David Colclough (ed.), The Oxford Edition of the Sermons of John Donne, Vol. 3: Sermons Preached at the Court of Charles I

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pg 177SERMON 11Editor’s NoteCritical ApparatusTHE SECOND SERMON PREACHED[F3r]BEFORE KING CHARLES,Upon the xxvi verse of thefirst Chapter of GENESIS.By Dr. DONNE DEAN OF PAULS.

  |   Genesis 1. 26.[F4r]And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likenesse.

Editor’s Note8By fair occasion from these words, we proposed to you the whole compasse Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus9of mans voyage, from his launching forth in this world, to his anchoring Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus10in the next; from his hoysing sail here, to his striking sail there: in which Editor’s Note11compasse we designed to you his foure quarters: first, his East, where he must 12begin, the fundamentall knowledge of the Trinitie (for that we found to be the 13specification & distinctive character of a Christian) where, though that be so, Editor’s Note14we shewed you also, why we were not called Trinitarians, but Christians: and 15we shewed you the advantage that  |   man hath, in laying hold upon God in[F4v] Editor’s Note16these severall notions; That the prodigall sonne hath an indulgent father; 17that the decayed father hath an abundant sonne; that the dejected spirit hath a Editor’s Note18Spirit of comfort to fly to in heaven. And as we shewed you from S. Paul, that 19it was an Atheisme to be no Christian: (Without God, sayes he, as long as 20without Christ) so we lamented the slacknesse of Christians, that they did not 21seriously and particularly consider the persons of the Trinitie, and especially Critical Apparatus22the holy Ghost, in their particular actions: And then we came to that con-Editor’s Note23sideration, whether this doctrine were established, or directly insinuated, in Critical Apparatus24this plurall word of our text, Faciamus, Let us make man: and we found that Critical Apparatus25doctrine to be here, and here first, of any place in the Bible: and finding God to Editor’s Note26speak in the plurall, we accepted (for a time) that interpretation which some 27had made thereof, That God spake in the person of a Soveraigne Prince, and Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus28therefore (as they do) in the plurall, We: And thereby having established 29reverence to Princes, we claymed, in Gods behalf, the same reverence to him; 30that men would demean themselves here, when God is spoken to in prayer, as Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus31reverently as when they speak to the King. But afterwards we found God to 32speak here not onely as our King, but as our Maker, as God himself, and God pg 178Editor’s Note33[G1r]in councel, Faciamus: And we applied thereunto the difference of our re-  |   34spect to a person of that honourable rank, when we came before him at the 35councel-table, and when we came to him at his own table; and thereby 36advanced the seriousnesse of this consideration, God in the Trinitie. And Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus37farther we sailed not with our Eastern winde. Our West we considered in the 38next word, Hominem; That, though we were made by the whole Trinitie, yet 39the whole Trinitie made us but men, and men in this name of our text, Adam; Editor’s Note40and Adam is but earth: and that is our West, our declination, our Sun-set. We Editor’s Note41passed over the foure names, by which man is ordinarily expressed in the 42scriptures; and we found necessary miserie in three of them; and possible, nay, 43likely miserie in the fourth, in the best name. We insisted upon the name of Editor’s Note44our text, Adam, earth; and had some use of these notes; first, That if I were but 45earth, God was pleased to be the potter; If I but a sheep, he a shepherd; If I but Critical Apparatus46a cottage, he a builder: So he work upon me, let me be what he will. We noted, Editor’s Note47that God made us earth, not aire, not fire; that man hath bodily and worldly 48duties to perform, and is not all spirit in this life. Devotion is his soul: but he 49hath a bodie of discretion & usefulnesse to invest in some calling. We noted Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus50too, that in being earth we are equall: we tried that equalitie, first in the root, 51in Adam; there if any man will be nobler earth then I, he must have more 52[G1v]originall sinne then I: for that was all A-  |   dams patrimonie, all that he could Editor’s Note53give. And we tried this equalitie in another furnace, in the grave; where there 54is no means to distinguish royall from plebeian, nor catholick from hereticall Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus55dust. And lastly we noted, that this our earth was red; & considered in what 56respect it was red, even in Gods hands; but found that in the bloud-rednesse 57of sinne, God had no hand; but sinne, and destructions for sinne, were wholly Editor’s Note58from our selves: which consideration we ended with this, that there was a 59Macula alba, a white spot of leprosie, as well as a red: and we found the 60overvaluation of our own puritie, and the uncharitable condemnation of all 61that differ from us, to be that white spot. And so farre we sailed with that Critical Apparatus62Western winde, & are come to our third point in this our compasse, our North.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus63 III. Part. In this point, the North, we place our first comfort. The North is not Editor’s Note64 Aquilo. alwayes the comfortablest clime; nor is the North alwayes a type of happinesse Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus65in the scriptures. Many times God threatens storms from the North: but even 66in those Northern storms, we consider their action, that they scatter, they Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus67 Job 37.22. dissipate those clouds which were gathered, and so induce a serenitie. And so Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus68fair weather comes from the North. The consideration of our West, our low Editor’s Note69estate, that we are but earth, but red earth, died red by our selves; and that Critical Apparatus70[G2r]imaginary white, which appears so to us, is  |   but a white of leprosie: this West Editor’s Note71inwraps us in heavie clouds of murmuring in this life, that we cannot live so 72freely as beasts do; and in clouds of desperation for the next life, that we pg 179Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus73cannot die so absolutely as beasts do. We die all our lives; and yet we live after Critical Apparatus74our deaths: These are our clouds; & then the North shakes these clouds. The Prov. 25.23. 75North-winde driveth away the rain, sayes Solomon. There is a North in our text, Editor’s Note76that drives all these tears from our eyes. Christ calls upon the North as well as Cant. 4.16. 77the South, to blow upon his garden, and to diffuse the perfumes thereof. 78Adversitie, as well as prosperitie, opens the bountie of God unto us; and 79oftentimes better. But that is not the benefit of the North, in our present Critical Apparatus80consideration: but this is it, that first our Sunne sets in the West. The Eastern 81dignitie which we received in our first creation, as we were the work of the 82whole Trinitie, falls under a Western cloud, that that Trinitie made us but Critical Apparatus83earth. And then blows our North, and scatters this cloud; that this earth hath Critical Apparatus84a nobler form then any other part or limbe of the world: for we are made by a 85fairer pattern, by a nobler image, by a higher likenesse. Faciamus; Though we 86make but a man, Let us make him in our image, after our likenesse.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus87The varietie which the holy Ghost uses here in the pen of Moses, hath given 88occasion to divers, to raise divers observations upon  |   these words, which[G2v] Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus89seem divers, Image and Likenesse; as also in the varietie of the phrase: for it is 90thus conceived and layed, In our image; and then, After our likenesse. I know it Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus91is a good rule that Damascen gives, Parva non sunt parva, ex quibus magna 92proveniunt; Nothing is to be neglected, as little, from which great things may arise: Editor’s Note93If the consequence may be great, the thing must not be thought little. No Critical Apparatus94Jod in the scripture shall perish; therefore no Jod is superfluous: if it were 95superfluous, it might perish. Words, and lesse particles then words, have 96busied the whole Church.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus97In the Councel of Ephesus, where Bishops in a great number excommuni-98cated Bishops in a greater; Bishop against Bishop, and Patriarch against 99Patriarch; in which case, when both parties had made strong parties in Court, Critical Apparatus100and the Emperour forbore to declare himself on either side for a time, he was 101told, that he refused to assent to that which 6000 Bishops had agreed in: the 102strife was but for a word, whether the blessed Virgin might be called Deipara, 103The mother of God, for Christipara, The mother of Christ; which Christ all agree 104to be God. Nestorius and all his partie agreed with Cyril, that she might be. In Editor’s Note105the Councel of Calcedon, the difference was not so great, as for a word com-106posed of syllables. It was but for a syllable, whether Ex or In. The heretiques 107condemned then, confessed Christ to be Ex du-  |   abus naturis, to be composed[G3r] 108of two natures, at first; but not to be In duabus naturis, not to consist of two Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus109natures after. And for that In, they were thrust out. In the Councel of Nice, it Critical Apparatus110was not so much as a syllable made of letters; for it was but for one letter; Critical Apparatus111whether Homoousion, or Homöusion, was the issue. Where the question hath pg 180112not been of divers words, nor syllables, nor letters, but onely of the place of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus113words, what tempestuous differences have risen! How much hath sola fides Critical Apparatus114and fides sola changed the case! Nay, where there hath been no quarrell for 115precedencie, for transposing of words, or syllables, or letters, where there hath Editor’s Note116not been so much as a letter in question, how much doth an accent varie a Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus117sense! An interrogation or no interrogation, will make it directly contrarie. All Critical Apparatus118 Gen. 4.13. Christian expositours reade those words of Cain, My sinne is greater then can be 119pardoned, positively; and so they are evident words of desperation. The Jews 120reade them with an interrogation, Are my sinnes greater then can be pardoned? Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus121 Mich. 5.3. and so they are words of compunction and repentance. The prophet Micheas Critical Apparatus122 Matth. 2.6. sayes, that Bethlehem is a small place: The Evangelist S. Matthew sayes, No Critical Apparatus123small place. An interrogation in Micheas mouth reconciles it; Art thou a small 124place? amounts to that, Thou art not. Sounds, voices, words, must not be Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus125neglected: for Christs forerunner, John Baptist, qualified himself no other-Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus126[G3v]wise; he was but a voice: and  |   Christ himself is Verbum; The Word is the Editor’s Note127name even of the Sonne of God. No doubt but States-men & Magistrates 128finde often the danger of having suffered small abuses to passe uncorrected. Editor’s Note129We that see State-businesse but in the glasse of storie, and cannot be shut out Editor’s Note130of chronicles, see there, upon what little objects the eye and the jealousie Editor’s Note131of the State is oftentimes forced to bend it self. We know in whose times 132in Rome a man might not weep, he might not sigh, he might not look pale, 133he might not be sick, but it was informed against, as a discontent, as a mur-134muring against the present government, and an inclination to change. And 135truely many times, upon Damascens true ground, though not alwayes well Critical Apparatus136applied, Parva non sunt parva; Nothing may be thought little, when the con-137sequence may prove great. In our own sphere, in the Church, we are sure it Critical Apparatus138is so; great inconveniencies grew upon small tolerations. Therefore in that 139businesse, which occasioned all that trouble which we mentioned before, in Editor’s Note140the Councel of Ephesus, when S. Cyril wrote to the Clergie of his diocesse 141about it, at first he sayes, Præstiterat abstinere, It had been better these questions 142had not been raised: but (sayes he) Si his nugis nos adoriantur, If they vex us with 143these impertinences, these trifles: And yet these, which were but trifles at first, Editor’s Note144came to occasion Councels; and then to divide Councel against Councel; and 145[G4r]then to force the Empe-  |   rour to take away the power of both Councels, 146and govern in Councel by his Vicar generall, a secular Lord sent from Court. Editor’s Note147And therefore did some of the Ancients (particularly Philastrius) crie down 148some opinions for heresies, which were not matters of faith, but of philoso-149phie; and even in philosophie truely held by them who were condemned for 150hereticks, and mistaken by their Judges that condemned them. Little things Critical Apparatus151were called in question, lest great things should passe unquestioned: and some pg 181152of these upon Damascens true ground (still true in rule, but not alwayes in 153the application) Parva non sunt parva; Nothing may be thought little, where Critical Apparatus154the consequence may prove great. Descend we from those great spheres, the 155State and the Church, into a lesser, that is, the conscience of particular men, Critical Apparatus156and consider the danger of exposing those vines to little foxes; of leaving small Cant. 2.15. Editor’s Note157sinnes unconsidered, unrepented, uncorrected. In that glistering circle in Editor’s Note158the firmament, which we call the Galaxie, the milkie-way, there is not one 159starre of any of the six great magnitudes, which Astronomers proceed upon, Critical Apparatus160belonging to that circle: it is a glorious circle, and possesseth a great part of 161heaven; and yet is all of so little starres as have no name, no knowledge taken Critical Apparatus162of them: So certainly there are many Saints in heaven, that shine as starres, Editor’s Note163and yet are not of those great magnitudes, to have been Patri-  |   archs, or[G4v] 164Prophets, or Apostles, or Martyrs, or Doctours, or Virgins; but good & blessed Editor’s Note165souls, that have religiously performed the duties of inferiour callings, and no 166more. And as certainly there are many souls tormented in hell, that never Editor’s Note167sinned sinne of any of the great magnitudes, Idolatry, Adultery, Murder, or the Editor’s Note168like; but inconsiderately have slid, and insensibly continued in the practise 169and habit of lesser sinnes. But parva non sunt parva; Nothing may be thought 170little, where the consequence may prove great. When our Saviour sayes, That Matth. 12.36. Editor’s Note171we shall give an account for every idle word in the day of judgement, what great Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus172hills of little sands will oppresse us then! And if substances of sinne were Critical Apparatus173removed, yet what circumstances of sinne would condemne us! If idle words Critical Apparatus174have this weight, there can be no word thought idle in the Scriptures: And 175therefore I blame not in any, I decline not in mine own practise, the making Editor’s Note176use of the varietie and copiousnesse of the holy Ghost, who is ever abundant, Editor’s Note177and yet never superfluous in expressing his purpose in change of words. And 178so no doubt we might do now in observing a difference between these words in 179our text, Image, and Likenesse; and between these two forms of expressing it, Critical Apparatus180In our image, and, After our likenesse. This might be done. But that that must Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus181be done, will possesse all our time; that is, to declare (taking the two for this 182time to be  |   but a farther illustration of one another; Image and Likenesse, to[H1r] Critical Apparatus183our present purpose, to be all one) what this image and this likenesse imports; 184and how this North scatters our former cloud; what our advantage is, that we 185are made to an image, to a pattern; and our obligation to set a pattern before us 186in all our actions.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus187God appointed Moses to make all that he made, by a pattern. God himself 188made all that he made, according to a pattern. God had deposited and laid up 189in himself certain forms, patterns, Ideas of every thing that he made. He made 190nothing, of which he had not preconceived the form, and predetermined in Editor’s Note191himself, I will make it thus. And when he had made anything, he saw it was 192good; Good, because it answered the pattern, the image; Good, because it was pg 182Editor’s Note193like to that. And therefore though of other creatures God pronounced they 194were good, because they were presently like their pattern, that is, like that 195form which was in him for them: yet of man, he forbore to say that he was 196good; because his conformitie to his pattern was to appeare after in his sub-197sequent actions. Now as God made man after another pattern, and therefore Editor’s Note198we have a dignitie above all, that we had another manner of creation then 199the rest: so have we a comfort above all, that we have another manner of 200administration then the rest. God exercises another manner of providence Critical Apparatus201[H1v]upon man, then upon other  |   creatures. A sparrow falls not without God, sayes 202 Matth. 10.29. Christ: yet no doubt God works otherwise in the fall of eminent persons, Editor’s Note203then in the fall of sparrows; for ye are of more value then many sparrows, sayes 204Christ there of every man: & some men single, are of more value then many Editor’s Note205men. God doth not thank the ant, for her industrie and good husbandrie in Editor’s Note206 Judg. 15.4. providing for her self. God doth not reward the foxes, for concurring with Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus207 1. King. 13.24. Samson in his revenge. God doth not fee the lion, which was his executioner Critical Apparatus208 2. King. 2.24. upon the Prophet which had disobeyed his commandment; nor those two she-Editor’s Note209bears, which slew the petulant children who had calumniated and reproached 210Elisha. God doth not fee them before, nor thank them after, nor take Critical Apparatus211 Exod. 32.25. knowledge of their service: But for those men that served Gods execution 212upon the idolaters of the golden calf, it is pronounced in their behalf, that Editor’s Note213therein they consecrated themselves unto God; and for that service God 214made that Tribe, the Tribe of Levi, his portion, his clergie, his consecrated Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus215 Gen. 22.16. Tribe: So, Quia fecisti hoc, sayes God to Abraham, By my self I have sworn, 216because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy sonne, thine onely Critical Apparatus217sonne: that in blessing I will blesse thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thee. So 218 2. Pet. 2.22. neither is God angrie with the dog that turns to his vomit; nor with the sow, 219that after her washing wallows in the mire. But of man in that case he sayes, Editor’s Note220[H2r]It is impossible for  |   those who were once enlightned, if they fall away, to renew 221 Hebr. 6.4. themselves again by repentance. The creatures live under his law, but a law Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus222imposed thus, This they shall do, this they must do: Man lives under another 223manner of law, This you shall do, that is, This you should do, This I would Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus224have you do. And, Fac hoc, Do this, and you shall live; disobey, and you Critical Apparatus225shall die: but yet the choice is yours; choose you this day life or death. So that 226this is Gods administration in the creature, that he hath imprinted in them 227an instinct, and so he hath something to preserve in them: In man, his 228administration is this, that he hath imprinted in him a facultie of will and Editor’s Note229election, and hath something to reward in him. That instinct in the creature 230God leaves to the naturall working thereof in it self: but the free-will of man Editor’s Note231God visits & assists with his grace, to do supernaturall things. When the 232creature doth an extraordinarie action above the nature thereof (as when Editor’s Note233Balaams asse spake) the creature exercises no facultie, no will in it self; but pg 183234God forced it to that it did. When man doth any thing conducing to super-235naturall ends, though the work be Gods, the will of man is not meerly passive. 236The will of man is but Gods agent; but still an agent it is, and an agent in 237another manner then the tongue of the beast. For the will considered as a Editor’s Note238will (and grace never destroyes nature; nor, though it make a dead will a live 239will, or an ill will a  |   good will, doth it make the will no will) might refuse or[H2v] 240omit that it does. So that because we are created by another pattern, we are 241governed by another law, and another providence.

