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pg 351Biographical Index

The Biographical Index contains brief entries on all ancient, medieval, and early modern figures mentioned by Donne in the sermons contained in this vol., with headings in the form in which D refers to them (e.g. 'Maldonat' rather than 'Maldonado'). It does not contain entries on those who are referred to only in the cmts to the sermons (for which see the General Index). Where an entry contains a name in bold, that figure also has an entry. Most entries conclude with a list of the author's most important works, or those to which D refers. The appearance of these figures or citation of their works in the sermons can be traced by referring to the General Index. The necessarily brief information here may be supplemented by consulting, e.g., F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone (eds.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd, rev., edn. (Oxford, 2005); Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, 33 vols. to date (Nordhausen, 1990– ), available online at <>.

ABULENSIS. Alonso Tostado [Tostatus Abulensis, Tostado of Ávila] (c. 1400–1455), Bishop of Ávila, known for his exegetical works and for his encyclopaedic knowledge of theology more generally.
ALENSIS. Alexander of Hales ['Doctor Irrefragilis'] (c. 1185–1245), English Franciscan scholastic theologian, who studied and taught at Paris. Glossa in Quatuor Libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi; Summa Theologica.
AMBROSE. Saint [Aurelius Ambrosius] (c. 339–397), Bishop of Milan and Doctor of the Church. Celebrated as a preacher and opponent of Arianism.
AMILCAR. Hamilcar Barca (d. 229/228 bce), Carthaginian general and father of the military commander Hannibal.
AQUINAS. Saint Thomas Aquinas ['Doctor Communis', 'Doctor Angelicus'] (c. 1225–74), Italian Dominican priest and theologian. Studied and taught at Paris and in Italy. Influenced in both his philosophy and his theology by Aristotle. His magisterial Summa Theologica treats in its three parts God and creation, the human person as a free moral agent, and Christ as the way of man to God. Summa Theologica; Summa Contra Gentiles; Scriptum super Libros Sententiarum; commentaries on Aristotle.
ARDOINUS. Saint [Arduino da Pesaro] (fl. c. 1424–6), physician, who worked mainly in Padua; his De Venenis was composed c. 1424–6.
ARISTOTLE (384–322 bce), Greek philosopher and pupil of Plato. His teaching still dominated many aspects of learning in the seventeenth century.
ATHANASIUS. Saint (c.296–373), Bishop of Alexandria and Church Father; Doctor of the Church. At the First Council of Nicaea (325), argued against Arius' doctrine that the Son is of a distinct substance from the Father. De Incarnatione; Epistulae ad Serapion.
pg 352AUGUSTINE. Saint Augustine of Hippo (354–430), Bishop of Hippos Regius; Doctor of the Church. Author of many theological works including Confessions, De Doctrina Christiana, and De Civitate Dei. D cites him more than any other Father.
BASIL. Saint Basil of Caesarea [Saint Basil the Great] (c.330–79), Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia, and Asia Minor; Doctor of the Church. With Gregory of Nazianzus (Nazianzen) and Gregory of Nyssa (Basil's brother), one of the Cappadocian Fathers. De Spiritu Sanctu; homilies on the Hexaemeron and on selected psalms; letters.
BELLARMINE. Saint Robert Bellarmine [Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino] (1542–1621), Italian Jesuit and cardinal, author of De Controversiis Christianæ Fidei (1586–93), Explanatio in Psalmos (1612), and of many controversial works, notably in the Oath of Allegiance debate. A frequent target of D in the sermons; Walton claims that D read and heavily annotated 'all the Cardinals works' (Walton, 26).
BERNARD. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), French Cistercian abbot and founder in 1115 of the abbey of Clairvaux. Homilies on the Gospel; De Laudibus Novae Militiae; De Amore Dei; De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio; De Officiis Episcoporum; many sermons.
BIEL, Gabriel (c. 1425–95), German scholastic philosopher, best known for his commentary on Peter Lombard's Sentences (Collectorium sive Epitome in Magistri Sententiarum Libros IV).
BODIUS, Hermannus [? pseudonym of Martin Bucer (1491–1551)], German Reformer and theologian (fl. 1527), compiler of the patristic anthology Unio Dissidentium (1527), which went through forty editions.
