Deirdre Le Faye (ed.), Jane Austen's Letters (Fourth Edition)

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pg 482Biographical Index

Abercromby, General Sir Ralph (1734–1801). (Not 'Abercrombie' as JA wrote.) Appointed 1800 to the command of the British troops in the Mediterranean, and died 28 March 1801 of wounds received a week earlier at Alexandria.

Adams, the. Chawton villagers: presumably the Andrew Adams and Sophia Whiten who were married 1 September 1811.

Allen, Miss. Governess at Godmersham, from 27 April 1811 to 11 November 1812.

Amos, Will. Godmersham villager, buried 11 February 1819 aged 71.

Anderdon, Edmund. (Not 'Anderton' as JA wrote.) Apothecary, of 4 Queen Square, Bath.

Andrews, Farmer (1762–1816). There were several Andrews families in Chawton and the neighbouring villages; on 24 October 1809 FCK mentions in her diary that she and her aunts walked to New Park Farm (also known as Chawton Park Farm), which was the home of John Andrews and his family, and it was presumably this Farmer Andrews who was ill in 1815 and died the following year aged 54. A younger family was that of James Andrews, who married Jane Baigen(t) in 1801 and had several children. In June 1814 their latest baby, John, was probably ailing, as he was buried, aged six months, on 12 July. The Mrs Browning mentioned in the same context in JA's letter of 14 June 1814 is probably Sarah (née Andrews) the wife of James Browning, who had a daughter Elizabeth born in 1808; by the standards of the time even so young a child as this would have been considered quite suitable as a nurse-companion for a babe in arms. See J. Hurst, 'Poor Farmer Andrews!', Report for 2009 (2010), 100–2.

Anne. There are three maidservants of this name mentioned by JA: (1) 'late of Manydown', who died in childbirth 1798; (2) from Wales, with the Austens in Bath ante-1805; (3) leaving her employment in 1808 to get married.

Anning, Richard. Carpenter at Lyme Regis (d. 1810); father of Mary Anning (1799–1847), who became the first fossil hunter to excavate methodically the deposits in the Lyme Regis cliffs and so led the way towards the scientific study of fossils.

Armstrong family. Residents or visitors in Lyme Regis 1804; Miss Armstrong renews acquaintance with JA in Bath the following spring. The Bath Directory for 1801 shows a Sarah Armstrong, Lamp & Oil Warehouse, 1 Barton Street—could this be Miss Armstrong's less-than-genteel family?

Arnold family. Of St Mary's Street, Chippenham, Wilts. Tryphena (1726–1807) née Waldo, and widow 1794 of Henry Arnold, was a first cousin of Mrs GA, pg 483Mr Leigh-Perrot, and Mrs Cooke of Bookham, having a common ancestor in Theophilus Leigh of Adlestrop (q.v.). Her children were Henry, Samuel, John, Tryphena junior, Elizabeth, Cassandra, and Mary; the Miss Arnold of JA's Letter 64 must have been Tryphena junior. See Robin Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

Atkinson, the Misses. Presumably daughters of Revd Arthur Atkinson, rector of Knight's Enham with Upton Grey, Hants, 1782–1814.

Austen families. There were and are many families of the name of Austen/Austin in Kent; RAAL's Pedigree of Austen traces one line of the Austens back definitely to John Austen I of Horsmonden (?1560–1620), and this John Austen was very probably descended from the William Astyn of Yalding who died in 1522. In these notes only those Austens, or their connections, of contemporary or future relevance to the novelist and her works will be discussed in any detail; their names are shown in bold for easy identification.

By JA's time the Steventon Austens, other Austen relatives whom she mentions in her correspondence, and the Knights of Godmersham, had a common ancestor in John Austen III (1629–1705). He married Jane Atkins and had several children, of whom only John IV and Jane concern us: Jane married 1680 Stephen Stringer of Goudhurst, and from this marriage descended the Knights (q.v.). Portraits of John Austen III and his daughter Jane have recently been identified and are now in the JA House Museum at Chawton.

John Austen IV (?1665–1704) of Broadford and Horsmonden married 1693 Elizabeth Weller of Tonbridge. This couple had six sons and one daughter, of whom only the four elder sons concern us: (1) John V (1696–1728), (2) Francis (1698–1791), (3) Thomas (1699–1772), and (4) William (1701–37).

(1) John Austen V of Broadford married his cousin Mary Stringer of Goudhurst, and had one son and two daughters: John VI (1726–1807), Jane (1724–70), and Elizabeth, who married John Fermor of Sevenoaks.

(1)(a)John Austen VI of Broadford married 1759 Joanna Weeks of Sevenoaks, and had only one daughter, Mary (1760–1803), who died unmarried. John Austen VI therefore left the Broadford estate to his cousin John Austen VII, grandson of Francis Austen (see below).

(2)Francis Austen practised as a solicitor in Sevenoaks. He married (1) 1747 Anne Motley of Dulwich, who died later that year in childbirth, leaving one son, Francis-Motley Austen (1747–1815); (2) 1758 Jane Chadwick (d. 1782), widow of Samuel Lennard of West Wickham, by whom he had another two sons, Revd Sackville (1759–86) and Captain John (1761–1831). Francis Austen assumed responsibility for the upbringing of his brother William's children, following the latter's early death; his second wife was one of JA's godmothers.

(2)(a) Francis-Motley Austen married 1772 Elizabeth (d. 1817), daughter of Sir Thomas Wilson of West Wickham, purchased the Kippington estate on the outskirts of Sevenoaks, and had eleven children: Francis-Lucius (1773–1815), Thomas (1775–1859), Jane (1776–1857), John VII (1777–1851) who inherited pg 484Broadford, Henry (1779–1850), Elizabeth (1780–1858), Marianne (1781–96), George-Lennard (1782–1844), Frances ('Fanny') (1783–1858), Edward (1785–1815), William (1787–1854).

Of these eleven children, Francis-Lucius married 7 Feb. 1805 Penelope Cholmeley (q.v., a kinswoman of Mrs Leigh-Perrot), but had a mental breakdown and died insane in 1815, predeceasing his father and leaving only two young daughters. The entailed Kippington estate therefore passed to his next brother Colonel Thomas Austen, who had been abroad for many years on Army service; he resigned his commission and returned to Kent in 1817 following his mother's death that year, but despite two marriages (1803 Margaretta Morland (d. 1825), and 1826 Caroline Manning) he died childless and Kippington passed to his nephew John-Francis Austen (1817–93) eldest son of John Austen VII. Henry became a Lt-Col, married but no issue; George-Lennard joined the family law firm, married but no issue; Edward was the black sheep of the family, and died young. William married 1814 his cousin Elizabeth-Matilda Harrison of Southampton (q.v.) and had two daughters.

FMA's eldest daughter Jane (an almost exact contemporary of her second cousin JA of Steventon) married 1797 William-John Campion of Danny, Sussex and had several children—her eldest daughter, Mary-Anne Campion (1797–1825) is the subject of the portrait which for some years has been claimed to represent Jane Austen of Steventon (see Le Faye, 'A Literary Portrait Re-examined: Jane Austen and Mary Anne Campion', The Book Collector, 45: 4 (Winter 1996), 508–25). Elizabeth married (1) at Woolwich 1802 Captn/Col William Skyring, RA, and had two daughters before he died in 1806; (2) in 1810 a Kentish neighbour, Christopher Cooke (1759–1833), and had another six children. Frances married 1808 Captn William Holcroft, RA; he was a valiant officer during the American War of 1812, and their first son William-Francis (1809–87) was born in Canada but returned to England; the second son, Thomas, born c.1815 in England, later settled in Canada.

(2)(b) Captn John Austen married 8 Aug. 1793 Harriet Hussey (d. 1811) of Burwash, Sussex and had one son John-Thomas (1794–1876) and one daughter Anne. This John-Thomas Austen took Holy Orders, and was rector of Aldworth, Berks., 1832–48, of West Wickham, Kent, 1848–76, and Hon Canon of Canterbury 1873–76; he married at Ryde, Isle of Wight, 28 Oct. 1834 Charlotte-Sophia Tilson (q.v.) and had one daughter, Frances-Eliza (1836–64).

Frances-Eliza Austen married Revd Dr James Cartmell, Master of Christ's College, Cambridge, and had a son James (1862–1921), who in later life added Austen- to his surname. James Austen-Cartmell recorded the family tradition that his grandparents had been introduced to each other by HTA.

(3) Thomas Austen was an apothecary at Tonbridge and married Elizabeth Burgess; they had one son Henry, known as 'Harry' (1726–1807).

(3)(a) Harry Austen was Head Boy of Tonbridge School 1743; Queens' College, Cambridge 1743, BA 1747, MA 1750, Fellow of Queens' and Fellow of pg 485Clare College 1748–60; vicar of Shipbourne 1747–54, rector of Steventon, Hants, 1759–61, rector of West Wickham, Kent, 1761–85; he married 1763 Mary Hooker of Tonbridge and had three surviving children: Elizabeth-Matilda (1766–1843), Harriet-Lennard (1768–1839), Francis-Edgar (1774–1 March 1804). Elizabeth-Matilda married John Butler Harrison II of Southampton (q.v.), and in 1814 their daughter Elizabeth-Matilda Harrison married her cousin William Austen (see above). Harriet-Lennard Austen never married, and lived with the Harrisons in Southampton.

(4) William Austen practised as a surgeon at Tonbridge. He married (1) 1727 Rebecca, daughter of Sir George Hampson, Bt (q.v.), and widow of William Walter, MD (q.v.) of Tonbridge and Gloucester. Rebecca had one son by her first marriage, William-Hampson Walter (1721–98), and four children by William Austen: Hampson (1728–30, a daughter), Philadelphia (1730–92), George (1731–1805), Leonora (1732–83). Rebecca died soon after the birth of Leonora, and William Austen married (2) 1736 Susanna Kelk of Tonbridge, who died 1768 without issue.

(4)(a) Philadelphia Austen went to India in 1752 and married Tysoe Saul Hancock, surgeon, at Cuddalore in 1753; they had one daughter Elizabeth (see below). Mr Hancock died in India 1775; Mrs Hancock, who had previously returned to Europe, spent some years in France with her daughter and then came back to London, where she died and was buried in Hampstead, NW3. See R. Vick, 'The Hancocks', Collected Reports, V. 222–6.

Elizabeth ('Eliza') Hancock (22 December 1761–25 April 1813): born in Calcutta and a god-daughter of Warren Hastings (q.v.), married (1) in France 1781 Jean Capot de Feuillide, who was guillotined in Paris 22 February 1794, and by whom she had one son Hastings de Feuillide (1786–1801), a sickly child who died young; (2) 1797 her cousin Henry-Thomas Austen (see below), but had no further issue. Buried with her mother and son in Hampstead, NW3. See JAOC for her biography in full.

(4)(b) George Austen (1 May 1731–21 January 1805): Tonbridge School 17417; St John's College, Oxford, 1747, BA 1751, MA 1754, BD 1760, Fellow 1751–60; ordained 1754; perpetual curate 1754–7 of Shipbourne and Usher (Second Master) at Tonbridge School; rector of Steventon, Hants, from 1761, and of Deane, Hants, from 1773; married 26 April 1764 at Walcot, Bath, Cassandra Leigh (q.v.); retired to Bath 1801 and died there 1805; buried at Walcot. See B. C. Southam, 'George Austen: Pupil, Usher and Proctor', Collected Reports, V. 289–94. For early correspondence of Mr and Mrs GA, see Le Faye, 'Austen Papers 1704–1856: An Updating', Report for 2009 (2010), 20–32.

After her husband's death Mrs GA lived in Southampton 1806–9 and in Chawton thereafter; died 17 January 1827 and buried at Chawton.

George and Cassandra Austen had six sons and two daughters: James (1765), George (1766), Edward (1767), Henry-Thomas (1771), Cassandra-Elizabeth (1773), Francis-William (1774), Jane (1775), Charles-John (1779).

pg 486(1) James Austen, born Deane 13 February 1765; scholar and Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, 1779; MA 1788; curate of Stoke Charity, Hants, 1788, and of Overton, Hants, 1790; vicar of Sherborne St John, Hants, 1791; curate of Deane 1792; vicar of Cubbington, Warwicks., 1792 and perpetual curate of Hunningham, Warwicks., 1805; curate of Steventon 1801, then rector 1805–19; died 13 December 1819 and buried at Steventon. He married (1) 27 March 1792 at Laverstoke, Hants, Anne Mathew (d. 3 May 1795, q.v.), and had one daughter; (2) 17 January 1797 at Hurstbourne Tarrant, Hants, Mary Lloyd (d. 3 August 1843, q.v.), and had one son and one daughter.

For specific points about James's biography, see Le Faye, 'James Austen, Army Chaplain', Collected Reports, IV. 338–41; D. Selwyn, 'James Austen—Artist', Collected Reports, V. 158–64; id., 'A Portrait of James Austen', Report for 2006 (2007), 77–8, 84.

James's children were: Jane-Anna-Elizabeth (1793, known as 'Anna'), by his first marriage; James-Edward (1798) and Caroline-Mary-Craven (1805) by his second. (For details of this generation see below.)

(2) George Austen, born Deane 26 August 1766; epileptic from childhood and possibly deaf and dumb, he was never able to take his place in the family circle, and is not mentioned in Jane's letters. He was boarded out locally with the Cullum or Culham family at Monk Sherborne, under the supervision of first his parents and later his brothers; died 17 January 1838 and buried at Monk Sherborne. See J. Hurst, 'Poor George Austen?', Collected Reports, VI. 348–51.

(3) Edward Austen, born Deane 7 October 1767; adopted 1783 by his distant cousin, Thomas Knight II (q.v.) of Godmersham, and from him inherited three estates—Steventon and Chawton in Hampshire, Godmersham in Kent; went on the Grand Tour 1786–90; married 27 December 1791 Elizabeth Bridges (d. 10 October 1808, q.v.) and lived first at Rowling, near Goodnestone, Kent; moved to Godmersham 1797; six sons and five daughters; following his wife's death spent more time at Chawton, and provided a house in that village for his mother and sisters; took the name of 'Knight' officially in 1812; died 19 November 1852 and buried at Godmersham. See J. Spence, Jane Austen's Brother Abroad: The Grand Tour Journals of Edward Austen.

Edward's children were: Fanny-Catherine (1793), Edward (1794), George-Thomas (1795), Henry (1797), William (1798), Elizabeth ('Lizzy') (1800), Marianne (1801), Charles-Bridges (1803), Louisa (1804), Cassandra-Jane (1806), and Brook-John (1808). (For details of this generation see below.)

(4) Henry-Thomas Austen, born Steventon 8 June 1771; scholar and Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, 1788; MA 1796; joined the Oxfordshire Militia as a lieutenant 1793, captain and adjutant 1797; army agent and banker 1801; Receiver-General for Oxfordshire 1813; bankrupt March 1816; took Holy Orders and became curate of Chawton 1816; chaplain to the British Embassy in Berlin 1818 and delivered a series of Lectures upon … the Book of Genesis; when these were published in 1820 HTA described himself on the title-page as being Domestic pg 487Chaplain to HRH the Duke of Cumberland and also Domestic Chaplain to the Earl of Morley; rector of Steventon 1820–2; curate of Farnham, Surrey, 1822–7, and Master of the Grammar School there 1823–7; perpetual curate of Bentley, Hants, 1824–39; then lived in Colchester, Essex and Tunbridge Wells, Kent; died 12 March 1850 and buried at Tunbridge Wells.

HTA married (1) 31 December 1797 at St Marylebone, London his cousin Eliza de Feuillide (see above); (2) 11 April 1820 at Chelsea Eleanor Jackson (d. 3 May 1864, q.v.), but had no children by either marriage.

HTA's London banking partnership began as Austen, Maunde & Austen (when FWA was initially associated with him), and later became Austen, Maunde & Tilson. The bank premises were in Cleveland Court, St James, 1801–4, then at 1 The Courtyard, Albany, Piccadilly, 1804–7, and finally at 10 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 1807–16. HTA had other branch partnerships in the country: Austen, Gray & Vincent at 10 High Street, Alton, Hants, 1806-11, and also Austen, Louch & Co., of the same address, c.1814–15; Austen, Vincent & Clement in The Square, Petersfield, Hants (this changed later to Austen, Blunt & Clement, and changed again to Austen, Blunt & Louch), 1810–14; Austen & Louch in Hythe, Kent, 1810–14. His partners were Henry Maunde and James Tilson in London, and William Blunt, Henry Clement, Edward-William Gray, William-Stevens Louch and William Vincent in the provinces.

Apart from his business addresses, in London HTA lived at 24 Upper Berkeley Street, Portman Square, 1801–4; 16 Michael's Place, Brompton, 1804–9; 64 Sloane Street, Chelsea, 1809–13; 10 Henrietta Street 1813–14; 23 Hans Place, Chelsea, 1814–16.

HTA was instrumental in getting his sister Jane's novels published, and was the first person to provide any biographical information about her, in the form of his introduction to the posthumous publication of Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, 1817/18.

For particular aspects of HTA's biography, see D. Kaplan, 'Henry Austen and John Rawston Papillon', Collected Reports, IV. 60–4; C. Caplan, 'Jane Austen's Soldier Brother', Persuasions, 18 (1996), 122–43; J. Hurst, 'Being a Hampshire Man', Collected Reports, V. 135–8; T. A. B. Corley, 'Jane Austen and her Brother Henry's Bank Failure 1815–16', Collected Reports, V. 139–50; C. Caplan, 'Jane Austen's Banker Brother: Henry Thomas Austen of Austen & Co.', Persuasions, 20 (1998), 69–92; id., 'Austen & Co. and the Mary Anne Clarke Scandal of 1809', Collected Reports, VI. 219–24; id., 'Henry Austen's Buxton Bank', Collected Reports, VI. 328–30; id., 'Lord Moira's Debt and Henry Austen's Appeal', Collected Reports, VI. 447–60; D. J. Gilson, 'Henry Austen, Banker', Report for 2006 (2007), 43–6; C. Caplan, 'We suppose the Trial is to take place this week', Report for 2008 (2009), 152–9.

(5) Cassandra-Elizabeth Austen, born Steventon 9 January 1773; educated Abbey House School, Reading, 1785–6; 1792 engaged to Revd Tom Fowle (q.v.) of Kintbury, but following his death in the West Indies in 1797 remained single; pg 488lived at Steventon till 1801; at Bath 1801–6; at Southampton 1806–9; at Chawton thereafter; died 22 March 1845 while on a visit to FWA at Portsdown, but buried at Chawton.

CEA was Jane's heiress and executrix, and was responsible for the preservation and subsequent distribution to her brothers, nephews, and nieces of Jane's letters, manuscripts, and memorabilia.

(6) Francis-William ('Frank') Austen, born Steventon 23 April 1774; educated Royal Naval Academy, Portsmouth, 1786–8; midshipman 1791, Lieutenant 1792, Commander 1798, Post-Captain 1800; commanding North Foreland unit of Sea Fencibles, Ramsgate, Kent, 1803; on active service again 1804–15; Rear-Admiral 1830, KCB 1837, Vice-Admiral 1838, Admiral 1848 and CinC the North America and West India Station, Admiral of the Fleet 1863; when on shore after the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815 lived at Chawton, Alton, and Portsdown near Portsmouth, Hants; died at Portsdown 10 August 1865, and buried at Wymering, Hants.