Editor’s Note242Go thou then the same way. If God wrought by a pattern, and writ by Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus243a copie, and proceeded by a precedent; do thou so too. Never say, There is no 244Church without errour; therefore I will be bound by none, but frame a Editor’s Note245Church of mine own, or be a Church to my self. What greater injustice then to 246propose no image, no pattern to thy self to imitate; and yet propose thy self for Editor’s Note247a pattern, for an image to be adored? Thou wilt have singular opinions, and 248singular wayes, differing from all other men: and yet all that are not of thy Editor’s Note249opinion, must be hereticks; and all reprobates, that go not thy wayes. Propose 250good patterns to thy self, and thereby become a fit pattern for others. God (we Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus251see) was the first that made images; and he was the first that forbad them: he Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus252made them for imitation; he forbad them, in danger of adoration. For, what a 253basenesse, what a madnesse of the soul is it, to worship that which is no better, Critical Apparatus254nay, not so good as it self! Worship belongs to the best: know then thy distance Editor’s Note255and thy period, how farre to go, and where to stop. Dishonour not God by an Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus256image, in worshipping it; and yet benefit thy self by it in following it: There  |  [H3r] 257is no more danger out of a picture, then out of a historie, if thou intend no 258more in either then example. Though thou have a West, a dark and a sad 259condition, that thou art but earth, a man of infirmities, and ill-counselled in Critical Apparatus260thy self: yet thou hast here a North, that scatters and dispells these clouds, 261that God proposes to thee in his Scriptures; and otherwise, images, patterns 262of good and holy men to go by. But beyond this North, this assistance of good Editor’s Note263examples of men, thou hast a South, a Meridionall height, by which thou seest 264thine image, thy pattern, to be no copie, no other man, but the originall it self, 265God himself: Faciamus ad nostram; Let us make man in our image, after our 266likenesse.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus267Here we consider first, where the image is; and then, what it doth: first, in IIII Part. Meridies. Editor’s Note268what part of man God hath imprinted this his image; and then, what this Editor’s Note269image conferres and derives upon man, what it works in man. And as when we 270seek God in his essence, we are advised to proceed by negatives (God is not Editor’s Note271mortall, not passible:) so when we seek the image of God in man, we begin with Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus272a negative, This image is not his Bodie. Tertullian declined to think it was; nay, pg 184Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus273Tertullian inclined others to think so; for he is the first that is noted to have Critical Apparatus274been the authour of that opinion that God had a bodie: yet S. Augustine Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus275[H3v]excuses Tertullian for heresie: Because (sayes he) Tertullian might  |   mean, That 276it was so sure that there is a God; and that God was a certain, though not a finite Critical Apparatus277essence; that God was so farre from being nothing, as that he had rather a Editor’s Note278bodie. Because it was possible to give a good interpretation of Tertullian, that Critical Apparatus279charitable Father would excuse him of heresie. I would S. Augustines charitie Editor’s Note280might prevail with them that pretend to be Augustinianissimi, and to adore him Editor’s Note281so much in the Romane Church, not to cast the name of Heresie upon every 282probleme, nor the name of Heretick upon every inquirer of truth. S. Augustine Editor’s Note283would deliver Tertullian from heresie, in a point concerning God; and they 284will condemne us of heresie, in every point that may be drawn to concern, not Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus285the Church, but the Court of Rome; not their doctrine, but their profit. Malo de 286misericordia Deo rationem reddere, quàm de crudelitate; I shall better answer God Editor’s Note287for my mildnesse, then for my severitie. And though anger towards a brother, or a Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus288Racha, or a Fool, will bear an action; yet he shall recover lesse against me at Critical Apparatus289that barre, whom I have called weak, or misse-led (as I must necessarily call Editor’s Note290many in the Romane Church) then he whom I have passionately and per-Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus291emptorily called heretick: for I dare call an opinion heresie for the matter, a 292great while before I dare call the man that holds it an heretick: for that consists Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus293much in the manner. It must be matter of faith, before the matter be heresie; Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus294[H4r]but there must be  |   pertinacie after convenient instruction, before the man 295be an heretick. But how excusable soever Tertullian be herein, in S. Augustines Critical Apparatus296charitie, there was a whole sect of hereticks an hundred yeares after Tertullian, Editor’s Note297the Audiani, who over literally taking those places of Scripture, where God is 298said to have hands, and feet, and eyes, and eares, beleeved God to have a bodie 299like ours; and accordingly interpreted this text, that in that image, and that 300likenesse, a bodily likenesse, consisted this image of God in man. And yet even Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus301these men, these Audians, Epiphanius (who first took knowledge of them) calls 302but schismaticks, not hereticks: so loth is charitie to say the worst of any. Ye t we 303must remember them of the Romane perswasion, that they come too neare Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus304giving God a bodie in their pictures of God the Father: and they bring the 305bodie of God, that bodie which God the Sonne hath assumed, the bodie of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus306Christ, too neare in their Transsubstantiation: not too neare our faith (for so it Critical Apparatus307cannot be brought too neare to our sense, so it is as really there as we are there) 308not too neare in the ubi; for so it is there, there, that is, in that place to which Critical Apparatus309the Sacrament extends it self: for the Sacrament extends as well to heaven, 310from whence it fetches grace, as to the table from whence it delivers bread and pg 185Critical Apparatus311wine: but too neare in modo; for it comes not thither that way. We must 312necessarily complain, that they  |   make religion too bodily a thing. Our[H4v] 313Saviour Christ corrected Marie Magdalenes zeal, where she flew to him in a Critical Apparatus314personall devotion; and he said, Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my John 20.17. Editor’s Note315Father. Fix your meditations upon Christ Jesus, so as he is now at the right 316hand of his Father in heaven, and entangle not your selves so with contro-Editor’s Note317versies about his bodie, as to lose reall charitie for imaginarie zeal; nor enlarge 318your selves so farre in the pictures and images of his bodie, as to worship Editor’s Note319them more then him. As Damascen sayes of God, that he is Superprincipale Critical Apparatus320principium, A beginning before any beginning we can conceive; and præ-æterna 321æternitas, an eternitie infinitely elder then any eternity we can imagine: so he is 322superspiritualis Spiritus, such a Superspirit, as that the soul of man, and the 323substance of angels, is but a bodie compared to this Spirit. God hath no bodie, 324though Tertullian disputed it, though the Audians preached it, though the Critical Apparatus325Papists paint it: and therefore this image of God is not in the body of man that 326way.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus327Nor that way neither which some others have assigned, That God, who 328hath no bodie as God, yet in the creation did assume that form which man 329hath now, and so made man in his image, that is, in that form which he had Editor’s Note330then assumed. Some of the ancients thought so; and some other men of great 331estimation in the Romane Church have thought so too. In particu-  |   lar,[I1r] Editor’s Note332Oleaster, a great officer in the Inquisition of Spain. But great inquirers into 333other men, are easie neglecters of themselves. The image of God is not in 334mans bodie this way.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus335Nor that third way which others have imagined, that is, that when God Editor’s Note336said, Let us make man after our likenesse, God had respect to that form, which 337in the fulnesse of time his Sonne was to take upon him upon earth. Let us Critical Apparatus338make him now (sayes God) at first, like that which I intend hereafter my Critical Apparatus339Sonne shall be: for though this were spoken before the fall of man, and so Editor’s Note340before any occasion of decreeing the sending of Christ; yet in the School a Critical Apparatus341great part of great men adhere to that opinion, That God from all eternitie 342had a purpose, that his Sonne should become man in this world, though Adam Editor’s Note343had not fallen; Non ut medicus, sed ut Dominus, ad nobilitandum genus humanum, 344say they: Though Christ had not come as a Redeemer, if man had not needed 345him by sinne, but had kept his first state; yet as a Prince, that desired to heap 346honour upon him whom he loves, to do man an honour by his assuming that 347nature, Christ (say they) should have come: and to that image, that form Editor’s Note348which he was to take then, was man made in this text, say these imaginers. Critical Apparatus349But (alas!) how much better were wit and learning bestowed, to prove to 350the Gentiles that a Christ must come (that they beleeve not) to prove to the 351Jews, that the Christ is come (that  |   they beleeve not) to prove to our own[I1v] pg 186352consciences, that the same Christ may come again this minute to judgement 353(we live as though we beleeved not that) then to have filled the world, and torn 354the Church with frivolous disputations, Whether Christ should have come Editor’s Note355if Adam had not fallen! Wo unto fomentours of frivolous disputations. None 356of these wayes: not because God hath a bodie, not because God assumed a 357bodie; not because it was intended that Christ should be born, before it was Critical Apparatus358intended that man should be made, is this image of God in the bodie of man: Editor’s Note359nor hath it in any other relation respect to the bodie; but, as we say in the 360School, arguitivè, and significativé; that because God hath given man a bodie 361of a nobler form then any other creature, we inferre, and argue, and conclude 362from thence, that God is otherwise represented in man then in any other Critical Apparatus363creature: and so farre is this image of God in the bodie above that in the Editor’s Note364creatures, that as you see some pictures, to which the very tables are jewels; Editor’s Note365some watches, to which the very cases are jewels; and therefore they have Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus366outward cases too; and so the picture and the watch are in that outward case, 367of what meaner stuff soever that be: so is this image in this bodie, as in an 368outward case, so as that you may not injure nor enfeeble this bodie, neither by Editor’s Note369sinfull intemperance and licentiousnesse, nor by inordinate fastings or other 370[I2r]disciplines of  |   imaginarie merits, while the bodie is alive; for the image of Critical Apparatus371God is in it: nor defraud the body of decent buriall and due solemnities after 372death; for the image of God is to return to it. But yet the bodie is but the Critical Apparatus373outward case, and God looks not for the gilding, or enamelling, or painting of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus374that; but requires the labour and cost therein to be bestowed upon the table it Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus375self, in which this image is immediately, that is, the soul: and that is truely the Critical Apparatus376ubi, the place where this image is. And there remains onely now the operation 377thereof, how this image of God in the soul of man works.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus378The sphere then of this Intelligence, the gallerie for this picture, the arch 379for this statue, the table and frame and shrine for this image of God, is Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus380inwardly and immediately the soul of man: not immediately so, as that the 381soul of man is a part of the essence of God; for so essentially Christ onely is Editor’s Note382the image of God. S. Augustine at first thought so; Putabam te, Deus, corpus 383lucidum, & me frustum de illo corpore: I took thee, O God (sayes that Father) to Critical Apparatus384be a globe of fire, and my soul to be a spark of that fire; thee to be a bodie of light, 385and my soul to be a beam of that light. But S. Augustine doth not onely retract Editor’s Note386that in himself, but dispute against it in the Manichees. But this image is in our Editor’s Note387soul, as the soul is the wax, and this image is the seal. The comparison is 388[I2v]S. Cyrils; and he addes well, that no seal but that which printed  |   the wax at Critical Apparatus389first, can fit that wax, and fill that impression after: no image, but the image of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus390God, can fit our soul; every other seal is too narrow, too shallow for it. The pg 187391magistrate is sealed with the Lion; the Wolf will not fit that seal: the magistrate Editor’s Note392hath a power in his hand, but not oppression. Princes are sealed with the Crown; Editor’s Note393the Mitre will not fit that seal. Powerfully and graciously they protect the 394Church, and are supream heads of the Church; but they minister not Critical Apparatus395the Sacraments of the Church: they give preferments, but they give not the Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus396capacitie of preferments: they give order who shall have, but they have not Critical Apparatus397Orders by which they are enabled to have that they have. Men of inferiour and Editor’s Note398laborious callings in the world are sealed with the Crosse; a Rose, or a bunch of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus399Grapes will not answer that seal: ease and plentie in age must not be looked for Editor’s Note400without crosses, and labour, and industrie in youth. All men, Prince and Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus401people, Clergie and Magistrate, are sealed with the image of God, with a 402conformitie to him; and worldly seals will not answer that, nor fill up that seal. 403We should wonder to see a mother in the midst of many sweet children, Editor’s Note404passing her time in making babies and puppets for her own delight. We should Editor’s Note405wonder to see a man, whose chambers and galleries were full of curious Editor’s Note406master-pieces, thrust in a village-fayre, to look upon sixpenie pictures & Editor’s Note407three-farthing prints. We have all the image of God  |   at home; and we all[I3r] Editor’s Note408make babies, fancies of honour in our ambitions. The master-piece is our own, 409in our own bosome; and we thrust in countrey-fayres, that is, we endure the Editor’s Note410distempers of any unseasonable weather, in night-journeys and watchings; we 411endure the oppositions, and scorns, and triumphs of a rivall and competitour, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus412that seeks with us, and shares with us. We endure the guiltinesse and reproach 413of having deceived the trust which a confident friend reposes in us, and Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus414solicite his wife or daughter. We endure the decay of fortune, of bodie, of soul, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus415of honour, to possesse lower pictures; pictures that are not originals, not made Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus416by that hand of God, Nature; but artificiall beauties: and for that bodie we give 417a soul; and for that drug which might have been bought where they bought it, 418for a shilling, we give an estate. The image of God is more worth then all Editor’s Note419substances; and we give it for colours, for dreams, for shadows.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus420But the better to prevent the losse, let us consider the having of this image; Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus421in what respect, in what operation this image is in our soul: for whether this Editor’s Note422image be in those faculties, which we have in Nature; or in those qualifications Editor’s Note423which we have in Grace; or in those super-illustrations, which the blessed shall Editor’s Note424have in Glorie, hath exercised the contemplation of many. Properly this image 425is in nature; in the naturall reason and other faculties  |   of the immortall soul[I3v] Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus426of man; for thereupon doth S. Bernard say, Imago Dei uri potest in gehenna, non 427exuri; till the soul be burnt to ashes, to nothing (which cannot be done, no not Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus428in hell) the image of God cannot be burnt out of the soul; for it is radically, pg 188Critical Apparatus429primarily in the very soul it self: and whether that soul be infused into the Critical Apparatus430elect, or reprobate, that image is in that soul: as farre as he hath a soul by 431nature, he hath the image of God by nature in it. But then the seal is deeper 432cut, or harder pressed, or better preserved in some then in others, and in some Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus433other considerations then meerly naturall: therefore we may consider man, 434who was made here to the image of God, and of God in three persons, to have Editor’s Note435been made so in Gods intendment three wayes: Man had this image in Nature, Editor’s Note436and doth deface it; he hath it also in Grace here, and so doth refresh it; and he Editor’s Note437shall have it in Glorie hereafter, and that shall fix it, establish it. And in every 438of these three, in this Trinitie in man, Nature, Grace, and Glorie, man hath 439not onely the image of God, but the image of all the persons of the Trinitie, in Critical Apparatus440every of his three capacities. He hath the image of the Father, the image of the 441Sonne, the image of the holy Ghost, in nature; and all these also in grace; and Critical Apparatus442all these in glorie too. How all these are in all, I cannot hope to handle Editor’s Note443[I4r]particularly, not though I were upon the first grain of our sand,  |   upon the Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus444first dram of your patience, upon the first flash of my strength: But a cleare 445repeating of these many branches, that these things are thus, that all the 446persons of the heavenly Trinitie are (in their image) in every branch of this 447humane Trinitie in man, may (at least must) suffice.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus448In nature then, man, that is, the soul of man, hath this image of God; of Editor’s Note449God, considered in his unitie, entirely, altogether in this, that this soul is 450made of nothing, proceeds of nothing. All other creatures are made of that 451preexistent matter which God had made before; so were our bodies too, but Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus452our souls of nothing: now not to be made at all, is to be God himself; onely 453God himself was never made. But to be made of nothing, to have no other Editor’s Note454parent but God, no other element but the breath of God, no other instrument Critical Apparatus455but the purpose of God, this is to be the image of God; for this is nearest to 456God himself (who was never made at all) to be made of nothing. And then man Critical Apparatus457(considered in nature) is otherwise the nearest representation of God too: for Editor’s Note458the steps which we consider, are foure; First, Esse, Being; for some things have 459onely a being, and no life, as stones: Secondly, Vivere, Living; for some things 460have life, and no sense, as plants: and then thirdly, Sentire, Sense; for some Critical Apparatus461[I4v]things have sense, and no understanding; which understanding and  |   reason 462man hath with his being, and life, and sense; and so is in a nearer station to Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus463God, then any creature, and a livelier image of him (who is the root of being) 464then all they; because man onely hath all the declarations of beings. Nay, if we 465consider Gods eternitie, the soul of man hath such an image of that, as that, Editor’s Note466though man had a beginning, which the originall, the eternall God himself 467had not; yet man shall no more have an end, then the originall, the eternall pg 189Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus468God himself shall have. And this image of eternitie, this post-meridian, this 469after-noon eternitie, that is, this perpetuitie and after-everlastingnesse is in Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus470man, meerly as a naturall man, without any consideration of grace: for the 471reprobate can no more die, that is, come to nothing, then the elect. It is but of Editor’s Note472the naturall man that Theodoret sayes, A King built a citie, and erected his statue Critical Apparatus473in the middest of that citie; that is, God made man, and imprinted his image in Critical Apparatus474his soul. How will this King take it (sayes that Father) to have this statue thrown Editor’s Note475down? Every man doth so, if he do not exalt his naturall faculties, if he do not Critical Apparatus476hearken to the law written in his heart, if he do not run, as Plato, or as 477Socrates, in the wayes of vertuous actions; he throws down the statue of this Editor’s Note478King, he defaces the image of God. How would this King take it (sayes he) if Critical Apparatus479any other statue, especially the statue of his enemie should be set up in his place? 480Every man doth so too, that embraces  |   false opinions in matter of doctrine, or[K1r] Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus481false appearances of happinesse in matter of conversation; for these a naturall 482man may avoid in many cases, without that addition of Grace which is offered 483to us as Christians. That comparison of other creatures to man, which is 484intimated in Job, is intended but of the naturall man. There speaking of 485Behemoth, that is, of the greatest of creatures, he sayes in our Translation that Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus486He is the chief of the wayes of God: S. Hierom hath it, Principium; and others Job 40.19. Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus487before him, Initium viarum Dei; that when God went the progresse over Editor’s Note488the world in the creation thereof, he did but begin, he did but set out at Critical Apparatus489Behemoth, at the best of all such creatures; He. All they were but Initium Critical Apparatus490viarum, The beginning of the wayes of God: but, Finis viarum, the end of his Editor’s Note491journey, and the eve, the vespers of his Sabbath, was the making of man, even Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus492of the naturall man. Behemoth and the other creatures were vestigia, sayes the 493School. In them we may see where God hath gone; for all being is from God: Editor’s Note494and so every thing that hath a being, hath filiationem vestigii, a testimonie of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus495Gods having passed that way, and called in there: but man hath filiationem Editor’s Note496imaginis, an expression of his image; and doth the office of an image or picture, Editor’s Note497to bring him whom it represents, the more lively to our memories. Gods Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus498abridgement of the whole world was man; reabridge man into his least volume, Editor’s Note499in pura naturalia, as he is but meer man, and so he hath the image of God in 500his soul.  |  [K1v]

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus501He hath it as God is considered in his unitie; for as God is, the soul of man Critical Apparatus502is, indivisibly, impartibly, one entire. And he hath it also as God is notified to Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus503us in a Trinitie: for as there are three persons in the essence of God; so are Editor’s Note504there three faculties in the soul of man. The attributes, and some kinde of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus505specification of the persons in the Trinitie, are, power to the Father, wisdome pg 190506to the Sonne, and goodnesse to the holy Ghost. And the three faculties of Critical Apparatus507the soul have the images of these three: the Vnderstanding is the image of the Critical Apparatus508Father, that is, Power; for no man exercises power, no man can govern well, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus509without understanding the natures & dispositions of them whom he governs: 510and therefore in this consists the power which man hath over the creature, that Editor’s Note511man understands the nature of every creature; for so Adam did when he Critical Apparatus512named every creature according to the nature thereof: and by this advantage of 513our understanding them, and comprehending them, we master them; and so, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus514Obliviscuntur quod natæ sunt, sayes S. Ambrose: the lion, the bear, the elephant, Critical Apparatus515have forgot what they were born to; Induuntur quod jubentur, they invest and Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus516put on such a disposition and such a nature as we enjoyn them & appoint 517them: Serviunt ut famuli (as that Father pursues it elegantly) and, Verberantur 518ut timidi; they wait upon us as servants, who, if they understood us, as well as 519we understand them, might be our masters; and they receive correction from 520[K2r]us, as though they were afraid of us, when, if they understood us,  |   they would Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus521know that we were not able to stand in the teeth of the lion, the horn of the Critical Apparatus522bull, in the heels of the horse; and, Adjuvantur ut infirmi, they counterfeit a Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus523weaknesse, that they might be beholding to us for help; and they are content to Critical Apparatus524thank us, if we afford them rest, or any food, who, if they understood us as 525well as we do them, might tear our meat out of our throats; nay tear out our Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus526throats for their meat. So then in this first naturall facultie of the soul, the Critical Apparatus527Vnderstanding, stands the image of the first person, the Father, Power.