BOZIUS. Thomas Bozius Eugubinus [Tomaso Bozio of Gubbio] (1548–1610), Italian Jesuit; presbyter of the Oratory at Rome, ecclesiastical historian, polemicist, and political philosopher. He is misidentified as 'Bodius' in F26. De Imperio Virtutis . . . contra Machiav. (1601), refutes Machiavelli; De Signis Ecclesiæ Dei (1591–3), controversially argued that Luther had committed suicide.
CALVIN, Jean [Jean Cauvin] (1509–64), French Reformer and theologian, most celebrated for his ministry in Basel, Strasbourg, and finally Geneva, where he led the church, and for his development of a theology of predestination. Author of many works, including Institutio Christianae Religionis (1536, 1539, 1543, 1559) and many volumes of biblical commentary.
CAMPIAN. Saint Edmund Campion (1540–81), English Jesuit missionary.
CATARINUS. Ambrosius Catharinus Politus [Lancelotto Politi] (1484–1553), Archbishop of Conza. Dominican controversialist and exegete.
CHRYSOSTOM. Saint John Chrysostom (c. 347–407), Archbishop of Constantinople and Doctor of the Church. Noted for his rhetorical skill and eloquence (his name means 'golden-mouthed'), and known for his Homilies and liturgical writings.
CICERO. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 bce), Roman orator, lawyer, and statesman. Influential in the early modern period for his writings on rhetoric, his letters and speeches, and his prose style. De Oratore; De Amicitia; De Republica; many legal and political orations.
pg 353CLEMENS. Pope Saint Clement I (fl. 96), listed from an early date as a Bishop of Rome. Only his First Epistle (1 Clement) is now accepted as authentic.
CONSTANTINE. Constantine I [Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus] (c.272–337), Roman emperor (312–37), the first Christian to hold that position. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
CONSTANTIUS. Constantius II [Flavius Julius Constantinus Augustus] (317–61), Roman emperor, second son of Constantine.
CYPRIAN. Saint (c.200–258), Bishop of Carthage. Known chiefly for his writings on martyrdom, the Lord's Prayer, and the unity of the church.
CYRIL. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444), Patriarch of Alexandria, 412–44. Opponent of Nestorius and leading figure in the First Council of Ephesus (431).
DAMASCENE. Saint John of Damascus (c.660–c.750), Greek theologian and Doctor of the Church; last of the Greek Fathers. Defender of images in the Iconoclastic Controversy of the Green Church. De Orthodoxa Fide.
DEMOSTHENES (384–322 bce), Athenian orator. Opponent of Philip of Macedon. Philippics; On the Crown.
DIDYMUS OF ALEXANDRIA. Saint [Didymus the Blind] (d. c.398), Greek grammarian and theologian. His treatise On the Holy Ghost was translated by St Jerome; also known for his Scripture commentaries on Psalms and the Gospels of Matthew and John.
DIONYSIUS. Dionysius II of Syracuse (d. 344 bce), ruler of Syracuse from 367 bce, initially under the tutelage of his uncle, the philosopher Dion, who unsuccessfully employed Plato's services to persuade his nephew to adopt a more moderate and prudent style of governance. Dionysus was exiled after a coup by Dion in 357 bce, but briefly regained power in 346; he spent the final years of his life in Corinth, where he reportedly supported himself as a schoolmaster.
DIONYSIUS. Saint Dionysius of Alexandria (d. 264), Patriarch of Alexandria. His letters are excerpted in Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica.
ENNIUS. Quintus Ennius (239–169 bce), Roman poet; one of the earliest Latin poets, he is best known for his Annales, an epic poem relating the history of Rome. EPICTETUS (c.50–c.130), Greek Stoic philosopher, originally a slave. His Discourses (digested into the Enchiridion, or Handbook) were recorded by his pupil Arrian.
EPIPHANIUS. Saint (c.315–403), Bishop of Salamis and metropolitan of Cyprus. Supporter of the monastic movement. Panarion (Adversus Haereses).
ERASMUS. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (1466–1536), Dutch humanist. Edited and translated the New Testament and the Church Fathers.
ESCHINES. Aeschines (c.390–c.314 bce), Athenian statesman, one of the ten Attic orators. Advocated peace with Philip II of Macedonia. Prominent opponent of Demosthenes.
EUTHYMIUS. Saint Euthymius the Great (377–473), monastic. Attended the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451).
FELIX. Pope Felix IV (d. 530), pope (526–30).
pg 354GARNET. Saint Thomas Garnet (c. 1575–1608), English Jesuit missionary.