For details of his naval service, see William R. O'Byrne, A Naval Biographical Dictionary (London, 1849; rev. edn. 1859–61); also C. Caplan, 'The Ships of Frank Austen', Report for 2008 (2009), 74–86.

FWA married (1) 24 July 1806 Mary Gibson of Ramsgate (d. 15 July 1823, q.v.) and had by her six sons and five daughters; (2) 24 July 1828 Martha Lloyd (d. 24 January 1843, q.v.) but had no further issue.

Some of Jane's letters and memorabilia were preserved by Frank and descended in his family, and later in the nineteenth century he also gave away other letters to autograph collectors.

Frank's children were: Mary-Jane (1807), Francis-William (1809), Henry-Edgar (1811), George (1812), Cassandra-Eliza (1814), Herbert-Grey (1815), Elizabeth (1817), Catherine-Anne (1818), Edward-Thomas (1820), Frances-Sophia (1821), and Cholmeley (1823). (For details of this generation see below.)

(7) Jane Austen, born Steventon 16 December 1775; educated Abbey House School, Reading, 1785–6; wrote the several short pieces now known as the Juvenilia 1787–93; Lady Susan ?1794; Elinor and Marianne ?1795; First Impressions 1796—rejected unseen by publisher Cadell 1797; Elinor and Marianne converted into Sense and Sensibility 1797; Susan 1798; moved to Bath 1801; Susan revised 1803, and accepted by Crosby, but never published; The Watsons ?1804 (abandoned); moved to Southampton 1806; attempted unsuccessfully to secure publication of Susan 1809; later in 1809 moved to Chawton; S&S accepted by Egerton 1810 and published 1811; First Impressions converted into Pride and Prejudice 1811–12 and published by Egerton 1813; Mansfield Park published by Egerton 1814; Emma published by John Murray 1815; HTA bought back Susan from Crosby 1816, and JA considered publication elsewhere but did not offer it again, perhaps because she was busy finishing Persuasion this year; Sanditon begun in January 1817 but left unfinished in March; died unmarried in Winchester 18 July 1817 and buried in the Cathedral.

pg 489HTA arranged publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey (the latter apparently his choice of a new title for Susan) by Murray, at the end of December 1817 (volumes actually dated 1818).

(8) Charles-John Austen, born Steventon 23 June 1779; educated Royal Naval Academy, Portsmouth, 1791–4; midshipman 1794, Lieutenant 1797, Commander 1804, Post-Captain 1810; coastguard service in Cornwall 1820–6; on active service again 1826; CB 1840; Rear-Admiral 1846, CinC of East India and China Station 1850; died of cholera 7 October 1852 while on active service in Burmese waters, and buried at Trincomalee.

For details of his naval service, see O'Byrne, A Naval Biographical Dictionary; also M. Hammond, 'Admiral Charles Austen', Collected Reports, IV. 18–20; R. Vick, 'The Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth', Collected Reports, V. 28–32; C. Viveash, 'Charles Austen under Fire', Collected Reports, VI. 476–9; S. Kindred, 'Charles Austen's Capture of the French Privateer La Jeune Estelle', Report for 2006 (2007), 50–3; C. Caplan, 'A Bogus Tale: Ellman, Charles Austen and the Aurora', Report for 2009 (2010), 11–13; also 'The Ships of Charles Austen', Report for 2009 (2010), 143–60.

CJA married (1) in Bermuda 19 May 1807 Frances-Fitzwilliam Palmer (died at Sheerness 6 September 1814, q.v.), by whom he had four daughters; (2) in London 7 August 1820 her elder sister Harriet-Ebel Palmer (died at Penzance 5 December 1867, q.v.), by whom he had three sons and one daughter.

Charles's children were: Cassandra-Esten (1808), Harriet-Jane (1810), Frances-Palmer (1812), Elizabeth (1814); by his second marriage Charles-John (1821), George (1822), Jane (1824), Henry (1826). (For details of this generation see below.)

Some of JA's letters and memorabilia were given or bequeathed by CEA to Cassandra-Esten, and from her descended to the daughters of Charles-John junior.

The grandchildren of Revd George Austen (JA's nephews and nieces) were the children of four of his sons:

James Austen's children were:

(1) Anna: born Deane 15 April 1793 and died Reading, Berks., 1 September 1872. She married at Steventon 8 November 1814 Benjamin, youngest surviving son of Revd Isaac-Peter-George Lefroy (q.v.), and had one son and six daughters.

Anna preserved some of the letters she had received from JA, and these descended to her granddaughters (see below under Lefroy). She also provided information for her brother JEAL (James-Edward Austen-Leigh) to use in his Memoir of Jane Austen (see below).

(2) James-Edward: born Deane 17 November 1798 and died Bray, Berks., 8 September 1874. Commoner of Winchester 1814–16; Exeter College, Oxford, 1816, MA 1826; ordained 1823 and curate of Newtown near Burghclere, Berks.; pg 490vicar of Bray, 1852–74. He married 16 December 1828 Emma Smith (q.v.), niece of Mrs William-John Chute (q.v.) of The Vyne, and had ten children: Cholmeley (1829–99), Emma-Cassandra (1831–1902, 'Amy'), Charles-Edward (1832–1924), Spencer (1834–1913), Arthur-Henry (1836–1917), Mary-Augusta (1838–1922), Edward-Compton (1839–1916), Augustus (1840–1905), George-Raymond (1841–2), and William (1843–1921). He became the heir of his great-aunt Mrs Leigh-Perrot, and assumed the additional surname of -Leigh in 1837; he also inherited the Leigh-Perrot house at Scarlets, Berks., which he sold in 1863.

JEAL wrote the Memoir of his aunt in 1869; his youngest son William and grandson Richard-Arthur (son of Cholmeley) collaborated in 1913 to write Jane Austen: Her Life and Letters. A Family Record; his daughter Mary-Augusta wrote Personal Aspects of JA in 1920. Some of JA's letters and other Austeniana have remained with the senior branch of the family, the descendants of JEAL's eldest son Cholmeley Austen-Leigh.

(3) Caroline-Mary-Craven: born Steventon 18 June 1805 and died unmarried Frog Firle, Alfriston, Sussex 12 November 1880. God-daughter of CEA. CMCA lived with her mother Mary Lloyd until the latter's death in 1843, and thereafter remained near her brother JEAL and assisted in looking after his large family; she spent the last twenty years of her life at Frog Firle, acting as hostess for two of his bachelor sons, Charles-Edward and Spencer.

In 1867 CMCA wrote down her memories of JA, which were used by JEAL in his Memoir; later on, she also wrote her own reminiscences, which give further information. She treasured the letters she had received from JA and gave them to her brother's children; they have now passed to a junior branch of the family, the descendants of JEAL's fourth son Arthur-Henry Austen-Leigh.

Edward Austen Knight's children (NB they were all born Austen and did not officially become Knight until 1812):

(1) Frances-Catherine (Fanny): born Rowling 23 January 1793, married as his second wife 24 October 1820 Sir Edward Knatchbull, 9th Bt (q.v.) of Mersham-le-Hatch, Kent; nine children; died Provender, Kent 24 December 1882. Their eldest son Edward (1829–93), 1880 first Lord Brabourne, edited the Letters of Jane Austen (1884) from those he found amongst his mother's possessions.

See M. Wilson, Almost Another Sister; and Le Faye, Fanny Knight's Diaries.

(2) Edward: born Rowling 10 May 1794; commoner of Winchester 1807-11; St John's College, Oxford 1811. Lived at Chawton Great House from 1826; married (1) May 1826 Mary-Dorothea Knatchbull (q.v., his sister Fanny's stepdaughter) and had seven children; (2) 3 March 1840 Adela Portal (q.v.) and had another nine children; sold Godmersham 1874; died Chawton 5 November 1879. Chawton Great House is still owned by Edward's descendants.

(3) George-Thomas: born Rowling 22 November 1795; commoner of Winchester 1809–12; St John's College, Oxford 1813; married 1837 Hilaire, Lady Nelson, but had no issue; travelled widely on the Continent; died 1867. 'He was pg 491one of those men who are clever enough to do almost anything, but live to their lives' end very comfortably doing nothing.'—Brabourne i. 26.

(4) Henry: born Rowling 27 May 1797; commoner of Winchester 1810–14; Army 1818–37, retiring as Major in 8th Light Dragoons; married (1) his cousin Sophia Cage (q.v.), (2) Charlotte Northey, and had issue by both wives; developed epilepsy in later life and died 31 May 1843.

(5) Wiliam: born Godmersham 10 October 1798; commoner of Winchester 1813–14; Exeter College, Oxford; ordained June 1823; curate and then rector of Steventon 1823–73; married (1) 1825 Caroline Portal (q.v., d. 1837) and left issue, (2) c.1840 Mary Northey (d. 1854), (3) Jane Hope; died 5 December 1873. See Le Faye, 'Silhouettes of the Revd William Knight and his Family', Collected Reports, V. 137–9.

(6) Elizabeth (Lizzy): born Godmersham 27 January 1800; married 6 October

1818 Edward Royd Rice (q.v.) of Dane Court, Kent; fifteen children; died 27 April 1884.

(7) Marianne: born Godmersham 15 September 1801; known as 'Aunt May' to later generations; never married, but lived at Godmersham till her father's death; then with brother Charles-Bridges at Chawton till 1867; then with brother Brook-John at Bentley till 1878; then finally joined her niece Louisa Hill (see below) at Ballyvar, Gweedore, co. Antrim; died 4 December 1896.

(8) Charles-Bridges: born Godmersham 11 March 1803; commoner of Winchester 1816–20; Trinity College, Cambridge; ordained 1828; curate of West Worldham, Hants; rector of Chawton 1837–67; died unmarried 13 October 1867.

(9) Louisa: born Godmersham 13 November 1804 and god-daughter of JA; married 11 May 1847 in Denmark Lord George-Augusta Hill of Ballyvar House, Gweedore, co. Antrim (see below); died 29 July 1889.

(10) Cassandra-Jane: born Godmersham 16 November 1806; married

20 October 1834 Lord George-Augusta Hill, fifth son of 2nd Marquess of Downshire; died at birth of her fourth child, 14 March 1842. Her elder sister Louisa went to Gweedore to care for the orphaned children, and subsequently became Lord George's second wife (see above).

(11) Brook-John: born Godmersham 28 September 1808; commoner of Winchester 1822–6; Army 1826, retiring as Captain 1860; married 24 May 1853 Margaret Pearson; no surviving issue; died 10 January 1878.

Francis-William Austen's children were:

(1) Mary-Jane: born Southampton 27 April 1807; married 10 June 1828 Cdr George-Thomas-Maitland Purvis, RN, of Blackbrook Cottage, Fareham, Hants, and left issue; died 29 December 1836.

(2) Francis-William: born Alton 12 July 1809; RN 1823, Flag-Captain 1846 (for details see O'Byrne, Naval Biographical Dictionary); married 13 July 1843 his cousin Frances-Palmer Austen (see below), but had no children; died 13 December 1858.

pg 492(3) Henry-Edgar: born Portsmouth 21 April 1811; St John's College, Oxford 1829; barrister of Inner Temple; unmarried; suffered a mental breakdown and committed suicide 21 October 1854.

(4) George: born Deal, Kent 20 October 1812; commoner of Winchester 1827–30; St John's College, Oxford 1830; RN Chaplain 1837–48 or later; rector of St John's, Redhill, Havant, Hants 1856–97; married 9 July 1851 Louisa-Lane Tragett, and left issue; died 13 June 1903.

Some of JA's letters descended to George's son Captn Ernest-Leigh Austen, RN, who gave them to the British Museum in the 1930s.

(5) Cassandra-Eliza: born Portsmouth 8 January 1814, died unmarried

5 May 1849.

(6) Herbert-Grey: born Chawton 8 November 1815; RN 1830, Captain 1864 (for details see O'Byrne, Naval Biographical Dictionary); married 12 June 1862 Louisa-Frances Lyus and left issue; died 31 March 1888.

Some Austenian memorabilia have descended in this branch of the family.

(7) Elizabeth: born Alton 15 April 1817; died 22 May 1830.

(8) Catherine-Anne: born Chawton 7 July 1818; married 24 August 1842 John Hubback, barrister of Lincoln's Inn, and had three sons; the two younger, Edward and Charles, emigrated to America c.1870; CAH went with them and died in Virginia 25 February 1877.

Between 1850 and 1863 CAH wrote ten novels, the first one, The Younger Sister, being a completion of JA's fragment The Watsons. She also started, but never finished, a brief biography of her father—see Le Faye, 'Catherine Hubback's Memoir of Francis Austen', Report for 2009 (2010), 121–8. Her eldest son John-Henry Hubback (1844–1939) wrote JA's Sailor Brothers (1906) in collaboration with his daughter Edith-Charlotte (later Mrs J. F. L. Brown).

(9) Edward-Thomas: born Chawton 28 January 1820; St John's College, Oxford 1842; rector of Barfreston, Kent 1855–1908; married June 1855 Jane Clavell and left issue; died 1 June 1908.

Some Austenian memorabilia have descended in this branch of the family.

(10) Frances-Sophia: born Ryde, Isle of Wight, 12 December 1821; in later years lived with her brother Edward-Thomas at Barfreston and died unmarried March 1904.

Some of JA's letters descended to her, and after her death passed to her brother George's family.

(11) Cholmeley: born Gosport 8 July 1823; died 11 January 1824.

Charles-John Austen's children were:

(1) Cassandra-Esten: born Bermuda 22 December 1808; CEA's god-daughter; died unmarried Plymouth 11 September 1897.

Cassandra-Esten assisted her father in executing CEA's Will in 1845, and thereby became possessed of memorabilia of JA which CEA had always preserved; Cassandra-Esten in turn left them to her nieces, the five daughters of pg 493Charles-John Austen junior (see below). She was also able to assist JEAL in the composition of his Memoir.

(2) Harriet-Jane: born Bermuda 19 February 1810; JA's god-daughter; died unmarried West Cowes, Isle of Wight 30 March 1865.

(3) Frances-Palmer: born London 1 December 1812; married 13 July 1843 her cousin Francis-William Austen junior (see above), and died without issue 1882.

(4) Elizabeth: born Sheerness 31 August and died 20 September 1814; buried in Kentish Town, London, NW5.

(5) Charles-John II: born 28 May 1821; RN service 1833–48 (for details see O'Byrne, Naval Biographical Dictionary); coastguard service 1851–6 and 1859–65; naval agent in charge of mails 1865; married 6 September 1848 Emma de Blois of Nova Scotia, Canada; died at sea 22 January 1867; one son, CJA III (left issue), and five daughters.

CJA II's daughters were: Jane (1849–1928, unmarried), Emma-Florence (1851–1939, unmarried), Frances-Cecilia (1853–1923, married Captn L. P. Willan, RN, and left issue), Edith (1857–1942, married Captn Stokes, RN, and left issue), Blanche-Frederica (1859–1924, unmarried). Their aunt Cassandra-Esten (see above) left her Austenian letters and memorabilia between the five girls, and it was the three spinsters who sold most of these items in the 1920s.

(6) George: born 12 December 1822; died 1824.

(7) Jane: born 12 August 1824; died 18 August 1825; buried in Kentish Town, London, NW5.

(8) Henry: born 16 April 1826; RN 1840, then changed to Army; Ensign, Lieutenant, and Captain in 81st Regt of Foot, 1843–8; transferred to 73rd Regt of Foot 1850; died unmarried 21 October 1851 ('killed by a fall') while at the Cape of Good Hope with his regiment.

Austen, Miss, 'of a Wiltshire family'. JA was misinformed; this was Miss Cooth-Anne Austen (b. 1789), youngest daughter of William Austen (1761–91), of Ensbury, a village in Dorset near Bournemouth. No connection with the Steventon Austens can so far be traced, but RAAL's Pedigree of Austen shows a number of collateral Austen families in Kent during the seventeenth century, any one of which may have moved to Dorset thereafter.

Awdry family. John Awdry of Notton House, Wilts (1766–1844), barrister and Receiver of Land Tax; married 15 January 1795 Jane (d. 1855), second daughter of Lovelace Bigg of Chilton Foliat, Wilts. (who later became Bigg-Wither of Manydown Park, Hants, q.v.); eight children.

Badcock, Mr and Mrs. Probably William Badcock (1774–3 April 1802), amateur actor, of 5 Burlington Street, Bath, who married Sophia, second daughter of the dramatist Richard Cumberland (1732–1811), and, in his father-in-law's words, 'died a victim to excess in the prime of life'.

Another possibility might be Thomas-Stanhope Badcock of Little Missenden, Bucks. (d. 1821 and buried in Bath Abbey), and his wife Anne.

pg 494Baigent. Chawton villagers—several families of this name were living there in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; 'the Boy' of Letter 98 was James (bapt. 7 June 1803), son of William and Elizabeth B. See R. Vick, 'Rural Crime', Collected Reports, V. 41–6.

Bailey, Mr. Lieutenant Bailey of the Royal Marines, then stationed at Portsmouth, and a friend of Earle Harwood. Perhaps a member of the Bailey family at Dummer; Miss Eliza Bailey is possibly his sister.

Bailey, Miss. Of Hinckley, Leics. Miss Anne Sharp (q.v.) became her companion.

Bailey, Harriet: see under Graham family.

Baker, Misses. In Southampton 1803 a Mrs Baker was a milliner at Above Bar, and a Miss Baker of the same address was a mantua-maker; another Miss Baker was a mantua-maker in Chapel Street.

Balgonie, Lord (1785–1863); afterwards (1820) Earl of Leven and Melville (q.v.).

Ballard, Misses, of Southampton. Related to the Harrisons (q.v.).

Barlowe, Mr. One of HTA's employees in the London bank—probably his Chief Clerk..

Barne, Revd Dr Thomas. Friend of Revd Dr James Stanier Clarke (q.v.).

Barnewall, the Hon Mr. (Not 'Barnwall' as JA wrote.) Possibly John-Thomas Barnewall (1773–1839), heir to the Irish barony of Trimlestown and later (1813) 15th Baron; but more probably his distant kinsman Mathew Barnewall (d. 1834), who for some years past had been a claimant to the viscountcy of Kingsland, and whose claim was eventually admitted by the House of Lords in 1814. Mathew Barnewall had been a 'missing heir', and his past life as an illiterate potboy in the slums of Dublin could well account for JA's description of him. See Vicissitudes of Families, 3rd ser. (1863), 16–21.

Baskerville, Mrs. Shopkeeper in Canterbury; probably the wife or widow of William Baskerville, hairdresser and perfumer.

Bather, Revd Edward (1780–1851). Possibly one of Mr GA's pupils at Steventon; Oriel College, Oxford 1798, BA 1803, MA 1808; vicar of Meol Brace, near Shrewsbury 1804–47; Archdeacon of Shropshire and Prebendary of Lichfield; married April 1805 Emma Halifax.

Battys, the. Possibly the Steventon villagers Peggy and Thomas Batt, who died respectively 1808 and 1813.