Critical Apparatus528And in the second facultie, which is the Will, is the image, the attribute of 529the second person, the Sonne, which is Wisdome: for wisdome is not so much 530in knowing, in understanding, as in electing, in choosing, in assenting. No man Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus531needs go out of himself, nor beyond his own legend, and the historie of his Critical Apparatus532own actions for examples of that. That many times we know better, and choose Critical Apparatus533ill wayes. Wisdome is in choosing or assenting.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus534And then in the third facultie of the soul, the Memorie, is the image of the 535third person, the holy Ghost, that is, Goodnesse. For to remember, to recollect 536our former understanding, and our former assenting, so farre as to do them, to Editor’s Note537crown them with action, that is true goodnesse. The office that Christ assignes 538to the holy Ghost, and the goodnesse which he promiseth in his behalf is this, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus539 John 14.26. that he shall bring former things to our remembrance. The wise man places all 540[K2v]goodnesse in this facultie, the Memorie: properly nothing can fall into the  |   Critical Apparatus541 Ecclus 7.36. Memorie, but that which is past; and yet he sayes, Whatsoever thou takest in pg 191542hand, remember the end, and thou shalt never do amisse. The end cannot be yet Editor’s Note543come, and yet we are bid to remember that. Visus per omnes sensus recurrit, Critical Apparatus544sayes S. Augustine: as all senses are called sight in the Scriptures (for there is Editor’s Note545Gustate Dominum, and Audite and Palpate; Taste the Lord, and Heare the 546Lord, and Feel the Lord; and still the Videte is added, Taste and see the Lord) 547so all goodnesse is in remembring; all goodnesse (which is the image of the 548holy Ghost) is in bringing our understanding and our assenting into action. Editor’s Note549Certainly (beloved) if a man were like the King but in countenance, and in 550proportion, he himself would think somewhat better of himself, and others 551would be the lesse apt to put scorns or injuries upon him, then if he had a Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus552vulgar and course aspect: with those who have the image of the Kings power Editor’s Note553(the Magistrate) the image of his wisdome (the Councel) the image of his good- Critical Apparatus554nesse (the Clergie) it should be so too; there is a respect due to the image of the 555King in all that have it. Now in all these respects, man, the meer naturall man, Critical Apparatus556hath the image of the King of kings; and therefore respect that image in Critical Apparatus557thy self, and exalt thy naturall faculties, emulate those men, and be ashamed Editor’s Note558to be outgone by those men who had no light but nature. Make thine 559understanding, and thy will, and thy memorie (though but naturall faculties) Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus560serviceable to thy God, and auxiliarie & subsidiarie for thy salvation: for 561though they  |   be not naturally instruments of grace, yet naturally they are[K3r] Editor’s Note562susceptible of grace, and have so much in their nature, as that by grace they 563may be made instruments of grace, which no facultie in any creature but man 564can be. And do not think that because a naturall man cannot do all, he hath 565nothing to do for himself.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus566This then is the image of God in man, the first way, in Nature; and most 567literally this is the intention of the text. Man was this image thus; and the 568room furnished with this image, was paradise: but there is a better room then 569that paradise for the second image (the image of God in man by Grace) that is, Critical Apparatus570the Christian Church: for though for the most part this text be understood de Editor’s Note571naturalibus, of our naturall faculties; yet Origen, and not onely such allegoricall 572expositours, but Saint Basil, and Nissen, and Ambrose, and others, who are 573literall enough, assigne this image of God to consist in the gifts of Gods grace, 574exhibited to us here in the Church. A Christian then in that second capacitie, 575as a Christian, and not onely as a Man, hath this image of God, of God first Editor’s Note576considered entirely. And those expressions of this impression, those represen-577tations of this image of God in a Christian by grace, which the Apostles have Editor’s Note578exhibited to us, that we are the sonnes of God, the seed of God, the off-spring Editor’s Note579of God, and partakers of the divine nature, (which are high and glorious Editor’s Note580exaltations) are enlarged and exalted by Damascen to a further height, when Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus581he sayes, Sicut Deus  |   homo, ità ego Deus; As God is man, so I am God, sayes[K3v] pg 192Critical Apparatus582Damascen; I, taking in the whole mankinde (for so Damascen takes it out of Editor’s Note583Nazianzen; and he sayes, Sicut verbum caro, ità caro verbum; As God was made Editor’s Note584man, man may become God) but especially I; I, as I am wrought upon by grace 585in Christ Jesus. So a Christian is made the image of God entirely. To which Editor’s Note586expression S. Cyril also comes neare, when he calls a Christian Deiformem 587hominem, man in the form of God; which is a mysterious and a blessed meta-588morphosis and transfiguration: that, whereas it was the greatest trespasse of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus589 Isa. 14.14. the greatest trespasser in the world, the devil, to say, Similis ero Altissimis, 590I will be like the Highest; it would be as great a trespasse in me not to be like Editor’s Note591the Highest, not to conform my self to God, by the use of his grace in the 592Christian Church. And whereas the humiliation of my Saviour is in all things 593to be imitated by me, yet herein I am bound to depart from his humiliation; Critical Apparatus594 Phil. 2.6, 7. that, whereas he being in the form of God, took the form of a servant; I, being 595in the form of a servant, may (nay, must) take upon me the form of God, in 596being Deiformis homo, a man made in Christ, the image of God. So have I the 597 Ephes. 4.5. image of God entirely in his unitie, because I professe that faith which is but 598one faith, and under the seal of that Baptisme which is but one Baptisme. And 599then, as of this one God, so I have also the image of the severall persons of 600the Trinitie, in this capacitie as I am a Christian, more then in my naturall 601[K4r]faculties.  |  

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus602The attribute of the first person, the Father, is Power: and none but a 603Christian hath power over those great tyrants of the world, Sinne, Satan, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus604 1. Cor. 6.5. Death, and Hell. For thus my power accrues and grows unto me: first, Possum Editor’s Note605judicare, I have a power to judge; a judiciarie, a discretive power, a power to 606discern between a naturall accident and a judgement of God, and will never Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus607call a judgement an accident; and between an ordinarie occasion of conversation, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus608 Eph. 6.13. & a temptation of Satan: Possum judicare. And then, Possum resistere, which is Critical Apparatus609another act of power: when I finde it to be a temptation, I am able to resist it. Editor’s Note610And Possum stare (which is another) I am able not onely to withstand, but to Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus611stand out this battell of temptations to the end. And then, Possum capere; that Critical Apparatus612 Matt. 19.12. which Christ proposes for a triall of his disciples, He that is able to receive it, let Editor’s Note613him receive it: I shall have power to receive the gift of continencie against all 614temptations of that kinde. Bring it to the highest act of power, that with which Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus615 Matt. 20.22. Christ tried his strongest Apostles; Possum bibere calicem, I shall be able to 616drink of Christs cup, even to drink his bloud, and be the more innocent for Editor’s Note617 Phil. 4.13. that; and to poure out my bloud, and be the stronger for that. In Christo omnia Editor’s Note618possum; there is the fulnesse of power: In Christ I can do all things; I can want, Editor’s Note619or I can abound; I can live, or I can die. And yet there is an extension of power Editor’s Note620 1 John 3.9. beyond all this, in this, Non possum peccare; being born of God in Christ, pg 193Editor’s Note621I cannot sinne. This that seems to have a name of impotence, Non pos-  |   sum,[K4v] Editor’s Note622I cannot, is the fullest omnipotence of all: I cannot sinne; not sinne to death, 623not sinne with a desire to sinne, not sinne with a delight in sinne; but that 624temptation that overthrows another, I can resist; or that sinne, which being 625done, casts another into desperation, I can repent. And so I have the image of 626the first person, the Father, in Power.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus627The image of the second person, whose attribute is Wisdome, I have in this, 628that wisdome being the knowledge of this world and the next, I embrace Critical Apparatus629nothing in this world, but as it leads me to the next: for thus my wisdome, my Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus630knowledge grows: first, Scio cui credidi, I know whom I have beleeved; I have 2. Tim. 1.12. Editor’s Note631not mislayed my foundation; my foundation is Christ: and then, Scio non 632moriturum; my foundation cannot sink: I know that Christ being raised from the Rom. 6.9. Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus633dead, dies no more: again, Scio quod desideret spiritus; I know what my spirit, Rom. 8.27. Editor’s Note634enlightened by the Spirit of God, desires: I am not transported with illusions Editor’s Note635and singularities of private spirits. And as in the attribute of Power we found Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus636an Omnipotence in a Christian; so in this there is an Omniscience. Scimus 1 Cor. 8.1. 637quia omnem scientiam habemus; there is all together: We know that we have all Editor’s Note638knowledge; for all S. Pauls universall knowledge was but this, Jesum crucifixum: Critical Apparatus639I determined not to know any thing, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified. And then 1 Cor. 2.2. Editor’s Note640the way by which he would proceed and take degrees in this wisdome, was, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus641stultitia prædicandi, the way that God had ordained: When the  |   world by[L1r] 642wisdome knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them 1 Cor. 1.21. 643that beleeve. These then are the steps of Christian wisdome: my foundation is 644Christ; of Christ I enquire no more but fundamentall doctrines, him crucified; Editor’s Note645and this I apply to my self by his ordinance of preaching. And in this wisdome 646I have the image of the second person.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus647And then of the third also in this, that, his attribute being goodnesse, I, as a 648true Christian, call nothing good, that conduceth not to the glorie of God in 649Christ Jesus; nor any thing ill, that draws me not from him. Thus I have an Editor’s Note650expresse image of his goodnesse, that Omnia cooperantur in bonum; all things Rom. 8.28. 651work together for my good, if I love God. I shall thank my fever, blesse my 652povertie, praise my oppressour; nay, thank, and blesse, and praise even some 653sinne of mine, which by the consequences of that sinne, which may be shame, 654or losse, or weaknesse, may bring me to a happie sense of all my former sinnes; 655and shall finde it to have been a good fever, a good povertie, a good oppression, Editor’s Note656yea, a good sinne. Vertit in bonum, sayes Joseph to his brethren; You thought Gen. 50.20. 657evil, but God meant it unto good: and I shall have the benefit of my sinne, Editor’s Note658according to his transmutation; that is, though I meant ill in that sinne, I shall Editor’s Note659have the good that God meant in it. There is no evil in the citie, but the Lord doth Amos 3.6. Editor’s Note660it: but if the Lord do it, it cannot be evil to me. I beleeve that I shall see bona pg 194661 Psal. 27.13. Dei, the goodnesse of the Lord in the land of the living; that is, in heaven: but Editor’s Note662[L1v]David speaks also of signum  |   in bonum; Shew me a token of good: and God will Editor’s Note663shew me a present token of future good, an inward infallibilitie, that this Critical Apparatus664very calamitie shall be beneficiall and advantageous unto me: and so as in 665nature I have the image of God in my whole soul, and of all the three persons 666in the three faculties thereof; the understanding, the will, and the memorie: so 667in grace, in the Christian Church, I have the same images of the power of the 668Father, of the wisdome of the Sonne, of the goodnesse of the holy Ghost, in Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus669my Christian profession. And all this we shall have in a better place then 670paradise (where we considered it in nature) and a better place then the Editor’s Note671Church, as it is militant (where we considered it in grace) that is, in the 672kingdome of heaven (where we considered this image in glorie) which is our 673last word.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus674There we shall have this image of God in perfection: for if Origen could 675lodge such a conceit, that in heaven at last all things should ebbe back into 676God, as all things flowed from him at first; and so there should be no other 677essence but God, all should be God, even the devil himself: how much Editor’s Note678more may we conceive an unexpressible association (that is too farre off) an Editor’s Note679assimilation (that is not neare enough) an identification (the School would Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus680venture to say so) with God in that state of glorie! Whereas the sunne by 681shining upon the moone, makes the moon a planet, a starre as well as it self, 682which otherwise would be but the thickest and darkest part of that sphere: so 683[L2r]those beams of glorie which shall issue from my  |   God, and fall upon me, shall Editor’s Note684make me (otherwise a clod of earth, and worse, a dark soul, a spirit of dark-Editor’s Note685nesse) an angel of light, a starre of glorie, a something that I cannot name now, 686not imagine now, nor to morrow, nor next yeare; but even in that particular, I Editor’s Note687shall be like God: that as he that asked a day to give a definition of God, Editor’s Note688the next day asked a week, and then a moneth, and then a yeare; so undeter-689minable would my imaginations be, if I should go about to think now, what I 690shall be there: I shall be so like God, as that the devil himself shall not know 691me from God, so farre as to finde any more place to fasten a temptation upon 692me, then upon God; nor to conceive any more hope of my falling from that Editor’s Note693kingdome, then of Gods being driven out of it: for though I shall not be 694immortall as God, yet I shall be as immortall as God. And there is my image of Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus695God, of God considered all together, and in his unitie in the state of glorie.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus696I shall have also then the image of all the three persons of the Trinitie. 697Power is the Fathers; and a greater power then he exercises here, I shall have 698there: here he overcomes enemies, but yet here he hath enemies; there, there Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus699are none: here they cannot prevail; there they shall not be. So Wisdome is the Critical Apparatus700image of the Sonne; and there I shall have better wisdome: the spirituall Editor’s Note701wisdome it self is here: for here our best wisdome is, but to go towards our pg 195Editor’s Note702end; there it is to rest in our end: here it is to seek to be glorified by God; there Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus703it is that God may be everlastingly glorified by me.  |   The image of the holy[L2v] Critical Apparatus704Ghost is Goodnesse. Here our goodnesse is mixt with some ill; faith mixt with Editor’s Note705scruples, & good works mixt with a love of praise, and hope of better mixt Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus706with fear of worse: there I shall have sincere goodnesse, goodnesse impermixt, Editor’s Note707intemerate and indeterminate goodnesse; so good a place, as no ill accident Editor’s Note708shall annoy it; so good companie as no impertinent, no importune person shall 709disorder it; so full a goodnesse, as no evil of sinne, no evil of punishment for 710former sins can enter; so good a God, as shall no more keep us in fear of his Editor’s Note711anger, nor in need of his mercie; but shall fill us first, and establish us in that 712fulnesse in the same instant, and give us a satietie that we can wish no more, Editor’s Note713and an infallibilitie that we can lose none of that, and both at once. Whereas Editor’s Note714the Cabalists expresse our nearenesse to God in that state, in that note, that the 715name of man and the name of God, ADAM and JEHOVAH, in their numerall Critical Apparatus716letters are equall: so I would have leave to expresse that inexpressible state, so Editor’s Note717farre as to say, that if there can be other worlds imagined besides this that is 718under our moon, and if there could be other Gods imagined of those worlds, Critical Apparatus719besides this God to whose image we are made, in Nature, in Grace, in Glorie; Critical Apparatus720I had rather be one of these Saints in this heaven, then one of those Gods in Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus721those other worlds. I shall be like the angels in a glorified soul, and the angels 722shall not be like me in a glorified bodie.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus723The holy noblenesse and religious ambition that I would imprint in you for 724attaining of this  |   glorie, makes me dismisse you with this note, for the fear of[L3r] Editor’s Note725missing that glorie; that, as we have taken just occasion to magnifie the good-726nesse of God towards us, in that he speaks plurally, Faciamus, Let Vs, all Vs do 727this; & so poures out the blessings of the whole Trinitie upon us, in this image 728of himself, in every person of the three, and in all these three wayes which we 729have considered: so when the anger of God is justly kindled against us, God Editor’s Note730collects himself, summons himself, assembles himself, musters himself, and Editor’s Note731threatens plurally too: for of those foure places in Scripture, in which onely 732(as we noted before) God speaks of himself in a royall plurall, God speaks in 733anger, and in a preparation to destruction, in one of those foure entirely, as 734entirely he speaks of mercie but in one of them, in this text; here he sayes 735meerly out of mercie, Faciamus, Let Vs, Vs, all Vs, make man: and in the Critical Apparatus736same pluralitie, the same universalitie, he sayes after, Descendamus & con- Gen. 11.7. 737fundamus, Let Vs, Vs, all Vs, go down to them and confound them, as meerly out 738of indignation and anger, as here out of mercie. And in the other two places, 739where God speaks plurally, he speaks not meerly in mercie, nor meerly in Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus740justice in neither; but in both he mingles both: so that God carries himself so 741equally herein, as that no soul, no Church, no State may any more promise 742it self patience in God if it provoke him, then suspect anger in God if we pg 196743conform our selves to him. For from them that set themselves against him, 744[L3v]God shall with-  |   draw his image in all the persons and all the attributes: the Editor’s Note745Father shall withdraw his power, and we shall be enfeebled in our forces; the Editor’s Note746Sonne his wisdome, and we shall be enfatuated in our counsels; the holy Editor’s Note747Ghost his goodnesse, and we shall be corrupted in our manners, and 748corrupted in our religion, and be a prey to temporall and spirituall enemies, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus749and change the image of God into the image of the beast. And as God loves 750nothing more then the image of himself in his Sonne, and then the image 751of his Sonne Christ Jesus in us; so he hates nothing more then the image of 752Antichrist in them in whom he had imprinted his Sonnes image; that is, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus753declinations towards Antichrist, or concurrences with Antichrist, in them Editor’s Note754who were born, and baptized, and catechized, & blessed in the profession of 755his truth.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus756That God, who hath hitherto delivered us from all cause or colour of 757jealousies or suspicions thereof in them whom he hath placed over us, so 758conform us to his image in a holy life, that sinnes continued and multiplied 759by us against him, do not so provoke him against us, that those two great Editor’s Note760helps, the assiduitie of preaching, and the personall and exemplarie pietie & Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus761constancie in our Princes, be not by our sinnes made unprofitable unto us: for Editor’s Note762that is the height of Gods malediction upon a nation, when the assiduitie 763of preaching and the example of a religious Prince doth them no good, but 764aggravates their fault.