GELLIUS. Aulus Gellius (b. c. 125, d. after 180), Latin author and grammarian, educated in Athens. Known principally for his Attic Nights, a compilation of literary fragments and notes on a number of subjects, including grammar, philosophy, and history.
GREGORY. Pope Saint Gregory the Great [Gregorius I (Magnus)] (c. 540–604), pope (590–604). Fourth and last Latin Doctor of the Church. Moralium Libri, sive Expositio in Librum B. Job; Regulae Pastoralis Liber; Dialogorum Libri IV; Homiliarum in Ezechielem Prophetam Libri II; Epistolarum Libri XIV; Expositio in Canticum Canticorum.
HANNIBAL (247–183/1 bce), Carthaginian military leader. Commonly regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of antiquity, he commanded the Carthaginian army against Rome in the Second Punic War.
HERMES TRISMEGISTUS. Legendary ancient Egyptian sage (sometimes identified with Thoth, the Egyptian god of wisdom), famous among scholars in Roman territory from the 3rd century ce onwards. According to Clement of Alexandria, he was the author of 42 'fundamental books' of Egyptian religion, including astrological, cosmological, geographical, medical, and pedagogical works.
HILARY. Saint Hilary of Poitiers (c.315–367/8), Bishop of Poitiers and Doctor of the Church; vigorous opponent of the Arians. De Trinitate; De Synodis; commentaries on Scripture.
HOLKOT. Robert Holcot (c.1290–1349), English Dominican scholastic, whose theology was based largely on the logic and metaphysics of William of Ockham.
HORACE. Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65–8 bce), Roman poet, active during the reign of Emperor Augustus. Satires, Odes, Epistles.
HYGINUS. Pope Saint Hyginus (d. c. 142), pope (c.138–42).
IRENAEUS. Saint (c.130–c.200), Bishop of Lyon and Church Father. Adversus omnes Haereses (c.180), an extended attack on Gnosticism.
ISIDORE. Saint Isidore of Pelusium (d. c.440), ascetic. Author of many letters to Theodosius II, Cyril, and others.
JEROME (HIEROME). Saint [Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus] (c.345–420), Doctor of the Church. Author of numerous works and translator of the Vulgate.
JUSTIN MARTYR. Saint [Flavius Justinus] (c.100–165), early Christian apologist. Apologies; Discourse to the Greeks; Hortatory Address to the Greeks; Dialogue with Trypho.
LACTANTIUS. Lucius Caecilius Firmianus (c.250–c.325), early Christian apologist. Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII; De Vera Sapientia et Religione; Liber de Ira Dei.
LOMBARD, Peter ['Magister Sententiarum'] (1095–1160), Italian scholastic theologian, Bishop of Paris. Scripture commentaries and Sententiarum Libri Quatuor.
LUTHER, Martin (1483–1546), German Augustinian friar and theologian. Initiator of the Reformation in Germany and translator of the Bible into German.
pg 355MALDONAT. Juan Maldonado [Maldonatus] (1533–83), Spanish Jesuit theologian, exegete and lecturer, pupil of Soto. Commentaries on the Gospels, Jeremiah, Baruch, Ezekiel and Daniel; major work Commentarii in Quatuor Evangelistas (1597).
MEDINA, Miguel de (1489–1578), Spanish Franciscan controversialist. De Recta in Deum Fide Libri Septem (1564); Disputationes de Indulgentiis Adversus Nostri Temporis Haereticos ad PP. s. Concilii Trident. (1564); De Sacrorum Hominum Continentia Libri V (1569).
NAZIANZEN. Saint Gregory of Nazianzus ['the Theologian'] (329/30–389/90), Doctor of the Church, one of the Cappadocian Fathers. Champion of the Nicene faith, and central to its establishment at the Council of Constantinople (381). Five Theological Orations; Philocalia; letters and poems.
NERO. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (37–68), Roman emperor.
NESTORIUS (b. after 351; d. after 451), Patriarch of Constantinople and heresiarch. Associated with the doctrine that Christ consisted of two persons in one nature (one divine and one human), rather than that he was a single person at once God and man. Supported Anastasius in his opposition to the use of the term 'Theotokos' to refer to the Blessed Virgin Mary as Mother of God. He was condemned at the Councils of Rome (430) and Ephesus (431), where he was deposed.
OLEASTER, Hieronymus Oleaster (d. 1563), Portuguese Dominican. Attended the Council of Trent, and is best known for his Scripture commentaries.
