS iii. 10). D does indeed refer to the religious wars on the continent (cf. Sermon 3, l. 261, 'a Catholique army hath given a blow, and got a victory'), but his sermons on Matt. 18: 7 engage far more substantively with key issues debated in the Parliament of 1621. These included, of course, the fate of Bohemia and the Palatinate, but D's argument gains real traction in relation to three other focal points of discussion in the Commons: the question of anti-recusant legislation, the reform of procedures for granting patents and monopolies, and Parliament's attempts to curb judicial corruption, which culminated in the impeachment of Lord Chancellor Bacon. Although debate about these issues was initiated at committee level in Feb. 1620/1, the key events to which D refers significantly post-date the end of Hilary Term (12 Feb.). In light of the political events outlined below, the most likely date for D's pair of sermons on Matt. 18: 7 is Easter Term 1621 (18 Apr. – 14 May). There are five other undated sermons in this vol. which seem to belong to this period of D's tenure at the Inn: the two pairs of sermons preached, respectively, on the first and second persons of the Trinity (the Father and the Son), and the Whitsunday sermon on the Holy Spirit (Sermons 4–8 in this vol.; see Headnotes to Sermons 4, 5, and 8 on the dating of these sermons). If the proposed dates for the Trinity series are correct, D would have preached on the Father on 6 May, on the Son on 13 May, and on the Holy Spirit on 20 May 1621 (Whitsunday, the Sunday after the end of term). This means that the two sermons on Matt. 18: 7 were probably delivered on either of the two Sundays preceding 6 May – 22 or 29 Apr.
Between Feb. and May 1621, the Commons initiated formal proceedings against two of the most prominent projectors of the realm, Sir Francis Michell and Sir Giles Mompesson (the latter related to the Marquess of Buckingham through his sister-in-law); against three leading legal officials and administrators, Sir John Bennett (a judge in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury), Sir Henry Yelverton (Attorney General 1617–21), and Sir Francis Bacon; against the Bishop of Llandaff, Theophilus Field; and against Edward Floyd, a recusant lawyer of the Inner Temple, who had made derogatory remarks about the king's daughter Elizabeth and her husband, the Elector Palatine Frederick V. The Lincoln's Inn audience may also have remembered a shocking incident involving one of their own. On 15 Feb. 1620/1, during Parliament's discussion of the sabbatarian bill, the Lincoln's Inn lawyer Thomas Shepherd had unexpectedly seized the floor and complained about the harsh measures taken against English Catholics: 'Shall we make all these engines and Barracado's against Papists and not a Mouse-trappe to catch a Puritan' (CD, iv. 53 (Pym's Diary)). Shepherd's outburst came at the worst possible time, as the Commons were about to petition the king for a tightening of penal laws against Catholics, and continued to attract comment until the Easter recess; Shepherd was expelled from the Commons for his remarks, and only narrowly escaped imprisonment in the Tower.
John Chamberlain's letter to Dudley Carleton of 18 Apr. 1621 perfectly captures the mood of political fragility and moral despondency that had beset the nation. On the first day of the Easter Term, as Parliament resumed business, Chamberlain reported proceedings in the corruption trials — 'divers complaints and petitions' (Chamberlain, Letters, ii. 363) against Bennett, and Bacon on the verge of 'resign[ing] the great seale' (ii. 364) — and then recounted a series of equally troubling foreign policy issues. The royal court formally mourned the death of the King of Spain, and Lord John Digby was advancing negotiations for the Spanish Match; in the same week, James felt compelled to issue a proclamation 'to restrain prentises and other base people from abusing or offering wrong' (ii. 363) to the Spanish ambassador and other high-ranking Spanish subjects after a series of public protests in the capital. Chamberlain closes with dispiriting rumours from the Continent, and with the faint hope that 'all is not so bad as yt is made': 'the Princes of the union are disbanded, . . . Bohemia is quite gon and all thereabout, . . . the Hungarians have submitted, . . . [and] the Upper Palatinat together with the Electorship is bestowed upon the Duke of Bavier' (Chamberlain, Letters, ii. 365). Cumulatively, these events resonate richly with the tone of universal pessimism that punctuates D's sermons on Matt. 18: 7: 'wheresoever, or howsoever I live, these woes, and scandals, and offences, tentations, and tribulations will pursue mee, who can expresse the wretched condition, the miserable station, and prostration of man in this world?' (ll. 390–3).
However, the two sermons are also deeply immersed in more specific debates about domestic and foreign policy. Parliamentary investigations of judicial abuses and of the process for granting and executing monopolies raised questions about endemic and institutional corruption, with explosive political implications. Speaking in his own defence before the Commons on 30 Apr., for instance, the former Attorney General Henry Yelverton claimed that he had been threatened with loss of office if he refused to grant the patents that had landed him in the dock — and that the author of these threats was none other than the Marquess of Buckingham, the king's principal favourite (LJ, iii. 121). At this point, the corruption scandal surrounding Yelverton was on the verge of evolving into a full-blown constitutional crisis: the king had formally handed jurisdiction to the Lords on 17 Mar. 1620/1 and therefore could not take over the examination of Yelverton without raising a storm of protest; if, on the other hand, he permitted the Lords to proceed with the investigation, this would inevitably lead to the questioning of Buckingham and, as Simonds D'Ewes opined, to unprecedented scrutiny of the government's activities (D'Ewes, Autobiograpy, i. 186).
D addresses the inherent fragility of human judgement with precise technical inflection in his first sermon on Matt. 18: 7, drawing a characteristically unflattering contrast with God's implacable equity: 'If because God hath said Stipendium peccati mors est, the wages of sinne is death, because I have sinned, I must dye, what can I doe in a Prayer? can I flatter God? what can I doe in an Almes? Can I bribe God, or frustrate his purpose? Can I put an Euge upon his , a vacat upon his Fiat, a Nonobstante upon his Amen?' (ll. 290–5). Unlike human judges, God cannot be flattered or bribed. D's legal allusion is to the annulment ('vacat') of a judgement; the concept of non obstante ('notwithstanding'), meanwhile, in its broadest construction, signified the king's prerogative to dispense with the law altogether. More narrowly, a judgement non obstante veredicto ('notwithstanding a verdict') referred to the overturning of a previous verdict at common law by a prerogative or conciliar court such as Chancery. In Chancery, proceedings were usually held before a single judge (rather than a panel of judges, as at common law); there was no jury, and the judge was empowered to exercise enormous discretion and procedural flexibility. For opponents of conciliar and prerogative justice, these structural characteristics made the system notoriously vulnerable to abuse; in the Parliament of 1621, action taken against judicial corruption focused almost exclusively on conciliar courts and courts of equity. In the context of Commons efforts to curb the abuses of patents and monopolies, however, the term non obstante had an even more specific application. Upon its return to business on 17 Apr. — and two days before the Lords drew up formal charges against Bacon — the Commons attacked the most egregious exploitation of existing patent law, the grant non obstante. This grant allowed patentees to operate particular industries or businesses notwithstanding the existence of a statute that banned the activity; it therefore required extraordinary legal contortions on the part of the government referees (usually high-ranking judges) charged with assessing a patent application. On 17 Apr., speaking in committee 'against the Non obstante', the former Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Edward Coke, described the clean-up of patent legislation as an 'Instauratio magna' (CJ, i. 578), in a final insult to his life-long enemy Bacon (who had published the first vol. of his Instauratio Magna, the Novum Organum, in 1620). Having commented on the questionable morality of judgements non obstante, D targets Bacon even more clearly in his second sermon on Matt. 18: 7, when he observes that 'in every State, (though that State be an Arke of peace, and preservation) there will be some kind of oppression in some Lions, some that will abuse their power' (Sermon 3, ll. 431–3). In his essay 'Of Judicature' (1612), Bacon had asserted the primacy of prerogative and discretionary justice over common law, in an image that was routinely invoked by Coke in challenges to equity jurisdiction in 1616, 1620, and 1621: 'Let Judges also remember, that Salomons Throne, was supported by Lions, on both Sides; let them be Lions, but yet Lions under the Throne; Being circumspect, that they doe not checke, or oppose any Points of Soveraigntie' (in The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, ed. Michael Kiernan (Oxford, 1985), 169).