Critical Apparatus765FINIS.

Notes Settings

Notes

Critical Apparatus
1–5 THE SECOND SERMON … PAULS. ] Sermon XXIX. Preached to the King, at the Court. | The second Sermon on GEN. 1.26. F50
Editor’s Note
Text. Q6(2). Variants with F50(29) are noted in the tns, along with a very small number of variants found in the collation of Q6. On the text of this sermon see further the note on the text for Sermon 10 above.
Editor’s Note
Headnote. This is the second sermon of a pair that D preached on Gen. 1: 26 in Apr. 1629; the first is Sermon 10 in this vol. For the practice of delivering paired sermons, and for the historical context of these sermons, see Headnote to Sermon 10.
Together, Sermons 10 and 11 are structured around a geographical metaphor: D promises to consider in turn the four points of the compass as they represent the entirety of the globe (an analogy suggested by the fact that his text is taken from the biblical account of creation). In Sermon 10 he treated East (the denotation of the Trinity in the plural word faciamus ('let us make')) and West (we are made man, which is a marker of humility and of future perfection). In Sermon 11 he turns to North (the dispiriting 'clouds' of the west are dissipated by the fact that we are made after an image and according to a pattern) and finally South (this pattern and image is the image of God).
Sermon 11 begins with a recapitulation of the argument covered by Sermon 10 (ll. 8–62), before turning to the two final parts of D's four-part divisio. These are quite unequal in length, Part 3 taking up 204 lines as opposed to Part 4's 409. Part 3 mitigates the humiliation that consists in the fact that man is made merely of earth by explaining that he is made after an image, and in a fashion that is distinct from the creation of all other creatures (ll. 63–86; 187–241). D here glances at the extensive theological controversy over the signification of the words 'image' and 'likeness' in his text, but does so only in order to dismiss it, and to argue that for his purposes they should be taken as synonyms. Instead his digression on the potential importance of apparently minor matters prompts him to consider the divisions that emerged in the primitive church from disputes over words and syllables (ll. 87–186). Part 3 concludes with an instruction that we should imitate God in following patterns, and becoming patterns to others; images are, D argues, useful for imitation but should not be worshipped lest we fall into idolatry (ll. 242–66).
Part 4 asks after what image man was created. After establishing that the image was God's, its five subdivisions investigate how this image is in man. They supply in turn three negative answers (it is not an image of God's body; it is not that God assumed a body in the act of creation; and it does not refer to the form that the Son would ultimately take on: ll. 267–326; 327–34; 335–77) and two positive ones (the image of God is in the human soul; and all three persons of the Trinity are in the three faculties of the soul––the understanding, the will, and the memory: ll. 378–419; 420–47). In dismissing the idea that God has a body, D both summarizes debates found in the commentators and criticizes Roman Catholics for too easily condemning others as heretics; this leads neatly to a further attack on the doctrine of transubstantiation. Arguing that the image of God is found in the soul, he makes use of an extended image of the soul as being sealed with God's image to reiterate the importance of attending to essentials and not to imitations. It is all too easy, he argues, to lose our immortal soul by pursuing mere illusions of happiness (ll. 378–419).
The remainder of the sermon is, appropriately, divided into three sections, each of which is further divided into three: the Trinitarian message emphasized in Sermon 10 is reinforced here. D examines the image of God in the soul in (1) nature, (2) grace, and (3) glory. In each he treats in turn the operation and attributes of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, which he further defines as power, wisdom, and goodness. In nature, the soul is distinct from all other creatures in being made ex nihilo. The three persons of the Trinity correspond to the understanding (the Father), the will (the Son), and the memory (the Holy Spirit): man exercises dominion over the creatures; is able rationally to choose good or evil; and can act well by exercising the memory (ll. 448–565).
In the state of grace (as a Christian), the image of God is entire. The Christian exercises power over Satan, death, and hell; wisdom in embracing nothing in the world except that which leads to the next; and goodness in accepting as good only that which leads to the glory of God (ll. 566–673). In the state of glory (in heaven), the image of God is perfected. There we shall exercise power because there are no enemies and wisdom because we shall glorify God eternally, and there goodness will be pure and unmixed.
Following this description of the glory of heaven, D returns abruptly to earth in his peroration. He warns that while God shows mercy if we please him, we provoke his anger if we do not, and he may withdraw his image from us. There are, D explains, two helps given to us in pursuing godly lives: frequency of preaching, and the exemplary piety of a religious prince. The worst that can be is when these do not help a nation, but aggravate its faults (ll. 723–64). In this conclusion, D combines artful flattery of Charles (who was indeed known for his piety) with a typical assertion of the importance of the sermon. The latter may have been less welcome to the Dean of the Chapel Royal (and, since July 1628, Bishop of London) Laud, who on his appointment had reduced the emphasis placed on the sermon in Chapel services (see Introduction).
While D's sermon is generally free of local allusions and references, its peroration, with references to the danger that we might be 'enfeebled in our forces … enfatuated in our counsels … corrupted in our manners, and corrupted in our religion, and be a prey to temporall and spirituall enemies' (ll. 745–8) speaks to widespread anxieties in the realm over the ongoing war with France and Spain and the adjournment of Parliament on 2 Mar. However, the sermon's primary concern is with the dignity of man, and with the ways in which Christians can perfect themselves by conforming themselves to the image of God present in their souls. Together the sermons describe a theological and eschatological arc reaching from the moment of creation to the achievement of glory in heaven (cf. Headnote to Sermon 10), and having begun by considering man at both his lowest and highest state (being made of mere earth, yet perfect in Adam before the Fall), end by considering another paradoxical union of low and high: only at death and, eventually, resurrection, can the Christian achieve that perfection once more.
Editor’s Note
Sources. As with Sermon 10, D's sources fall into two categories: commentaries on Genesis, and other works by the Fathers and later writers. His primary source among the former is, as in Sermon 10, Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim (see Sermon 10, Sources). At times it is clear that D has borrowed not only arguments and authorities but precise phrasing from Pererius (see ll. 359–60 and 492–3 cmts): it is likely that he gained much of his knowledge of the debates with which he engages––or refuses to engage, as in the case of the difference between 'image' and 'likeness'––from the same source. D also makes use, as was his habit, of the marginalia to VG. He may have consulted Augustine, De Genesi contra Manichaeos, directly, given his fondness for Augustine; but this too is cited by Pererius (see l. 386 cmt). Setting aside works on Genesis or those cited in commentaries, D refers to Damascene, Tertullian, Augustine, Chrysostom, Bernard, Cyril, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Epiphanius. He makes use of Tacitus, Aquinas, Duns Scotus (or his doctrines, under the appellation of 'the School', ll. 340–4), and histories of the church. Light is shed on his use of intermediary sources by his erroneous ascription of a passage to Theodoret (ll. 472 ff.). This mistake arises from his having misread the Latin and the marginal note to a reference to Philo Judaeus in Juan de Ovando, Discurs. Prædicab. super Mysteria Fidei (Alcalá de Henares, 1593), P1r, where the passage from Philo is immediately preceded by a reference to Theodoret (see further cmt).
Editor’s Note
Further reading. This sermon is discussed by Johnson, The Theology of John Donne, 23–7 (see also Sermon 10 above, Further reading). Dennis R. Klinck, 'Vestigia Trinitatis in Man and his Works in the English Renaissance', JHI 42 (1981), 13–27, discusses the sermon in the context of a wider analysis of the tradition of discovering marks of the Trinity. On the image of God in man, see Winfried Schleiner, The Imagery of John Donne's Sermons (Providence, RI, 1970), 115–19. On Gen. see Arnold Williams, The Common Expositor: An Account of the Commentaries on Genesis, 1527–1633 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1948). On D's use of gematria to calculate the equal values of the names YHWH and Adam, see Chanita Goodblatt, The Christian Hebraism of John Donne: Written with the Fingers of Man's Hand (Pittsburgh, 2010), 157 and n.
Editor’s Note
1. THE SECOND … GENESIS: the sermon's title indicates that it was the second in a pair on Gen. 1: 26 delivered at court. See further Headnote, and Headnote to Sermon 10, the first in the pair. D spends some time at the beginning of this sermon recapitulating and summarizing Sermon 10; the cmts below on this section supply cross-references to Sermon 10, where fuller commentary is provided.
Editor’s Note
8–9. we proposed … voyage: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 59–121. D's metaphor of a voyage through all four points of the compass provides a structuring principle for both sermons. Sermon 10 considered east and west; Sermon 11 considers north and south. See cmts on the opening lines of Sermon 10 for the importance of nautical imagery, revisited here (see next cmts).
Critical Apparatus
9 launching] lanching F50
Editor’s Note
9. launching forth: i.e. his birth, but also his creation in Adam.
Editor’s Note
9–10. anchoring … next: heaven imagined as a safe harbour. The image of the anchor is also appropriate because it is a symbol of hope; cf. D's seal of Christ crucified on an anchor (Bald, 305–6).
Critical Apparatus
10 there: in] there. In F50
Editor’s Note
10. hoysing sail: raising sail (at the beginning of a voyage). See OED, 'hoise', v. 1.
Editor’s Note
10. striking sail: lowering sail (at the end of a voyage). See OED, 'strike', v. IV.17.
Editor’s Note
11–13. his East … Christian: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 122–84.
Editor’s Note
14. we shewed … Christians: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 236–311.
Editor’s Note
16–18. the prodigall … heaven: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 456–63.
Editor’s Note
18–22. we shewed … actions: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 303–11.
Critical Apparatus
22 actions:] ~. F50
Editor’s Note
23–5. whether this … Bible: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 312–35.
Critical Apparatus
24 Let us make man:] Let us, us make man: F50
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25 Bible: and] Bible. And F50
Editor’s Note
26–8. we accepted … We: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 372–97.
Critical Apparatus
28 We:] We. F50
Editor’s Note
28–31. And thereby … King: i.e. that members of the congregation should kneel at prayer. Cf. Sermon 10, ll. 407–27.
Critical Apparatus
31 afterwards] after this, F50
Editor’s Note
31–3. we found … Faciamus: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 428–31.
Editor’s Note
33–6. we applied … Trinitie: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 431–71. This concludes the end of Sermon 10, Part 1.
Critical Apparatus
37 with our] with that our F50
Editor’s Note
37–8. Our West … Hominem: Part 2 of Sermon 10, ll. 472–673.
Editor’s Note
40. Adam … earth: the commonly accepted etymology; cf. Sermon 10, ll. 522–59.
Editor’s Note
41–3. the foure … name: Ish, Enosh, Gheber, and Adam; cf. Sermon 10, ll. 472–502. The 'best name' is Gheber: see Sermon 10, ll. 492–9.
Editor’s Note
44–6. first … he will: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 509–21.
Critical Apparatus
46 builder:] ~. F50
Editor’s Note
47–9. God made … calling: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 522–30.
Critical Apparatus
50 equall: we] equall. We F50
Editor’s Note
50–3. in being … give: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 531–9.
Editor’s Note
53–5. we tried … dust: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 539–59.
Critical Apparatus
55 red; &] red earth: and F50
Editor’s Note
55–8. this our … selves: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 560–644.
Editor’s Note
58–61. we ended … spot: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 645–73.
Critical Apparatus
62 winde, &] winde. And F50
Critical Apparatus
63 III. Part. Aquilo] Aquilo F50
Editor’s Note
63. [marg.] Aquilo: Lat., 'north'.
Editor’s Note
64. comfortablest clime: climate that is most pleasing to the senses (OED, 'comfortable', adj. (n.), A.I.4).
Critical Apparatus
65 North: but] North. But F50
Editor’s Note
65. Many times … North: cf. Job 37: 9; Jer. 4: 6; 6: 1; 6: 22; 10: 22; 50: 9, 41; 51: 48; Ezek. 1: 4.
Critical Apparatus
67 Job 37.22.] Iob 37.21. F50
Editor’s Note
67. serenitie: 'clear, fair and calm weather; clearness and stillness of air and sky' (OED, 1).
Critical Apparatus
68 North.] North. And that's the use which we have of the North in this place. F50
Editor’s Note
68. fair weather … North: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 92–3.
Editor’s Note
69. red earth … selves: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 75–6; 577–88.
Editor’s Note
69–70. that imaginary … leprosie: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 645–63.
Critical Apparatus
70 leprosie: this] leprosie. This F50
Editor’s Note
71. murmuring: complaining (cf. OED, 'murmur', v. 1.a).
Editor’s Note
71–2. live … beasts do: because they are not subject to natural or divine law.
Critical Apparatus
73 do. We die] doe, we dye F50
Editor’s Note
73. die … beasts do: because human souls are subject to divine judgement and consignment to heaven or hell.
Editor’s Note
73–4. We die … deaths: i.e. we are always decaying, and sinning, but we never die absolutely because our souls live on and we expect a bodily resurrection. Cf. also 1 Cor. 15: 31.
Critical Apparatus
74 deaths:] ~. F50
Critical Apparatus
74 Prov. 25.23.] ed.; Prov. 25.13 Q6; Prov. 25.23 F50
Editor’s Note
76–7. Christ calls … thereof: cf. Sermon 10, ll. 90–1.
Critical Apparatus
80 consideration: but] consideration. But F50
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83 cloud; that] cloud. That F50
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84 world: for] world. For, F50
Critical Apparatus
87 The] Imago similitudo. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
87. The varietie: i.e. the use of two distinct words (AV 'image' and 'likeness'; Vulg. 'imaginem' and 'similitudinem'). Note the additional marginal division supplied in F50: 'Imago similitudo' (Lat., 'image, likeness'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
87–9. hath given … Likenesse: the discussion of the two words, and of whether they do in fact signify different categories, is extremely extensive in patristic and later commentaries. See marginalia to VG, as well as Paul of Burgos's additio to Gen. 1 and the summary and discussion in Benedict Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim (Lyon, 1599), i, Z2r–2C3v. At Z3r Pererius cites Origen, Basil, Ambrose, Gregory of Nyssa, Eucharius, Victorinus, Jerome, Theodoret, Rupertus, Aquinas, Lombard, and the 'Scholastici'. See also Calvin, A Commentarie of Iohn Caluine, vpon the first booke of Moses called Genesis, trans. Thomas Tymme (1578), STC 4393, C6r. See further cmts below. Note D's triplicate use of the word 'divers', which reinforces the sheer extent of discussion on this apparently minor variation in phrasing.
Critical Apparatus
89 phrase: for] phrase. For F50
Editor’s Note
89–90. the varietie … likenesse: this distinction is present only in the English translations; Vulg. has 'ad imaginem et similitudinem'.
Critical Apparatus
91 Parva non sunt parva] Parva, parva non sunt F50
Editor’s Note
91–2. Parva non … proveniunt: John of Damascus, De Imaginibus Oratio Prima, in Sancti Ioannis Damasceni Opera … (Paris, 1577), 3P6v. Compare PG 94. 1234B, where this phrase does not occur. Note that the phrasing of Q6 more closely matches that of the 1577 edition than does that of F50 (see tn).
Editor’s Note
93–4. No Jod … perish: cf. Matt. 5: 18. 'Jod' (י‎, yodh) is the tenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and the smallest.
Critical Apparatus
94 superfluous: if] superfluous. If F50
Critical Apparatus
97 In] no paragraph break F50
Editor’s Note
97–104. the Councel … be: on the First Council of Ephesus (431), see The Auncient Ecclesiasticall Histories of the First Six Hundred Yeares after Christ, trans. Meredith Hanmer (1577), STC 10572, 2K1v–2K2r.
Critical Apparatus
100 forbore] forbare F50
Editor’s Note
105–9. the Councel … after: on the Council of Chalcedon (451), see The Auncient Ecclesiasticall Histories, 2N2v–2N3r.
Critical Apparatus
109 after. And] after: and F50
Editor’s Note
109–11. the Councel … Homöusion: on the Council of Nicaea (325), see The Auncient Ecclesiasticall Histories, S4v–S6v. The issue to which D refers concerned the Arian heresy, which held that the Son was created by the Father and not of the same substance as Him. St Alexander of Alexandria and his followers condemned this, and declared that the Son was of the same substance (homoousios). A failed compromise was suggested, arguing that the Son was of a similar, but not equal substance (homoiousios). D's orthography here slightly confuses the matter.