Baverstock, Mrs. Jane (b. 1751), eldest daughter of Revd John Hinton (q.v.); married 1769 James Baverstock (1741–1815) of Alton. Their son James-Hinton Baverstock (b. 1785), a 'clever and rather scampish brewer of Alton', was the chief claimant in the lawsuit brought by the Hintons, Baverstocks, and Dusautoys against EAK in 1814 for possession of his Hampshire estates. In 1803 JHB signed up as Ensign in the Alton Volunteers. For more on the Baverstock family, see ODNB.

pg 495Ba(y)le, James. Cabinet-maker, etc., in Winchester.

Beach family. In the mid-eighteenth century Charles Wither, of Oakley Hall, Hants, had two daughters: Henrietta-Maria (1713–90) who married Edmund Bramston (q.v.) and inherited Oakley Hall, and Anne (1718–88) who married William Beach of Keevil and Fittleton, Wilts. The Beaches had one son and two daughters: the son, Wiliam-Wither Beach (1747–1829), made some mark as a poet when he was at New College, Oxford; later on he was reputedly disappointed in love, and never recovered from this depression, which unbalanced his mind. The elder daughter, Anne, eloped with the fortune-hunting curate of Keevil, Revd William Wainhouse, and died very soon after her marriage. The younger daughter Henrietta-Maria (1760–1837) married 1779 Michael Hicks, and from 1790 the family was known as Hicks-Beach. As well as Keevil and Fittleton, they had an estate at Netheravon, Wilts. and another at Wiliamstrip Park, Glos. Four of their nine children died in infancy; a surviving son, William Hicks-Beach (1783–1836), inherited Oakley Hall in 1832, following the death of his cousin Wither Bramston. The wit and writer Revd Sydney Smith was for a time curate of Netheravon and tutor to the Hicks-Beach sons.

Beatrice. Perhaps a maidservant to someone in the Chawton district.

Beaty, Miss. HTA's bank account at Drummonds shows a payment of £50 in 1804 to a Captn Beaty—possibly the brother or father of this Miss B.

Beckford family. Francis Beckford of Basing Park, Froxfield, Hants (uncle of William Beckford of Fonthill, the author of Vathek), married 1755 Susannah Love of Basing. His son Francis-Love Beckford inherited Basing Park; his elder daughter Charlotte married John Middleton (q.v.) and had several children; and after her early death her unmarried sister Maria (1768–25 June 1854) lived with the Middleton family as hostess for her brother-in-law. When in London for the season Miss Beckford lived at 17 Welbeck Street.

William Beckford of Fonthill married 1783 Lady Margaret Gordon, and had two daughters, Margaret-Maria-Elizabeth (1785–1818) and Susanna-Euphemia (1786–1859). Margaret Beckford married 15 May 1811 Col James Orde (q.v.), to her father's great annoyance; Susanna married 26 April 1810 the Marquess of Douglas, heir to the dukedom of Hamilton.

Becky. Probably Rebecca Cadwallader, maidservant to Miss Elizabeth Leigh of Adlestrop.

Bell, Miss. Governess at Wrotham to the Revd George Moore's children; perhaps a poor relation of his sister-in-law Mrs Robert Moore née Bell.

Bendish, Mr and Miss. Perhaps Mr Richard Bendyshe of 8 Henrietta Street, and later 10 Grosvenor Place, Bath; they may also be part of the Bendyshe family of Barrington, Cambs.

Benham, Sally. Chawton village girl; baptized 21 November 1802, daughter of Charles and Elizabeth Benham.

pg 496Benn family. Revd John Benn (1766–1857), rector of Farringdon, Hants 1797–1857, married 1790 Elizabeth-Thornton Heysham (1772–1861). His children were: Harriet-Anne-Bridget (1793), John (1795), Henry-Clavering (1797), Piercy (1799), Margaret-Elizabeth (1801), William-Wilshere (1803), Robert-Joseph-Charles (1805), Frances-Mary (1807), Isabella-Jane (1809), George-Thomas (1811), Anthony (1813), Edward (1815), and Philip (1817). Piercy went to Woolwich Academy and ended his career as a Major-General in the Royal Artillery.

Mr Benn also had a younger sister, Mary (1770–1816), unmarried and living in very poor circumstances in Chawton, who was buried there on 3 January 1816.

Bent, Mr. Presumably an employee of Benjamin Stroud of Newbury, the auctioneer who conducted the clearance of Steventon Rectory. See R. Vick, 'The Sale at Steventon Parsonage', Collected Reports, IV. 295–8.

Bertie families. There were two families of this name living in Southampton, not officially related to each other:

(1) Sir Albemarle Bertie (1755–1824): Rear-Admiral 1804, Vice-Admiral 1808, Admiral 1814; first and last baronet 1812. Illegitimate son of Lord Albemarle Bertie the brother of 3rd and 5th Dukes of Ancaster; married 1782 Emma Heywood, who died 1805; of Hill, near Southampton. Catherine-Brownlow Bertie, his second daughter, died at Hill 17 April 1808.

(2) Sir Thomas Bertie (né Hoar) (1758–1825): brother of George Hoar and of Mrs Dickens (qq.v.); married 1788 Catherine-Dorothy, daughter of Peregrine Bertie (a junior branch of the ducal family of Ancaster), and took her name. Rear Admiral 28 April 1808, Admiral and knighted 1813; lived at The Polygon, Southampton, where Lady Bertie died 1823.

Best, Miss Dora (Dorothy). Daughter of George Best of Chilston Park, Kent, and married Revd Joseph-George Brett (q.v.).

Betsy. One girl of this name was maidservant at Chawton Cottage; this may be Betsy Smallbone, former nursemaid to CMCA. Another Betsy, surname unknown, was nursemaid to the children of Fanny Palmer, Mrs CJA.

Bigeon, Mme/Mrs. HTA's housekeeper, a French emigrant; Mme/Mrs Perigord (q.v.) is her daughter.

Bigg/Bigg-Wither family. Of Manydown Park, Wootton St Lawrence, Hants. This estate, owned by the Bishopric of Winchester, had been tenanted by the Wither (q.v.) family for many generations, but when the last William Wither died without issue in 1789 the heir was Lovelace Bigg (4 August 1741–24 February 1813), of Chilton Foliat, Wilts., whose grandmother had been a Wither. He and his male descendants added -Wither to their surname, but his daughters did not.

From 1789, therefore, the family at Manydown consisted of Lovelace Bigg-Wither and his children: Margaret (1768), Jane (1770), Dorothy (1771–93), Elizabeth (1773), Catherine (1775), Alethea (1777), Lovelace-Wither (1780–94), Harris (1781), Mary-Ann (1783, died in infancy). Mr Bigg-Wither was a widower, pg 497as his second wife Margaret Blachford, the mother of these children, had died in 1784.

Of the surviving children, Margaret married 1792 Revd Charles Blackstone (q.v.) and died 1842; Jane married 1795 John Awdry of Notton, Wilts. (q.v.) and died 1855; Elizabeth married 1799 Revd William Heathcote (q.v.) and died 1855; Catherine married 1808 Revd Herbert Hill (q.v.) and died 1848; Alethea died unmarried 1847; Harris married 1804 Anne-Howe Frith, and till his father's death lived at Wymering, near Cosham, Hants, where seven of his ten children were born; he returned to Manydown 1813 and lived there till his own death in 1833.

Elizabeth, Catherine, and Alethea Bigg were particular friends of JA and CEA in their girlhood days, and it was perhaps encouragement from these elder sisters which had emboldened the shy, stammering young Harris Bigg-Wither to propose marriage to JA in December 1802. The fact that JA accepted Harris one evening, only to withdraw her consent the next morning, did not rupture her friendship with his sisters. See Family Record, 137–8.

Alethea gave JA her honest opinion that although MP was superior in a great many points to the two preceding novels, it did not have the spirit of P&P; later on she commented that Emma was not equal to either P&P or MP.

Binns, John. Manservant, presumably in the Scarlets neighbourhood, who did not accept employment with the Leigh-Perrots.

Birch, Mrs. Mary, daughter of Thomas Newell, of Henley Park, Henley, Oxon.; married 22 December 1770 George Birch (d. 1805), barrister, of the Middle Temple and St Leonard's Hill, near Windsor, Berks.; three sons; lived later at Barton Lodge, Windsor, and died 29 March 1837, aged 99; MI in Clewer church, Berks. Up to five days before her death she was still writing letters that were 'most remarkable instances of clearness of intellect, vivacity of mind, and warmth and vividness of feeling and affection'. Mrs Birch was a girlhood friend of Mrs GA, and also knew the Cooper and Powys families (qq.v.). At least one of her sons, James (b. 1771), was a pupil at Steventon in 1784.

Birchall, Robert. Music-seller and publisher, 133 New Bond Street, London.

Blachford family, of Osborne House, Isle of Wight. Margaret Blachford (1739–84), daughter of Brydges Blachford of Osborne, married 1766 as his second wife Lovelace Bigg-Wither (q.v.). Her brother Robert-Pope Blachford (1742–90) had one son and three daughters; the daughters in particular often visited their Bigg-Wither cousins at Manydown. The eldest daughter, Winifred, married 18 February 1815 Revd John Mansfield, rector of Rowner, Hants; the second, Anne, married a Col Campbell and went out to India; the youngest, Jane, married at Rowner 30 December 1817 Philip Williams (q.v.), of the Inner Temple. The Blachford estate was sold to the Crown later in the nineteenth century, and Queen Victoria and Prince Albert built their own Osborne House for their family's summer holidays.

pg 498Blackall, Revd Samuel (1770–1842). Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1794; rector 1812 of North (Great) Cadbury, Somerset; married 5 January 1813 Susannah Lewis (q.v.).

Blackstone family. Margaret (1768–1842) eldest daughter of Lovelace Bigg-Wither (q.v.), married 1792 Revd Charles Blackstone (1759–1800), vicar 1789 of Andover, Hants.

Mrs H. Blackstone was Jane-Dymock, née Brereton, of Winchester, the widow of Revd Henry Blackstone (1722–76), Fellow of New College, Oxford, vicar of Adderbury, Oxon., and uncle of Revd Charles Blackstone. Mrs Henry Blackstone had two daughters, Alethea and Harriet.

Blairs, the. In Canterbury, friends or connections of the Oxenden family.

Blake, Captn. Perhaps of 13 Lower Grosvenor Place, London.

Blount, Mr and Mrs. Probably James Bl(o)unt of Wallop House, Nether Wallop, and his wife, Henrietta née Garden, who were married 8 October 1799. See Robin Vick, 'Errors of Identification in the Indexes to JA's Letters', N&Q, NS 41: 3 (Sept. 1994), 322–3.

Blunt, William. HTA's partner in the Petersfield bank.

Bolton, Lord. Thomas Orde (1746–1807, q.v.) married 1778 Jane-Mary Powlett, illegitimate daughter and ultimately heiress of the 5th Duke of Bolton, and added her name to his in 1795 when she inherited the Bolton estates; he was created Baron Bolton 20 October 1797; of Hackwood Park, Basingstoke, Hants. His eldest son William (1782–1850) married 1810 Maria, the eldest daughter of Lord Dorchester (q.v.), but had no issue. See Baigent and Millard, A History of Basingstoke, 488–9.

Bond, Miss. Perhaps of Upper Park Street, or possibly a daughter or sister of Sir James Bond, Bt, of 6 Henrietta Street, Bath.

Bond, John. Revd GA's farm bailiff at Steventon. Born Laverstoke c.1738, married 1772 Anne Naishon/Nation of Deane, and had four children: Hannah (1773), George (1776), John (1780), Elizabeth (1782); John and his wife both died in 1825. Lizzie Bond married Joseph Beale of Overton, at Steventon, in 1809. See Le Faye, 'James Austen's Poetical Biography of John Bond', Collected Reports, IV. 243–7.

Bonham, Mr F. Possibly Francis Bonham, who matriculated at Corpus Christi, Oxford, in January 1804 aged 18, and subsequently entered Lincoln's Inn 1808. The Miss Bonham whom JA met in Lyme Regis may be related to him.

Booth, Mr, and sisters. Residents of Southampton in 1808.

Bourne, Robert (1761–1829). Professor of medicine at Oxford, and consultant to Miss ('Mrs') Elizabeth Leigh of Adlestrop (q.v.).

Bowen, William (1761–1815). Spry & Bowen, apothecaries, 1 Argyle Buildings, Bath.

pg 499Boyle, Courtenay (1770–1844). Third son of the 7th Earl of Cork; married 1799 Carolina-Amelia, daughter of William Poyntz; of Midgham, Berks.; Capt RN, later Vice-Admiral and Commissioner of the Navy Board.

Boys, Daniel. Coachman at Godmersham, and buried there 22 December 1835 aged 73.

Bradshaws, the. Perhaps of 13 The Vineyards, Bath.

Bramston family of Oakley Hall. The senior line of the Bramstons lived at Skreens, Essex; a member of a younger branch, Edmund Bramston (1708–63), married 1746 Henrietta-Maria Wither (1713–90), daughter and co-heiress of Charles Wither (q.v.) of Oakley Hall, and had three children: Augusta (1747–1819) and Henrietta (1751–71) who both died unmarried, and Wither (1753–1832) who married 1783 Mary Chute (q.v.) but had no issue. Oakley Hall was then inherited by his cousin William Hicks-Beach (q.v. under Beach).

The diarist the Hon John Byng (1742–1813), who was a cousin of Edmund Bramston, paid a visit to the West Country in the summer of 1782, and on his return journey rode through Overton without calling at Oakley Hall, commenting to himself: 'I allways pass with regret a house at a small distance from the road, whose late owner (Mr B.) I much esteem'd, and where I have been well receiv'd; but now I ride by.—Tho' I am as zealous of relationship as can be, and wou'd go as far as cou'd be to serve one: but the present dowager possessor, an artful worldly woman, of a notable self-sufficient capacity, is not selon mon gout; and her son is little better than a blockhead.'—Torrington Diaries, i. 107.

Mrs Wither Bramston enjoyed MP, but her sister-in-law 'Mrs' Augusta Bramston found the first three of JA's published novels boring and nonsensical.

Branfill, Jemima-Elizabeth (1792–1867). Daughter of Champion Branfill of Upminster Hall, Essex (d. 1792) and Charlotte Brydges (q.v.).

Brecknell, Joseph. Married 9 October 1810 Lady Catherine Colyear, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Portmore (q.v.).

Brecknell & Twining. JA may have been confusing different tradesmen here, either accidentally or deliberately. William Brecknell was a furnishing ironmonger at 13 Fenchurch Street; Brecknell & Turner were wax and tallow chandlers at 31 Haymarket; and Twinings had their tea warehouse at 216 Strand.

Breton, Revd Dr Moyle (1744–1821). (Not 'Britton', as JA wrote.) 'He was a gentleman little in stature, somewhat odd in appearance, and eccentric in character.' He was also described as a man of extensive learning, one 'who has left no path of science or literature unexplored'. He inherited property in Boughton Aluph and Kennington near Ashford, Kent, and served as incumbent of Kenardington and Kennington 1777–85; married 1803 Sarah Billington, widow of John Billington of Bybrook, near Kennington; no issue.

Brett family, of Spring Grove, near Wye, Kent. Spring Grove was built in 1674 and owned by several generations of the Brett family. Thomas Brett (1758–1822) pg 500practised as an attorney in Wye, and succeeded to the estate upon the death of his father, Revd Nicholas Brett (1713–76). Since 1967 the house has been used as a private prep school.

The Revd Joseph-George Brett (1790–1852) who married Dora Best (q.v.) may also be a member of this family; he was vicar of Lenham before Edward Bridges (q.v.), and took over the lease of No. 64 Sloane Street, Chelsea, from HTA at Michaelmas 1813.

Bridges family, baronets of Goodnestone Park, Goodnestone-next-Wingham, Kent. Sir Brook Bridges, 3rd Bt (1733–91) married 1765 Fanny (1747–1825), daughter of Edmund Fowler of Graces, Essex, and had thirteen children: Brook (1766), Brook-William (1767), Brook-Henry (1770), Fanny (1771), Sophia (1772), Elizabeth (1773), Marianne (1774), Charles (1776), Louisa (1777), Brook-Edward (1779), Harriot-Mary (1781), Brook-John (1782), Brook-George (1784). Apart from the two who died young (see below) all the others were known to JA and are mentioned in her letters.

(1) Brook (1766–9 July 1781) died at Eton as the result of a playground accident.

(2) Sir Brook-William, 4th Bt (1767–1829), married (1) 1800 Eleanor Foote (1778–1806, q.v.), and had by her four children: Brook-William (1801), Brook-George (1802), Brook-John (1804–5), and Eleanor (1805). He married (2) 1809 Dorothy-Elizabeth Hawley (1778–1816, q.v.), who died after having a stillborn child.

(3) Revd Brook-Henry (1770–1855), rector of Woodham Ferrers and of Danbury, Essex; married 1795 Jane Hales (q.v.), and had two sons and two daughters.

(4) Fanny (1771–May 1805), married 1791 Lewis Cage (q.v.) of Milgate, and had two daughters, Fanny and Sophia.

(5) Sophia (1772–1844), married 1791 William Deedes (q.v.) of Sandling, and had nineteen children.

(6) Elizabeth (1773–10 October 1808), married 1791 Edward Austen later Knight (q.v.) of Godmersham, and had eleven children; she died suddenly a fortnight after the birth of the last.

(7) Marianne (1774–12 April 1811) was an invalid from an early age, and died unmarried.

(8) Charles (1776–7) died in infancy.

(9) Louisa (1777–1856) died unmarried. She bought a first edition of Emma in January 1816, and signed her name in all three volumes.

(10) Revd Brook-Edward (1779–1825), perpetual curate of Goodnestone 1802–9, rector of Orlingbury, Northants, 1805–7, rector of Bonnington, Kent 1807–25, Prebendary of Lichfield 1810, vicar of Lenham, Kent, 1810–25, perpetual curate of Wingham, Kent 1817–25; married 1809 Harriet Foote (q.v.) and had a large family.

pg 501(11) Harriot-Mary (1781–1840), married 1806 as his second wife Revd George Moore (q.v.) of Wrotham, Kent, and had several children.

(12) Revd Brook-John (1782–3 July 1812), rector 1808 of Saltwood and Hythe, Kent; married 1810 Charlotte Hawley (q.v.), no issue. Mrs J. Bridges preferred Emma to all JA's preceding novels.

(13) Brook-George (1784–August 1807), Lieutenant RN 1805 and died of wounds received in action while aboard HMS Canopus.

The Bridges daughters were educated at the select boarding school in Queen Square, London, known as the 'Ladies' Eton' (see Le Faye, 'To dwell together in unity', Collected Reports, IV. 151–63). Fanny Sophia, and Elizabeth all became engaged in 1791, and Fanny married first, on 14 December of that year; Sophia and Elizabeth had a double wedding on 27 December 1791, and this was followed by a double christening at Goodnestone on 28 February 1793 of their respective first children—Sophia Deedes born 31 January 1793 and Fanny Austen born 23 January 1793.

During her widowhood Fanny Lady Bridges lived at the dower-house Goodnestone Farm with her unmarried daughters Marianne, Louisa, and Harriet, and (post-1805) her orphaned granddaughters Fanny and Sophia Cage (q.v.).

Briggs, Mr. Perhaps Revd John Briggs (1771–1840), an Eton contemporary of John Lyford (q.v.).