In D's view, this lion has fallen prey to his own appetite for power, but his disgrace also symbolizes a much graver threat to the health of the body politic at large. D's sermons on Matt. 18: 7 represent an extended anatomy of the causes and effects of scandal, as well as offering a cure or 'physique' for it: 'He is a good Christian that can ride out . . . a storm, and does not forsake his ship for it, that is not scandalized with that State, nor that Church, of which he is a member, for those abuses that are in it' (Sermon 3, ll. 457–61).
D begins Sermon 2 with an unusually expansive paraphrase of Matt. 18 (ll. 1–87, or almost one fifth of the sermon), before focusing his divisio proper on the first two nouns of his Scripture text: 'woe' and 'world'; he reserves treatment of the word 'scandal' (or 'offences') — the causes of woe — for his second sermon. Matt. 18 shows Christ as 'School-master' (l. 30), imparting to his disciples 'three lessons' in the 'doctrine of meeknesse' (ll. 31–2). Christ is an exemplary teacher, who uses 'all the Elements of true instruction, Rule and Example' (l. 33) to illustrate the three principal threats to humility: pride, scandal, and 'uncharitablenes' (l. 83). Of these, D proposes to highlight the dangers of scandal, a topic 'very necessary, and seldome touched upon' (ll. 86–7).
In the first part of D's divisio, the word '' ('woe') is given 'a twofold consideration' (ll. 91–2), as 'a voice of condoling' or 'Vox dolentis' (l. 92) and as a 'voice of threatning' or 'Vox minantis' (l. 94): 'Christ laments the miseries imminent upon the world, because of scandals' and 'threatens . . . heavy judgements upon them, who occasion and induce these miseries by these scandals' (ll. 93–6). In a highly emotive and intricately crafted meditation on the nature of divine justice, D builds (like his 'School-master') towards a searing example, the 'insupportable, and inevitable, and imminent judgements' on God's own city, Jerusalem, before applying the lesson both to the legal profession and to the English Church. He emphasizes the difficulty of judicial 'pre-contemplation' (l. 114), drawing a contrast between capital punishment in theory — 'a man is not often much affected, . . . when he does but read that law' (ll. 118–19) — and in practice, 'if upon evidence and verdict he be put to give judgement upon a particular man that stands before him' (ll. 120–1). With regard to the English Church, D implores his listeners (in language that recalls, once again, recent scandals relating to the granting and execution of patents) not to 'extort [from God] . . . those Judgements, which he cannot in justice forbear, and yet is grieved to inflict' (ll. 182–4). His appeal is to individual members of the church, who constitute its collective body through a dual form of contract: the quasi-legal 'stipulation with God in Baptisme' (l. 196) and the 'obedientiall' duty owed to our parents, 'our mother, the Church' (l. 197) and God the Father. D notes humanity's innumerable infractions — 'Our sins have made our mother the Church ashamed in her selfe, . . . and . . . have defamed [her] . . . abroad' (ll. 191–4) — including the most grievous violation of our relationship with God, that we live 'so falsely to our first faith, and contract', 'that we will make no benefit of that bloud which is shed for us' (ll. 195–6, 200–1).
D prepares for his complex definition of scandal in the second sermon by offering an extended anatomy of sin: as an active transgression of religious commandments, with direct implication of guilt; less overtly, 'in a letter, in a word'; 'in a looke', 'in a wish' (ll. 264–5, in receding layers of responsibility and intent); and, finally, in sins of omission and negligence — 'He may have killed a man, in not defending him from the oppression of another, if he have power in his hand' (ll. 266–7). By persisting with these transgressions, we risk causing further harm to our souls and to the health of the body politic as a whole; the recalcitrant sinner will let Christ 'dye in a wantonnesse', will 'let out all that precious liquor', and 'make no balsamum, no antidote, no plaister, no fomentation in the application of that bloud' to soothe the 'burning fever of lust, and ambition, and presumption' (ll. 223–7). D concludes the first section of the sermon by fleshing out the terms of our contractual relationship with God; although it is impossible to 'bribe God, or frustrate his purpose' (l. 293), all his 'judgments, and all his executions are Conditionall' (l. 298) — on faith above all ('Crede & vives, Beleeve and thou shalt live'), and on the virtuous conduct of the repentant individual ('Fac . . . Converte . . . Revertere & vives', ll. 298–302).
The second part of D's divisio focuses on the universal character of woe in the world ('væ mundo'), through external threats to the Protestant faith by 'the Catterpillars of the Roman Church' (ll. 356–7) and through a whole range of worldly temptations: 'a cloud cast upon the whole world, a woe upon all, no place, no person, no calling free from these scandals', a 'Sea without any shoare, a darke skie without any Horizon' (ll. 376–7; 386). D's aim is to impart practical rules for living in a world riven by such scandals and temptations; his principal — and extremely timely — example is the threat posed by Jesuit missionaries. He emphasizes the futility of attempting to withdraw from this challenge, most memorably in an extended critique of the monastic life (ll. 414–44): scandals are a condition of human existence, and a man who retires to a monastery inevitably 'brings them thither' and 'meets them there' (ll. 416–17). As in the first part of the sermon, D employs a striking medical metaphor to illustrate God's providential plan for humanity. The persistence of 'offences, . . . and tribulations' (l. 466), far from indicating a frustration of God's purpose, offers opportunities for the exercise of Christian patience and faith, and is evidence of God's continued and loving attention. D's image of the 'triacle [treacle] of Vipers', a powerful antidote produced from the flesh of the poisonous snake, encapsulates God's desire to draw 'harmony' even from our universal 'discord' (l. 463).
The central point of the 'triacle' conceit — that useful and edifying effects can be extracted from harmful substances or materials — also sustains D's exegetical approach. He launches his discussion of the word 'mundo' ('world') by dissecting a RC misreading of Matt. 18: 7 reported by one of his main sources, the 15th-century Spanish theologian Alonso Tostado. Some commentators take the word 'mundo' adjectivally, 'not to signify the world, but a clean person' ('immuni'); in this case the proper translation of D's Scripture text would be 'woe unto him that is free from offences' (ll. 327–8). D, like Tostado, is quick to discard this reading, but is equally keen to affirm that 'there is a doctrine to bee raised from thence, of good use . . . good Divinity out of their ill Grammar' (ll. 330–3). In the 'twofold consideration' of the word 'mundo' — universal scandal is embraced by wicked men ('malis'), but meets with principled resistance from good Christians ('bonis') — this recuperative or reformative approach to interpretation is crucial. Without the tests of offences and temptations, humankind cannot achieve full conformity with Christ: 'if I have no crosse . . . I lacke one limb of that body I must grow into, which is the body of Christ Jesus,' (ll. 335–7). D manages to produce another useful lesson out of Rome's philological shortcomings; it is dangerous to be 'so free from all offences, as to take offence at nothing' (l. 344), because this might lead us to ignore the creeping subversion of Protestantism by enemy forces:

as to bee too inquisitive into the proceedings of the State, and the Church, out of a jealousie and suspicion that any such alterations, or tolerations in Religion are intended or prepared, is a seditious disaffection to the government, and a disloyall aspersion upon the persons of our Superiours, to suspect without cause, so, not to be sensible that the Catterpillars of the Roman Church, doe eat up our tender fruit, that the Jesuites, and other enginiers of that Church, doe seduce our forwardest and best spirits, . . . væ mundo, væ immuni, woe unto him that is unsensible of offences.

(ll. 352–63)

This passage introduces a theme that will be absolutely foundational to D's second sermon on Matt. 18: 7: the wilful misinterpretation of actions taken by 'our Superiours' (l. 355), and its deeply destabilizing effect on the religious, social, and political cohesion of the commonwealth. Contemporary witnesses provide ample evidence of a prevailing mood of distrust and 'disaffection to the government' (ll. 354–5) over the cause of religion. In the parliamentary subcommittee for recusants, for instance, Sir Robert Phelips expressed fears that the Protestant religion had reached its 'climacterical year': 'now papists are grown so insolent as they boast of going to mass and at table dare to maintain it when we dare not justify the maintenance of our laws' (CD, ii. 37 (The Anonymous Journal)). The Commons' concerns were given concrete form in the petition against recusants, which was presented to the king on 17 Feb. 1620/1; in his reply to the petition, James was eager to quash the rumour that

the Papists looke for a kind of Connivance [from the state] . . . . I wish the world may knowe I needed noe spurr[.] For a Peticion may seeme to import that I was slacke of my self . . . [in] promoteinge true Religion. . . . I dare say there hath beene noe slacknes neither in pruneing nor planting nor rooteinge out the weedes that may hinder the growthe thereof.'