Critical Apparatus
110 letters; for] letters. For F50
Critical Apparatus
111 Homöusion] Homousion F50
Critical Apparatus
113 risen!] ~? F50
much hath sola] much sola F50
Editor’s Note
113–14. How much … case!: D refers to the massive controversy over justification by faith alone, represented by Luther's slogan 'sola fide'. Attacked by RCs for seemingly eradicating the need for good works in justification, this was expanded by Calvin (Institutes, 3. 11 and 16). Later Reformers attempted to counter criticism by explaining that it was faith alone which justified, but not faith which was alone (in D's terminology, sola fides, but not fides quae est sola). This in turn became a commonplace tag; see e.g. Thomas Anyan, A Sermon Preached at Saint Marie Spittle April. 10. 1615 (1615), STC 698, E2r; Richard Montagu, A Gagg for the New Gospell? No: a new gagg for an old goose (1624), STC 18038, V1r.
Critical Apparatus
114 changed the case!] changes the case? F50
Editor’s Note
116. accent: punctuation mark; cf. OED, 2.c: 'marks of various kinds placed over and under the consonants in Hebrew, serving as signs of tone and of interpunctuation'.
Critical Apparatus
117 sense!] ~? F50
Editor’s Note
117. interrogation: question mark.
Editor’s Note
117–21. All Christian … repentance: this point is made, in very similar phrasing, in Lyra's postil to Gen. 4: 13 in VG, which is likely to be D's source here.
Critical Apparatus
118 Gen. 4.13.] om. F50
Critical Apparatus
121 Mich. 5.3.] 5.3. F50
Micheas] Micah F50
Editor’s Note
121–4. The prophet … not: the apparent discrepancy between Mic. 5: 2 (not 5: 3 as D has it) and Matt. 2: 6 was a frequent source of debate among commentators. For D's solution, that Micah's statement was in fact a question (rejected by Calvin), see e.g. Robert Bellarmine, Disputationes de Controversiis Christianæ Fidei (Lyon, 1599), col. 1, †1r.
Critical Apparatus
122 Matth. 2.6.] 2.6. F50
Critical Apparatus
123 Micheas] Micahs F50
Critical Apparatus
125 neglected: for] neglected. For,
Editor’s Note
125. Christs forerunner: cf. John. 1: 8.
Critical Apparatus
126 voice: and] voice. And F50
Editor’s Note
126. but a voice: cf. John. 1: 23.
Editor’s Note
126–7. Christ himself … God: cf. John. 1: 1.
Editor’s Note
127–8. No doubt … uncorrected: an apt comparison for D's courtly audience of statesmen (and the king).
Editor’s Note
129. glasse of storie: the mirror of history.
Editor’s Note
129–30. cannot … chronicles: i.e. even these instances of statesmen attending to minor matters cannot be excluded from histories that purport to treat the greatest historical events (chronicles).
Editor’s Note
130. jealousie: suspicion (cf. OED, 4, 5).
Editor’s Note
131–4. We know … change: under Tiberius (42 bce–37 ce), after the execution of the supposed followers of Sejanus; Tacitus, Annals, 6. 19. Also cf. Julius Caesar's famous comment on Cassius' pallor: Plutarch, The Liues of the Noble Grecians and Romanes … , trans. Thomas North (1579), STC 20065, 3V6v.
Critical Apparatus
136 when] where F50
Critical Apparatus
138 so; great] so. Great F50
Editor’s Note
140–3. Cyril … these trifles : cf. letter 1, in Divi Cyrilli Alexandrini Episcopi Theologi Clarissimi Opera Omnia, 2 vols. (Paris, 1572), ii, a2r. D compresses: 'Præstiterat quidem prorsus huiusmodi quæstionibus abstinere. & quæ veluti in speculo & ænigmate contemplatu difficilia sunt, omnino non inquirere, ne eos quidem qui mente sunt integra, & intellectu prouectiore. (Simpliciorum nanque mentem etiam, minutiora theoremata transcendunt) quoniam verò factum est, vt talium verborum haud permanseritis expertes, & verosimile est futuros inter vos, qui perniciem ex illis, veluti clauos quosdam imbecilliorum mentibus infigant: necessarium duxi, pauca quædam de his rebus ad vos proferre, non vt hoc amplius contendatis, sed vt si quidam vos his nugis adoriantur, veritati repugnantes, ipsi & perniciem quæ ex errore est, effugiatis, & alios competentibus rationibus, tanquam fratres iuuetis, persuadeatisque vt ab antiquo in Ecclesiis seruatam, & ab apostolis traditam fidem, tanquam prætiosam quandam margaritam, animis suis inditam retineant' ('It would be better for you to pay no attention at all to such inquiries and not at all to dig up difficult questions which are seen, as it were, in a mirror and are a puzzle for keen minds and trained intellects. For the finer distinctions of speculations transcend the comprehension of the less instructed. However, you have not remained completely ignorant of such discussions and it is likely that some choose to be fond of disputing and of fixing this mischief like a stake into those whose minds are not firmly made up. Hence, I thought it necessary to say some few words to you concerning these matters. I do not do this that you may have a greater battle of words; rather, I intend that you may escape the danger of going astray if anyone should spring up with an attack on the truth with random words. I write that you may assist others as brothers, besides, by the proper reasonings, persuading them to maintain as a precious pearl in their own souls the divine faith handed down from above by the apostles to the churches': St Cyril of Alexandria, Letters 1–50, trans. John I. McEnerney (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1987), 15).
Editor’s Note
144–6. occasion Councels … Court: D summarizes the controversies surrounding the Second Council of Ephesus (449; dubbed the 'robber Council') and Council of Chalcedon (451); the latter precipitated the schism between the Western Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The emperors involved were Theodosius II (Ephesus) and Marcian (Chalcedon).
Editor’s Note
147. Philastrius: Philastrius (d. before 397), Liber de Haeresibus (PL 12).
Critical Apparatus
151 unquestioned: and] unquestioned. And F50
Critical Apparatus
154 prove] be F50
Critical Apparatus
156 Cant. 2.15.] one line lower in Q62
Editor’s Note
157. glistering: sparkling.
Editor’s Note
158. firmament: 'the arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds and the stars appear; the sky or heavens' (OED, 1.a).
Editor’s Note
158. Galaxie … milkie-way: synonyms for each other.
Editor’s Note
158–60. not one … circle: the ordering of stars visible to the naked eye into six magnitudes was inherited from ancient Greek astronomy and popularized by Ptolemy.
Critical Apparatus
160 circle: it] circle. It F50
Critical Apparatus
162 them: So] them. So F50
Editor’s Note
163–4. Patriarchs … Virgins: the heavenly host, to whom intercession is made in the Litany, used in various forms in the RC rite and developed for the Church of England by Thomas Cranmer (1544) for BCP; see also D, 'The Litanie'.
Editor’s Note
165. religiously: 'faithfully, conscientiously' (OED, 1.a), with a pun on the more usual meaning.
Editor’s Note
167. Idolatry, Adultery, Murder: outlawed by the second, seventh, and sixth commandments; see Exod. 20: 2–17.
Editor’s Note
168. inconsiderately: without consideration or deliberation (OED).
Editor’s Note
168. insensibly: 'imperceptibly; unconsciously; esp. so slightly or gradually that the action or process is not perceived' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
171–2. great hills … sands: an example of tiny things accumulating into something large.
Critical Apparatus
172 then!] ~? F50
Editor’s Note
172–3. if substances … us: even if the sins themselves were ignored, their contexts and the opportunities for them would be enough to condemn us (see OED, 'circumstance' I.2.a: 'the logical surroundings or "adjuncts" of an action; the time, place, manner, cause, occasion, etc., amid which it takes place').
Critical Apparatus
173 us!] ~? F50
Critical Apparatus
174 Scriptures: And] ~. And F50
Editor’s Note
176. copiousnesse: 'abundance of words; fullness of vocabulary' (OED, 2). OED's first citation is from 1642, but this is predated by almost a century inErasmus, The First Tome or Volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the Newe Testamente (1548), STC 2854.5, fo. vir. On the Holy Ghost's copious style, cf. D, Devotions, 99.
Editor’s Note
177–80. And so … done.: here D passes over the huge body of discussion concerning the distinction (or otherwise) between 'image' and 'likeness' (on which see cmt above on ll. 87–9); it is ironic that he dismisses this material in passing after having spent the previous ninety-eight lines considering the various ways in which apparently minor matters might have great consequences.
Critical Apparatus
180 done. But] done: but F50
Critical Apparatus
181 two for] two words for F50
Editor’s Note
181–3. taking … all one: the position also adopted by Calvin, A Commentarie … vpon the first booke of Moses called Genesis, C6r. It is discussed by Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, Z3v. Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i (Paris, 1866), 70, similarly considers the possible variety in meaning before treating it as an instance of hendiadys.
Critical Apparatus
183 imports] imparts F50
Critical Apparatus
187 made, by] made, according to F50
Editor’s Note
187. God appointed … pattern: Exod. 25: 40; cf. Heb. 8: 5.
Editor’s Note
187–91. God himself … himself: for this argument see Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 15 a. 1; Super Heb., cap. 11, l. 2. Cf. PS vii.1.360–7, and Mueller's cmt on D, Prebend, 233. Pererius takes issue with the notion that there was an exemplar of man in God's mind, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A2v. On God's ideas in the creation cf. PS vii.1.364–6 (29 Jan. 1626).
Editor’s Note
191–2. when he … good: see Gen. 1: 4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31.
Editor’s Note
193–7. though … subsequent actions: for the argument that God did not say that 'it was good' of his creation of man because while his other creatures conformed immediately ('presently') to their pattern, man's conformity to his pattern would appear in his fulfilment of his capacity to imitate God and achieve grace, see marginalia to VG; Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2Cv; Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i. 74.
Editor’s Note
198–200. we have … administration: i.e. we are subject to a different manner of the dispensation of divine justice (cf. OED, 'administration' 7).
Critical Apparatus
201 Matth. 10.29.] Mat. 10.23. F50
Editor’s Note
203. for ye … sparrows: cf. Matt. 10: 31.
Editor’s Note
205–6. the ant … self: see Prov. 6: 6; 30: 25.
Editor’s Note
206–7. the foxes … revenge: Judg. 15: 4–5. Samson tied 300 foxes together and set fire to their tails, burning the Philistines' crops.
Critical Apparatus
207 Judg. 15.4.] Iudg. 15. F50
1. King. 13.24.] 1. Reg. 13.23. F50
his] the F50
Editor’s Note
207. fee: pay.
Critical Apparatus
208 2. King. 2.24.] 2. Reg. 2.25. F50
two she-bears] ed.; few she-bears Q6; two she-Beares F50
Editor’s Note
209. petulant: 'impudent, insolent, rude' (OED, A.1.a). The children had shouted 'go up, thou bald head'.
Critical Apparatus
211 service: But] service. But F50
Editor’s Note
213. consecrated … unto God: Gen. 32: 29.
Editor’s Note
213–15. God made … Tribe: see Num. 3: 11; 18: 20; 18: 22; Deut. 18: 1–2.
Critical Apparatus
215 Tribe:] ~. F50
Editor’s Note
215. Quia fecisti hoc: cf. Gen. 22: 16 (Vulg.): 'quia fecisti rem hanc' ('because thou hast done this thing').
Editor’s Note
215–17. By my … thee: Gen. 22: 16–17.
Critical Apparatus
217 sonne: that in] sonne: in F50
Editor’s Note
220–1. It is … repentance: D compresses Hebr. 6: 4–6.
Critical Apparatus
222 do:] doe. F50
Editor’s Note
222–4. This they … do: D summarizes his argument concerning the different form of administration to which mankind is subject: man is the only creature with free will. On this distinction as one of the primary meanings of 'in our image, and after our likeness', see Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, Z3r, 2A4r, and authorities cited there.
Critical Apparatus
224 do.] doe: F50
Editor’s Note
224. Fac hoc … live: cf. Luke 10: 28.
Critical Apparatus
225 die: but] die. But F50
Editor’s Note
229. election: choice.
Editor’s Note
231. supernaturall: literally, that which is above nature; 'transcending the powers or the ordinary course of nature' (OED, A.1).
Editor’s Note
233. Balaam's asse spake: Num. 22: 28–30. Num. 22: 28 specifically states that 'the Lord opened the mouth of the asse'.
Editor’s Note
233. facultie: one of the powers of the mind or soul (memory, will, and intellect); see OED, I.4. See further below, ll. 501–673 and cmts.
Editor’s Note
238–40. though … it does: D here outlines a fairly orthodox position for the English Church on the relationship between free will and grace, which is characteristic of his theology. He argues that God's grace cooperates with free will to do good against, on the one hand, the puritan argument (also present in Luther's contribution to the debate with Erasmus on the freedom and bondage of the will) that grace eradicates free will and, on the other, the popular conception of the RC position, that free will plays a larger part in justification. Cf. especially Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 645–73.
Editor’s Note
242–3. writ … copie: i.e. copied from an exemplar. Note the alliteration between 'wrought' and 'writ' and between 'proceeded' and 'precedent'.
Critical Apparatus
243 a copie] copy F50
Editor’s Note
243–5. Never say … self: here D extends his advocacy of following a pattern to criticize those who would separate from the established church because they find errors in it: his target is extreme separatist puritans.
Editor’s Note
245–7. What greater … adored: D accuses separatists of vanity and idolatry: precisely the accusations that they typically levelled at the established church.
Editor’s Note
247–8. Thou wilt … wayes: this accusation that separatism is characterized by a lack of charity is typical of D; cf. Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 650–2.
Editor’s Note
249–50. Propose … for others: cf. Sermon 6 in this vol., passim.
Critical Apparatus
251 them: he] them. He F50
Editor’s Note
251–2. and he … adoration : in the second commandment: Exod. 20: 4.
Critical Apparatus
252 For … self! ] For, [marg.: Arnob.] Qualis dementiæ est id colere, quod melius est? What a drowzinesse, what a lazinesse, what a cowardlinesse of the soule is it, to worship that, which does but represent a better thing then it selfe? F50
Editor’s Note
252–4. what … it self: an image is 'not so good as it self' because it is at several removes from the thing itself; D summarizes the classical theory of mimesis, as expressed particularly in Plato, Republic, 10. Note the considerable difference in this passage between Q6 and F50, which appears to be evidence of authorial revision. The latter reads: '[marg.: Arnob.] For, Qualis dementiæ est id colere, quod melius est? What a drowzinesse, what a lazinesse, what a cowardlinesse of the soule is it, to worship that, which does but represent a better thing then it selfe?' (see tn). F50's marginal note presumably refers to Arnobius, but the quotation is in fact from Cassiodorus, De Anima, 10 (PL 70. 1298B): 'qualis enim dementia est illum colere quo melior est' ('for what madness is it to worship that of which there is something better').
Critical Apparatus
254 then] thou F50
Editor’s Note
255. period: end, conclusion (OED, 'period' n., adj., and adv. II.11.b).
Critical Apparatus
256 it:] ~. F50
Editor’s Note
256–8. There is … example: D continues his orthodox warning against idolatry, tempered by allowance of the use of images as examples to follow or imitate. This moderate position is typical of moderate Calvinist theologians and of the established English Church at this time.
Critical Apparatus
260 here] herein F50
Editor’s Note
263. Meridionall height: greatest height, because that of the sun at noon; see OED, 'meridional', adj. and n., A.2.b, referring to 'meridion', adj., 1.a and 1.b. Cf. Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 96–7.
Critical Apparatus
267 IIII Part. Meridies.] ~Vbi Imago. F50
the image is;] this Image is, F50
Editor’s Note
267. [marg.] IIII Part. Meridies: 'meridies', Lat., 'south'. Note the addition in marg. to F50: 'Vbi Imago' (Lat., 'where is the image'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
268. imprinted: for the image of a seal, see further below, ll. 386–402. Cf. Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 236–9.
Editor’s Note
269. derives: imparts, communicates, passes on (OED, I.4).
Editor’s Note
269–70. when we … negatives: a commonplace of negative (apophatic) theology, which argues that the divine perfection of God can be spoken about only by describing what it is not. One of its chief exponents was Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite; see for a full statement Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 3.
Editor’s Note
271. passible: 'capable of suffering or feeling; susceptible to sensation or emotion' (OED, 1). Cf. John of Damascus, De Fide Orthodoxa, 1. 14 (PG 94. 859A) and see further ll. 319–21 cmt for D's use of this text.
Critical Apparatus
272 not his Bodie] not in his body [marg.:] Non in Corpore. | Deus non est Corpus F50
Editor’s Note
272. not his Bodie: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Non in Corpore. Deus non est Corpus' (Lat., 'not in the body. God is not a body'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
272. Tertullian: Tertullian, Adversus Praxeam, 7 (PL 2. 126C).
Editor’s Note
272. declined: inclined or leant to (OED, I.4). Note D's pun on 'declined' and 'inclined'.
Critical Apparatus
273 so; for] so. For F50
Editor’s Note
273. inclined: disposed, bent towards (OED, I.3).
Critical Apparatus
274 bodie: yet] bodie. Yet F50
Critical Apparatus
275 for] from F50
Editor’s Note
275–8. Because … a bodie: Augustine, De Haeresibus (PL 42. 47). See also Augustine, De Genesi ad Litteram Libri Duodecim, 10. 25 (PL 34. 427).
Critical Apparatus
277 that God] that that God F50
Editor’s Note
278–9. that charitable Father: D's identification of Augustine, his favourite among the Church Fathers, with the virtue of charity, is both commonplace (insofar as it was widely accepted) and particular (insofar as D uses it to specific ends). It is Augustine's charity as an interpreter and reader that marks him out, and it is this quality which D seeks above all to emulate. See further Katrin Ettenhuber, Donne's Augustine: Renaissance Cultures of Interpretation (Oxford, 2011).
Critical Apparatus
279 Father would] Father Saint Augustine, would F50
Editor’s Note
280. pretend: claim (not necessarily, but usually, falsely).
Editor’s Note
280. Augustinianissimi: Lat., 'those who are most Augustinian'. D mockingly refers both to RCs who cite the authority of Augustine (who, like the other Church Fathers, was fought over by authors in the RC and reformed churches), and perhaps more specifically to members of the Augustinian Friars, a mendicant order founded in the 13th c. D's is the only use of this term that I have been able to trace.