Bromley, Mrs Ann. Lodging-house keeper, 12 and 13 Queen Square, Bath.

Brown(e) families, in Bath. The Bath Directory for 1801 shows several Brown(e)s: Admiral Brown of 26 Brock Street; the Hon Mrs Brown, of 3 Burlington Street; Dr Brown, FRCP Edin., of 6 Brunswick Place; Mrs Brown of 2 Queen Square; Mrs Mary Brown of 33 Bathwick Street; Miss Brown of 17 Russell Street; Dr Browne, physician, of 37 Marlborough Buildings.

Brown(e), Captn and Mrs, in Southampton. There were numerous naval officers named Brown(e); the one JA met may be Captn Edward-Walpole Browne, RN.

Brown, Bob. Perhaps a manservant at Godmersham.

Browning. There were a number of Browning families in Chawton and the surrounding villages at this date. A Browning youth, who had been in domestic service previously, was manservant at Chawton Cottage from February 1813 until approximately July 1816; this may be Thomas, son of John and Mary Browning, who was baptized in Chawton 1791, and perhaps referred to by his surname to distinguish him from the other Thomas, Thomas Carter (q.v.), who had just left the Austens' service. Thomas Browning's younger brother Solomon, baptized 1794, is another possibility.

Brydges family. Mrs Jemima Brydges (1727–1809, née Egerton), lived at 11 The Precincts, Canterbury (now known as Cathedral House). She was the widow pg 502(1780) of Edward Brydges of Wootton Court, Kent, and 'a lively, witty person who surrounded herself with merry company and became known in Kent for her brilliant though modest salon'. She was the mother of eight children: Edward-Tymewell (1748–1807); Anne (1749–1804) married Revd I. P. G. Lefroy (q.v.); Jemima ('Miss Brydges' in 1808, died unmarried 1819); Jane (died unmarried 1788); Deborah-Jemima (1755–89) married Henry Maxwell of Ewshot House, Crondall, Hants; Sir Samuel-Egerton (1762–1837); John-Wiliam (1764–1839); Charlotte (1765–1849) married (1) Champion Branfill and had one son and one daughter Jemima-Elizabeth (q.v.), and (2) John Harrison of Denne Hill, Kent, but had no further issue.

Samuel-Egerton (known as Egerton) was a shy and moody young man, with literary and antiquarian interests. He was very fond of his elder sister Anne Lefroy, and when she and her husband moved to Ashe he followed them and rented the parsonage at Deane from Mr Austen for a couple of years, before returning to London in 1788 to pursue his researches. He married (1) 1786 Elizabeth Byrche (died 1796), had five children, and settled at Denton Court, near Wootton, Kent; (2) 1797 Mary Robinson (q.v.) and had another ten children. From 1789 onwards he published a number of works on a variety of topographical, genealogical, and poetical subjects, including the novels Mary de Clifford (1792) and Arthur Fitz Albini (1798) to which JA refers. In later years he laid claim to the Barony of Chandos of Sudeley, and became obsessed by his grievances when his claim was eventually rejected. In 1810 he moved to Lee Priory near Canterbury, where he was able to indulge his literary interests to the full, setting up his own private Lee Priory Press in the servants' quarters of his new home. In 1814 a baronetcy was bestowed upon him; but he was always extravagant and in 1818 had to flee to the Continent to avoid his creditors. He was never able to live in England thereafter, and a plan to raise money whereby part of the trust estates of Lee Priory was sold at an inflated price ended in a disastrous lawsuit that ruined the family. Sir Egerton died in Switzerland 8 September 1837.

His second daughter Jemima-Anne-Deborah married February 1817 Edward Quilinan of the 3rd Dragoon Guards, and died 1822.

Budd, Mrs. Possibly Martha, née Browning, wife of Henry Budd of Newton Valence, the neighbouring parish to Chawton. A John Budd was vestryman of Chawton Church in 1748.

Buller family. Revd Richard (1776—19 December 1806); son of William Buller (c. 1736–96), Dean of Exeter 1784, of Canterbury 1790, Prebendary of Winchester 1763–92, and Bishop of Exeter 1792–6, and Anne daughter of John Thomas, Bishop of Winchester 1761–81; born at Wonston, Hants, and pupil of Revd GA at Steventon 1790–5; Oriel College, Oxford 1795, BA 1798 and MA 1801; vicar of Colyton, Devon 1799–1806; married Anna Marshall 1800; children Anna-Sophia (1801) and William (1803). See Le Faye, 'The Devonshire Roots of Sense and Sensibility', Collected Reports, V. 36–7, and M. Lane, 'Richard Buller', Collected Reports, VI. 17–20.

pg 503Susanna-Catherine Buller (1769–1840), sister of Richard, married 1808 Sir John Duckworth, Bt.

Bulmore, Captn. In the Southampton Directory for 1803 a John Bulmore, mariner, is shown at 26 High Street; perhaps he skippered a ferry service to the Isle of Wight.

Burdett family. Sir Francis Burdett, Bt (1770–1844), MP, of 78 Piccadilly, London; rich and radical, and frequently at odds with the Establishment. His sister Elizabeth married 1800 Sir James Langham, Bt (q.v.), of Cottesbrooke, Northants; the Miss Burdett whom JA mentions, and who did not like MP so well as P&P, was probably his younger sister Frances (d. 1846).

Burdon. Either John Burdon, bookseller of College Street, or Thomas Burdon, bookseller and wine-merchant of Kingsgate Street, Winchester. In April 1803 the Hampshire Chronicle reported the death of John Burdon, 'who for more than forty years lived in College-street and was an eminent bookseller. In the trade he was a man of industry, probity and punctuality. It will always reflect honour on his memory, as it afforded consolation to his mind, that he would never expose to sale works of vicious or immoral tendency.' See Helen Lefroy, 'College Street', Collected Reports, IV. 232.

Burton, Miss. Perhaps a daughter of H. Burton, haberdasher, of 38 George Street, Manchester Square, London.

Busby, Mrs. Mrs Sarah Busby, of 5 King Street, Bath, a friend of Lady Fust (q.v.).

Bushell, Dame. Of Oakley parish; Elizabeth wife of Thomas Bushell of Steventon (d. 1821), buried at Steventon 8 April 1823. 'Sukey' was presumably either her daughter or granddaughter.

Butcher, Samuel. Born 1770; Lieutenant RN 1794; appointed to HMS Sans Pareil 9 October 1795; Rear-Admiral 1840; friend of Lt Frank Temple, RN (q.v.).

Butler, Mr and Mrs John. Possibly the Captn Butler of the Wilts. Militia who had married in Guernsey 16 November 1812 Eliza, only child of Captn Dobree, RN.

Butler, Richard. Hairdresser, of Basingstoke.

Byng, Edmund. Probably Edmund-John-Shanson Byng of the Royal Fusiliers, promoted from Captain to Major July 1797; not the same as Edmund-John Byng (1774–1854) son of the diarist the Hon John Byng.

Cage family, of Milgate, Kent. Lewis Cage (1761–11 January 1805) married 1791 Fanny (1771–May 1805), eldest daughter of Sir Brook Bridges III (q.v.), thereby becoming brother-in-law to Edward Austen Knight; they had two daughters: Fanny (1793–1874), who married 1834 her cousin Sir Brook Bridges V, and Sophia (1799–1833), who married her cousin Henry Austen Knight, and had a son Lewis Knight. After their parents' early and almost simultaneous deaths the two little girls lived with their grandmother the Dowager Lady Bridges at Goodnestone Farm. In later life Fanny Cage did not much care for MP, but liked Emma very much indeed.

pg 504Revd Charles (d. 1848), younger brother of Lewis; incumbent of Bensted and Bredgar, lived at Chrismill, near Milgate, and later at Leybourne; married Elizabeth Graham (q.v.). Mrs Cage wrote to FCK praising Emma most enthusiastically.

Revd Edward (d. 1835), younger brother of Lewis; rector of Eastling; had a daughter Annetta (?1792–1827) who married in 1822 as his second wife General Sir Henry-Tucker Montresor (q.v.).

Calker, Mrs. Maidservant to the Revd Mr Papillon at Chawton.

Calland, Revd John (1763–12 September 1800). Rector of Bentworth near Alton, Hants 1791–1800 and buried there 20 September 1800. Mr Calland's attachment to his hat was well known to the Austens—see Family Record, 115–17, and Selwyn, Collected Poems and Verse of the Austen Family, 29–30, 92–5, where Mrs Austen comments on his attendance at a Basingstoke ball in 1799. He appears again in a letter from Nancy Powlett (q.v.) to her husband:

You know my dear Love the Beaux always find out your absence immediately—no sooner had you mounted your Horse than one made his appearance—he was let in, and exerted himself to entertain me for near an Hour; when I tell you this said Beau was Mr. Calland you will not be surprised that all his exertions were unsuccessful… . At last he took his leave. Perhaps for the sake of my vanity I ought to conceal that his motive for calling, I believe, was to ask your assistance next Sunday. (Powlett archive, 5 April 1799; Hants RO, 72M92)

Canterbury, Archbishop of. Charles Manners Sutton (1755–1828), Archbishop 1805–28.

Canterbury, Dean of: see Powys.

Carnarvon, Earl of. Henry George Herbert, 2nd Earl (1772–1833), of Highclere, Hants.

Carpenter, Mr T. Coulson. Physician or apothecary at Lyme Regis, 1804.

Carrick, Mrs. Perhaps Charity, daughter of Pierse Creagh of Dangan, co. Clare, Ireland, who married Gerald Carrick. She thought MP was to be preferred to JA's two preceding novels.

Carter, Thomas. Manservant at Chawton Cottage; married 30 January 1813 Ann Trimmer of Chawton.

Cawthorn. Cawthorn & Hutt, publishers, of 24 Cockspur Street, London.

Chalcraft, Lucy. Presumably a village child in Alton or Chawton.

Chamberlayne family. There were several branches of the Chamberlayne family in Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, and Gloucestershire; the latter family were distant cousins of Mrs GA by virtue of their common ancestor James Brydges, Lord Chandos of Sudeley (d. 1714). In 1801 JA met in Bath Mr Edmund-John Chamberlayne (1766–1831) of Maugersbury House, Glos., and his wife Cecil pg 505Talbot (1768–1832), who were childless; and in 1805 in Bath she met Adml Charles Chamberlayne (uncle of Mr EJC, d. 1810) of Plymouth, with his wife Margaret and ten children; of these children she mentions Annabella (1787), Amelia (1789), Bickerton (1791), and Richard (1796). Bickerton may have been a godson of either Sir Richard Bickerton, Port-Admiral at Plymouth (d. 1792), or of Admiral Sir Richard Hussey Bickerton, Bt (1759–1832), CinC Portsmouth 1812.

Admiral Chamberlayne's eldest sister, Lydia-Catherine (b. 1737) married 1763 Laurence Irvine (q.v.), and had issue. See Robin Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

Chambers. A former maidservant to Mrs Leigh-Perrot.

Chambers, William. Silk-dyer, Canal Place, Southampton.

Champneys, Sir Thomas (1745–1821). First baronet (1767) of Orchardleigh, Somerset. His daughter Catherine-Harriet (1776–1812) married J. Butcher.

Chaplin, Miss. Presumably a London shopkeeper: perhaps Mary Chaplin, lace-dealer, 61 Grosvenor Street; or perhaps Chaplin & Smith, warehousemen for Manchester goods (i.e. stockists of assorted cotton fabrics), 8 Ave Maria Lane.

Chapman, Mrs and Miss Laura. From Margate; probably related to the Revd Mr Chapman who was schoolmaster there in the 1790s.

Chard, Mr. George William Chard (1765–1849), assistant organist at Winchester Cathedral, and also JA's visiting music-master at Steventon. See H. Neville Davies, 'More Light on Mr Chard', Collected Reports, IV. 140–2, and Piggott, Innocent Diversion, 5, 6, 8, 54, 160, 167.

Charlotte. Maidservant to Mary Lloyd at Deane.

Charteris, the Misses. Daughters of Lord Elcho and sisters of Francis, 8th Earl of Wemyss; the Elcho family rented the Great House at South Warnborough, Hants, from at least February 1797 until October 1800. The eldest daughter Henrietta had already married 1797 the 6th Earl of Stamford, so the Misses Charteris present at the ball in January 1799 would have been Susan, Catherine, and Augusta, or any two of these three.

Chessyre, Mr. Miss Bailey's medical attendant at Hinckley: 'Chessher and Wilson, Surgeons.'

Children family, of Ferox Hall, Tonbridge, Kent. George Children (1742–1818) married Jane Weller of Tonbridge; their son John-George (1777–1852) was therefore a kinsman of the Austens. He married 24 June 1798 at Pinner, Middx., Hester-Ann Holwell (q.v.). Both father and son were keen amateur scientists, experimenting with electricity and chemistry—see entries in ODNB. See also M. Wilson, JA's Family and Tonbridge, 42–3; and Pedley, A Georgian Marriage, 37–8, 260, 304–5.

Chisholme, Revd Charles. Rector 1812 of Eastwell, Kent.

Choles. The Austens' manservant at Southampton.

pg 506Cholmeley family, baronets of Easton Hall, Lincolnshire. James Cholmeley (d. 1735) had three children: John, Robert, and Catherine. John's grandson Mountague (1772–1831) was created a baronet in 1806, and the latter's sister Penelope married Francis-Lucius Austen (q.v.). Robert went to Barbados and married Ann Willoughby, by whom he had three children: James, Jane, and Katherine; Jane (1744–1836) was sent back to England in 1750 for education, and in 1764 married James Leigh-Perrot (q.v.); Katherine married William Spry Governor-General of Barbados 1767–71, and their daughter Wilhelmina Spry married her cousin Sir William Welby (q.v.), grandson of the elder Catherine Cholmeley's marriage to William Welby.

After returning to England as a child, Mrs Leigh-Perrot never saw her brother James again, but she retained very fond memories of him and left legacies to his descendants. The Cholmeleys themselves are not mentioned in JA's letters.

Chowne: see Tilson.

Christian's. Probably Christian & Son, linen-drapers, of 11 Wigmore Street, London.

Chute family, of The Vine (or Vyne), Sherborne St John, Hants. The Chutes had owned the ancient house since 1653, but in 1776 the male line of descent failed and the estate passed to Thomas Lobb of South Pickenham, Norfolk, whose mother had been a Chute. He changed his name to Chute, and had, amongst other children who died unmarried, William-John (1757), Mary (1763), and Thomas-Vere (1772).

(1) William-John (1757–1824), MP for Hants 1790–1806 and 1807–20; Master of the Vine Foxhounds; inherited the estate 1791; married 1793 Elizabeth Smith (q.v.) but had no issue. In 1803 the Chutes adopted as a daughter a distant cousin, Caroline Wiggett (q.v.); her elder brother William eventually inherited The Vyne in 1827 and became known as Wiggett-Chute.

(2) Mary (1763–1821) married 1783 Wither Bramston of Oakley Hall (q.v.), but had no issue.

(3) Revd Thomas-Vere (1772–1827), Pembroke College, Cambridge 1790, BA 1794, MA 1801; served in the Hants Fencible Cavalry and early in 1798 stationed at Deal and New Romney, Kent; ordained 1804 and occupied the Lobb family livings of Great Moulton St Michael and South Pickenham, in Norfolk, till his death; inherited The Vyne 1824; died unmarried at South Pickenham Hall 22 January 1827. He owned copies of S&S, P&P, and NA&P, and signed his name in the volumes.

Claringbould. Farming family, at Goodnestone, Kent. John Claringbould was buried 11 September 1796.

Clarke, Revd James-Stanier (1766–4 October 1834). Author, biographer, naval chaplain 1795–99; Domestic Chaplain 1799 and Librarian 1805 to the Prince of Wales; Historiographer to the King 1812, Deputy Clerk of the Closet to the pg 507King 1816; rector of Preston-cum-Hove, Sussex, 1790–1834, rector of Coombe, Sussex, 1804–8, Canon of Windsor 1808–34, rector of Tillington, near Petworth, Sussex, 1816; MI at Tillington. He purchased the first edition of NA&P, and signed his name in the volumes.

Amongst his other literary pursuits Mr Clarke started in 1799 the Naval Chronicle, which ran for twenty years. Having failed to interest JA in his ideas for romantic novels, he had better success in patronizing Jane Porter (1776–1850), who accepted his suggestion of the theme for her fourth and last novel, Duke Christian of Luneberg: 'Clarke supplied Miss Porter with authorities; it was published in three volumes in 1824, and dedicated to the king, who expressed satisfaction with it.'

Clarke family. John Clarke (1759–1842) of Worting, Hants; married Anne, second daughter of Carew Mildmay and sister of Lady Mildmay (q.v.). The Clarkes were old friends of Mr and Mrs George Hoar (q.v.).

Clayton family. Hampshire Chronicle, 10 July 1809: 'At Stonehall, Surrey, aged 79, the Rt Hon Lady Louisa Clayton, 5th dau. of Thomas the first Earl of Pomfret, and relict of the late Wm Clayton, Esq, of Harleyford, Bucks.' Mr Clayton is probably her son George (d. 1828), of 79 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London; maternal cousin of Mrs Fielding (q.v.).

Clement family, of Alton and Chawton. Thomas Clement (1745–13 October 1826) of Alton, attorney, married 1780 Jane White (1755–3 January 1831, q.v.), and had nine children.

Of these nine, his daughter Mary-Anne (1783) married 1809 Frederick Gray (q.v.) of Alton; and his younger son Benjamin (1785–5 November 1835), Captn RN, married 1811 Ann-Mary Prowting (q.v.) of Chawton, and had three children: Benjamin (1813), Wiliam-Thomas (1821), and Anne-Mary (1824).

Of these three, Revd Benjamin (1813–27 November 1873) was for thirty-four years a Minor Canon of Winchester; Wiliam-Thomas (1821–13 January 1864) had an only daughter, Lilias-Edith (Lily) (1860–2 February 1895), who died unmarried; Anne-Mary (1824–22 February 1893) married George Wolfe, but had no issue.

See T. Clayton and P. Craig, Trafalgar, 41, 165–7, 224–5, 312–13, 373–4, for information on Captn Clement's naval service.

In 1803 Thomas Clement signed on as Captain in the Alton Volunteers.

The Henry Clement who was HTA's banking partner in Petersfield was probably a member of this Alton family.

Clewes, Miss. Governess at Godmersham from 1813 to 1820. She agreed (perhaps sycophantically?) with FCK's opinions of MP.

Cobourg, Prince of: see under Royal Family.

Colbourne, or (more phonetically) Cooban, Miss. Owner of the girls' boarding-school at 10 Upper [Lansdown] Crescent, Bath.

pg 508Cole, Benjamin. The next tenant of 4 Sydney Place, Bath, following the Austens' residence there.

Coleby, B. H. Draper in Alton; CEA paid him £20 in January 1817.

Coleman family. Richard (1777–1832) and Mary-Anne Coleman, of Court Lodge, Godmersham; their daughter Elizabeth was baptized 14 January 1807.

Collier or Collyer. Proprietor of a London-Southampton coach service.

Colyear, Lady Catherine. Daughter of the 3rd Earl of Portmore (q.v.), married 9 October 1810 Mr Joseph Brecknell (q.v.).