(CD, iv. 71 (Pym's Diary))

The imputation of state connivance, i.e. of the tacit approval of RC practices, was too scandalous to be articulated in print, but some preachers clearly felt that there had been some slackness in preserving the cause of religion. Thomas Gataker exhorts his listeners to make the plight of Protestants abroad 'our owne'; if England refused to intervene ('That love that is in tongue onely, is not in truth'), 'the destruction threatned them, may be inflicted vpon us' (A Sparke toward the Kindling of Sorrow for Sion (1621), STC 11675, F1v, F3r–v). In stark contrast to this position, D argues that religion, and the state, are best preserved by individuals exercising personal and collective responsibility within their own sphere or profession; the gravest danger to society is 'not to be watchfull in our own families, that our wives and children and servants be not corrupted by them, for the Pastor to slacken in his duty, . . . for the Magistrate to slacken in his' (ll. 358–61). This involves the exercise of hermeneutic good will: 'suspiciously to mis-interpret the actions of our Superiors is inexcusable' (ll. 363–4). Just as D extracts constructive meaning from harmful RC readings of Scripture, so he expects his listeners to give officers of state and church the benefit of the doubt. In this way, 'scandals' can be converted into 'physick'; if we '[u]se them to Gods glory', they will assure our 'triumph' (ll. 466, 467, 472).
Sources. D's divisio across the two sermons follows the three key words of this short Scripture text: 'woe' (''), 'world' ('mundo'), and 'offences' ('scandalis'). The first two are treated in the first sermon on Matt. 18: 7, while the second focuses on scandals, 'the root from which this over-spreading , this woe proceeds' (Sermon 3, ll. 17–18). The vast majority of expositors, including all of those used by D, concentrate on the subject of scandal; his first sermon — on the punishment exacted by God for our transgressions and the challenges of living in a world haunted by temptation — therefore represents something of an anomaly. D's key-word approach to some extent predetermines his choice of sources and biblical proof texts. Many of the Scripture texts referenced in the sermon can be traced back to relevant key-word entries in one of the major Scripture concordances, such as Robertus Stephanus' Concordantiae Bibliorum utriusque Testamenti, Veteris et Novi (Paris, 1555) (see, for instance, the entry for 'Vae', 512r). The main planks of D's divisio stem from equally obvious homiletic helps. The word '' is given 'a twofold consideration' (ll. 91–2), as 'a voice of condoling' or 'Vox dolentis' (l. 92) and as a 'voice of threatning' or 'Vox minantis' (l. 94). One of the principal 17th-century Latin dictionaries, Comenius' Lexicon Januale (Amsterdam, 1657), defines 'Væ' as 'vox dolentis, & minantis' (col. 388). Wilson's A Christian dictionarie (1612), STC 25786 — a compilation of Continental dictionaries such as the Enchiridion Marlorati, Berchorius' Repertorium Morale, and Flacius Illyricus' Clavis Scripturæ Sacræ — describes 'Woe' in exactly the same terms as 'Sorrow of heart, in regard of some sin committed and iudgement deserued' (M6r–v) and 'The threatning or denouncing of iudgements' (M6r). Berchorius, who is consulted more thoroughly on the issue of scandal in D's second sermon, provides further material for the discussion of the word 'Amen' in ll. 238–56; in vol. 1 of his Repertorium (Venice, 1588), Berchorius notes (K7r) that 'Amen' can be interpreted as 'Verè' or 'Fiat' in the context of divine threats and comminations (i.e. the 'vox minantis') — this matches perfectly the opening of D's discussion of 'væ minantis' (see esp. ll. 243, 251–2, 'verè' and 'Fiat'). For the second part of his divisio, on the persistence of woe in the world, 'in all places' and 'in all men' (ll. 414–15), D draws on one of his own previous efforts — a sermon preached at Whitehall on 3 Mar. 1619/20, on Amos 5: 18, 'Woe unto you, that desire the day of the Lord'. D begins this sermon with a list of Scriptural woes, the first of which takes him to Rev. 8: 13, 'a woe of desolation upon the whole world' (PS ii.18.32–3). Having surveyed these passages, D insists that 'the Woe in this Text, is no State woe, nor Church woe' (PS ii.18.62), but he took the opportunity to revisit precisely these issues when he returned to Christian woes in 'the whole world' (l. 386) in his first Lincoln's Inn sermon on Matt. 18: 7. Further proof for this strategic recycling of homiletic material is supplied by the recurrence of a striking optical metaphor (ll. 417–18; cf. PS ii.18.378–80; the only two references to extramission/intromission in D's sermons) and of the (expanded) argument about the moral futility of monastic retirement (ll. 414–44; cf. PS ii.18.305–13).
The VG apparatus on Matt. 18: 6–8 proved helpful to D in several ways. Lyra's comments on Matt. 18: 6 may have given the initial impetus for D's division of scandal into 'active' and 'passive' offences (ll. 102–5), and for the emphasis on intention that characterizes his treatment of scandal in both sermons. More particularly, D found inspiration for his anti-monastic diatribe (ll. 414–44) in the VG note for Matt. 18: 8, which advocates a solitary and retired life as a way of avoiding temptation. The sermon's sole acknowledged reference is to Tostado's Commentaria in Quintam Partem Matthæi (Venice, 1596) (cf. D, ll. 324–8), a text that will loom large over D's treatment of scandal in the second sermon on Matt. 18: 7; Tostado discusses the erroneous (in his and D's view) reading of 'mundo' as adjectival, but also inspires D's twofold consideration of scandal in relation to 'good' and 'evill men' (ll. 98–102). There is only one other significant borrowing from a major exegetical text: Aquinas' Catena in Matthaeum probably provides a short cut to the patristic readings of Matt. 27: 46 (cf. D, ll. 167–74). For the general frame of his argument — the contrast between humility and ambition — D may have drawn on Vincentius Rhegius' treatment of Matt. 18 in his Dilvcidationvm Evangelicarvm, 3 vols. (Cologne, 1615–16), a text cited in Sermon 3. Rhegius' treatment of scandal includes a long moral 'Digressio' entitled 'De ambitione et humilitate' (ii. O4r–O6r). There is a notable dearth of patristic material.
There are echoes of more contemporary and topical concerns. D's comments on 'Secular Priests' (l. 426) rehearse classic tropes of Protestant polemic, delivered during the controversial exchanges on clerical vocation at the turn of the century (see l. 426, cmt). Similarly, D's idea that young and vulnerable souls might fall prey to the 'Catterpillars' (l. 356) of Rome echoes contemporary views of scandal. Henry Morley's The Cleansing of the Leper (1609), STC 18115, for instance, criticizes 'Iesuits and popish recusants' who 'do greatly offend and hurt others by such scandales as they giue . . . through hereticall doctrine & erronious opinion, which they doe disseminate and sowe in the hearts and minds of such as are ignorant and vnstable, beeing not altogether setled nor rooted in the truth' (O3r–v).
Further reading. Sermons 2 and 3 are discussed in Jeanne Shami, John Donne and Conformity in the Late Jacobean Pulpit (Cambridge, 2003), 83–5, and in Emma Rhatigan 'John Donne's Lincoln's Inn Sermons' (D.Phil. thesis, Oxford, 2006). On the religious and political debates of the early 1620s, especially in relation to the Spanish Match, see Thomas Cogswell, The Blessed Revolution: English Politics and the Coming of War, 1621–1624 (Cambridge, 1989); W. B. Patterson, King James VI and I and the Reunion of Christendom (Cambridge, 1997), esp. 310–38. On the Parliament of 1621, see Robert Zaller, The Parliament of 1621: A Study in Constitutional Conflict (Los Angeles, 1971). On the judicial proceedings initiated by the Commons and their context, see Colin G. C. Tite, Impeachment and Parliamentary Judicature in Early Stuart England (1974); Stephen D. White, Sir Edward Coke and the Grievances of the Commonwealth (Manchester, 1979); Jonathan Marwil, The Trials of Counsel: Francis Bacon in 1621 (Detroit, 1976).