Editor’s Note
281–2. not … of truth: D criticizes the hypocrisy of those who claim to follow Augustine but ignore his exercise of charity, making disputable matters ('problemes') dogmatic, or matters of faith. This is one of his most common lines of attack against RCs; cf. also above, ll. 143–6.
Editor’s Note
283–5. they will … profit: developing his attack on the RC tendency to condemn others too swiftly as heretics, D complains that RCs condemn as heresy differences over such things as the temporal power of the pope (the 'Court of Rome') and the means by which the church raises revenue, such as the sale of indulgences ('their profit'): none of these, he argues, is a matter of faith. For this argument (developed below) see further D, P–M, 254–68.
Critical Apparatus
285 Malo] Chrysost. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
285–7. Malo de … severitie: cf. ps.-Chrysostom, Homilia XLIII in Matthaeum (PG 56. 877).
Editor’s Note
287–8. And though … Fool: see Matt. 5: 22, where Christ says that those who make these accusations will be subject to judgement. This prompts D's use of legal language below; see next cmt.
Critical Apparatus
288 Racha] Raca F50
Editor’s Note
288–9. bear … that barre: though this anger is sufficient to warrant a legal action, he will not gain as much compensation or exact so heavy a judgement upon me ('at that barre' = in that court: see OED, 'bar' n.1 III.23.a).
Critical Apparatus
289 necessarily] necessary F50
Editor’s Note
290. passionately: ardently (OED, 1); fuelled by the passions, rather than led by reason.
Editor’s Note
290–1. peremptorily: 'confidently; emphatically; dogmatically' (OED, 3).
Critical Apparatus
291 heretick: for] heretique. For, F50
Editor’s Note
291–3. I dare … manner: D's distinction between the content of a belief ('the matter') and the way in which it is held or promulgated ('the manner') recalls Augustine's famous advice to love the person but hate their sins ('dilectione hominum, et odio vitiorum'): Augustine, Epistola 211, 11 (PL 33. 962); Regula ad Servos Dei, De Fraterna Correctione (PL 32. 1382).
Critical Apparatus
293 heresie; but] heresie. But F50
Editor’s Note
293. It must … heresie: i.e. accusations of heresy should not attach to matters indifferent (things subject to debate, and to allowed variation between churches) or secular issues; cf. ll. 283–5 and cmt.
Critical Apparatus
294 the] that F50
Editor’s Note
294. pertinacie … instruction: obstinacy after suitable instruction. For the definition of heresy, and the importance played by pertinacy or obstinacy, see Aquinas, ST, IIa–IIae q. 11 a. 2, and the debate rehearsed in Thomas Morton, A Full Satisfaction Concerning a Double Romish Iniquitie (1606), STC 18185, B1v–B2v and Robert Parsons, A Treatise Tending to Mitigation towards Catholike-subiectes in England (1607), STC 19417, 2E2r–2E3r.
Critical Apparatus
296 hereticks an] heretiques, one F50
Editor’s Note
297–300. the Audiani … man: Epiphanius, Adversus Haereses or Panarion: Divi Epiphanii Episcopi Constantiae Cypri, contra Octoginta Haereses Opus (Paris, 1564), V5r–X1v. Part of Epiphanius' discussion of the Audians involves a consideration of what the image of God in man can be properly said to refer to; a topic highly pertinent to D's sermon (V5v; note that there Epiphanius has as a marginal note, 'Imago Dei non est corpus'; cf. l. 272 cmt). The same heresy is discussed by Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i. 70; Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A3r–v (there ascribed to the Anthropomorphitae, treated by Nicephorus), and (presumably derived from Pererius) Andrew Willet, Hexapla in Genesin (Cambridge, 1605), STC 25682, B4v.
Critical Apparatus
301 took] take F50
Editor’s Note
301–2. Epiphanius … not hereticks: Epiphanius, Divi Epiphanii … contra Octoginta Haereses Opus, E4v. As well as describing the Audians as 'schismatici', Epiphanius notes that they were 'secta, & nonhaeresis' ('a sect, and not heretics').
Critical Apparatus
304 Father: and] Father. And F50
Editor’s Note
304. pictures … the Father: after centuries of belief that God the Father should not be represented in art, such depictions became increasingly common during the Middle Ages. They were, however, regarded as idolatrous by reformed churches: in Protestant England the most common way of representing God or the Trinity was by the Tetragrammaton. See also the decree on sacred images in the Council of Trent, Session 25, 3–4 Dec. 1563.
Critical Apparatus
306 Transsubstantiation] Q61, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11; Transubstantiation Q610
Editor’s Note
306. Transsubstantiation: the RC doctrine that the substance of the bread and wine at Eucharist becomes the body and blood of Christ, while the accidents remain unchanged. The doctrine was rejected by Reformers, and confirmed by the Council of Trent, Session 13, 11 Oct. 1551. See Article 28 of the Thirty-Nine Articles for the official position of the Church of England.
Editor’s Note
306–11. not … that way: D's convoluted syntax makes this passage obscurer than it might be. He argues that the doctrine of transubstantiation is not erroneous in bringing the body of Christ too near to faith (since all agree that it is a matter of faith that his body is present), nor in claiming that his body is present in the Eucharist (the 'vbi', or 'where' it is; since all agree that the sacrament does effect a delivery of grace from heaven to earth through the body and blood of Christ), but in the manner ('modo') in which the body and blood are received: not through the transformation of bread and wine into body and blood, but––in the words of the Thirty-Nine Articles––'after an heavenly and spiritual manner' (Article 28). The revisions of F50 (for which see tns) do not alter the sense of this passage.
Critical Apparatus
307 neare … not ] neare; so, it is as really there as we are there) too neare to our sense: not F50
Critical Apparatus
309 self: for] selfe. For F50
Critical Apparatus
311 modo; for] modo. For F50
Critical Apparatus
314 and he said] F50; and said Q6
Editor’s Note
315–16. he is … heaven: cf. Mark 16: 19; cf. also the Creeds in BCP.
Editor’s Note
317. lose reall … zeal: i.e. to fall away from charity by too ardently pursuing controversy under a pretence of piety.
Editor’s Note
317. enlarge: expand, often in words or discussion (cf. OED, I.5.a); here suggesting spending too much attention on.
Editor’s Note
319–21. Superprincipale principium … imagine: D draws on John of Damascus, De Fide Orthodoxa, 1. 12 and 2. 1 (PG 94. 845A; 861B–863C). Cf. PS vi.17.550–4.
Critical Apparatus
320 præ-æterna] F50; præterea Q6
Critical Apparatus
325 it: and] it. And F50
Critical Apparatus
327 Nor] Non Corpus assumptum. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
327. Nor that way: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Non corpus assumptum' (Lat., 'not the assumed body'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
330–2. Some … of Spain: see Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A2v, who cites Eugubinus and Oleaster. He dismisses the notion as 'inept and absurd'. See also Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i. 70; Girolamo Vielmi, De Sex Diebus Conditi Orbis (Venice, 1575), T4v–T7r; Willet, Hexapla in Genesin (1608), STC 25683, B1v. Jerome Oleaster (Jeronymo da Azambuja, d. 1563), author of Commentaria in Mósi Pentateuchum (Lisbon, 1556); see C7v–C8v for his exposition of D's text from Genesis.
Editor’s Note
332–3. great inquirers … themselves: a sly dig at the hated Spanish Inquisition.
Critical Apparatus
335 Nor that] no paragraph break [marg.:] Non ut venturus Christus. F50
Editor’s Note
335. Nor … third way: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Non ut venturus Christus' (Lat., 'not to the coming of Christ'); also, F50 does not have a paragraph break: see tn.
Editor’s Note
336–9. God had … be: for this opinion see Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A1v–2A2v; 2B4r–v. Pererius refers to Origen '& quorundam aliorum' at A1v, and cites Augustine against them at 2A2r; he cites Ambrose at 2B4r, and Augustine, as well as 'the School' and the Master of the Sentences (Lombard) at 2B4v.
Critical Apparatus
338 now (sayes God) at first,] now, (says God at first) F50
Critical Apparatus
339 be: for] be. For, F50
Editor’s Note
340–3. the School … fallen: the argument of Duns Scotus and those who followed him; see Scotus, Ordinatio, III, d. 7 q. 3 §3; Reportata Parisiensia, III, d. 7 q. 4 §4. Cf. the discussion in Aquinas, ST, IIIa q. 1 a. 3.
Critical Apparatus
341 adhere] adhered F50
Editor’s Note
343. Non ut … humanum: cf. Scotus, Ordinatio, III, d. 7 q. 3 §3. D's phrasing, though, is closest not to that of a scholastic philosopher but to that of a Jesuit; cf. Cosma Magaliano, Opus Hierarchici, sive de Ecclesiastico Principatu Libri Tres, i (Lyon, 1609), Z2v: 'At si peccatum non esset, veniret quidem iuxta diuini consilij decretum, non vt medicus, aut redemptor, sed vt frater, & Dominus, ad nobilitandum genus humanum præsentia, & magisterio decorandum' ('but if sin were not to exist, he would indeed come according to the decree of divine resolution, not as a physician but as a redeemer, not as a brother but as a father for the ennobling of the human race in all present things and for its adornment by his guidance' (trans. Hanneke Wilson)).
Editor’s Note
348. imaginers: in this usage, dreamers (cf. the citation from North's Plutarch in OED; an appropriate insult given the context of D's discussion of the image of God.
Critical Apparatus
349 But (alas!)] but, alas, F50
Editor’s Note
355. fomentours: encouragers; instigators (see OED, 'foment', v. 4.b).
Critical Apparatus
358 man: nor] man. Nor F50
Editor’s Note
359–60. as we … significativè: cf. Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2B3r, from which D borrows his point, and from which he takes this phrase wholesale: 'sicut in scholis loquutur Theologi, arguitiuè & significatiuè'.
Critical Apparatus
363 creature: and so farre] creature. So far F50
bodie above that in the creatures, that] body, that F50
Editor’s Note
364. some pictures … jewels: D's analogy invokes an image (painted or engraved) where the material on which it is painted or engraved (the 'table') is itself precious. Susan Foister (pers. comm.) suggests that he could have been thinking of engraved gems, where a wide range of subjects (including classical subjects, landscapes, and architecture) were engraved on precious or semi-precious stones (these were particularly collected by the Emperor Rudolph II), or of paintings in oils on onyx, where the variegated bands of the stone were used as starting points for elaborate compositions; examples survive by Hans von Aachen and Hans Rottenhammer. The fashion for painting on hard surfaces such as stones and slate appears to have arisen in 16th-c. Italy. Examples of these may well have been collected by Charles's courtiers and could have been seen by D on his travels abroad.
Editor’s Note
365. some watches … jewels: pocket-watches, as luxury items, were often decorated with elaborate designs using jewels or enamel. In his will D bequeathed 'that Strykinge clocke wchI ordinarilye weare' to his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Grymes (Bald, 563).
Editor’s Note
365–6. they … cases too: to protect the 'table' or jewelled case.
Critical Apparatus
366 watch are] Watch is F50
Editor’s Note
366. the picture … case: D's analogy has two stages. First, in the preceding lines he imagines a 'painting' where an image is on a precious 'table', and kept in a separate case, and a watch with both a jewelled case and a further outward case made of less expensive material. The outward case is the body; the painting or jewelled case is the soul. Secondly, he uses only the example of the painting, in which it is the 'table', or material on which the image is painted or engraved, that is the soul. See l. 364 cmt. Note the variant in F50, which has 'of what meaner stuff' in place of Q6's 'of what matter of stuff' (see tn). The latter may be a scribal or compositorial error, but as it may equally be authorial, and does not distort the sense, I have chosen to retain it.
Editor’s Note
369–70. sinfull intemperance … merits: D castigates equally excessive indulgence of the flesh and excessive mortification. 'Inordinate fastings' were associated with both godly Protestants and (especially, in this context, given the reference to 'merits') RCs.
Critical Apparatus
371 the] thy F50
Critical Apparatus
373 outward case] out-case F50
Critical Apparatus
374 table] Tablet F50
Editor’s Note
374. table: the surface on which the image is painted; see l. 364 cmt.
Critical Apparatus
375 soul: and that is] soul. And that's F50
Editor’s Note
375. immediately: directly (OED, 1).
Critical Apparatus
376 image is.] Image is: F50
Critical Apparatus
378 The sphere] In anima. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
378. [marg.]: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'In anima' (Lat., 'in the soul'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
378. The sphere … Intelligence: in Aristotelian terminology, the movers of the celestial spheres were called 'intelligences'; the first mover, or primum mobile, was considered to be God.
Critical Apparatus
380 inwardly … immediately ] properly immediately the soule of man. Not immediately F50
Editor’s Note
380. inwardly and immediately: compare F50, 'properly immediately' (see tn).
Editor’s Note
382–6. Putabam te … himself: see Augustine, Confessions, 4. 16. 31 (PL 32. 706): 'Sed quid mihi hoc proderat, putanti quod tu, Domine Deus veritas, corpus esses lucidum et immensum, et ego frustum de illo corpore? Nimia perversitas! sed sic eram' ('I thought that you, Lord God and Truth, were like a luminous body of immense size and myself a bit of that body. What extraordinary perversity! But that is how I was'). Augustine 'retracts' this opinion even as he reports it.
Critical Apparatus
384 soul to be a spark] soule a sparke F50
Editor’s Note
386. dispute against … Manichees: Augustine, De Genesi contra Manichaeos, 1. 17 (PL 34. 186–7). Cited by Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2B3v.
Editor’s Note
387–9. The comparison … after: Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus de Sancta et Consubstantiali Trinitate, Assertio XXXIV (PG 75. 609). For the image of God as being sealed in mankind, see also Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A4v (citing Bernard); 2C2v; Pererius does not cite Cyril. See further Schleiner, The Imagery of John Donne's Sermons, 110–14 (in Further reading).
Critical Apparatus
389 after: no] after. No F50
Critical Apparatus
390 soul; every] soule. Every F50
Editor’s Note
390–2. The magistrate … oppression: as D explains, the lion symbolizes power, and the wolf rapacity or oppression. It is also worth noting that the obverse of the Great Seal depicted the monarch flanked by the lion and the unicorn.
Editor’s Note
392. Princes … the Crown: at their coronation.
Editor’s Note
393. the Mitre: the bishop's hat; a symbol of ecclesiastical authority. However, in Protestant England used only in heraldry, so perhaps here more specifically a reference to RC attempts to encroach upon the English monarch's temporal authority.
Editor’s Note
393–4. Powerfully … the Church: in this passage D delineates his understanding of the division of temporal and ecclesiastical power in England, where the monarch was, since Henry VIII, supreme head of the church. He explains that while the monarch is the head of the church he is not endowed with spiritual power and able to perform the office of a minister in delivering the sacraments.
Critical Apparatus
395 Church: they] Church. They F50
Critical Apparatus
396 preferments: they] preferments. They F50
have not Orders] give not orders, F50
Editor’s Note
396–7. they give … have: the power to appoint to ecclesiastical offices is vested in the monarch, but he does not have the holy orders which his appointees possess. Note the pun on 'order' as 'command' and 'the office of a priest'.
Critical Apparatus
397 have that they have] have, that have F50
Editor’s Note
398. laborious: 'characterized by or involving labour or much work' (OED, 2).
Editor’s Note
398–9. the Crosse … Grapes: they are sealed with the cross at baptism; it is, as D goes on to explain, also a symbol of the burdens they must endure. The rose, and the bunch of grapes, are symbols of indulgence, and perhaps also allude to inn signs. The grapes (as a reward for industry) may invoke those brought from Canaan; see Num. 13: 23.
Critical Apparatus
399 seal: ease and plentie] seale. Ease, and plenty F50
Editor’s Note
399. plentie: abundance or prosperity (OED, A.3.a).
Editor’s Note
400. crosses: vexations, adversity (OED, I.10.b).
Critical Apparatus
401 a conformitie] the profession of a conformity F50
Editor’s Note
401–2. with … to him: note the alternative phrasing in F50: 'with the profession of a conformity to him' (see tn).
Editor’s Note
404. babies: dolls or puppets (OED, A.2).
Editor’s Note
405. curious: 'made with care or art; skilfully, elaborately or beautifully wrought' (OED, II.7.a).
Editor’s Note
406–7. sixpenie pictures … prints: especially cheap pictures and prints ('sixpenie' and 'three-farthing' were general deprecatory adjectives: OED, 'sixpenny' 2; OED, 'three-farthings'). This comparison develops naturally from D's earlier discussion of pictures and watches at ll. 364–7.
Editor’s Note
407. at home: in ourselves.
Editor’s Note
408. fancies of honour: fantasies of advancement and worldly success; here D refers specifically to the likely tendencies of his courtly auditory.
Editor’s Note
410. distempers: inclemencies; also the illnesses resulting therefrom (OED, n.1 2, 4).
Editor’s Note
410. watchings: i.e. night-watchings; late-night revelry (OED).
Critical Apparatus
412 us. We] us: we F50
Editor’s Note
412. seeks … with us: i.e, seeks office or advancement alongside us (see OED, 'share' v.2 5).
Critical Apparatus
414 daughter. We] daughter: we F50
Editor’s Note
414. solicite: 'court or beg the favour of … esp. with immoral intention' (OED, I.4.b).
Critical Apparatus
415 lower pictures] F50; lovers pictures Q6
Editor’s Note
415. lower pictures: I have adopted F50's reading here in place of Q6's 'lovers pictures' (see tn): the former seems closest to D's argument concerning the secondary nature of the pictures he is discussing, while the latter may be a scribal or compositorial error ('w' easily mistaken for 'v') induced by the striking example of soliciting a friend's wife or daughter in ll. 413–14.