Conyngham, Lady. Elizabeth, daughter of J. Denison, married 1794 Baron Conyngham (1766–1832), who became 1816 first Marquis Conyngham, and 1821 Baron Minster of Minster Abbey, Kent.

Cooke family, of Great Bookham. Revd Samuel Cooke (1741–9 March 1820), rector of Cotsford, Oxon., and vicar of Great Bookham, Surrey, 1769-1820; married 16 June 1768 Cassandra Leigh (27 January 1743/4–11 Oct. 1826, q.v.), first cousin, namesake, and almost exact contemporary of Mrs GA; godfather to JA. The Cookes had eleven children, of whom only three survived:

(1) Revd Theophilus-Leigh (13 April 1778–11 October 1846); Balliol College, Oxford 1794, then Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; perpetual curate of Beckley, Northants 1803, and Little Ilford, Essex; rector of Brandeston, Norfolk 1815; buried Beckley.

(2) Revd George-Leigh (1 July 1779–1853); Balliol College, Oxford 1797 and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford 1800-15; Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy 1810–53; Keeper of the Archives 1818–26; vicar of Rissington Wick, Glos., vicar of Cubbington and perpetual curate of Hunningham, Warwicks. 1820; married Anne Hay (1786–1869) and had issue; buried Beckley.

(3) Mary (14 March 1781–post-1845), unmarried.

The curates with whom Mary Cooke did not fall in love were Revd George-Hanway Standert (Great Bookham 1808 and Little Bookham thereafter), Revd John-Collinson Bissett (Great Bookham 1809), and their neighbour Revd John Warneford of Dorking (q.v.).

Mrs Cooke was herself an authoress, having published a novel, Battleridge: An Historical Tale Founded on Facts, in 1799. When MP appeared the Cookes told JA that they were very much pleased with it, 'particularly with the Manner in which the Clergy are treated'—and Mr Cooke called it 'the most sensible Novel he had ever read'. Mary Cooke was quite as much pleased with it as her parents.

When Fanny Burney married Genl D'Arblay in 1793 the couple lived first in Great Bookham till 1797, and then in the nearby village of West Humble till 1801. During this period, and also for some years afterwards, there are a number of references to the Cookes in Fanny's correspondence, beginning straightaway on 30 August 1793:

pg 509Mr Cooke, our vicar, a very worthy man, & a goodish—though by no means a marvellously rapid Preacher—tells me he longs for nothing so much as a Conversation with Dr. Burney, upon the subject of Parish Psalm singing.—He complains that the Methodists run away with the regular Congregations, from their superiority in Vocal devotion, & he wishes to remedy this evil by a little laudable emulation… . His Wife, Mrs. Cooke, is a very sensible & benevolent woman, & excessively kind to me.

[December 1797]: We quitted Bookham with one single regret—that of leaving our excellent neighbours, the Cookes. I do not absolutely include the fair young Lady in my sorrow!—but the Father is so worthy, & the Mother so good, so deserving, so liberal & so infinitely kind, that the world certainly does not abound with people to compare with them… . The eldest son, too, is a remarkably pleasing young man: the younger seems as sulky as the sister is haughty.

[March 1799]: An excellent, though new friend of ours, the wife of our Bookham vicar, Mrs. Cooke, is now at Bath: & if you can set aside the prejudice her appearance & solemnity of Manner may give rise to, you will find her a cultivated, well bred woman, as well as scrupulously honourable, & warmly zealous for those she loves… . Her Daughter is sensible, but stiff & cold, & by no means equally amiable in her disposition now, though I think improving, & opening into something better. (J. Hemlow (ed.), The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney, iii. 2–3 and iv. 50, 262)

Fanny Burney preserved seven letters from Mrs Cooke, written between 1796 and 1819 (British Library Egerton MSS 3698, fos. 127–36b).

Cooper family. Revd Dr Edward Cooper (1728–27 August 1792), son of Gislingham Cooper of Phyllis Court, Henley, Oxon.; Queen's College, Oxford 1743/4 and Fellow of All Souls 1747–68; Holcombe Prebendary of Bath and Wells 1770; rector of Hill Deverill, Wilts. 1781–4; rector of Whaddon near Bath 1782–4; vicar of Sonning, Berks. 1784–92; married 1768 Jane Leigh (q.v.), sister of Mrs GA; lived for a time at Southcote near Reading, Berks., and later at Bath; after his wife's sudden death in October 1783 moved to Sonning; one son Edward and one daughter Jane; buried at Whaddon, with his wife.

Jane Cooper (29 June 1771–9 August 1798) married at Steventon 11 December 1792 Captn Thomas Williams, RN (q.v.); killed in a road accident in the Isle of Wight, and left no issue.

Revd Edward Cooper, junior (1 July 1770–20 February 1833); Eton and Fellow of All Souls, Oxford; married 14 March 1793 Caroline-Isabella Powys (d. 1838, q.v.) and had eight children; curate at Harpsden near Henley, Oxon. 1793–9; rector of Hamstall Ridware, Staffs. 1799 and of Yoxall, Staffs. 1809; buried Hamstall Ridware. He wrote hymns and also published a number of sermons. See I. Collins, 'Too much zeal for the Bible Society', Collected Reports, VI. 21–36; pg 510also Le Faye, 'There cannot be a more worthy young man', Report for 2008 (2009), 25–43. Edward Cooper's children were:

(1) Edward-Philip (27 October 1794–29 November 1864), born Harpsden; godson of HTA; married 1825 his cousin Caroline-Louisa Powys (d. Sept. 1855) and had two daughters, Edith-Cassandra and Sophia-Mary-Leigh; vicar of Long Itchington, Warwicks., and of Little Dalby, Leics. 1852–64.

(2) Isabella-Mary (29 November 1795–31 January 1859), born Harpsden; married 9 April 1834 Revd Thomas Arden and had issue; died Walton-on-Trent, Derby.

(3) Cassandra-Louisa (24 May 1797–24 December 1880), born Harpsden; god-daughter of Mrs GA.

(4) Jane-Elizabeth (8 March 1799–8 January 1882), born Harpsden.

(5) Frederick-Leigh (7 January 1801), born Hamstall Ridware; married, no issue.

(6) Henry-Gisborne (28 April 1802–10 July 1876), born Hamstall Ridware; married Elizabeth Palmer, no issue; vicar of Burton-under-Needwood, Staffs. 1838–76.

(7) Philip-Arden (25 December 1803–30 April 1879), born Hamstall Ridware; married his cousin Amelia-Frances Powys, no issue; vicar of Orton on the Hill, Leics. 1834–73.

(8) Warren (5 March 1805–18 March 1844), born Hamstall Ridware; married Frances Pugh; no surviving issue.

Cope, Revd Sir Richard, 9th Bt (1719–1806). Of Bramshill Park, and rector of Eversley, Hants.

Corbett. Farm bailiff at Steventon; Mary Corbett, maidservant at Ashe Park, is probably his daughter. Perhaps the William Corbet who was buried at Ashe, aged 70, in 1826.

Cottrell family. Charles Cottrell (1765–25 February 1829), of Hadley, Middx., died unmarried. His younger brother Revd Clement Cottrell was curate of Chipping Barnet, Herts., before becoming rector of North Waltham, Hants 1800 and died 26 July 1814; he had six children, the eldest of whom, Charles-Herbert Cottrell, succeeded to his uncle's property in Hadley; Clement's daughter Sophia married Revd J.-H.-George Lefroy (q.v.). A Charles-Jefferies Cottrell (?uncle, cousin) was rector of North Waltham from 22 September 1779 to 22 May 1800 when Clement C. took over; and returned to North Waltham after Clement's death (12 August 1814–his own death 18 February 1819).

A senior branch of the Cottrell family added -Dormer to their name in the eighteenth century upon inheriting the property of a cousin.

Coulthard family. Probably the Thomas Coulthard (1756–1811) who was creating an estate for himself by buying land in the parish of Bentworth, and living in large rented houses elsewhere in Hampshire while doing so. He was at Farleigh Wallop ante-1792, Alresford, Basing Park 1797 and tenant of Chawton pg 511Great House 1800–7; in 1802 a Chawton village girl, Sarah Andrews, had her illegitimate child baptized Thomas-Coulthard. He married (1) 1778 Mary Battin (1751–82), and had two sons, Thomas and James-Battin (1782–1856), which latter was living in Alton in 1815; (2) 1784 Frances Barlow (1764–1829); five sons and one daughter. The second wife is presumably the Mrs Coulthard who was at 13 Sydney Place, Bath, in 1805, and moving to live at Oakley 1813; the Mrs Coulthard who died in childbed 1798 does not seem to be connected to this family.

Courtenay, Captn Thomas. Married 1799 Sarah Lefroy (q.v.).

Cove, Mrs and Miss Anna. Visitors or residents at Lyme Regis, 1804.

Cox, the Misses. Perhaps daughters or sisters of Revd George Coxe (1756–1844), curate of Houghton, Hants 1786, and rector of St Michael's, Winchester 1810–44.

Crabbe, Revd George (1754–1832). For details of his life and poetic publications see ODNB; JA knew of and referred to his visit to London in July 1813; his wife Sarah died 21 September 1813 after their return home; Mr Crabbe became incumbent of Trowbridge, Wilts. 1814; visited London again in 1817.

Craven family. In JA's time the senior line of the Cravens was represented by William Craven (1770–1825), 7th Baron and 1st Earl of the 2nd creation (1801), of Hampstead Marshall and Ashdown Park, Berks. Lt-Col of the 3rd Foot ('The Buffs') and on active military service in the West Indies 1795–6; Aide-de-Camp to the King 1798–1805; Maj-General 1805, Lt-General 1811, General 1825; Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire. In 1803 he was encamped with The Buffs at Brighton, and so bored his 15-year-old mistress Harriette Wilson with tales of his campaigns in the West Indies (not to mention her disapproval of his 'ugly cotton nightcap') that she soon ran away from him to the protection of Frederick Lamb (1782–1853), later 3rd Viscount Melbourne, and thereafter became a high-flying courtesan in Regency society.

In 1805 Lord Craven saw Louisa Brunton (?1785–1860), daughter of John Brunton (a greengrocer turned actor and theatre manager in Norwich), and now making a name for herself as a Shakespearean actress at Drury Lane—her principal parts included Celia in As You Like It, Anne Boleyn in Henry VIII, and Lady Anne in Richard III. In 1807 Mrs Calvert watched her perform in Brighton, and commented in her diary: 'She is certainly a very handsome woman, but I don't think her looks pleasing. She has prodigious fine black eyes, but she rolls them about too much. Lord Craven is supposed to be very much in love with her, and many think he will marry her.' Fanny Kemble's mother remembered Louisa Brunton as

a very eccentric as well as attractive and charming woman, who contrived, too, to be a very charming actress, in spite of a prosaical dislike to her business, which used to take the peculiar and rather alarming turn of suddenly, in the pg 512midst of a scene, saying aside to her fellow-actors, 'What nonsense all this is! Suppose we don't go on with it.' This singular expostulation my mother said she always expected to see followed up by the sudden exit of her lively companion, in the middle of her part. Miss Brunton, however, had self-command enough to go on acting till she became Countess of Craven, and left off the nonsense of the stage for the earnestness of high life… . Miss Brunton, at the beginning of December 1807, with characteristic modesty, made her final curtsey on the stage—

and married Lord Craven on 12 December at his town house in London. Later gossip-writers recalled her as 'tall and commanding and of the most perfect symmetry, and her face the perfection of sweetness and expression'.

In 1816 the Countess admired Emma very much, but did not think it equal to P&P.

The Earl was one of the founder-members of the Royal Yacht Squadron, and in 1809 named his yacht Louisa. He was patron of several livings, including Hampstead Marshall and Enborne in Berkshire, and Wistanstow, West Felton, and Onibury in Shropshire.

A Craven family of a junior line was known personally to JA and is mentioned frequently in her letters; their descent is as follows:

Charles Craven (1682–1754), youngest brother of William 2nd Lord Craven; known in the family as 'Governor Craven', as he had been Governor of the state of South Carolina 1711–16; married c.1720 Elizabeth Staples and had six surviving children; within a few months of Charles Craven's death his widow married Mr Jemmet Raymond of Barton Court, Kintbury, Berks., and died there in 1773. Of her Craven children only Margaret, Jane, Martha, and John concern us.

(1) Margaret (c.1723–1815), eloped c.1750 with Robert Hinch- or Hinxman (q.v.), and had issue.

(2) Jane (1727–98), married 18 July 1763 Revd Thomas Fowle II (q.v.), and had issue.

(3) Martha (1729–1805), married 2 June 1763 Revd Nowis or Noyes Lloyd (q.v.), and had issue.

(4) John (1732–1804), St Mary Hall, Oxford, and took Holy Orders; curate of Laverstoke, Hants 1755; rector of Wolverton, Hants 1759–1804; went to live at Barton Court, Kintbury 1774; in 1776 cited in a crim. con. case brought by Mr John Potter Harris of Baughurst, Hants, for adultery with Mrs Harris during 1774–5, and had to pay £3,000 damages; married (1) 1756 Elizabeth Raymond of Barton Court, younger half-sister of his mother's second husband ('She had a good fortune, with more in prospect; but she was a young woman of weak intellect'), who died without issue; (2) 1779 Catherine Hughes, daughter of James Hughes of Letcombe, Berks., and had two sons and one daughter; lived at Barton Court and also at Chilton Foliat, Wilts. died 'after an hour's illness' 19 June 1804, 'many years an acting magistrate pg 513for Berks, Wilts, Glos and Hants'. His widow lived later at Speen Hill and died 31 March 1839.

Revd John Craven's children were: Fulwar (1782–1860), married 27 November 1809 Laura Vansittart and had issue; Charles-John (1784–1864), married 21 October 1817 Penelope Wheler and had issue; and Charlotte-Elizabeth (1798–7 October 1877), married 9 September 1819 Sir John Walter Pollen, 2nd Bt, of Redenham near Andover, Hants, but had no issue. Charlotte-Elizabeth Craven was at school in London in 1813, and later on owned a first edition of Emma, signing her name in all three volumes. She and her mother liked it, but not so much as the preceding novels.

Crawford, Mr. Visitor or resident in Lyme Regis, 1804.

Creed, Mrs, of Hendon. Catherine Herries (q.v.) married 1813 Henry Knowles Creed (1785–1855), who took Holy Orders 1826 and became vicar of Corse, Glos., 1828. Mrs Creed preferred S&S and P&P to MP. A Mr William Creed and daughter were living in Hampstead, near Hendon, in 1795; and in 1815 a Mr H. Creed was living at 19 Hans Place, Chelsea, who may be the same HKC.

Criswick family. Mrs Criswick of Highclere seems to have been employed at some time by Governor Craven, father of Revd John Craven (q.v.); the Mr Criswick mentioned in 1808 is possibly her son, and perhaps the same as the James Criswick whose infant daughter Anna was buried at Newbury in January 1816.

Crook & Besford's. John Crook, Son, and Besford, haberdashers and hosiers, 104 Pall Mall, London.

Crooke, Mr, and sisters. Mr John-Crosse Crooke purchased the Kempshott Park estate near Worting, Hants, in 1788, and these three young people are no doubt his children.

Crosby, Richard. Son of Benjamin Crosby & Co., publishers, of 4 Stationers' Court, Ludgate Street, London.

Croucher, Mary. Godmersham villager, buried 11 September 1814 aged 79.

Crutchley family. Jeremiah Crutchley (1745–1805), had purchased Sunning Hill Park, Berks., in 1769; as he never married, his sister Elizabeth (1747–1837) was his hostess, and the heir was his nephew George-Henry Duffield, eldest son of his sister Alice (1751–1833), who therefore took the name of Crutchley.

Cure family. George Cure, an upholsterer in the Haymarket, London (with royal appointment to the Prince of Wales), married c.1730 Elizabeth Hampson, daughter of Sir George Hampson, 4th Bt (q.v.). She died childless 1733; c.1743 George Cure married Catherine Payne (q.v.), and had two sons; the Mr Cure whom JA met in 1811 was probably the younger one, Capel Cure (1746–1820), of Blake Hall near Ongar, Essex, and also 37 Great George Street, London.

Curling, Sarah and Eliza. Daughters and co-heiresses of George Curling, of Essex and London. Sarah (b. 1784) married 23 January 1816 at St James, Piccadilly, Col pg 514Thomas Alston Brandreth, RA, and died childless ante-1826 when Col Brandreth married again. Eliza married (1) 31 December 1814 Captn Herbert William Hore, RN (1787-1823), and had three children; she married (2) 1826 Henry Bedford (died ante-1852), and had further issue.

Mrs Brandreth is not mentioned by her married name in JA's letters, but was one of the first readers of Emma, and JA recorded her comments in 'Opinions of Emma'. See Le Faye, 'JA and the Misses Curling', N&Q 58: 1 (Mar. 2011), 75–7.

George Curling had a sister Mary (1760–85), who married John Gibson of Ramsgate (q.v.), and had one daughter, also Mary (1784–1823), who married Francis William Austen. The Misses Curling were therefore first cousins to Mary Gibson.

Curtis family. For nearly 300 years, up to the 1950s, the prolific Curtis family played an important part in the life of the town of Alton. They were Quakers and medical practitioners, and the apothecary William Curtis who attended JA in her last illness was already the fourth generation of this profession; his son, another William (1803–81), founded the museum in Alton which bears his name, and lived in the house opposite, now 4 High Street. The botanist William Curtis (1746–99), author of the Flora Londinensis and of the Botanical Magazine, was also a member of the family.

Unfortunately the medical notes which Mr Curtis presumably made on his patients were not preserved by his descendants, nor is there any Curtis archive which refers to the Austens.

Cuthbert family. Miss Cuthbert, her sister Maria, and their brother lived at Eggarton House near Godmersham, where they looked after Elizabeth, the feeble-minded sister of Mr Thomas Knight (q.v.).

D'Antraigues, Comte Emmanuel-Louis (1756–22 July 1812). An accomplished scholar who was also a professional spy, forger, and double agent; married a beautiful French opera singer, Anne de St Huberti, and had one son, Julien (1792–1861), who later lived at 27 Montague Place, Russell Square, London; came to England 1806 with credentials purporting to be from the Tsar of Russia; lived at Queen Ann Street West (now Queen Anne Street) in London, and also at 27 The Terrace, Barnes, Surrey; he and his wife were both murdered in their Barnes house one evening by their Italian servant, possibly on account of a personal grievance or possibly for political reasons.

D'Arblay, Alexander (1794–1837), son of Fanny Burney and General D'Arblay. From 1793 to 1797 the D'Arblays lived at Great Bookham, and were in frequent contact with Revd Samuel Cooke (q.v.) and his wife; it is not known whether JA ever actually met Fanny Burney, but Mrs Cooke no doubt passed on information to Steventon concerning these new and interesting parishioners.

D'Auvergne, Corbet-James. Commander RN 1807 and appointed to the sloop HMS Autumn in September 1810, Post-Captain 1811; died 1825; a Jerseyman, and pg 515younger half-brother of Admiral Philip D'Auvergne, RN, who was briefly the Prince de Bouillon.

Davis, Miss. Professional singer in London.

Davis, Mrs. Draper in Basingstoke.