Critical Apparatus
1 Preached at Lincolns Inne.] ed.; SERMON XVII. ~ F50
Editor’s Note
4. meeke: humble.
Editor’s Note
6. Compare Moses: this opening section on competitive humility (ll. 4–24) measures Moses' and Christ's achievements on two axes: vertical and horizontal. The vertical axis corresponds to an ontological hierarchy, with Moses operating on a relatively narrow spectrum in the middle of the order, while Christ — God lowering himself to the status of 'a worme and no man' (l. 8) — traverses its extremes. On the horizontal axis of time and history, Moses' attainment is equally limited: his 'sodaine' response is a mere moment of (unfulfilled) 'zeale' in the short span of a human life (ll. 14–15), while Christ executes an 'eternall purpose . . . conceived as soon as we can conceive God to have knowen that Adam would fall' (ll. 20–1).
Editor’s Note
6. parallel'd: equalled.
Editor’s Note
10. Dele me: Exod. 32: 32 (Vulg.), 'aut si non facis, dele me de libro tuo quem scripsisti'.
Editor’s Note
10–11. Pardon . . . thy book: D merges the Geneva translation of Exod. 32: 32 with AV, 'Therefore now if thou pardone their sinne, thy mercie shal appeare: but if thou wilt not, I pray thee, rase me out of thy boke, which thou hast written' (Geneva); 'Yet now, if thou wilt forgiue their sinne; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy Booke, which thou hast written' (AV).
Editor’s Note
12. Anathema pro fratribus: cf. Rom. 9: 3 (Vulg.), 'Optabam enim ego ipse anathema esse à Christo pro fratribus meis' (AV, 'For I could wish that my selfe were accursed from Christ, for my brethren my kinsemen according to the flesh'; a sidenote lists 'separated' as an alternative reading).
Editor’s Note
14. sodaine: spontaneous, impulsive.
Editor’s Note
14. passionate: impassioned.
Editor’s Note
14. indigested: ill-considered.
Editor’s Note
15. vehemence: fervour.
Editor’s Note
15. zeale: 'in biblical language, rendering Latin zelus . . . denoting ardent feeling or fervour (taking the form of love, wrath, 'jealousy', or righteous indignation), with contextual tendency to unfavourable implications (emulation, rivalry, partisanship)' (OED n., 1).
Editor’s Note
19. inordinatenesse: intemperateness; an important term in D's lexicon of the passions. Christ is incapable of inordinate emotion; he 'might ungirt himselfe, and give more scope and liberty to his passions, then any other man', but 'because he had no Originall sin within, to drive him, no inordinate love without to draw him', such passion is not sinful (PS iv.13.147–50; Whitehall, first Fri. in Lent, 1622/3).
Editor’s Note
20. deliberate: with careful consideration and full intention.
Editor’s Note
24. determination: end, termination.
Critical Apparatus
25 marg Exod.2. 12.] ed., PS; Exod.2. 11. F50
Editor’s Note
26–8. But . . . Christ: Isa. 42: 2–3 is a scriptural locus classicus for illustrating the humility and gentleness of the true believer (in contrast with the young Moses' impetuous act of revenge, recounted in the previous example from Exod. 2: 12): 'Hee [my servant] shall not crie, nor lift vp, nor cause his voyce to bee heard in the streete. / A bruised reed shall he not breake, and the smoking flaxe shall hee not quench: he shall bring forth iudgment vnto trueth.' D's citations up to l. 34 (the opening verse of Matt. 18, which inaugurates D's paraphrase of the whole chapter) reflect his comparative focus; he builds from OT proof texts (and the example of Moses) towards the perfection of humility in Christ (and the textual embodiment of that humility in the Gospel of Matthew).
Critical Apparatus
28 marg Mat.23.2.] ed., PS; Mat.23.1. F50
Editor’s Note
28. Disciples: the Apostles.
Editor’s Note
29. Scribes . . . seat: summing up the early part of Matt. 23. The 'Scribes and Pharisees' are seen vying for supremacy, 'the vppermost roomes at feasts, and the chiefe seats in the Synagogues' (Matt. 23: 6); Christ's disciples, by contrast, eschew such processes of social stratification (23: 8) and follow the call for humility (23: 12).
Editor’s Note
30. [marg.] 11.29.: i.e. Matt. 11: 29.
Editor’s Note
33. all . . . Example: a common precept of early modern pedagogy; see, for instance, Richard Mulcaster, The first part of the elementarie which entreateth chefelie of the right writing of our English tung (1582), STC 18250. In a methodological preface, 'The generall platform and method of the hole Elementarie' (G2v–H3r), Mulcaster explains: 'the eie will help manie to write right by a sene president, which either cannot vnderstand, or cannot entend to vnderstand the reason of a rule, therefor in the end of this treatis for right writing, I purpos to set down a generall table of most English words, by waie of president; . . . [b]y the which table I shall also confirm the right of my rules, that theie hold thoroughout, & by multitude of examples help som maim in precepts' (G3v).
Editor’s Note
39. inchoation: beginning, commencement.
Critical Apparatus
41 accident] ed., PS; accdient F50
Editor’s Note
41. vehement: severe.
Editor’s Note
41. accident: 'a symptom or process which occurs in a disease but is not considered to be an essential part of it' (OED n., 6.a).
Editor’s Note
44. pestilent: destructive; also, infectious (OED adj., 1, 2).
Editor’s Note
44. precedency: 'superiority, pre-eminence; primacy' (OED, 1.a).
Editor’s Note
46. example . . . child: cf. Matt. 18: 4, 'Whosoeuer therefore shall humble himselfe as this little childe, the same is greatest in the Kingdome of heauen.'
Editor’s Note
47. supple: compliant.
Editor’s Note
47. seely: innocent.
Editor’s Note
47. tractable: docile.
Editor’s Note
47. ductile: pliable. The suppleness of God's language — as reflected in this series of synonyms — mirrors the spiritual pliability he demands of his creatures.
Editor’s Note
53. forbear: shun.
Editor’s Note
61–2. If thy . . . out: an amalgamation of Matt. 18: 8–9, 'Wherefore if thy hand or thy foote offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather then hauing two hands or two feete, to be cast into euerlasting fire. / And if thine eie offend thee, plucke it out, and cast it from thee'.
Editor’s Note
63. loathnesse: reluctance.
Editor’s Note
63. wearinesse: wariness, suspicion.
Editor’s Note
64. Quoties remittam: a contracted quotation from Matt. 18: 21 (Vulg.), 'quoties peccabit in me frater meus, & dimittam ei?'.
Editor’s Note
67. Talents: 'denomination of weight, used by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, and other ancient nations'; hence 'the value of a talent weight (of gold, silver, etc.): a money of account' (OED, 'talent', n., 1.a, b). For the 'parable' of the ungrateful servant see Matt. 18: 24–30.
Editor’s Note
68. fellow: i.e. fellow servant.
Editor’s Note
71. inexhaustible largenesse: boundless generosity.
Editor’s Note
72. penuriousnesse: meanness, stinginess.
Editor’s Note
76. irresolution: want of resolution.
Editor’s Note
78. inexorablenesse: relentlessness.
Editor’s Note
79. indocilenesse: unwillingness to be taught.
Editor’s Note
81. the whole Chapter: i.e. Matt. 18.
Critical Apparatus
84 uncharitablenes] ed., PS; uncharitabenes F50
Editor’s Note
90. mischievous: 'fraught with . . . harm' (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
91 Each] ed., PS; each F50
Editor’s Note
94. intermination: menace.
Editor’s Note
95. heavy: weighty, grave.
Editor’s Note
97. infallibility: unfailing certainty, inevitability.
Editor’s Note
101. various: inconstant, fickle.
Editor’s Note
102–5. And then . . . another: the third subject of D's divisio, 'scandals' and 'offences', will be treated in the second sermon on Matt. 18: 7 (see Headnote).
Critical Apparatus
106 the first] ed., PS; the firrst F50
Editor’s Note
106. acceptation: sense, accepted meaning.