Critical Apparatus
416 beauties: and] beauties. And F50
Editor’s Note
416–18. for that … estate: D compares the misdirection of devotion to seeking after overpriced apothecaries' wares or cosmetics (see OED, 'drug', n. 1 a): his phrasing constructs an analogy between the wasting of one's material or financial 'estate' on consumer goods and the neglect of one's spiritual state of grace by not worshipping God's image where it is found. Complaints about the disparity between prices of substances at their point of origin and on the market were widespread, as were satires on the opportunism of mountebanks: see (for lists of prices of drugs at source) Pietro Martire d'Anghiera, The Decades of the Newe Worlde (1555), STC 647, 3O2r–3O3r; (for complaints about the Portuguese cornering the market in drugs and raising prices) Fynes Morison, An Itinerary (1617), STC 18205, X3v; (for a satire on mountebanks and their prices) Ben Jonson, Volpone, 2. 2, in Ben Jonson, ed. Ian Donaldson (Oxford, 1985), 30–6. D here also pursues his association of misdevotion with consumerism, begun in ll. 404–7.
Editor’s Note
419. colours: outward appearances (OED, 'colour, color' n.1 III.11.a).
Critical Apparatus
420 But the better] Tota Trinitas in omni facultate. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
420. [marg.]: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Tota Trinitas in omni facultate' (Lat., 'the whole Trinity in every faculty'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
421 soul: for] soule. For, F50
Editor’s Note
421. operation: manner of working (OED, I.1.a).
Editor’s Note
422. those faculties … Nature: i.e. those which are shared by all, even in the state of nature before the institution of religion, and which pertain to the natural man: will, intellect, and memory (see further below).
Editor’s Note
422–3. those qualifications … Grace: those additional attributes which are given to those who live under grace, i.e. have received the revelation of Christ, are Christians.
Editor’s Note
423–4. super-illustrations … Glorie: that additional spiritual enlightenment (see OED, 'illustration' 1; 'super-', prefix 13) that will be attained in heaven.
Editor’s Note
424. exercised … of many: as D indicates, this was a common point of discussion in the commentators; see e.g. VG; Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, Z3r, 2A1v ff.
Critical Apparatus
426 man; for] man. For, F50
Editor’s Note
426–7. Imago Dei … exuri: Bernard, In Festo Annuntiationis Beatae Mariae Virginis, Sermo I, 7 (PL 183. 386C). Quoted in Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i. 70; a likely source for D's use of it here. See also Theophanes of Nicaea, Theophanis Archiepiscopi Nicæni, quæ Extant Opera (Rome, 1590), L1r (the notes to Epistola III, where Theophanes is discussing the image of God in man). Cf. PS vi.7.327–9. See further Schleiner, The Imagery of John Donne's Sermons, 117–18.
Critical Apparatus
428 the soul; for] that soule. For F50
Editor’s Note
428. radically: inherently (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
429 self: and] selfe. And F50
Critical Apparatus
430 elect, or reprobate] Elect, or into the Reprobate F50
soul: as farre] soule, and as far, F50
Critical Apparatus
433 naturall: therefore] naturall. Therefore F50
Editor’s Note
433. other considerations … naturall: i.e. in ways that relate to the state of grace or of glory (cf. above, ll. 422–4 and cmts).
Editor’s Note
435. intendment: 'will, purpose, intent' (OED, 5).
Editor’s Note
435–6. Man … deface it: i.e. through sin.
Editor’s Note
436. Grace … refresh it: because the sacrifice of Christ has redeemed mankind and because through Christian living the individual can conform to the image of God within his soul.
Editor’s Note
437. shall … establish it: because in heaven the image will be perfected: the soul will be in complete conformity with God, and therefore made firm (established).
Critical Apparatus
440 his] the F50
Critical Apparatus
442 all these in glorie] all in Glory F50
Editor’s Note
443. the first … sand: in the hourglass that marked the preacher's allotted time.
Critical Apparatus
444 strength: But] strength. But F50
Editor’s Note
444. dram: small quantity; to match 'grain of our sand' (OED, n.1 4).
Editor’s Note
444. flash: burst (OED, n.2 I.1.a).
Critical Apparatus
448 In nature] In natura Deus. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
448. [marg.]: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'In natura Deus' (Lat., 'God in nature'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
449–50. this soul … nothing: see e.g. Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 91 a. 2. 'Our bodies' were made of pre-existent matter because Adam was formed from the earth (Gen. 2: 7).
Critical Apparatus
452 nothing: now] nothing. Now, F50
Editor’s Note
452–3. onely God … made: a basic tenet of faith; see e.g. Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 3.
Editor’s Note
454. breath of God: cf. Gen. 2: 7.
Critical Apparatus
455 God; for] God. For F50
Critical Apparatus
457 too: for] too. For F50
Editor’s Note
458–63. First, Esse … creature: on these four levels of nature, see Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A4v–2B1r, who also gives the examples of stones (and metals), plants, and animals (the final category corresponding to D's example of 'sense, and no understanding'). Pererius' final category includes God, the angels, and man.
Critical Apparatus
461 understanding; which] understanding. Which F50
Critical Apparatus
463 any creature] any other creature F50
Editor’s Note
463. livelier: more faithful to the original (OED, 4.a).
Editor’s Note
466–8. though man … have: because man will be received into eternal glory in heaven (or damnation in hell).
Critical Apparatus
468 post-meridian] past Meridian F50
Editor’s Note
468–9. post-meridian … after-noon: synonyms. Referring to the state of the soul after death.
Critical Apparatus
470 grace: for] grace. For F50
Editor’s Note
470–1. the reprobate … elect: since both possess a soul, which (as D has explained in II. 426–31 above) cannot die.
Editor’s Note
472–5. Theodoret says … down: D's quotation in fact comes from Theodore of Mopsuestia (c.350–428), whose writings were, in this period, known only through quotations by mediators, most notably Philoponus. The text which ascribes the quotation to Theodore, however, post-dates D's sermon: Joannis Philoponi, in Cap. I. Geneseos de Mundi Creatione Libri Septem (Vienna, 1630), 2E4r–v. It is most likely that D derived it from Juan de Ovando, Discurs. Prædicab. super Mysteria Fidei (Alcalá de Henares, 1593), P1r. This is Ovando's second sermon on the feast of the Trinity, where he discusses the image of the Trinity in man. He ascribes the example of the king's statue to Philo Judaeus, De Mundi Opificio (and has a marginal note to 'Philon'), but immediately before it (referring to the previous point) is the phrase 'Theodoretus inquit' ('Theodoret asks') and the marginal note 'Theodo.' D misread the note and the comment as referring to what followed, rather than what preceded. Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2C3r, uses a similar image, but cites neither Theodore nor Theodoret, while Lapide, also not citing a source, asks 'si crimen est læsæ majestatis regis imaginem violare, quale crimen erit Dei imaginem sibi insitam fœdare peccato et polluere?' ('if it is a crime of lèse majesté to profane the image of the king, what kind of crime would it be to defile the image of God himself by mingling it with sin and polluting it?').
Critical Apparatus
473 that] the F50
Critical Apparatus
474 this statue] his statue F50
Editor’s Note
475. exalt: raise up (OED 1).
Critical Apparatus
476 run,] as much F50
Editor’s Note
478–9. How would … place: see ll. 472–5 cmt.
Critical Apparatus
479 his place] this place F50
Critical Apparatus
481 conversation; for] conversation. For F50
Editor’s Note
481. false appearances … conversation: i.e. the temptations of temporary happiness or fulfilment in social interaction generally, but probably sexual intercourse specifically (see OED, 'conversation' 3); cf. above, ll. 413–14.
Critical Apparatus
486 Job 40.19.] 40.14. F50
Editor’s Note
486. [marg.] Job 40.19.: F50's marginal reference to Job 40: 14 refers to the Vulg. numbering (see tn); D goes on to quote Vulg.
Editor’s Note
486. S. Hierome: i.e. Vulg.
Editor’s Note
486. Principium: Lat., 'the beginning'.
Critical Apparatus
487 the] that F50
over the] over all the F50
Editor’s Note
487. Initium viarum: Lat., 'the beginning', 'the commencement'; literally 'the beginning of the ways––the translation supplied by many of the Fathers quoting this passage; see also Francisco García del Valle, Evangelicus Concionator (Lyon, 1622), B3v.
Editor’s Note
487. went the progresse: God is here imagined as a monarch going on progress through his realm.
Editor’s Note
488–9. set … Behemoth: cf. marg. to VG; Gregory, Moralium Libri, sive Expositio in Librum B. Job, 32. 23 (PL 76. 664C–D).
Critical Apparatus
489 He. All] he, all F50
Critical Apparatus
490 God: but] God. But F50
Editor’s Note
491. the vespers … Sabbath: the eve of a Sunday or festival (OED, 'vesper' II.5.b); specifically, 'the sixth of the Canonical Hours of the breviary, said or celebrated towards evening' (6.a); because the creation of man was God's last act on the sixth day, before the 'sabbath' of the seventh, on which he rested (Gen. 2: 2–3).
Critical Apparatus
492 vestigia, sayes the School. In] Vestigia, (says the School) in F50
Editor’s Note
492–3. Behemoth … the School: D closely follows Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2C1v: 'et tamen dicuntur habere vestigium Dei, sic enim in Scholis loquuntur Theologi' ('and nevertheless they are said to have a vestige of God, as indeed the theologians of the School speak'). 'Vestigia', Lat., 'signs'. See also Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, i. 72: 'in cæteris creaturis non est imago, sed quoddam quasi vestigium Dei' ('in the other creatures is not the image, but rather, as it were, in a certain manner the sign of God').
Editor’s Note
494. filiationem vestigii: Hanneke Wilson (pers. comm.) writes: 'filiatio is the technical theological term meaning "our becoming the children of God" or, when applied to the Trinity, the relationship between the Father and the Son. Donne would seem to be unaware of its meaning and uses it as if it meant "evidence" or "imprint", so filiationem vestigii is intended to mean "imprint (or evidence) of his footstep" but the Latin is in fact nonsense.' See l. 495–6 cmt below.
Editor’s Note
494–5. a testimonie … there: D summarizes the doctrine of the Book of Nature, or of Creatures, whereby all living things were conceived to demonstrate the existence of God and His part in their creation. See further D, ED, 9–10.
Critical Apparatus
495 there: but] there. But F50
Editor’s Note
495–6. filiationem imaginis: cf. l. 494 cmt above: D appears to mean, in his own phrasing, 'an expression of [God's] image', but as Wilson (pers. comm.) writes, 'strictly speaking the phrase is meaningless'.
Editor’s Note
496. doth the office: performs the function.
Editor’s Note
497–8. Gods abridgement … man: the commonplace notion of man as a microcosm, embodying the whole world in himself. Here the image is of man as a text; see next cmt.
Critical Apparatus
498 man; reabridge] man. Reabridge F50
Editor’s Note
498. reabridge: rare: D's usage here is the first cited in OED, and I have found no others in the period.
Editor’s Note
498. his least volume: his smallest volume, his most basic form (in contrast to his status in grace or glory).
Editor’s Note
499. in pura naturalia: Lat., 'the purely natural [things]'. A scholastic term for those qualities which are essential to human nature per se, as opposed to the dona gratiæ superadded thereto. D glances at a major theological controversy here over the extent to which the capacity for justification, and (appropriately for his sermon) the image of God, inheres in man after the Fall, discussed by Scotus and Aquinas (in ST, Ia q. 95 a. 9) and pursued by RC theologians of his day; see e.g. Bellarmine, De Controversiis Christianæ Fidei, iii (Ingolstadt, 1593), C5r ff.; Domingo de Soto, Ad Sanctum Concilium Tridentinum de Natura & Gratia (Paris, 1549).
Critical Apparatus
501 He hath] Pater in Intellectu. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
501. He hath it: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Pater in Intellectu' (Lat., 'the Father in the intellect'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
501–2. as God … entire: the indivisibility of God and of the soul were commonly accepted doctrines. See e.g. Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 11 a. 4; Augustine, De Quantitate Animae (PL 32). See Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A3v–2A4r, citing Augustine, De Quantitate Animae. D's use of 'impartibly' (a synonym for 'indivisibly') is the first cited by OED.
Critical Apparatus
502 entire. And] intire) and F50
Critical Apparatus
503 Trinitie: for] Trinity. For F50
are there] there are F50
Editor’s Note
503–4. as there … man: the analogy between the three persons of the Trinity and the three faculties of the soul (memory, will, and understanding (or intellect)) was most famously articulated by Augustine, De Trinitate, 10 (PL 42. 971–82), and commonly used by the commentators on Genesis; see e.g. Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, Z3r; 2A4r–v; Vielmi, De Sex Diebus Conditi Orbis, V1r ff.; marg. to VG; Calvin, A Commentarie … vpon the first booke of Moses called Genesis, C6r.
Editor’s Note
504. attributes: inherent qualities (OED, 'attribute', n. 4).
Critical Apparatus
505 specification] F50; speculation Q6
in] of F50
Editor’s Note
505–6. power … holy Ghost: the attribution of these qualities to the three persons of the Trinity was commonplace: see Article 1 of the Thirty-Nine Articles. For one source see Lombard, Sent., I d. 34 c. 3–4. Cf. D, 'The Litanie', ll. 32–3; PS viii.1.827–9 (20 May 1627).
Critical Apparatus
507 three: the] three. The F50
Critical Apparatus
508 Power; for] Power. For F50
exercises] can exercise F50
Critical Apparatus
509 governs: and] governes. And F50
Editor’s Note
509. dispositions: natural tendencies (OED, III.6).
Editor’s Note
511–12. he named … thereof: cf. Gen. 2: 19.
Critical Apparatus
512 thereof: and] thereof. And F50
Critical Apparatus
514 natæ] nata F50
Editor’s Note
514. Obliviscuntur quod natæ: Ambrose, Hexaemeron Libri Sex, 6. 6. 36 (PL 14. 255B). The quotations following, ll. 515, 517, 517–18, and 522, are from the same passage. D may have taken this directly from Lapide, Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram, where it is quoted at length (i. 72).
Critical Apparatus
515 born to;] borne to. F50
Critical Apparatus
516 enjoyn them & appoint them:] enjoine them, and appoint to them. F50
Editor’s Note
516. enjoyn: impose on (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
521 lion, the horn of the bull] Lion, in the horne of the Bull F50
Editor’s Note
521. stand: 'remain stedfast' (OED, I.9.b); also to take up a defensive position (OED, 10).
Critical Apparatus
522 horse; and, Adjuvantur ut infirmi,] Horse. And adjuvantur ut infirmi; F50
Critical Apparatus
523 beholding] beholden F50
Editor’s Note
523. beholding: dependent (OED, ppl. a. 1).
Critical Apparatus
524 them rest] them any rest F50
Critical Apparatus
526 So then] paragraph break [marg.:] Filius in Voluntate F50
Editor’s Note
526. So then: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Filius in Voluntate' (Lat., 'the Son in the will'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
527 Father, Power.] Father, Power: F50
Critical Apparatus
528 And] no paragraph break F50
Critical Apparatus
531 go] goes F50
Editor’s Note
531. legend: story, history, account (OED, 3).
Critical Apparatus
532 that. That] that, that F50
Critical Apparatus
533 choosing or assenting] choosing in Assenting F50
Critical Apparatus
534 And then] no paragraph break [marg.:] Spiritus in Memoria. F50
Editor’s Note
534. And then: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Spiritus in Memoria' (Lat., 'the Spirit in the memory'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
537. crown: bless or endow (OED, v.1 I.11).
Critical Apparatus
539 John 14.26.] Ioh. 14.20. F50
wise man] wiseman F50
Editor’s Note
539. The wise man: i.e. the author of Ecclus. (Jesus the Son of Sirach); see below, ll. 541–2.
Critical Apparatus
541 Ecclus] Eccles. F50
Editor’s Note
543. Visus … recurrit: cf. Augustine, Sermo CXII, 6. 7 (PL 38. 646–7).
Critical Apparatus
544 S. Augustine: as] Saint Augustine. As F50
Editor’s Note
545. Gustate … the Lord: see Ps. 33: 8 (AV; Vulg. 33: 9); Luke 24: 39. Cf. PS vi.11.468–71 (4 Mar. 1625); vii.13.780–2 (?2 Feb. 1627). See Augustine, Confessions, 10. 25. 54 (PL 32. 802): 'Ad oculos enim proprie videre pertinet. Utimur autem hoc verbo etiam in caeteris sensibus, cum eos ad cognoscendum intendimus' ('Seeing is the property of our eyes. But we also use this word in other senses, when we apply the power of vision to knowledge generally'). In PS vi.11 D erroneously refers to Augustine, De Moribus Ecclesiae Catholicae as his source for this passage.
Editor’s Note
549–50. countenance … proportion: appearance and size or figure. D flatters his royal auditor, but also makes a commonplace point that to resemble the king was a mark of dignity.
Critical Apparatus
552 aspect: with] aspect. With F50
Editor’s Note
552. vulgar … aspect: undistinguished and ordinary appearance.
Editor’s Note
552–3. power (the Magistrate): because the magistrate executes justice.
Editor’s Note
553. wisdome (the Councel): because the council exercises wisdom in debating and in advising the monarch, and thus forming policy.
Editor’s Note
553–4. goodnesse (the Clergie): because the clergy administer the good news of the Gospel to the people, and are subject to the monarch as the supreme governor of the church.
Critical Apparatus
554 too; there] too. There F50
Critical Apparatus
556 kings; and] Kings. And F50
Critical Apparatus
557 faculties, emulate] faculties. Æmulate F50
Editor’s Note
558. outgone: surpassed, outdone (OED, 'outgo' v. 3).
Critical Apparatus
560 salvation: for] salvation. For F50
Editor’s Note
560. serviceable: 'ready to do service' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
560. auxiliarie & subsidiarie: affording aid; serving to help or assist. D makes the theological point that it is man's natural faculties that are auxiliary to salvation, not grace (glancing at the Pelagian notion of auxiliary grace, which argued that salvation could be achieved through will, with the assistance of grace). His larger argument here is that the natural man, before the operation of grace, can have some access to it.
Editor’s Note
562. susceptible of: capable of receiving (OED, A.1).
Critical Apparatus
566 This] In Gratia. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
566. This then: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'In Gratia' (Lat., 'in grace'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
570 Church: for] Church. For F50
Editor’s Note
571–2. Origen … and others: these authorities are cited by Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, Z3r; 2A1v.
Editor’s Note
576. those expressions … impression: those outward manifestations of this inward sign or seal. Note D's use of paranomasia.