ORIGEN (c. 185–c.254), Alexandrian biblical critic, exegete, and theologian; head of the Catechetical School in Alexandria, and fervent ascetic. Eusebius claims that Origen castrated himself as a result of interpreting Matt. 19: 12 literally. Strongly influenced by Platonic thought, he distinguished between three levels of biblical interpretation — the literal, moral, and allegorical — and followed the allegorical. His teaching was widely condemned, due to the hypotheses he advanced, including most notoriously the possibility that Satan might be saved. De Principiis (Peri Archon).
PANIGAROLA, Francesco (1548–94), Italian Franciscan controversialist and preacher, Bishop of Asti. B. Petri Apostolorum Principis Gesta . . . in Rapsodiæ, quam Catenam Appellant, Speciem Disposita (1591); works on S. of S., Lamentations, and Psalms.
PELLICANUS. Conrad Kürsner (1478–1556), Swiss theologian, humanist, and Hebraist. Liber Sententiarum Judaicarum (1546); Commentaria Bibliorum, 6 vols. (1532–9).
PERERIUS, Benedictus [(Benedict Pereyra] (1535–1610), Spanish Jesuit theologian and exegete, who taught theology and philosophy at Rome. Author of commentaries on Genesis, Exodus, and other books of the Bible.
PHILO JUDAEUS (c.20 bce–50 ce), Jewish thinker and exegete. Allegorical interpreter of Scripture, who discovered aspects of Greek philosophy in the OT and blended Greek and Jewish ideas in his theology. De Aeternitate Mundi; Quaestiones et Solutiones in Genesim et Exodum; De Vita Contemplativa.
PLATO (427–347 bce), Greek philosopher; student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle. His teachings on ethics, political philosophy, and epistemology take the form of dialogues. Republic, Phaedo, Symposium, Timaeus.
pg 356PLINY. Gaius Plinius Secundus [Pliny the Elder] (23–79), Roman natural philosopher and military commander; friend of Vespasian. Historia Naturalis.
REMIGIUS (d. 875), Archbishop of Lyon; presided over the Synod of Valence in 855. Liber de Tribus Episcoporum Epistolis, Absolutio cujusdam Quæstionis de Generali per Adamum Damnatione et Speciali per Christum ex eadem Ereptione Electorum; Explanationes Epistolarvm Beati Pavli Apostoli.
RIBADINEYRA. Pedro de Ribadineira (1526–1611), Spanish Jesuit, one of the founders of the Jesuit order. Ecclesiastical histories and lives of the saints. SANCTIUS, Caspar (1554–1628), Spanish Jesuit. Commentaries on the prophetic books of the Old Testament and on Acts of the Apostles.
SAUNDERS. Nicholas Sanders (1530–81), English Roman Catholic controversialist and ecclesiastical historian. De Visibili Monarchia Ecclesiae (1571); De Origine ac Progressu Schismatis Anglicani Libri Tres (1585).
SENECA. Lucius Annaeus Seneca [Seneca the Younger] (c.4 bce–65 ce), Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, and playwright. Author of tragedies and dialogues, as well as of De Clementia, De Beneficiis, and Epistulae Morales.
SERARIUS, Nikolaus (1555–1609), French Jesuit controversialist and philologist. Commentaries on various books of the Old Testament.
SOLOMON, RABBI. Solomon Isaac ['Rashi'] (1040–1105), Jewish teacher. Best known for his word-for-word commentaries on the Hebr. Bible and the Talmud, and for influential rulings on Jewish matrimonial law.
TERTULLIAN. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c.160–c.225), Church Father and theologian. Author of thirty-one surviving works, mostly polemical. He argued against infant baptism (De Baptismo) and advocated Traducianism (the theory that the human soul is transmitted by parents to the child; De Anima).
THEOPHYLACT. Theophylact of Ohrid (c. 1050–1108), Archbishop of Ohrid; theologian and exegete. Commentaries on the four Gospels, Acts, and NT Epistles.
VEGAS. Andreas de Vega (1498–1549), Spanish Franciscan. Attended the Council of Trent and made prominent contributions on the doctrine of justification. De Justificatione, Gratia Fide, Operibus et Meritis Quaestiones Quindecim (1546); Tridentini Decreti de Justificatione Expositio et Defensio Lib. XV Distincta (1548).
VINCENTIUS RHEGIUS (1544–1614), Italian Jesuit and NT exegete. Dilvcidationvm Evangelicarvm, 3 vols. (1615–16).
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