Editor’s Note
108. reduced to: constrained to.
Editor’s Note
110–11. Onus Babylonis . . . Damasci: three quotations from Isaiah (Vulg.): 'Onus Babylonis' (Isa. 13: 1), 'Onus Aegypti' (Isa. 19: 1), 'Onus Damasci' (Isa. 17: 1). Isa. 13–23 includes a list of pronouncements on nations of the prophet's time; Babylon, Assyria, Philistia, Damascus, and Egypt, Isaiah prophesied, would be brought to judgement for their evils.
Editor’s Note
112. Onus visionis: D compresses the original quotation from Isa. 22: 1 (Vulg.), 'Onvs vallis visionis' (AV, 'The burden of the valley of vision').
Editor’s Note
114. pre-contemplation, and pre-denunciation: anticipation and prophecy (the prefix 'pre-' illustrates the burden of foreknowledge in the face of complete impotence; the prophet sees and tells, but is powerless to intervene).
Editor’s Note
115. burthen: burden.
Editor’s Note
115. bitternesse: 'deep sorrow or anguish of heart' (OED, c).
Editor’s Note
116–23. reading . . . no man: D draws a sharp contrast between legislative and judicial theory on the one hand, and the application and execution of laws on the other. In doing so, he also alludes to one principal element of legal training, the compulsory 'readings' or lectures delivered by senior barristers for the students at the Inns of Court (judges commonly returned to attend such readings). His comment applies to the entire legal community at the Inn, through its different professional ranks, and comes to focus on the issue of capital punishment, which featured in discussions about legal reforms in the Parliament of 1621.
Editor’s Note
117. delinquent: offender.
Editor’s Note
124. halter: a rope with a noose.
Editor’s Note
124. evaporated: to be extinguished. D loops back to the previous line and the idea of creation as 'that breath breathed in by God'; the Lat. verb evaporare literally signifies an emission of steam or breath.
Editor’s Note
125–6. those limbs . . . God: D adapts the commonplace analogy of the body as a cabinet protecting the jewel of the soul; see, for another example, Edward Calamy's observation that '[t]he body is but the Cabinet, the Iewell is the soule' (The noble-mans patterne of true and reall thankfulnesse presented in a sermon preached before the Right Honourable House of Lords (1643), Wing C260, I1r).
Editor’s Note
127–8. body . . . Holy Ghost: 1 Cor. 6: 19, 'know ye not that your body is the Temple of the holy Ghost'.
Editor’s Note
129–30. the bowels . . . compassion: with strong resonances of 1 John 3: 16–17, 'Hereby perceiue wee the loue of God, because he layd downe his life for vs, and wee ought to lay downe our liues for the brethren. / But who so hath this worlds good, and seeth his brother hath need, and shutteth vp his bowels of compassion from him; how dwelleth the loue of God in him?'.
Editor’s Note
130. extort: wrest, extract.
Editor’s Note
132–3. Heu vindicabor: a compressed version of Isa. 1: 24 (Vulg.), 'Heu ego consolabor super hostibus meis, et vindicabor de inimicis meis' (AV, 'Ah, I will ease me of mine aduersaries, and auenge me of mine enemies').
Critical Apparatus
133 I] ed., PS; I F50
Editor’s Note
136. condolency: sympathetic sorrow.
Editor’s Note
137. Heu abominationes: another compressed quotation: Ezek. 6: 11 (Vulg.), 'heu ad omnes abominationes malorum domus Israel'.
Editor’s Note
139–40. I . . . upon them: Ezek. 6: 12.
Editor’s Note
146–8. when Mary . . . troubled: a conflation of John 11: 33 and 11: 35, 'When Iesus therefore sawe her weeping, and the Iewes also weeping which came with her, hee groned in the Spirit, and was troubled, / . . . Iesus wept.'
Editor’s Note
148–9. discomfort: grief.
Editor’s Note
149. mortality: 'loss of life on a large scale; abnormal frequency of death, as by war or pestilence' (OED, 2.a).
Editor’s Note
150. contagion: contagious disease.
Editor’s Note
151–2. he . . . life again: the resurrection of Lazarus is recounted at John 11: 43–4.
Critical Apparatus
152 &] ed.; & F50
Critical Apparatus
153 trobled] ed., PS; trobled F50
Editor’s Note
154. tendernesse: love.
Editor’s Note
157–9. stream . . . beloved City: the idea of compassionate judgement is encapsulated in the paradoxical image of Christ's tears; his 'stream' of loving tears swells and transforms into 'that tempestuous Sea' of 'heavy judgements, which, (though he wept in doing it) he denounced upon that City' (ll. 157–9).
Editor’s Note
159–61. though Christ . . . earth: cf. Matt. 23: 37 (stoning) and 23: 35 (righteous bloodshed).
Editor’s Note
161. [marg.] 4. 5: i.e. Matt. 4: 5.
Critical Apparatus
166 marg Mat. 27. 53.] ed., PS; Mat. 27. 33. F50
Editor’s Note
166–7. Many bodies . . . City: a conflation of Matt. 27: 52–3, 'And the graues were opened, and many bodies of Saints which slept, arose, / And came out of the graues after his resurrection, and went into the holy citie, and appeared vnto many.'
Editor’s Note
167–74. When . . . forsaken me?: Eusebius, Demonstratio Evangelica (10. 6. 5) connects Matt. 27: 46 with the idea of a final judgement on Jerusalem, but D is more likely to have gleaned his material from Aquinas' Catena in Matthaeum; in the ninth lectio on Matt. 27, Aquinas cites Chrysostom, John of Damascus, and Theophylact in support of the notion that the cry of verse 46 ('My God . . . why hast thou forsaken me?') refers to the abandonment not of Jesus the Son of God, but of the Jewish people.
Editor’s Note
169. My God . . . forsaken me?: Matt. 27: 46.
Editor’s Note
172. insupportable: unbearable.
Editor’s Note
175. Cur me persequeris?: cf. Acts 9: 4 (Vulg.), 'quid me persequeris' (AV, 'why persecutest thou me?').
Editor’s Note
175–8. He . . . forsaken him: D employs the rhetorical figure of synecdoche, described by the rhetorician Thomas Swynnerton as when 'by the parte of a thynge, we vndyrstande all' (A Reformation Rhetoric, ed. Richard Rex (Cambridge, 1999), 121); Swynnerton notes that 'the Scripture is full' (122) of synecdochic expressions, and his examples make clear that the figure is most fruitfully applied to examples of New Testament compassion and charity (e.g. Matt. 5: 39, turning the other cheek).
Editor’s Note
179. person sent . . . sender: continuing the paradoxical imagery of ll. 152–62 in the expression of the 'Væ dolentis' — judgement denounced in a 'voice of condoling and lamentation' (ll. 180–1).
Editor’s Note
182. Grieve not . . . God: AV reads: 'And grieue not the holy Spirit of God'.
Editor’s Note
188–91. Our sins . . . Sacrament: D's moral colour scheme is complex. Red is initially associated with shame at our sins — the church blushes — and contrasted with 'the whitenesse and innocency of Christ Jesus in our baptisme', but then also expresses the ultimate sacrifice in the 'bloud' of 'the other Sacrament' (i.e. the Eucharist).
Critical Apparatus
189 she] ed., PS; he F50
Editor’s Note
189. Mother . . . the Church: the commonplace idea of the church as a mother is not mentioned explicitly in Scripture, but is often linked back to Gal. 4: 26, and, allegorically, associated with the Fifth Commandment (where God is the 'father' to the 'mother' church).
Editor’s Note
194. our mother abroad: i.e. the Reformed churches on the Continent.
Editor’s Note
196. contract . . . in Baptisme: see Tertullian, Ad Martyras, 3, for an early and highly influential construction of baptism as a form of contract; Tertullian's baptismal formulae can be traced back to the stipulatio of Roman private law, the most common and widespread form of contracting an obligation in Roman society. A stipulation is 'a contract, agreement, treaty' (OED n.1, 2.a).