Dawes, Miss. A Revd William Dawes was incumbent of Burghclere earlier in the eighteenth century, and his sons were curates of Litchfield and Wolverton. This Miss Dawes may be a descendant of that family; this is Ibthorpe news that JA is transmitting, and the three villages are all in the Ibthorpe area.

Dawkins, Betty. Steventon villager, buried 16 April 1810.

Day, Mrs. Perhaps the wife of John Day, baker, at 145 High Street, Southampton.

Daysh, George. Clerk in the Ticket Office, Navy Office, London 1778–1821.

Deane family. Mrs Deane and her daughters Harriet and Augusta, of Monk (West) Sherborne, Hants. They may perhaps be part of the prolific Deane family who were prominent in the civic affairs of Reading, Berks., at this period. A Deane boy, either George or Henry was one of Revd GA's pupils at Steventon Rectory c.1779. There was also a Mr Thomas Deane, brewer and brandy-merchant of Winchester, who may be related.

Debary family. Revd Peter Debary (1725–January 1814), vicar 1755–1814 of Hurstbourne Tarrant, Hants, and 1772 of Burbage, Wilts.; married Ann Hayward (1727–1809) and had two sons and four daughters: Ann (1763–1834); Revd Peter Debary, junior (1764–1841), curate 1804 and rector January 1807–24 of Eversley, Hants, vicar of Aisgarth, Yorks., and rector of Orwell, Cambs., 1830; Mary (1766–1854); Richard (1767–1829); Susannah (1768–1852); Sarah (1770–1823). There are Debary family MIs at St Peter's, Hurstbourne Tarrant.

Deedes family, of Sandling Park, near Hythe, Kent. William Deedes (1761–1834) married 27 December 1791 Sophia Bridges, second daughter of Sir Brook Bridges III (q.v.), and thus became a brother-in-law of Edward Austen Knight. The Deedes had nineteen children, all but the last of whom were known to JA: Sophia (1793), Mary (1794), Fanny (1795), William (1796), Julius (1798), Isabella (1799), Henry (1800), Edward (1801), John (1803), Harriett (1805), George (1806), Elizabeth (1807), Charles (1808), Robert (1809), Lewis (1811), Edmund (1812), Louisa (1813), Marianne (1817), Emily (1818); Harriett, Elizabeth, Louisa, and Emily died young.

William Deedes was Colonel of the South Kent Volunteers—'when the coast was threatened with invasion, he remained in his post in the fearless discharge of all his public and private duties'—and MP for Hythe 1807–12. On 26 June 1814 the Tsar of Russia passed through Hythe during his visit to England for the peace celebrations, and the 'fair and accomplished daughter' of Mr Deedes helped to serve him coffee at the Swan—this presumably would have been the eldest, Sophia.

pg 516Dering family, of Surrenden-Dering, near Ashford, Kent. Sir Edward, 6th Bt (1732–8 December 1798), succeeded by his son Edward, 7th Bt (1757–1811).

Dewar family. Penelope-Susanna Mathew (q.v.) married 1787 her first cousin David Dewar (d. 1794) of St Christopher's, West Indies, and of Enham House, Hants, and had three children: Jane-Charlotte (1791), George (1792), David (1794); a descendant George Bertie Albemarle Dewar was a naturalist and writer in the Edwardian era. Mrs Dewar married (2) 1799 Charles Cumberland (d. 1835), third son of the dramatist Richard Cumberland, and had another five children; their debts obliged them to live abroad.

Dickens, Mrs. Mary, née Hoar, married 1785 Col Richard-Mark Dickens of the 34th Regt; sister of George Hoar and Adml Sir Thomas Bertie (qq.v.).

Dickson, Mrs. There were numerous naval officers named Dickson in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; this is possibly Jane Dickson, married 1801 her cousin Captn (later Admiral) Archibald Dickson, RN (1772–1836) and died 1856. She did not much like Emma, and thought MP not equal to P&P.

Digweed family. The Digweeds had been tenants of the Steventon manor house and estate since 1758. In JA's time there was a Richard Digweed (c.1733–1805) and his wife Amy (c.1739–84), who had one daughter Mary (1761–1825, married William Webb (q.v.)); this family lived later on at Baughurst and Hannington, Hants, leaving the manor house to be inhabited by Hugh Digweed (1738–98) and his wife Ruth (1740–91) and their six children. Of these six, one died young, leaving five sons whom JA knew:

(1) John Digweed (1766), succeeded to other family estates at Ecchinswell, Hants, and is not mentioned in JA's letters.

(2) Harry Digweed (1771–1848), from 1798 till his marriage joint tenant of Steventon with his brother William-Francis; married 3 March 1808 Jane Terry (d. 1860, q.v.) and had four children; lived at Greywell and Alton, when he rented Manor Farm and Pound Farm in Chawton from the Knight estate, and later on the Continent—both he and his wife died and were buried in Paris. Mrs Digweed found Emma very dull and was barely able to read it through.

Harry's children were: Mary-Jane (1809–24, buried in Brussels); William-Henry (1810–81), who inherited the Ecchinswell property, became JP for Hants and Lt-Col of the Hants Militia, and had only one daughter, who predeceased him; John-Stephen (1812–d. London 1887, 'late of Paris'); Thomas-Frederick (d. 1868, buried in Paris).

(3) James Digweed (1774–1862), ordained 1797 and became curate of Steventon 1798, but never actually held a benefice; married 1803 Mary-Susannah Lyford (1772–1840, q.v.), and lived at Worting and Dummer, Hants.

James had five children: John-James (1807–81) who took Holy Orders, succeeded as tenant of Steventon manor house upon the death of his uncle William, moved to West Meon in 1877 and died there unmarried; daughters Marianne (c. 1808–82), Ellen, Jane (all unmarried) and Susannah (d. 1847) who married and left issue.

pg 517(4) William-Francis (1776–1863), remained at Steventon when his brother Harry married and moved away; died unmarried.

(5) Francis-William (1781–1866), moved to Greywell, married Elizabeth Harding 18 April 1806.

Dinah. Maidservant to the Fowles at Kintbury, and aunt of Mary Lloyd's maidservant Jenny Jennings (q.v.) at Deane.

Doe, Mary. Maidservant at Chawton Great House; probably Mary, daughter of William and Sarah Doe, baptized 17 August 1796 and married William Garnett 30 November 1816.

Dolphin family. John-Vernon Dolphin, High Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1798; of Eyford House, Glos.

Dorchester, Lord. Guy Carleton (1724–1808); Colonel of 4th Dragoons, served in the Guards at the battle of Fontenoy 1745, defended Quebec 1775 and saved Canada; CinC in America 1781–83, 1st Baron Dorchester 1786; of Kempshott Park, Hants. Married 1772 Maria Howard (d. 1836), daughter of 2nd Earl of Effingham; nine sons and two daughters. Two of the sons died in infancy six were in the armed forces and died on active service between 1793 and 1820, and only the youngest, Richard, survived to become rector of the family living of Nately Scures, Hants. Of the two daughters, Maria (1779–1863) married William, 2nd Lord Bolton (q.v.); Frances (1785–1812) married Revd John Orde (q.v.).

Dormer, Mrs. Perhaps a member of the Cottrell-Dormer family (q.v. Cottrell).

Dowdeswell, 'Mrs' Dorothy (1741–1804). Daughter of Revd Bernard Dowdeswell of Westwell, Oxon., and so cousin of Mrs Foley (q.v.); of 17 Marlborough Buildings, Bath.

Downes, the. Visitors or residents in Lyme Regis, 1804.

Dowton, William. Actor (1764–1851); had been performing at Canterbury and Tunbridge Wells since 1791; made his debut at Drury Lane 1796 and became a celebrated comedian.

Drew, Mrs. Resident in the boarding-house 17 High Street, Southampton.

Driver, Mrs. Housekeeper at Godmersham.

Duer, Mrs. Of Southampton; wife or widow of John Duer of Antigua, and grandmother of Sir George Henry Rose, MP for the city of Southampton.

Duncan family. Mr and Mr John Duncan, and their sisters; perhaps children of Lady Mary Duncan of 44 Great Pulteney Street, Bath; or of the Revd Dr John Duncan who was rector of South Warnborough, Hants 1788.

Dundas family. Charles Dundas (1751–1832), MP for Berkshire 1794–1832; created Baron Amesbury 1832; married Ann Whitley (1752–1 December 1812), heiress of Barton Court, Kintbury, Berks.; their only daughter Janet-Whitley Dundas married April 1808 her first cousin Captn James Deans, RN (b. 1785), who became known as Captn Whitley-Deans-Dundas and was later Rear-Admiral and pg 518Naval Aide-de-Camp to King William IV. Mrs Deans-Dundas thought Emma very clever, but did not like it so much as the preceding novels.

Durham, Sir Philip (1763–1845). Captain RN, Admiral, and GCB 1830; appointed to HMS Endymion February 1801. For details of his naval career see John Marshall, Royal Naval Biography (London, 1824–35).

Dusautoy/du Sautoy family. According to a letter received by RWC in 1954 from a Mr P. du Sautoy, then living in Africa, this family were not Huguenots but originated in England with Pierre-François du Sautoy, known to his descendants as the 'Old Frenchman'. He was born 1731 at Liège, ward of Comte de Clermont, and obtained a commission in the French army; fought at Fontenoy and subsequently came over to Scotland to join the army of Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender; apparently captured by the English at Culloden and released on parole at Basingstoke. In 1758 he married at Basingstoke Mary Abbot, and had four sons; married twice more, his third marriage being in 1775 to Mary Bourchier or Boucher, in Southampton; taught in Winchester; died 1819 and buried at Buriton, Hants.

The eldest son of his first marriage, Peter-John Du Sautoy, became curate of Chawton, and performed the marriage in 1789 of JA's second cousin, Elizabeth-Matilda Austen of Tonbridge (q.v.), to John-Butler Harrison II of Southampton (q.v.). Another son, James Du Sautoy, married in 1793 Mary Hinton (q.v.); James had been in the Marines, and ended his military career as barrack-master in Totnes, Devon, and later Taunton, Somerset, dying in Taunton in 1859 at the age of 97; he had numerous children, of whom the 'Miss Dusautoy' JA mentions is probably his eldest daughter Mary (1795–1818), and her 'youngest sister' Fanny (1813–1913). See W. A. W. Jarvis, 'The Dusautoys', Collected Reports, III. 302–4.

According to the Southampton Directory for 1803, a Louis Dusautoy was a French teacher, living (appropriately) in French Street; while a Charles Dusautoy was a cabinet-maker and upholsterer at 132 High Street.

Wiliam-Stevens Dusautoy (b. 1783), son of Revd Peter-John, became curate of Monk Sherborne, Hants 1806.

Dyson family. Henry Dyson (1765–1846), third son of Jeremiah Dyson, Cofferer to HM Household; King's College, Cambridge 1784, BA 1789, MA 1792, Fellow 1787–92; ordained 1790, curate of Baughurst, Hants 1793, then rector of Baughurst 1796–1842 and vicar of Wexham, Bucks. 1814–46. Married 1792 Elizabeth ?Wilcocks, and had twelve children: Henry (1793), Elizabeth (1794), John (1795), George (1797), Frederick (1798), Mary (1800), William (1801), Charlotte (1803), Francis (1805), Jeremiah (1807), Alfred (1809), Edward (1810). When JA called at Baughurst in February 1801, Mrs Dyson was pregnant with William.

Many years later JEAL remembered Mr Dyson: 'The old rector of Baughurst, a gentleman of the most wooden and inexpressive countenance imaginable. He seldom spoke, unless spoken to; and was rarely seen within a field or two of pg 519hounds; but he loved hunting in his own way, and went quite as well in the vale as on the hills.'

There was also Revd Henry's elder brother Jeremiah Dyson and his wife Elizabeth Collins, living at Compton, Hants; Revd Philip Williams (q.v.) was brother-in-law to this couple.

East, Miss. Martha (died unmarried 17 June 1854), daughter of Edward East of Whitehall, Jamaica; Mrs Latouche (q.v.) was her mother.

East, Sir William (1738–1819). First baronet 1766, of Hall Place, Hurley, Berks., and 38 Welbeck Street, London; his eldest son Gilbert (1764–1828) was one of Revd GA's pupils c.1779.

Eden, the Misses. The Rt Revd John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury 1783–1805 (q.v.) had married 1770 as his second wife Catherine, second daughter of Sir Robert Eden, Bt; the Misses Eden to whom JA refers may have been her nieces. Sir Robert's son William was created Baron Auckland in 1789.

Edwards, Mr, and daughter. Perhaps Revd Mr Edwards of 7 Gay Street, Bath.

Edwards, Mrs. Perhaps the wife of William Edwards of Alton, wealthy butcher and churchwarden in 1814.

Edwin, Mrs John junior. (1769–1854). Actress, but evidently not a star performer.

Egerton, Henry. Eliza de Feuillide (Mrs HTA) had in past years stayed with her friends Revd Charles Egerton and his wife Catherine, at Washington, co. Durham, where Mr Egerton was rector 1786–1819; this Henry is probably their son.

Egerton, Thomas. Of the Military Library, Whitehall; he lived and worked at 30 Charing Cross, Whitehall, on the corner of Great Scotland Yard. JA's first publisher, who brought out S&S and P&P, and the first edition of MP.

Egremont, Lord. George Wyndham (1751–1837), 3rd Earl of Egremont, of Petworth, Sussex. A very wealthy, amiable, and sociable landowner, who kept open house at Petworth for anyone who liked to visit him. 'He would wander through the great rooms, his hat on his head, his hands in his pockets and little dogs at his heels, exchanging civilities whenever he felt obliged to do so.' He was also a generous patron of the arts, and especially of J. M. W. Turner, who lived at Petworth from 1809. See Lord Egremont, Wyndham and Children First (London, 1968), 27–39.

Ekins, Anne. Younger daughter of Revd Jeffery Ekins, Dean of Carlisle; living with her mother at 7 Upper [Lansdown] Crescent, Bath; married 1812 as his second wife John-Hooper Holder (q.v.). Miss Ekins 'had nothing to commend her except her dulcet tones', and Mr Holder's mother was so disgusted at his choice that she would not go to the wedding. See Carola Oman, Ayot Rectory (London, 1965), 62.

Eliza. The Austens' maidservant in Southampton.

Elliot, Revd William (b. 1773). Curate 1796 of Tangley, Hants, a village 5 miles west of Hurstbourne Tarrant; friend of Revd William Lance of Netherton (q.v.).

pg 520Elliott, Mrs. Perhaps Mrs Elliott of 33 New King Street, or else Mrs Grace Elliott of 4 Seymour Street, Bath.

Ellis, Charles Rose. Owned Claremont Park, Esher, Surrey, from 1807 to 1816.

Elliston family. Robert William (1774–1831), actor, of the Bath Theatre and 39 Milsom Street; later a theatrical manager in London and the provinces; married 1796 Elizabeth Rundall, a teacher of dancing in Bath, who 'in the height of his success continued her occupation'. Her Dancing Academy was at 2 Trim Street in 1801, and by 1812 at 21 Milsom Street.

Revd Dr William Elliston (1732–1807), Master of Sidney College, Cambridge; 'uncle to Mr Elliston the dramatic performer, to whom he has left considerable property, Report says 17,000£'.

Elrington, Major. Either Major Francis, of the 122nd Foot, or Major Thomas-Gerard of the 115th Foot.

Elton, James. Presumably at one time employed by the Austens, but his name is not in the Deane or Steventon parish registers.

Emery, John. Actor (1777–1822); excelled in playing the parts of comic rustics.

Esten, Mrs. Née Esther Palmer (q.v.); wife of Mr James Christie Esten, Chief Justice of Bermuda, and sister-in-law of CJA.

Estwick, Mrs. Cassandra-Julia, elder daughter of 2nd Lord Hawke (q.v. under Turner) and niece of Lady Saye and Sele (q.v. under Twisleton); married (1) 1793 Samuel Estwick of Barbados (1770–97); (2) September 1800 Revd Stephen Sloane (q.v.); and (3) post-1812 Thomas Green.

Evelyn family. Wiliam-Glanvill Evelyn (1734–1 November 1813), of St Clere near Ightham, Kent, and 10 Queen's Parade, Bath; Sheriff of Kent 1757 and MP for Hythe 1768–96; died at Bath; his equestrian portrait by Stubbs is in the Tate Gallery. Married 1760 Susanna Barret and had one son, William, and one daughter, Frances. This son died in 1788; Frances married 1782 Col Alexander Hume, who later changed his name to Evelyn.

A cousin, John Evelyn, lived for a time at 23 Marlborough Buildings, Bath.

Fagg, Revd Sir John, 6th Bt (?1760–1822), of Mystole near Canterbury, and rector of Chartham, Kent. Married 1789 Anne Newman of Canterbury; four sons and five daughters: Elizabeth, Sarah-Anne, Augusta, Lucy, Jemima. In 1806 the 13-year-old Fanny Knight wrote to her former governess Miss Dorothy Chapman: 'I think I quite agree with you, as to Miss Faggs plainness, poor thing! To be sure, she is unfortunately ugly!'

Sir John Fagg's sister Helen married 1795 as his second wife Revd Philip Williams (q.v.).

Falknor. The coach service between London and Southampton was officially referred to as 'Collier's Southampton Coach' (sometimes spelt 'Collyer'), Collier being the proprietor; Falknor was the local Alton coachman.

pg 521Fe(a)ver. John Fever, of Woolland, Dorset married Catherine Page and left an only child and heiress, Catherine, who married (1) Captn Sch(u)yler and (2) George-Colby Loftus.

Fellow(e)s, Dr. Physician Extraordinary to the Prince of Wales; at 4 Bladud's Buildings, and later at Axford's Buildings, Bath.

Fendall, William (1758–?1813). Of Matson, Glos.; barrister of the Inner Temple 1783; widower, married 1801 at Baughurst, Hants, Mrs Jane Lyford (q.v.); Fendall, Evans & Jelf were a banking partnership in Gloucester 1800–13.

Fielding family. Earlier in the eighteenth century Miss Anne Palmer married (1) Sir Brook Bridges II of Goodnestone, and by him had one son, Sir Brook Bridges III (b. 1733); she married (2) 1737 Col the Hon Charles Fielding (sometimes also spelt Feilding), and by him had a daughter Isabella and a son Charles. This younger Charles, Commodore RN (d. 1783), married 1772 Sophia, daughter of William and Lady Charlotte Finch (née Fermor) and sister of the 8th Earl of Winchilsea; she is the 'Mrs Fielding' to whom JA refers in 1796; she had also a maternal cousin, George Clayton (q.v.).

Mrs Charles Fielding lived for a time with her mother at the royal residences of Windsor and St James's, since Lady Charlotte Finch (d. June 1813) was governess to the children of George III.

As soon as the Prince of Wales was born she took her station by his cradle, on being appointed governess to the royal infant and his future brothers and sisters … never was anyone in a similar employment more sincerely or more justly esteemed and beloved. Her judgement was clear, and her manners perfect. I have always thought it equally honourable to her royal pupils and to herself, that, however differing in pursuits and disposition, they were all warmly attached to Lady Charlotte Finch, and never varied in their affection for her. (Sir J. W. Kaye, Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight (London, 1861), ii. 167–8)

Miss Isabella Fielding, known affectionately as 'Aunt Fatty' to the Godmersham children, and godmother to Marianne Austen Knight, died unmarried in 1812.