Editor’s Note
578. sonnes of God: cf. John. 1: 12; Rom. 8: 14; 1 John. 3: 1–2.
Editor’s Note
578. seed of God: cf. Rom. 9: 8; 1 John. 3: 9.
Editor’s Note
578–9. off-spring of God: Acts 17: 29.
Editor’s Note
579. partakers … divine nature: cf. 2 Pet. 1: 4.
Editor’s Note
580. exaltations: elevations in dignity (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
581 Sicut Deus] Orat. de Assumpt. Mariæ. [marg.] F50
sayes] Q61, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11; sayes Q65, 9 (slipped type)
Editor’s Note
581. Sicut Deus … Deus: cf. John of Damascus, De B. Mariæ Assumptione Oratio II, in Sancti Ioannis Damasceni Opera … , 2V6v. Note the additional marg. comment in F50 supplying the source of this quotation; see tn.
Critical Apparatus
582 Damescen; I, taking] Damascen. I, taken F50
Editor’s Note
583. Sicut verbum … verbum: cf. Nazianzus, Oratio XXIX, 19 (PG 36. 99A).
Editor’s Note
584. wrought: worked, shaped, or moulded.
Editor’s Note
586–7. Deiformem hominem: in fact a notion found in ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite, De Divinis Nominibus, 12 (PG 3. 970–1), and repeated by Bonaventure, Breviloquium. The only source I have located which attributes it to Cyril is Francesco Visdomini, Homiliæ (Venice, 1576), 2M1v.
Critical Apparatus
589 Altissimis] Altissimo F50
Editor’s Note
589. greatest trespasse … trespasser: greatest sin … greatest sinner.
Editor’s Note
589. Similis ero Altissimis: D slightly rephrases Vulg.
Editor’s Note
591. conform: 'make oneself like or in harmony with (a pattern or example); to bring oneself into conformity' (OED, 3).
Critical Apparatus
594 Phil. 2.6, 7.] Phil. 2.5. F50
Critical Apparatus
602 Father] Pater. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
602. The attribute: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Pater' (Lat., 'Father'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
604 me: first] me. First F50
Editor’s Note
604. accrues: comes by way of addition or increase (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
604–5. Possum judicare: Lat., 'I can judge'. D adjusts Vulg., 'qui possit iudicare'.
Editor’s Note
605. judiciarie: 'forming a judgement or opinion, discerning' (OED, 3). D's usage in this sense is the first recorded by OED.
Editor’s Note
605. discretive: 'serving to distinguish or discriminate' (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
607 conversation, & a temptation] ed.; conversion, & a temptation Q6; conversation and a tentation F50
Editor’s Note
607. an ordinarie … conversation: a commonplace opportunity for sexual intimacy; cf. above, l. 481 cmt.
Critical Apparatus
608 Satan:] ~. F50
judicare. And then,] judicare, and then F50
Editor’s Note
608. Possum resistere: Lat., 'I can resist'. D adjusts Vulg., 'possistis resistere'.
Critical Apparatus
609 power: when] power. When F50
it. And] it: and F50
Editor’s Note
610. Possum stare: cf. Eph. 6: 13 (Vulg.).
Critical Apparatus
611 end. And then,] end; And then F50
Editor’s Note
611. Possum capere: Lat., 'I can receive'. D adjusts Vulg., 'qui potest capere capiat'.
Critical Apparatus
612 He that is able to receive it, let him receive it:] Let him, that is able to receive it, receive it, F50
Editor’s Note
613. continencie: 'self-restraint, temperance' (OED, I.1); perhaps hinting at OED, I.2, 'spec. in reference to sexual indulgence'.
Critical Apparatus
615 Matt. 20.22.] 20.22. F50
Editor’s Note
615. Possum bibere calicem: Lat., 'I can drink from the cup'. D adjusts Vulg., 'potestis bibere calicem' ('Are ye able to drinke of the cup').
Editor’s Note
617–18. In Christo … possum: cf. Phil. 4: 13 (Vulg.), 'omnia possum in eo qui me confortat' ('I can do all things through Christ, which strengtheneth me').
Editor’s Note
618. want: lack.
Editor’s Note
619. abound: be rich or wealthy; prosper; have a plentiful supply or stock of something (OED, v.1 2).
Editor’s Note
620. Non possum peccare: Lat., 'I cannot sin'. D adjusts Vulg., 'omnis qui natus ex Deo peccatum non facit' ('Whosoeuer is borne of God, doth not commit sinne').
Editor’s Note
621. impotence: lack of power. Note D's paradox, that apparent total lack of power signifies complete power or almightiness ('omnipotence').
Editor’s Note
622. not … death: because, D argues, any sin committed can be effectually repented, and temptation to another sin resisted. This is a statement in brief of his moderate Calvinist (some might say Arminian) position that a sinner who repents can still be saved; it resists strict Calvinist theories of predestination to salvation and damnation and replaces it with a (possibly hypothetical) universalist theory of salvation. See further Introduction.
Critical Apparatus
627 The] Filius. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
627. The image: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Filius' (Lat., 'the Son'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
629 next: for] next. For, F50
Critical Apparatus
630 grows: first] growes. First F50
I know whom I have beleeved;] I know whom I have beleeved in: F50
Editor’s Note
630. Scio cui credidi: Vulg.
Editor’s Note
630. I know … beleeved: F50's addition of 'in' makes it a less accurate quotation of AV; see tn.
Editor’s Note
631. mislayed: placed or set wrongly (OED, 1); the literal sense in this usage relating to the image of a foundation-stone.
Editor’s Note
631–2. Scio non moriturum: cf. John. 11: 26 (Vulg.): 'omnis qui vivit et credit in me non morietur in aeternum' ('whosoeuer liueth, and beleeueth in mee, shall neuer die').
Critical Apparatus
633 Rom. 8.27.] 8.27 F50
Editor’s Note
633. Scio … spiritus: cf. Vulg., 'qui autem scrutatur corda scit quid desideret Spiritus' ('he that searcheth the hearts, knoweth what is the minde of the spirit').
Editor’s Note
634. transported: carried away (OED, 2).
Editor’s Note
635. singularities … spirits: 'individual departure from common ideas or practice' (OED, 'singularity' II.9.a) through inspirations believed to come from special or individual spirits. D stresses the importance of the Holy Spirit as delivering the same message to all Christians and warns against private inspiration: a common part of his emphasis on the church as a public institution and the dangers of private interpretation of Scripture.
Critical Apparatus
636 Omniscience.] omniscience, F50
Editor’s Note
636–8. Scimus quia … knowledge: Vulg., followed by AV.
Editor’s Note
638. Jesum crucifixum: D compresses the phrasing in Vulg.
Critical Apparatus
639 1 Cor. 2.2.] 2.2. F50
I determined … then ] I determine not to know any thing, save Jesus Christ, and him Crucified; and then, F50
Editor’s Note
640. proceed … degrees: synonyms, referring to the taking of academic degrees. To 'proceed' is to advance to a first, or a higher, university degree (OED, 'proceed', v. 7.a).
Critical Apparatus
641 1 Cor. 1.21.] 1.21. F50
Editor’s Note
641–3. stultitia prædicandi … beleeve: a slight adjustment in case of the phrase from Vulg. is followed by an exact quotation from AV.
Editor’s Note
645. ordinance of preaching: 'ordinance' = 'a practice or usage authoritatively enjoined or prescribed; esp. a religious or ceremonial observance' (OED, I.4.a). A very common phrase to describe preaching.
Critical Apparatus
647 And] Spiritus Sanctus. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
647. And then: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Spiritus Sanctus' (Lat., 'the Holy Spirit'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
650–1. Omnia cooperantur … good: note that D continues from his citation of Rom. 8: 27 in l. 633 above.
Editor’s Note
656–7. Vertit … unto good: D slightly adjusts the phrasing in Vulg. and slightly compresses AV.
Editor’s Note
658. transmutation: transformation; specifically, the alchemical 'conversion of one element or substance into another, esp. of a baser metal into gold or silver' (OED, 3.a).
Editor’s Note
659–60. There … doth it : cf. AV, 'shall there be euill in a citie, and the Lord hath not done it?'.
Editor’s Note
660–1. bona Dei: D adjusts Vulg. phrasing ('bona Domini', Vulg. Ps. 26: 13) and then quotes AV accurately.
Editor’s Note
662. signum … of good: Cf. Ps. 85: 17.
Editor’s Note
663. infallibilitie: 'unfailing certainty' (OED, 2).
Critical Apparatus
664 me: and] me. And F50
Critical Apparatus
669 profession.] ~: F50
Editor’s Note
669. Christian profession: faith; state of being a Christian (see OED, 'profession' I.4.a).
Editor’s Note
671. militant: 'the Church on earth considered as warring against the powers of evil' (OED, 'church' II.4.b).
Critical Apparatus
674 There] In gloria Deus. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
674. There we: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'In gloria Deus' (Lat., 'in glory God'); see tn.
Editor’s Note
674–7. if Origen … himself: Origen, the Alexandrian theologian (d. c.254), strongly influenced by Platonism, speculated that in order to achieve any final victory over evil (and in contradistinction to later assertions of the total corruption of mind as well as body by sin) all thinking beings, including devils and even Satan, would eventually, in some degree, be reconciled to God: see Origen, De Principiis / Peri Archon (On First Principles), 3. 6. 2–9. His argument was notorious: Jerome, in Apologia adversus Libros Rufini (PL 23. 395–492A), responds to it and claims that Origen himself denied it, and Origen's ideas were condemned in the post-Nicene church, not least by Augustine. For the Reformation's extension of Augustinian contempt for Origen, see Diarmaid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided (2003), 113–14. See also PS iv.11.559–61; v.3.349–53; vii.8.76–80.
Editor’s Note
678. association: combining together.
Editor’s Note
679. assimilation: becoming like. See Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, 2A1v, who quotes Basil: 'Christianismus quid est? Assimilatio Dei' ('What is Christianity? An assimilation to God').
Editor’s Note
679–80. an identification … so: D alludes to the notion of deification, a Christianized version of a Platonic concept, which Duns Scotus derived from Dionysius the Areopagite. Scotus refers to it in his Commentarius in Evangelium Johannes and De Divisione Naturae. For a more tempered discussion see Aquinas, ST, Ia q. 13 a. 9.
Critical Apparatus
680 glorie! Whereas] glory. Where as F50
Editor’s Note
680–1. Whereas … it self: cf. Pererius, Commentariorum et Disputationum in Genesim, who uses the example of 'cœlestes globos & astra' (2B1r).
Editor’s Note
684–5. spirit of darknesse: not merely nothing ('a clod of earth'), but positively malign, and damned.
Editor’s Note
685. angel of light: cf. 2 Cor. 11: 14.
Editor’s Note
685. starre of glorie: cf. 1 Cor. 15: 41.
Editor’s Note
687–8. he that … yeare: the answer of Simonides to Hiero of Syracuse, according to Cicero, De Natura Deorum, 1. 22. Widely known, and cited by e.g. Calvin, Institutes, 1. 5. 12; Francis Bacon, Apophthegms, in Works, ed. James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis, and Douglas Denon Heath, 7 vols. (1859–64), vii. 158.
Editor’s Note
688–9. undeterminable: unending (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
693–4. though I … God: though I shall not be immortal in the same way that God is (because He was before all time and uncreated), I shall be as immortal as He is (because I shall have eternal life).
Critical Apparatus
695 glorie] ed.; grace Q6; Glory F50
Editor’s Note
695. glorie: I have adopted Q6's usual spelling of 'glorie' in amending its obviously erroneous 'grace' (a scribe's or compositor's oversight); F50's 'Glory' is correct but uses the terminal 'y' common in that text; see tn.
Critical Apparatus
696 I shall] Pater. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
696. I shall: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Pater' (Lat., 'the Father'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
699 Wisdome] Filius. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
699. So Wisdome: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Filius' (Lat., 'the Son'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
700 the spirituall] then spirituall F50
Editor’s Note
701–2. go … our end;: to travel towards and contemplate death, as an exercise of piety.
Editor’s Note
702. rest … our end: stop and take rest in our everlasting state of glorification.
Editor’s Note
702. seek … by God: attempt to live a godly life and to receive grace from God.
Critical Apparatus
703 holy Ghost] Spiritus Sanctus. [marg.] F50
Editor’s Note
703. The image: note the additional marg. comment in F50, indicating a division in D's argument: 'Spiritus Sanctus' (Lat., 'the Holy Spirit'); see tn.
Critical Apparatus
704 Goodnesse. Here] Goodnesse, here F50
Editor’s Note
705. scruples: doubts (OED, n.2 1).
Editor’s Note
705. good works … praise: i.e. the works are done with the hope of praise and not purely through virtue.
Critical Apparatus
706 fear of worse: there] feare of worse. There F50
Editor’s Note
706. sincere: pure (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
706. impermixt: unmixed. D's usage is the first cited by OED, but this is predated by, inter alia, Thomas Twyne, The Schoolemaster, or Teacher of Table Philosophie (1576), STC 24411, M2r.
Editor’s Note
707. intemerate: 'inviolate, undefiled, unblemished' (OED).
Editor’s Note
707. indeterminate: undetermined; not able to be limited (cf. OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
707. ill accident: evil occurence, but more technically, evil incident not essentially part of its substance (cf. OED, 'accident' n. II.6.a).
Editor’s Note
708. annoy: 'molest, injure, hurt, harm' (OED, 4).
Editor’s Note
708. impertinent: intrusive, insolent (OED, 5).
Editor’s Note
708. importune: troublesome, vexatious (OED, 2).
Editor’s Note
711. establish: render stable; confirm (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
713. infallibilitie: 'unfailing certainty' (OED, 2); cf. l. 663 above.
Editor’s Note
714–16. the Cabalists … equall: Judaic Kabbalah (or the mystical interpretation of the Hebrew Bible), here specifically gematria, or the assigning of numerical value to Hebrew letters. The names 'ADAM' and 'JEHOVAH' are deemed equal because the latter is considered as the Tetragrammaton, or Hebrew name of God, יהוה‎ (YHWH), which when spelled out (yod–he– waw–he) has the same value as 'Adam', אָדָם‎ (aleph–dalet–mem). The argument is reported by Marin Mersenne, Quæstiones Celeberrimæ in Genesim (Paris, 1623), 2X4v: 'hinc Cabalistæ aiunt eundem numerum in אומ‎, ac in tetragrammato יהוה‎ contineri, si nimirum nomina litterarum in sua integra perfectione capias, id est … iod, hé, vau, hém quæ faciunt 45, sicut & Adam אדמ‎' ('here the Kabbalists say that the same number is contained in אומ‎ as in the tetragrammaton, יהוה‎, if undoubtedly you take the names of the letters in their undivided perfection, that is to say … iod, hé, vau, hém, which make 45, just as Adam, אדמ‎, also does' (trans. Hanneke Wilson)). On the Tetragrammaton see also D, ED, 13–28 and Raspa's cmt at p. 139.
Critical Apparatus
716 are equall:] are alike, and equall, F50
Editor’s Note
717–18. if there … worlds: D refers to the debate on the possible existence of a plurality of worlds, which originated with the ancient Greek atomists and was revived by Nicholas of Cusa (1401–64), followed by Giordano Bruno (1548–1600) and Tommaso Campanella (1568–1634). Nicholas Hill incorporated many of Bruno's arguments in his Philosophia Epicurea, Democritiana, Theophrastica (Paris, 1601). D owned what had been Ben Jonson's copy of Hill's book (Keynes L102), and refers to him in CL, 30. Cf. Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 21–3.
Critical Apparatus
719 are made] are thus made F50
Critical Apparatus
720 one of] of F50
Critical Apparatus
721 worlds.] ~; F50
Editor’s Note
721–2. the angels … bodie: because they do not have bodies as humans do which can be glorified. On angelic substance see Aquinas, ST, Ia qq. 51–3.
Critical Apparatus
723 The] no paragraph break F50
noblenesse and religious] noblenesse, and the religious F50
Editor’s Note
723. holy noblenesse … ambition: D wishes to 'imprint' in his congregation holy or religious versions of the qualities that pertain to the court: nobility and ambition.
Editor’s Note
725. missing: fail to achieve (OED, v.1 I.4).
Editor’s Note
730. musters: assembles in readiness for action, specifically in a military sense (OED, v.1 2.a, c).
Editor’s Note
731–2. those foure … plurall: cf. Sermon 10 in this vol., ll. 376–8. The four places are Gen. 2: 18; 3: 22; 11: 7; Isa. 6: 8.
Critical Apparatus
736 Gen. 11.7.] Gen. 11. F50
Critical Apparatus
740 both: so] both. So F50
Editor’s Note
740. carries himself: behaves (OED, II.33).
Editor’s Note
745. enfeebled … forces: in our strengths, but primarily here in our military forces. See further Headnote for the relevance of this to the sermon's context.
Editor’s Note
746. enfatuated: confounded, frustrated (OED, 'infatuate' 1).
Editor’s Note
747. manners: morals; the moral code of society (cf. OED, II.4.b).
Critical Apparatus
749 beast. And] Beast: and F50
Editor’s Note
749. image … beast: cf. Rev. 13: 15. Often identified (as at l. 753 below) with Antichrist.
Critical Apparatus
753 concurrences] concurrencies F50
Editor’s Note
753. declinations: inclinations (OED, 2). Cf. l. 40.
Editor’s Note
753. concurrences: co-operations (OED, 3).
Editor’s Note
754. born … blessed: the stages of the Christian's acceptance into and life in the church.
Critical Apparatus
756 That] no paragraph break F50
Editor’s Note
756. colour: reason or excuse (OED, n.1 III.12.a and b).
Editor’s Note
760. assiduitie: frequency (OED, 3).
Critical Apparatus
761 us: for that is] us. For that's F50
Editor’s Note
761. constancie: steadfastness; fortitude (OED, 1.a; compare 2, 'fidelity').
Editor’s Note
762–4. that is … fault: D combines an admonition to his congregation, that they have all that they require to live godly lives and must not incur God's wrath by their sins, with flattery of the king and, characteristically, praise of the power of preaching. See further Headnote.
Critical Apparatus
765 FINIS.] om. F50
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