Editor’s Note
198. God . . . us all: an adaptation of Mal. 2: 10, 'Haue we not all one father? hath not one God created vs?'
Editor’s Note
202. low a comparison: D's theme determines his rhetorical choices; he takes his example from Christ, whose humility is reflected not only in his actions, but in his choice of 'metaphor' (l. 203) and analogy. Because Christ likens the Passion to a cup, D feels justified in using the equally 'low . . . Comparison of drinking' (ll. 202–4).
Editor’s Note
207. wantonnesse: 'Extravagance or self-indulgence in appetite, expenditure, imagination, etc.; luxuriousness; prodigality, wastefulness' (OED, 4.a); the pleonasm of 'wastfull wantonnesse' (l. 207, 'wasting' two words on the same point) reinforces D's argument.
Editor’s Note
209. sitio: cf. John 19: 28 (Vulg.), 'Postea sciens Iesus quia omnia consummate sunt, vt consummaratur scriptura dicit: Sitio' (AV, 'After this, Iesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst').
Editor’s Note
214. coaction: coercion, compulsion.
Editor’s Note
215. Decree: an authoritative decision or edict, by civil authority or in ecclesiastical law; but also 'one of the eternal purposes of God whereby events are foreordained' (OED n., 3).
Editor’s Note
215–16. contract . . . his Father: through verbal echoes, D invites comparison between this contract between Father and Son, and the baptismal 'contract, and stipulation', between God and man (see l. 196 and cmt).
Editor’s Note
218–19. Nonne oportuit: a contracted version of Luke 24: 26 (Vulg.), 'Nonne haec oportuit pati Christum' (AV, 'Ought not Christ to have suffered these things').
Critical Apparatus
220 marg verse 46.] ed., PS; verse 36. F50
Editor’s Note
220–1. Sic oportuit: D adapts and contracts Luke 24: 46 (Vulg.), 'sic oportebat Christum pati'.
Editor’s Note
222. obedientiall: i.e. characterized by obedience to God, and putting renewed pressure on the paradox of Christ's sacrifice in relation to our depravity. From humankind's point of view (i.e. in a state of enslavement by sin), Christ's death is an absolute 'necessity' (l. 217); from a divine perspective, Christ's sacrifice is absolutely 'voluntary' (l. 213) — yet also foreknown by 'Decree' (l. 215) — and, once accepted, a matter of 'obedientiall necessity' (l. 222).
Editor’s Note
223. liquor: liquid, fluid.
Editor’s Note
224. unvaluable: invaluable.
Editor’s Note
225. balsamum: 'an aromatic oily or resinous medicinal preparation, usually for external application, for healing wounds or soothing pain' (OED, 'balsam', n. and adj., 2.a).
Editor’s Note
225. plaister: plaster.
Editor’s Note
225. fomentation: 'the application to the surface of the body either of flannels, etc. soaked in hot water, whether simple or medicated, or of any other warm, soft, medicinal substance' (OED, 1.a).
Editor’s Note
227. presumption: pride, arrogance.
Editor’s Note
227. julips: 'a sweet drink prepared in different ways; often, simply a liquid sweetened with syrup or sugar, and used as a vehicle for medicine; sometimes, a medicated drink used as a demulcent, 'comforting', or gently stimulating mixture' (OED, 'julep', 1.a). Such drinks were commonly held in early modern medicine to have a cooling effect; 'cooling Juleps' are listed among the traditional cures for fever in Gideon Harvey's The conclave of physicians, 2 vols. (1686), Wing H1060, ii. C11r.
Editor’s Note
229. Cordialls: 'a medicine, food, or beverage which invigorates the heart and stimulates the circulation; a comforting or exhilarating drink' (OED, 'cordial', B. n., a); with an etymological pun that cements the connection between physical and spiritual ailments ('cordial' derives from Lat. cor, 'heart', and thus links back to the condition of 'heartlesse desperation' in ll. 228–9).
Critical Apparatus
231 satisfaction] ed., PS; satisfiaction F50
Editor’s Note
233. Interjection: exclamation.
Editor’s Note
238. [marg.] Væ minantis.: Lat., '"woe" of threatening' (, lit., 'woe').
Editor’s Note
240. commination: 'denunciation of punishment or vengeance, esp. threatening of Divine punishment or vengeance' (OED, 1.a).
Editor’s Note
245–7. Amen . . . he doe: D quotes accurately but intensifies Christ's exhortation by doubling the repetition ('Amen' is the Lat. translation of the Gr. ἀμήν‎, usually rendered 'verily' in AV, as made explicit by the quotation from Matt. 5: 26 immediately following).
Editor’s Note
247–8. vox Asserentis . . . Deserentis: cf. the entry for 'Amen' in Lorenzo de Villavicencio, Phrases Scriptvrae Sacrae (Antwerp, 1571), A3r.
Critical Apparatus
249 infallibility]; infallabi- cw
Editor’s Note
251. Fiat: Lat., lit., 'let it be done'; also here with resonances of the legal usage, meaning an order or warrant of a judge or magistrate directing that some act be done.
Editor’s Note
261. Decimation: 'the selection by lot of every tenth man to be put to death, as a punishment in cases of mutiny or other offence by a body of soldiers, etc.' (OED, 2.a; from Lat. decem, 'ten').
Editor’s Note
264–5. a looke . . . wish: D's complex reflections on the relationship between guilt and responsibility, and between action and intent, anticipate the scholastically inflected meditations on 'scandal' in the second sermon on Matt. 18. 7 (see also l. 276, 'a smile, . . . a good looke').
Editor’s Note
270–2. As they . . . can: this passage recurs, almost verbatim, in Meditation 12 of D, Devotions (64); Raspa (162) explains that D draws on the work of the Italian natural philosopher Sante Arduino of Pesauro, whose De Venenis ('Of poisons') was first published in Venice in 1492 and reissued, with the influential commentary of Ferdinando Ponzetti (Cardinal of Amalfi, 1517–27), in Basel in 1562. The chapter on vipers is the first in book 6 of Arduino's treatise in the 1562 edition (329–44; E3r–F4v); the flea forms the punier subject of book 8, ch. 20 (506–7; V1v–V2r).
Editor’s Note
275. countenance: '"patronage; appearance of favour; appearance on any side" (Johnson); moral support' (OED n.1, 8.a).
Editor’s Note
278. dye laughing . . . tickling: cf. Jean Ogier de Gombauld, Endimion (1639), STC 11991: 'as the fertility of Egypt is accompanyied with its Crocodiles, so this Countrey hath her Serpents, the teeth whereof are mortall, and their poyson of such a tickling operation, that men dye of it with continuall laughing' (K5v); and Samuel Page, A godly learned exposition . . . on the Lords prayer (1631), STC 19092: 'How many be there in the world that cry heartily, panem nostrum quotidianum, and libera nos a malo, who neither care for the name, the kingdome, nor the will of God, they neither feele any inconuenience in sinne, nor feare, rather like temptations, which haue a pleasing relish. Like those that dye with tickling' (2X4v).
Editor’s Note
283. Thereby: AV has 'hereby'.
Editor’s Note
285. scapes: escapes.
Editor’s Note
291. Stipendium . . . mors est: cf. Rom. 6: 23 (Vulg.), 'Stipendia enim peccati mors'.
Critical Apparatus
294 Nonobstante]; Non obstante PS
Editor’s Note
294. Euge: see l. 469 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
294. vacat upon . . . Fiat: an annulment upon his decree.
Editor’s Note
294. Nonobstante: a judgement non obstante veredicto (Lat., lit., 'notwithstanding a verdict'), was one of three basic types of so-called motions 'in banc', whereby questions could be raised after trial. More broadly, in law, a dispensation given by an executive authority to perform an action notwithstanding any statute to the contrary (OED, A. n., 1.a). Cf. OESJD i.2.231–2 (Whitehall, 21 Apr. 1616): 'But who was a counsellor to God, or who inserted any Provisoes or Nonobstante's into his Laws?'; OESJD iii.3.487 (Whitehall, 18 Apr. 1626); and cf. PS i.15.214, iii.3.427, iv.12.304. Cf. also P-M, 52; ED, 88; 'Love's Exchange': 'I aske no dispensation now / To falsifie a teare, or sigh, or vow, / I do not sue from thee to draw / A non obstante on natures law' (ll. 8–11). See further Annabel Patterson, 'John Donne, Kingsman?', in Linda Levy Peck (ed.), The Mental World of the Jacobean Court (Cambridge, 1991), 251–72 (270).