Filmer family, baronets of East Sutton, Kent. The Revd Sir Edmund Filmer was 1751 rector of Crundale, Kent, and moved from there to East Sutton when he became 6th Bt 1806; he died 1810. His sixth son Revd Francis (1773–1859) (who also became rector of Crundale) married 1806 Mary-Anne Close, daughter of Revd Henry-Jackson Close, rector of Bentworth, Hants.

Finch and Finch-Hatton family. George Finch (1747–1823) of Eastwell Park near Ashford, Kent; added -Hatton to his name 1764; cousin of 8th Earl of Winchilsea; MP for Rochester 1772–84, and patron of the living of Wye; married 1785 Lady Elizabeth Murray, daughter of 2nd Earl of Mansfield, and had five children:

pg 522Louisa-Anne (c.1786), George-William (1791), Daniel-Heneage (1795), Anna-Maria (d. 1837), and Emily-Mary.

(1) Louisa married 1807 Maj-Genl the Hon Charles Hope, and died 1875.

(2) George (1791–1858), married (1) 1814 Lady Georgiana-Charlotte Graham (d. 1835), daughter of 3rd Duke of Montrose, whom FCK noted in her diary as being a 'sweet little perfection'; (2) 1837 Emily Bagot (d. 1848); (3) 1849 Fanny-Margaretta Rice, eldest daughter of FCK's sister Lizzy, Mrs Rice (q.v.); succeeded his cousin as 10th Earl of Winchilsea 1826. When EAK died in 1852, JEAL commented that it was 'strange to see Lord W. in his large and gouty shoes attending [the funeral] in the character of a grandson'. See M. Wilson, 'What happened to George Hatton and Mr JW?', Report for 2009 (2010), 33–40.

(3) Daniel (1795–1866); 1819 rector of Great Weldon, Northants, and later Chaplain to Queen Victoria; married 1825 Lady Louisa Greville.

JA also refers to a Mr E. Hatton, who was presumably the resoundingly named John-Emilius-Daniel-Edward Finch-Hatton (1755–1841), younger brother of George Finch-Hatton of Eastwell.

The Misses Anne and Mary Finch (who did not add -Hatton) were the unmarried sisters of George Finch-Hatton of Eastwell; a third sister, Harriet, married 1781 Sir Jenison-William Gordon, Bt (q.v.).

Fitzhugh family. Valentine Fitzhugh, of Bitterne Manor, Southampton, had three children: William (1758–1842), Mary (d. 1835), and Valentine (d. 1811). William went to China and made a fortune, and upon his return became an MP, with a London address at 18 Orchard Street, and rebuilt the old Banister Court farmhouse on the outskirts of Southampton into an elegant country villa; Mary married 1789 David Lance (q.v.); the younger Valentine, afflicted as he was by deafness, died 17 June 1811, 'of an atrophy', at his boarding-house, 17 High Street, Southampton.

Fletcher, Miss. Cecilia Scott, eldest daughter of George Scott of Bombay, married (1) Brice Fletcher (d. 1776) and had three children: Hinwood, Brice, and Cecilia. Mrs Fletcher married (2) c.1777 her cousin Francis-Talbot Scott (q.v.), and had two sons: George and Francis-Peach.

Fletcher, Mrs. Wife of William Fletcher, of Trinity College, Dublin, and Judge of Common Pleas, Ireland.

Floor, Mr. ?Tradesman in Southampton—perhaps a dyer?

Foley, Mrs Anne (1726–1802). Daughter of Revd William Dowdeswell, rector of Kingham, Oxon. 1712; cousin of Dorothy Dowdeswell (q.v.); married 1749 Revd Dr Robert Foley (1720–83), vicar of Newent, Glos. 1762, rector of Kingham, Dean of Worcester 1778; of 17 Marlborough Buildings, Bath.

Fonnereau, Miss. A family of this name were in Reading, Berks., in the 1780s, and from the middle of the eighteenth century until at least the 1820s they or perhaps another branch owned the Bear Hill estate at Wargrave, Berks. Two pg 523of them had London addresses in 1815: Mrs Fonnereau at 9 Baker Street, and Mr M. Fonnereau at 1 Clifford Street.

Foote family. John Foote, a banker in London (d. ante-1800), married Eleanor Martin and had five daughters: Eleanor (1778), Harriet (1781), Lucy, Anne, and Mary. Of these Eleanor married 1800 Sir Brook Bridges IV and died 1806; Harriet married 1809 Revd Brook-Edward Bridges; and Lucy did not marry Revd Brook-John Bridges (q.v. the Bridges family).

John Foote had a cousin Edward-James Foote (1767–1833), Captain RN, Vice-Admiral 1821, KCB 1831; of Highfield House, Southampton. He married (1) 1793 Nina, illegitimate daughter of Sir Robert Herries, whom he divorced in 1803 (children Francis, Catherine ('Kitty', 1797–1813), Caroline); (2) 24 Aug. 1803 at Titchfield, Hants, Mary eldest daughter of Admiral Patton (children Mary, Helena, Anne, Elizabeth (baptized 27 January 1807)). It was this second marriage which inspired Mr Leigh-Perrot's epigram:

  • Through the rough ways of Life, with a patten your Guard,
  • May you safely and pleasantly jog;
  • May the ring never break, nor the Knot press too hard,
  • Nor the Foot find the Patten a Clog.

Captain Foote had had a sister Caroline who died 1778; the Miss Foote mentioned by JA in 1808 may perhaps be another sister, Catherine, or possibly one of the Misses Foote from London.

Captain (Admiral) Foote was surprised that JA was able to draw the Portsmouth scenes of MP so well.

Forbes, Lady, of Dover. Elizabeth, wife of Maj-Genl Lord Forbes, Lt-Col of the Coldstream Foot Guards, two battalions of which were then on garrison duty in Kent.

Foresters, the. Perhaps a fictional family.

Fowle family of Kintbury, Berks. The Fowle family can be traced back to a John Fowle, who died at Stanton Berners, Wilts., in 1613. The first Fowle to come to Berkshire seems to have been Revd Thomas Fowle I (1697–1762), who was vicar of Upavon, Wilts., 1723, and vicar of Kintbury 1741. He had several children, including Revd Thomas II, Christiana, and Jane; Christiana (1723–1808) married a Mr Murden, had one daughter Jane Murden (q.v.), and died at Kintbury; Jane died at Kintbury unmarried in 1807.

Revd Thomas Fowle II (1726–7 February 1806) succeeded his father as vicar of Kintbury 1762; also became rector of Hampstead Marshall, Berks. 1771, and of Allington, Wilts. 1797. He married 18 July 1763 Jane Craven (d. 1798, q.v.), and had four sons: Fulwar-Craven (1764), Thomas (1765), William (1767), Charles (1770).

(1) Revd Fulwar-Craven Fowle (14 May 1764–9 March 1840). Pupil of Revd GA at Steventon 1778–81; St John's College, Oxford 1781; MA 1788; married 15 September 1788 his cousin Eliza Lloyd (d. 1839, q.v.); received the rectory pg 524of Elkstone, Glos., from his kinsman the 7th Lord Craven and resided there 1789-94; returned to Kintbury 1794 and took over the incumbency of Kintbury in 1798, though his father continued to live at the vicarage; had eight children: Fulwar-William (1791), Mary-Jane (1792), Thomas (1793), Caroline-Elizabeth (b. and d. 1794), Elizabeth-Caroline (1798), Isabella (1799), Charles (1804), Henry (1807); buried at Kintbury. (For details of his children see below.)

Fulwar-Craven Fowle was remembered by his descendants as being physically rather short and slight, with fair hair, very blue eyes, and a long nose, and also as having an impatient and rather irascible nature; he was an excellent horseman and a most successful Lt-Col of the local volunteer force, the Kintbury Riflemen, 1805. He did not bother to read anything of Emma except the first and last chapters, because he had heard it was not interesting.

(2) Revd Tom Fowle (1765–13 February 1797). Pupil of Revd GA at Steventon 1779–83; St John's College, Oxford 1783; MA 1794; curate of East Woodhay, Hants 1788–9, and of Welford, Berks.; received the rectory of Allington, Wilts. 1793 from his kinsman Lord Craven, and was also appointed one of Lord Craven's domestic chaplains; went with him in this capacity to the campaign in the West Indies 1795 and died of fever at San Domingo 1797.

Tom Fowle had become engaged to Cassandra Austen probably late in 1792, but the young couple could not afford to marry then due to Tom's very limited income; they had hopes of eventually receiving one of Lord Craven's more valuable livings in Shropshire. See W. A. W. Jarvis: 'Some Information about JA's Clerical Connections', Collected Reports, III. 11–17.

(3) William Fowle (9 May 1767–1801). Probably a pupil of Revd GA at Steventon in the early 1780s; apprenticed to his uncle William Fowle in London to study medicine, and became MD of Leyden University 1791; married 19 July 1792 Maria Carpenter of Devizes and had two children, Marianne (1796) and Charles (1797); joined the army 1795 as a physician and served in the West Indies; went with the army to Egypt in 1800 and died there 1801.

(4) Charles Fowle (24 October 1770–12 February 1806). Probably a pupil of Revd GA at Steventon in the 1780s; Lincoln's Inn, January 1790, called to the Bar 1800 and practised law in Newbury; married 1799 Honoria Townsend of Newbury (d. 1823) and had children; Major in the Hungerford Pioneers 1798 and Major again when this volunteer unit was re-formed 1802 as the Hungerford Infantry; fell ill in 1805 and spent a few months in Bath, but returned to Kintbury to die; both he and his father were buried there on 17 February 1806.

See G. Sawtell, 'Four Manly Boys', Collected Reports, III. 222–8.

The children of Fulwar-Craven Fowle (see above) were:

(1) Fulwar-William Fowle, born Deane 15 April 1791; Winchester scholar 1803–9, where he was nicknamed 'Gentleman Fowle'; Merton College, Oxford, and BA 1813; rector of Allington 1816 and of Amesbury 1818, and Prebendary of Salisbury; married 1819 Emily Hallett and had eleven children; died 28 June 1876.

pg 525(2) Mary-Jane Fowle, born Kintbury, September 1792; educated at Mrs Nunes's boarding-school in Overton; married Lt Christopher Dexter and went with him to India; he died at Madras on their return journey and she died at Kintbury 1883; no issue.

(3) Thomas Fowle, baptized Upper Hurstbourne, December 1793; joined the Navy and was with CJA in the West Indies by December 1808; Lieutenant 1812; died in France c.1822.

(4) Caroline-Elizabeth, born and died at Upper Hurstbourne April 1794.

(5) Elizabeth-Caroline, born 6 December 1798 at Kintbury; died unmarried at Kintbury 1860.

(6) Isabella, born December 1799 at Kintbury; married 23 October 1845 John Lidderdale, MD, and died 1884.

(7) Charles, born Kintbury 1804; entered the HEIC in adulthood.

(8) Henry, born Kintbury 1807; entered the HEIC in adulthood.

Fowler, Miss. Perhaps a sister or daughter of Robert Fowler, Captn RN 1811.

Frances. Maidservant at Godmersham.

Franfraddops, the. Probably a fictional family

Frank. Mr Leigh-Perrot's manservant in Bath.

Franklyn, Mrs. Of 3 Montpelier, Bath.

Freeman, Mrs. Possibly a connection by marriage of JA, on the Hampson side (q.v.); c.1721 Cope Freeman, of Salisbury, married Catherine-Margaret Hampson and had five children: Mary-Clementina (1724); John-Cope (1726–88); Stella-Frances (?1728), who married 1799 an elderly widower Admiral Allen of Devonshire Place, London (d. 2 October 1800); Catherine-Margaretta (?1730), who married (1) 1746 Charles Stanhope of Westminster (d. c.1770) and had one son Philip-Dormer Stanhope (b. 1753), and married (2) c.1772 the Revd J. Price Jones, vicar of Yateley, Hants 1756–67; and Guy (?1732–?1734). Both Cope Freeman and his wife died at sea in 1734 when returning from the West Indies, as probably did their son Guy—see Jon Spence, A Century of Wills from JA's Family 1705–1806 (JA Society of Australia, Paddington NSW, 2001).

John-Cope Freeman lived at Abbots Langley, Herts.; Sheriff of Herts. 1763; married 1756 Susanna Tophill of Rickmansworth (d. 1803); one son, Henry-Thomas-Cope Freeman (c.1757–76). Sadly, this young man knew that he was terminally ill and made his will in December 1774, in which he left £100 'to my dear Relation the Revd Mr George Austen of Stephenton [sic] in the county of Hants'.

Philip-Dormer Stanhope grew up a wild wastrel and was expelled from King's College, Cambridge, in 1773; went to India and quarrelled with everyone there; married 1780 Elizabeth Hughes of London, and had one daughter Stella-Eloisa; Cornet of 7th Regt of Dragoon Guards 1780 and Ensign 12th Foot 1781, but his name disappears from the Army List after 1784. He may be the PDS who was pg 526at 2 Manchester St., London, in 1796; there was also a PDS who lived in France from c.1790 until at least September 1814 — see J. G. Alger, Napoleon's British Visitors and Captives 1801–1815 (London, 1904), 307–8. Mr Freeman left an annuity in his will to his nephew Philip-Dormer Stanhope, but later revoked this bequest, evidently in view of the young man's bad behaviour.

Although Revd GA had been sufficiently in touch with his cousin to ask him to become godfather to CJA in 1779, presumably the connection had weakened thereafter, for CJA is not mentioned in Mr Freeman's will.

French, Peter William. Of St Lawrence parish, Reading; chemist, married 1799 Mary Skeete, widow, of Basingstoke. JA and CEA might have remembered him from their schooldays, as the Abbey House was also in the parish of St Lawrence.

Frere, Mrs G. Elizabeth, née Grant, who married 1806 George Frere, and lived at 33 Brunswick Square, London.

Fust, Lady. Philippa, daughter of John Hamilton of Chilson, Kent, and widow of Sir John Fust, Bt (1725–99), of Hill Court, Glos.; died 1803. Her husband's niece Flora Langley (q.v.) eventually inherited the Hill Court estate. See R. Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

Gabell, Dr Henry-Dyson (1764–1831). Rector of St Lawrence, Winchester 1788–1818, rector of Avington, Hants 1796–1820, and of Ashow, Warwicks. 1812; Second Master of Winchester College 1793–1810, and Headmaster 1810–23.

Gambier, James (1756–1833). Brother of Samuel Gambier (see below); Admiral and first Baron; one of the Lords of the Admiralty; married Louisa, daughter of Daniel Mathew (q.v.).

Gambier, Samuel (d. 11 May 1813). Brother of James Gambier (see above); Secretary of the Navy Board 1795–6, Commissioner 1796–1813; married Jane, youngest daughter of Daniel Mathew (q.v.).

Gardiner, Revd Dr John (1757–1838). Of 10 Paragon Buildings and Minister of the Octagon Chapel, Bath, 1796; married at St Michael's, Bath, June 1799 Mrs J. Piersy.

Garnett, Dame. Chawton villager; probably the Jane Ewens who married 1792 William Garnett.

Garrett, Miss. Probably a cousin of the Harwoods, as the current Squire Harwood's mother had been born Betty Garrett.

Gauntlett, Mr. Possibly Revd Samuel Gauntlett (1745–1822), who held the Hampshire livings of Lainston, Hursley, Otterbourne, and Portsea from 1788; or else either Revd Carew Gauntlett, curate of Bishops Sutton 1793, or Revd Henry Gauntlett, curate of Bishops Sutton 1803; apparently connected to the Coulthard family.

Gaylards. (Not 'Gayleard' as JA wrote.) James Gaylard & Son, hatters and habit-makers, 82 New Bond Street, London.

pg 527George III and his consort Queen Charlotte: see under Royal Family.

Gibb(e)s, Dr. FRS and physician, of 28 Gay Street and later 11 Laura Place, Bath.

Gibson family. Mr John Gibson, of the High Street, Ramsgate, Kent, married (1) Mary daughter of George Curling of West Hatch, Essex (q.v), who had one daughter, also Mary (1784–1823) and died 1785; (2) 1787 Elizabeth Pars, by whom he had John-Edgar (1788–1859), Eliza (1790), Julia (1792), Ann (1794), Henry (b. and d. 1795), Sophia (1798), and Robert-Francis (1805) — he may perhaps be the 'young Gibson' JA mentions in 1814.

Mary Gibson married 24 July 1806 at Ramsgate Francis William Austen and died at Gosport 14 July 1823 following the birth of her eleventh child.

Gipps, Revd Henry. St John's College, Cambridge; LLB 1810; ordained 1815 and vicar of SS Peter and Owen, Hereford, 1824–32; married June 1812 Emma-Maria, second daughter of John Plumptre (q.v.); three sons; died 1832.

Girle, Mrs (1712–8 January 1801). Barbara Slaney, married 1734 John Girle, MD, of London; mother of Caroline Girle (1738–1817) who married Philip-Lybbe Powys (q.v.), and grandmother of Revd Edward Cooper's wife Caroline Powys.

Gloucester, Dukes of: see under Royal Family.

Glyn, Miss. Probably daughter of Sir James Glynne of Bugle Hall, Southampton.

Goddard, Revd Dr William-Stanley (1757–1845). Second Master of Winchester 1784–93 and Headmaster 1793–1809; rector of Bepton, Sussex, and vicar of Wherwell, Isle of Wight; Prebendary of Salisbury and of St Paul's Cathedral.

Goodchild, Mary. 'Under' [assistant] cook to the FWA family while they were living at Chawton Great House; later married Mrs GA's manservant William Littleworth (q.v.).

Gordon, Mr. A business friend of HTA; of Cleveland Row, London, and also connected with the Misses Moore of Hanwell (q.v.).

Gordon, Sir Jenison-William (1748–1831). Second baronet, of Haverholm Priory, Lincolnshire; married 1781 Harriet Finch, sister of George Finch-Hatton (q.v.). Lady Gordon was enthusiastic in her praise of JA's novels.

Gore, Mrs Caroline. Fifth and youngest daughter (b. 1772) of Sir Thomas-Pym Hales (q.v.) of Bekesbourne, Kent, and younger sister of Mrs Brook-Henry Bridges (q.v.); married 1798 Col the Hon William-John Gore, second son of the Earl of Arran. Six of her pocket-books (for the years 1788, 1789, 1791, 1792, 1799, and 1800 only) have survived and are now preserved at Jane Austen's House, Chawton; see R. A. and C. I. Baldwin, 'Austen References in an 18th Century Diary', Collected Reports, III. 34–6.

Gore, Captn John, RN. Sir John Gore, Captain 1794, knighted 1805, Rear-Admiral 1813.

Gore-Langton, William (1760–1847). Of Newton Park, near Bath, Somerset, and Dean House, Kidlington, Oxford. Lt-Col of the Oxfordshire Militia 1782, and Col 4 October 1798. MP for Somerset on various occasions between 1795 and 1847.

pg 528Gould, Revd John (1780–1866). Of Trowbridge, Wilts. Trinity College, Oxford; BD 1814; vicar of New Shoreham 1816 and rector of Beaconsfield, Bucks. 1818.