Critical Apparatus
295 Amen?] ed.; Amen? PS; Amen. F50
Editor’s Note
295–6. God . . . can repent: cf. Num. 23: 19, 'God is not a man that he should lie, neither the sonne of man, that hee should repent'.
Editor’s Note
298. Crede & vives: an allusion to John 6: 47 (Vulg.), 'qui credit in me, habet vitam æternam' (AV, 'He that believeth on me hath everlasting life'). The phrase 'crede & vives' was used frequently by RC controversialists to rebut Calvinist claims to a faith-based theology; Richard Smith argued, for instance, that while the Scriptures provided plentiful encouragement to good works — e.g. Luke 10: 28 'this do, and thou shalt liue' (see l. 299 and cmt) — there was no such pithy biblical evidence for the importance of faith: 'Christus . . . attexit hæc: hoc fac & viues. Non aiebat, hoc solum crede, & viues' (De Libero Hominis Arbitrio Adversvs Ioannem Caluinum (Louvain, 1563), c5r).
Editor’s Note
299. Fac hoc & vives: cf. Luke 10: 28 (Vulg.), 'Hoc fac, & viues' (AV, 'this do, and thou shalt liue').
Editor’s Note
300. Converte & vives: cf. Ezek. 33: 11 (Vulg.), 'Viuo ego dicit Dominus Deus: Nolo mortem impii, sed vt conuertatur impius à via sua, & viuat' (AV, 'As I liue, saith the Lord God, I haue no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turne from his way & liue').
Editor’s Note
302. Revertere & vives: cf. Ezek. 18: 32 (Vulg.), 'Reuertimi et uiuite' (AV, 'turne your selues, & liue ye').
Editor’s Note
306. this child . . . dye: cf. 2 Sam. 12: 14, 'Howbeit, because by this deede thou hast giuen great occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the childe also that is borne vnto thee, shall surely die'.
Editor’s Note
307. ratified: confirmed.
Editor’s Note
308. David fasted . . . wept: cf. 2 Sam. 12: 22, 'And he said, While the child was yet aliue, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell, whether God will be gracious to me, that the child may liue?'
Editor’s Note
318. Mountains melt: cf. Mic. 1: 4, 'And the mountaines shall be molten vnder him, and the valleis shall be cleft'.
Editor’s Note
318. Powers, . . . Principalities: cf. Col. 1: 16, 'For by him were all things created, that are in heauen, and that are in earth, visible and inuisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers'.
Editor’s Note
324. [marg.] Mundo: Lat., 'unto the world'.
Editor’s Note
325–8. Abulensis . . . from offences: 'Abulensis' is Alonso Tostado (c.1400–1455), the Bishop of Ávila (Lat. Abulensis), who notes in his Commentaria in Quintam Partem Matthæi (Venice, 1596) that some expositors have construed the word 'mundus' adjectivally and therefore read the phrase as 'free from offences, that is, cleansed from them and unburdened by them' ('mundus à scandalis, id est, purgatus vel immunis ab eis' (B6r)).
Editor’s Note
329. illiterate: unlearned.
Editor’s Note
330–1. there is . . . use: the importance of producing 'useful' — i.e. edifying and devotionally constructive — readings of Scripture is a recurring theme in D's later Lincoln's Inn sermons. In this instance, even Tostado's reported misreading of Matt. 18: 7 (ll. 324–9) yields a helpful lesson for practical Christian living ('woe be unto him that hath had no crosses'); a less extreme case is presented by D's sermon on Gen. 18: 25 (Sermon 1 in this vol.), which proposes a Trinitarian reading of Gen. 18 on Trinity Sunday. Even though such a reading has no probative value in controversial combat, it strengthens the faith of those 'who have been baptized, and catechised in the name and faith of the Trinity' (Sermon 1, ll. 309–10). For further discussion of D's exegetical strategies, see Introduction.
Editor’s Note
334. There cannot . . . none: cf. 'The Crosse': 'Better were worse, for, no affliction, / No Crosse is so extreme, as to have none' (ll. 13–14).
Editor’s Note
337–9. my conformity . . . flesh: cf. Col. 1: 24, 'Who now reioyce in my sufferings for you, and fill vp that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh, for his bodies sake, which is the Church'.
Editor’s Note
346. glorious Masse: ostentatious or vainglorious Eucharist; invoking Protestant distrust of the outward trappings of the RC celebration of the sacrament.
Editor’s Note
346. sordid: squalid.
Editor’s Note
346. Conventicle: 'a meeting of (Protestant) Nonconformists or Dissenters from the Church of England for religious worship, during the period when such meetings were prohibited by the law' (OED n., 4.b). As a clandestine meeting, the opposite of a 'glorious Masse'.
Editor’s Note
347. light candles . . . Noon: D refers to the RC practice of lighting church candles at noontime in honour of God and the saints; see 'The thirde parte of the Homilee against images and the worshipping of them', in The second tome of homilees (1571), STC 13669: 'What shoulde it meane, that they accordyng as dyd the Gentiles idolaters, lyght candelles at noone time, or at mydnyght, before them, but therwith to honour them [i.e the idols]' (G6r).
Editor’s Note
348. put out . . . midnight: nonconformists and dissenters held regular evening meetings. D contrasts the high ceremony of a RC 'Masse' with the clandestine meeting of a dissenters' 'Conventicle' (l. 346): at the former, the candles are part of the trappings of excess; in the latter, their imagined extinguishing symbolizes the participants' desire to be hidden from public view.
Editor’s Note
349. extirpations: destructions.
Editor’s Note
351. unsensible: insensible.
Editor’s Note
355. aspersion: 'the action of casting damaging imputations, false and injurious charges, or unjust insinuations; calumniation, defamation' (OED, 5).
Editor’s Note
356–7. Catterpillars . . . Roman Church: 'a rapacious person; an extortioner; one who preys upon society' (OED, 'caterpillar', 2). The association between caterpillars and RC divines was common in early modern Protestant polemic; see, for instance, Thomas Bilson, The true difference betweene Christian subiection and unchristian rebellion (Oxford, 1585), STC 3071: 'more spitefull wordes than which the rankest caterpiller in Rome could not haue vttered against the state and kingdom where wee liue' (a1r). And cf. Christopher Marlowe, The Jew of Malta, ed. James R. Siemon (1994): 'Look, look, master, here come two religious caterpillars' (IV.i.21).
Editor’s Note
358. enginiers: cf. OED, 'engineer', n., 1.a, 'a constructor of military engines; a person who designs and constructs military works for attack and defence. Also fig.' D plays on the fact that the Jesuits are the most militant members of the RC Church.
Editor’s Note
358. forwardest: chiefest; also, precocious.
Editor’s Note
363. Jealously: with mistrust.
Critical Apparatus
366 un-offended,] ed., PS; ~^ F50
Editor’s Note
368. barbarously: with a specific linguistic application; cf. OED, 'barbarous', 1.a, 'not Greek; . . . hence not classical or pure'. D anticipates Rome's refusal to consult the Scripture text in 'the Originall' (Gr. in the case of Matt. 18: 7).
Editor’s Note
373–4. Vulgate Edition . . . Originall: the question of 'recourse to the Originall' texts of Scripture was a major point of contention between RC and Protestant divines in the early modern period. Their respective positions (reliance on Vulg. — which had been declared the only 'authentic' text at the fourth session of the Council of Trent in 1546 — in the case of Rome, and on the Gr. and Hebr. texts for Protestant readers) are summed up most clearly in Gregory Martin's Preface to D–R, and in William Fulke's reply, The text of the New Testament of Iesus Christ, translated out of the vulgar Latine . . ., with a confutation of all such arguments, glosses, and annotations, as conteine manifest impietie, of heresie, treason and slander, against the catholike Church of GOD, and the true teachers thereof, or the translations vsed in the Church of England (1589), STC 2888.
Editor’s Note
378. tentations: temptations.
Critical Apparatus
379 marg Gen. 19.] ed., PS; Gen. 29. F50
Editor’s Note
379. God raigned . . . Sodom: cf. Gen. 19: 24, 'Then the LORD rained vpon Sodome & vpon Gomorrah, brimstone and fire, from the LORD out of heauen'.
Editor’s Note
379. Zoar: cf. Gen.19: 22, 'Haste thee, escape thither: for I cannot doe any thing till thou bee come thither: therefore the name of the citie was called Zoar'.
Critical Apparatus
380–1 væ Egypto . . . Ægypt]; væ Ægypto . . . Egypt PS
Editor’s Note
381. Goshen: cf. Exod. 9: 26, 'Onely in the land of Goshen where the children of Israel were, was there no haile'.
Editor’s Note
382–3. When . . . another City: cf. Matt. 10: 23, 'But when they persecute you in this citie, flee ye into another' (Vulg.: 'Cum autem persequentur vos in ciuitate ista, fugite in aliam').
Editor’s Note
387. wofull: miserable.
Editor’s Note
388. circumventions: 'the action of circumventing; overreaching, outwitting, or getting the better of any one by craft or artifice' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
389. devest: abandon.
Editor’s Note
393. station: position.
Editor’s Note
393. prostration: powerless condition.
Editor’s Note
395. ill: negative (i.e. for humanity).
Editor’s Note
397–8. I give . . . world: cf. John 6: 51, 'and the bread that I will giue, is my flesh, which I will giue for the life of the world'.
Editor’s Note
398. elemented: compounded of elements.
Editor’s Note
399. alimented: nourished (the aural 'bond' between 'elemented' and 'alimented' mirrors Christ's bond and union with the elect).
Editor’s Note
403. Novissima hora: 1 John 2: 18 (Vulg.), 'Vnde scimus, quia nouissima hora est' (AV, 'Little children, it is the last time').
Editor’s Note
404–7. Take . . . Old world: cf. 2 Pet. 2: 5, 'And spared not the old world, but saued Noah the eight person a preacher of righteousnesse, bringing in the flood vpon the world of the vngodly' (Vulg.: 'originali mundo non pepercit . . .').
Critical Apparatus
409 elder] ed., PS; eldèr F50
Editor’s Note
417. intramittendo, and extramittendo: D refers to two competing theories as to how visual perception operates — by intromission or extramission. Intromission theorists, such as Democritus (c.425 bce) and Epicurus (342–270 bce), argued that objects cast off resemblances of themselves, called 'eidola', which are captured by the eye. By contrast, extramission theorists, such as Plato (c.427–347 bce), believed that visual fire emanates from the eye and coalesces with light to form a conduit that allows so-called motions of the object to pass to the sensorium. These theories were frequently adapted into theological discourses; see, for instance, Christopher Hampton The threefold state of man vpon earth (1620), STC 12739.5: 'And was his knowledge like hypocrites eyes, that see, extramittendo, non intromittendo, quicke abroad and dull at home; able to discerne moates in others, and not beames in themselues? No, Adam was not so; he vnderstood as much of himselfe, as he did of anie thing else' (C3v). D uses ideas of intromission and extramission with a more specific inflection in a Whitehall sermon of Mar. 1619/20 as he dwells on the dangers of 'hypocriticall security': 'they shall see nothing, neither intramittendo, nor extramittendo, neither by receiving offer of grace from heaven, nor in the disposition to pray for grace in hell' (PS ii.18.359–60, 378–80).
Editor’s Note
420. anoint: rub, smear.
Editor’s Note
422. cloistrall: monastic. See D, 'To the Lady Carey, and Mrs Essex Riche': 'So cloysterall men, who, in pretence of feare / All contributions to this life forbeare, / Have Vertue in Melancholy, and only there' (ll. 25–7).
Editor’s Note
432–3. Carthusian . . . Cell: the Carthusians are an order of enclosed monastics; their solemn vows prescribe a strict separation from the sæculum or external world (see l. 426 and cmt); this means, for instance, that they do not engage in any work of a missionary nature. Members of the Carthusian order do not eat meat and do not purchase fish; the site of their first monastery — near the village of Chartreuse in the French Alps — included a pond, and early depictions of the monks frequently show them catching and netting fish.
Editor’s Note
426. Secular Priests: the RC Church distinguishes between two different categories of clergy, the clerus sæcularis ('secular order') and the ordo regularis (the 'Regular order' mentioned by D in l. 430). The word sæculum is contrasted with the cloister; 'secular' priests make no vow of obedience and can own property like laypeople. D implies a downgrading or 'Diminution' of 'Secular Priests' through RC terminology (they are not 'Regular'). The subject of secular priests was controverted in print with especial vigour in the first decade of the 17th century; see, for instance, Christopher Bagshaw, A true relation of the faction begun at Wisbich by Fa. Edmonds, alias Weston, a Iesuite, 1595 (1601), STC 1188.
Editor’s Note
429. Mechaniques: manual workers (usually associated with lower social classes; D treats the professions in ascending order, moving from 'Mechaniques' to 'Merchants' and 'Magistrates').
Editor’s Note
430. Magistrates: 'a civil officer charged with the administration of the law, a member of the executive government' (OED n., 1.a).
Editor’s Note
430. Regular order: see l. 426 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
433. ubiquitary: one who can be deployed anywhere (from Lat. ubique, 'everywhere'). D refers to the Jesuits' willingness to accept orders anywhere in the world (in contrast to the 'enclosed' Carthusians, for instance).
Editor’s Note
435. Exchange: 'a building in which the merchants of a town assemble for the transaction of business' (OED n., 10.a); here, more specifically, the exchange built by Sir Thomas Gresham, which received the name of Royal Exchange from Queen Elizabeth in 1566.
Editor’s Note
437. Westminster: the site of the central courts (including King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Chancery).
Editor’s Note
437. occasion: bring about, initiate (here with reference to a lawsuit).
Editor’s Note
437. maintain suits: carry on actions at law.
Editor’s Note
440. field: i.e. field of battle.
Editor’s Note
442. mutuall: shared, reciprocal (i.e. based on social interaction).
Critical Apparatus
445 marg Mat. 19. 10.] ed., PS; Mat. 19. 9. F50
Editor’s Note
446. bed: a collective noun for snakes.
Critical Apparatus
451 marg 1. 22.] ed., PS; 2. 22. F50
Editor’s Note
454. Satis est . . . enough: cf. 1 Kgs 19: 4 (AV), 'It is enough, now O Lord, take away my life' (Vulg., '[s]ufficit mihi domine, tolle animam meam'). The marginalium is misleading: in the Vulg. sequence of Scripture books, 1 Reg. refers to 1 Sam.; here D seems to have translated 1 Kgs back into Latin.
Editor’s Note
455–9. When . . . God foolishly: D is summarizing Jonah 4: 3–11.
Editor’s Note
460. wormes: D may have taken inspiration for this passage on worms from Jonah 4: 7, 'But God prepared a worme when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it withered'.
Editor’s Note
460. silke-wormes . . . glow-wormes: these worms have temporary benefits, in contrast to the 'slow-wormes' (see l. 461 and cmt): silkworms produce silk before transforming into moths and glow-worms emit pulses of light.
Editor’s Note
461. slow-wormes: see Edward Topsell, The historie of serpents (1608), STC 24124. The slow-worm is 'very full of markes or spots vppon the back[;] . . . it is also slow and mooueth softly, wherefore it cannot pursue where it would doe harme, insteed therefore of celeritie, these naturall spots doe hold them that it doth desire to harme, like as they were stupifyed & astonished' (2A2v).
Editor’s Note
461. venimous: venomous.
Editor’s Note
462. boxes of poyson: the original box of poisons was Pandora's box, which was said to contain all the evils in the world.
Editor’s Note
464. Soveraign: supremely efficacious.
Editor’s Note
467. leaven: 'a substance which is added to dough to produce fermentation' (OED n., 1.a).
Editor’s Note
467. lees: the sediment produced by wine and other liquids. Wine left on the lees was supposed to be better preserved. D's use of the images of bread and wine as constitutive of a person alludes to the Last Supper.
Editor’s Note
469. Euge tibi . . . scandalis: 'well done to you, because of offences' (an approximate translation). D combines Gr. and Lat. here; the Gr. adverb eu ('well, rightly') is used chiefly in the parable of the talents (Matt. 25: 21, 23; Luke 19: 17 — 'Well done, thou good servant').
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