Graham family. Col John Graham, sometime Governor of Georgia and later living at St Lawrence near Canterbury, Kent, had several daughters and one son. The son, Charles-Clarke Graham (1778–1837), was vicar of Petham with Waltham, Kent 1808 and also rector of Barham. Of his sisters, Frances married 1785 as his second wife Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt (q.v.); Mary married 1793 Sir Henry Oxenden (q.v.), and died December 1814 aged 42; and Elizabeth married Revd Charles Cage (q.v.). Charlotte was another daughter, and the Harriet Bailey to whom JA refers as being a cousin of Charlotte Graham may therefore belong to this family.

Graham, Lady Georgiana-Charlotte. Eldest daughter of the 3rd Duke of Montrose; married 7 August 1814 George-William Finch-Hatton (q.v.), later Earl of Winchilsea, and died 13 February 1835.

Granby, Marquis of. George-John-Frederick Manners, heir of Duke of Rutland; baptized 4 January and died 15 June 1814.

Grant family. Sir Alexander Grant of Dalvey, 7th Bt (c.1750–1825); married 1780 Sarah Cray of Ibsley, Hants, and lived at Malshanger House near Worting, Hants. She died 4 February 1803 in a road accident in France.

Granville, Mrs, and son. Visitors or residents in Lyme Regis, 1804.

Gray family. The Gray family had been connected with Berkshire for centuries, and one branch became prominent in Newbury when Joseph Gray, cheese-factor and mealman in Bartholomew Street, married 1771 Ruth Tinsley and had thirteen children. Three of the sons, Frederick, Charles-Henry, and Edward-William (b. 1786, ninth and youngest son), migrated across the county border to Alton, Hants, and the first two of them set up in their father's trade of cheese-factor c.1800; Frederick married 1809 Mary-Anne Clement (q.v.), and Charles-Henry died unmarried the same year. Edward-William Gray joined HTA 1806–15 in the banking partnership of Austen, Gray & Vincent, with offices at 10 High Street, Alton; following the firm's bankruptcy at the end of 1815 he returned to his father's business in Newbury; he never married, but became a keen topographer and local historian and was noted for his involvement in public service in Newbury — JP, Alderman, and Mayor 1839 — and died rich and respected at the age of 74 in 1860.

Greaves. In 1801 there were four Greaves shown in the Bath Directory: Admiral Greaves of 15 Burlington Street; Captn Greaves of 18 Henrietta Street; Mrs Martha Greaves of 74 Great Pulteney Street; Mrs Margaret Greaves of 15 New [Lansdown] Crescent.

Gregory, Mrs and Miss. Perhaps related to Revd Francis Gregory, Minor Canon of Canterbury Cathedral.

pg 529Gregorys, the young. Presumably members of a family resident at Speen Hill, Berks.

Grenville, Rt Hon Thomas (1755–1846). First Lord of the Admiralty 1806–April 1807.

Guillemarde, Mr. Probably John-Lewis Guillemarde (1765–1844), of St John's College, Oxford, and of 27 Gower Street, London.

Gunthorpe, William (1785–ante-1843). Son of William Gunthorpe (1755–1807) of St John's, Antigua, and Bugle Hall, Southampton; Christ Church, Oxford 1803; married 28 January 1807 Alicia Jackson (q.v.) and had four children.

Hacker, John. Gardener and seedsman, of Basingstoke.

Hacket, Pierce, MD. Of 170 High Street, Southampton.

Haden, Charles-Thomas (1786–1824). (Not 'Haydon' as JA wrote.) Apothecary and surgeon, of 62 Sloane Street, Chelsea, and also surgeon 1814 to the Chelsea and Brompton Dispensary, on the corner of Sloane Square; married 1816 Emma Harrison; died of tuberculosis at Malta, leaving a son Francis-Seymour (b. 1818) who also became a surgeon and practised at the same address. Mr Haden was 'quite delighted' with Emma. See Watson, 'The Austens' London Doctor', Collected Reports, I. 194–7; also J. Marshall, 'More about Mr Haden', Collected Reports, V. 324–7.

Halavant, Monsieur. The HTAs' French chef while they were living at 24 Upper Berkeley Street, London.

Hales family, baronets, of Bekesbourne, Kent. Lady Hales (d. 1803), widow 1773 of Sir Thomas-Pym Hales, 4th Bt; her daughters: Mary-Anne (1765); Jane (1766) married 1795 Revd Brook-Henry Bridges (q.v.); Elizabeth (1769) married John Calcraft; Harriet (1770); Caroline (1772) married 1798 Col the Hon William-John Gore (q.v.).

Hall, Mr. Hairdresser in London — perhaps connected with the J. B. Hall who was a Patent-Violet-Soap manufacturer at Jubilee Place, Chelsea 1815.

Hall, Mrs. Maidservant/seamstress to the Austens at Castle Square, Southampton.

Hall, Revd Dr Henry (1749–1829). Son of Richard Hall of Penrith, Cumberland; Queen's College, Oxford 1768; DD 1793; vicar of Monk (West) Sherborne and Pamber, Hants 1795; his widow died at Basingstoke, January 1846. Dr Hall may have been ugly, but his parishioners remembered him as being 'a man of a kindly disposition and none ever went to the rectory without being well cared for'. See unpublished 'Reminiscences of Alfred Wood', in Hampshire Record Office (146A09/1).

Hall, Joseph. Steventon villager, renting a field there from Mrs GA at £6 p.a.; buried 2 December 1821 aged 54.

Hallett, James. Of Higham, near Bridge, on the Canterbury-Folkestone road, and also of 11 North Audley Street, London.

pg 530Hallifax, Emma. Married April 1805 Revd Edward Bather (q.v.).

Hamilton, Mrs. Of Canterbury, a friend of the Fagg family.

Hamilton, Elizabeth (?1756–1816). Novelist and essayist, who published works on the question of female education, and several satirical novels, during the period 1796–1808—for details see ODNB.

Hammond family, of St Alban's Court, near Wingham, Kent. William Hammond (1752–1821) married 1785 Elizabeth Beauvoir and had seven children: Wiliam-Osmund (1790), Maximilian (1792), Elizabeth, Mary, Charlotte, Julia, and Jemima.

Wiliam-Osmund (1790–1863), Christ Church, Oxford 1809; married 15 July 1815 Mary-Graham eldest daughter of Sir Henry Oxenden, Bt (q.v.); seven children; JP, DL, and High Sheriff for Kent 1846.

Maximilian-Dudley-Digges (b. 1792) took the surname of Dalison upon inheriting the estates of that family in 1819; married 8 May 1819 Anna-Maria Shaw (q.v.).

The 'Miss Hammond' to whom JA referred was presumably Elizabeth, if she was still unmarried at that time.

Hammond, Revd Arthur-Atherley (1772–1852). Son of Arthur Hammond of Southampton; St John's College, Oxford 1789; MA 1796; curate of Deane 1806–15. It is probably this Mr Hammond who gave the ball in January 1809 for which Mary Lloyd acted as hostess.

Hampson family, baronets. Sir George Hampson, 4th Bt and MD, who died in Gloucester 1724, had five surviving children: George, Rebecca, Elizabeth, Jane, and Catherine-Margaret.

(1) George (d. 1754), succeeded his father as 5th Bt; his son George-Francis 6th Bt (1738–74); his son Thomas-Philip (1763–1820) held republican views and therefore did not like to be known as the 7th Bt; his son George-Francis, 8th Bt (1788–1833); and all later Hampson baronets. Sir Thomas-Philip ('Mr') Hampson had two addresses in London: 10 Great Cumberland Place, and 9 Hinde Street, Manchester Square.

(2) Rebecca (d. 1733), married (1) c.1720 William Walter, MD (d. 1726, q.v.) and had one son William-Hampson Walter; married (2) 1727 William Austen (q.v.) and left three surviving children, Philadelphia, George, and Leonora Austen.

(3) Elizabeth (d. 1733), married George Cure (q.v.), but left no issue.

(4) Jane married c.1728 Capel Payne (q.v.) and had a son George and a daughter Catherine.

(5) Catherine-Margaret married 1721 Cope Freeman (q.v.) (both died at sea 1734), and had five children: John-Cope, Guy, Mary-Clementina, Stella-Frances, and Catherine-Margaretta.

By virtue of their common ancestor in Sir George Hampson, 4th Bt, the Hampsons, Paynes, and Freemans were all cousins in some degree of the Steventon Austens and the Kentish Walters.

pg 531Hancock, Mrs. Perhaps connected with Thomas Hancox, woollen-draper, of 411 Oxford Street, London.

Hanson, Miss. Mary-Anne, daughter of John Hanson, lawyer, of 29 Bloomsbury Place and 65 Chancery Lane, London, and also of Farleigh House near Basingstoke, Hants; married 7 March 1814 as his second wife the lunatic 3rd Earl of Portsmouth (q.v.).

Harding family. Robert Harding of Upcott, Devon, married 1780 Dyonisia, second daughter of Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bt (q.v.); six children, including a daughter also called Dyonisia ('Diana').

Robert Harding's sister Elizabeth (1751–1811) married Thomas Terry (q.v.) of Dummer, Hants.

Hare, Miss. Milliner in London — perhaps connected with Richard Hare, hatter, 71 Strand.

Harrison, Mrs. Charlotte (1765–1849), fifth daughter of Jemima Brydges (q.v.) and sister of (amongst others) Mrs Anne Lefroy (q.v.) and Sir Egerton Brydges (q.v.); married (1) Champion Branfill of Upminster Hall, Essex, and had one son and one daughter Jemima-Elizabeth; and (2) John Harrison (d. 1818) of Denne Hill near Canterbury, but had no further issue.

Harrison family, of Overton. Revd William Harrison (1768–1846), son of Revd John Harrison of Croydon; curate and 1796 vicar of Overton, Hants, vicar 1811 of Fareham, Hants, sinecure rector of Overton 1818, Prebendary of Winchester 1820. His sister Mary married September 1797 as his second wife Philip-Henry Poore (q.v.).

Harrison family, of Southampton. John-Butler Harrison I (July 1739–11 April 1767) of Amery near Alton, Hants, married (1) 2 July 1764 at Southampton Elizabeth Ballard, who died 10 May 1765 at the birth of her daughter Elizabeth-Goring Harrison; married (2) 12 August 1766 at Chawton her cousin Frances Ballard, who died 30 May 1767 after giving birth to John-Butler Harrison II (26 May 1767); in the South Hants Militia 1759–67; died of smallpox and buried at Southampton; MI to him and his wives in St Lawrence, Alton.

John-Butler Harrison I had a sister, Jane, who married Revd John Hinton (q.v.) as his second wife.

John-Butler Harrison II (1767–1850) was brought up by his uncle Robert Ballard, who sold the Amery property; thereafter the Harrisons lived at St Mary's, a rural suburb of Southampton. John-Butler Harrison II married 20 February 1789 at Chawton Elizabeth-Matilda Austen of Tonbridge (1766–1843, q.v.), and had ten children: John-Butler III (1790), Henry-Austen (1791), Elizabeth-Matilda (1793), Mary-Hooker (1795), Charles (1797), Edward (1799), Jane (1801), William-Francis (1802), Frances-Sarah (1805), George-Augustus (1808). He was Sheriff of Southampton in 1790 and Mayor in 1794 and 1811; buried with his wife at Pear Tree Green, Southampton.

pg 532The spinster Harriet-Lennard Austen, sister of Elizabeth-Matilda, lived with the Harrisons in Southampton; and it seems that the spinster Elizabeth-Goring Harrison (1765–1849), who was apparently brought up in Chawton by the Hintons, later on also lived with her half-brother's family.

Of John-Butler Harrison II's ten children, Elizabeth-Matilda (1793–1855), who was JA's god-daughter, married 15 December 1812 her cousin Revd William Austen (q.v.), rector of Horsted Keynes, Sussex, and had three children; of her nine siblings, only three others left issue.

Harvey, Mr and Mr Richard. Probably John-Springett (b. 1754) and his younger brother Richard (1766–1814), sons of Revd Richard Harvey (1730–42), former vicar of Eastry, Kent. Richard was curate of Swingfield with Acrise, Kent 1788, and of Littlebourne, Kent 1792; vicar of Eastry 1795, vicar of Leatherhead, Surrey 1797–1804, vicar of Warnham, West Sussex 1798, and rector of Ham, Kent 1809; married Elizabeth Musgrave [sic] 31 January 1797.

Harwood family. The squirearchal family of Harwood had been living at Deane House, next door to the church, for several generations during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In the Austens' time the family consisted of John Harwood VI (24 November 1747–11 January 1813), his wife Anne (1750–1842), and their three sons: John VII (1770), Earle (1773), and Charles (1783); Mr Harwood's spinster sister Betty-Anna-Maria (1751–18 March 1838) also lived with them. At Mr Harwood's death in 1813 it was discovered that he had 'contracted debts, quite unsuspected by his family. He had borrowed and mortgaged so freely that it seemed as if the estate itself could scarcely pay its own liabilities. There was nothing for his widow, and his sister's small portion had been left in his hands, and had gone with the rest of the money, so that both ladies were dependent on the heir. He found himself a ruined man on his father's death, blighted in all his hopes and prospects of life …' See Caroline Austen's Reminiscences, 27–8.

(1) The unfortunate heir was Revd John Harwood VII (1770–1846); curate 1794–8 of Wolverton near Basingstoke, Hants; rector of Ewhurst 1799, of Laverstoke 1820, and of Sherborne St John 1825. He had previously been an unsuccessful suitor of Elizabeth Bigg (q.v.), and following the early death of her husband Revd William Heathcote in 1802 it had become understood amongst their friends that she would marry Revd Mr Harwood once he had come into his inheritance; in the event, however, he could not afford to marry anyone, but spent the rest of his life struggling to pay off his father's debts in order to retain the family property and support his dependants.

(2) Earle Harwood (1773–1811), attempted to set up in business as a coal merchant 1794; joined the Royal Marines and was a Lieutenant in 1796; married 2 August 1797 at Stoke Damerel, Devon, Sarah Scott, a girl of apparently doubtful reputation; appointed 27 December 1798 to the prison ship HMS Prothée, moored at Portsmouth; on HMS Gladiator 1800; served in the West Indies, taking part in the capture of Curaçao 1805, and Commanding Officer of Fort Amsterdam at pg 533that place 1807; back in England by 1809; by the time of his death in 1811 he was Captain in the Woolwich Division of Marines; buried at Deane; no issue.

(3) Charles Harwood (1783–1855), married 1810 Eliza Terry (1788–23 August 1841) of Dummer (q.v.); three surviving children: John-Terry (1811), Charles-Earle (1812), Anne (1816). He and his family lived in a farmhouse at Deane, and later in the nineteenth century he was referred to only as 'yeoman', no longer 'esquire' or 'gentleman'.

JA noted that all the members of the Harwood family enjoyed MP.

Hastings, Warren (1732–1818), of Daylesford, Glos., and Governor-General of Bengal. For details of life and career see ODNB. In his private capacity Hastings had several connections of enduring friendship with the Austens: he had known Mrs GA's Leigh family since his boyhood days as their neighbour in Gloucestershire; on the strength of this he had sent his little son George (1757–64) back from India to be the Austens' foster-child and pupil at Deane. In India Hastings had also been the friend and business partner for a number of years of Tysoe-Saul Hancock, husband of Philadelphia Austen (q.v.), and was godfather to their daughter Elizabeth (later Eliza de Feuillide, Mrs HTA) (q.v.); and finally, Revd GA's cousin Miss Maria Payne (q.v.) seems to have lived for some years at Daylesford as companion to Mrs Hastings.

Hawker, Revd Mr (not 'Harpur'). Friend and neighbour of Revd Brook-Edward Bridges, at Lenham.

Hawkins, Mrs. Wife of Thomas Hawkins of Nash Court, Boughton-under-Blean, near Faversham, Kent, and mother of Mary Hawkins (d. 1850), third wife of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt (q.v.).

Hawley family, baronets, of Leybourne, Kent, and 4 Harley Street, London. Sir Henry Hawley (1746–1826): barrister of the Inner Temple 1769, High Sheriff of Kent 1783–4, baronet 1795. His eldest daughter Dorothy-Elizabeth (1778–1816) married 1809 as his second wife Sir Brook-William Bridges IV (q.v.) and died in childbirth; his younger daughter Charlotte married 1810 Revd Brook-John Bridges (q.v.), but had no issue; JA also met the second daughter Harriot Hawley.

Hayter, (Sir) William (1792–1878). A school-friend of Edward Knight II from Winchester College days, and now in London studying law. He became a politician and barrister, and was created a baronet in 1858. For details of his career see ODNB.

Heartley, Mr. Possibly a member of the Hartley family, of Bucklebury, Berks.

Heathcote family, baronets, of Hursley Park, Hants. Sir William (1746–1819), 3rd Bt 1787; married 1768 Frances Thorpe (1742–1816) and had eight children: Thomas (1769), Frances (1770–81), William (1772), Samuel (1773), Harriet (1775), Henry (1777), Gilbert (1779), Maria (1787).

(1) Thomas (1769–1825), 4th Bt; MP for Hants 1808–20; married 1799 but had no issue.

pg 534(3) Revd William (1772–29 March 1802), rector of Worting, Hants, and Prebendary of Winchester, married 11 January 1798 Elizabeth Bigg (q.v.) and had one son, William (1801; see below). After her husband's early death Mrs Heathcote returned with her little boy to her father's house at Manydown and lived there till 1814; she and her unmarried sister Alethea Bigg then moved to Winchester and lived at 12 The Close (in later years renumbered 11). Mrs Heathcote had copies of all JA's novels. See C. Tomalin, 'Elizabeth Heathcote', Collected Reports, V. 201, 235–7, for portraits of the Revd William H. in youth, and Elizabeth H. in later life

(5) Harriet (1775–1850), in 1796 the eldest surviving daughter of the 3rd Bt; married 1798 Langford Lovell.

(7) Gilbert (1779–1831), Capt RN; married 1809 Anne Lyell (q.v.).

(8) Maria-Frances (1787–1859), married 1824 Charles Wyndham.

Revd William Heathcote's son William (17 May 1801–17 August 1881) was a schoolmate of JEAL at Winchester, and the two remained close friends thereafter. William succeeded his uncle in 1825 as 5th Bt; married (1) 1825 Caroline Perceval (d. 1835) and had four children; married (2) 1841 Selina Shirley and had another eight children; MP for Hampshire 1826–32 and 1837–49, and for the University of Oxford 1854–68; also other public offices. A portrait of him in later life is owned by the Hampshire County Council Museums Service.

In August 1824 Mrs Charles Smith (q.v.) of Suttons went to a party where William Heathcote was also present, and afterwards described him to her sister Mrs Chute (q.v.) of The Vyne as 'lively & merry without ever being wild or vulgar, obliging in heart & manner; seeming quite unconscious of his merits & his charms, equally agreeable as the companion of a grave or a merry hour: I think he is quite captivating' (Hampshire County Record Office, Heathcote archive (63M84/233/p. 59.b)).

Herington, Mr. Tradesman, probably grocer, at Guildford.

Herries family. The 'large family party' may have gathered at 15 Cadogan-place, Sloane Street, home of Charles Herries (d. 1819), Colonel of the Light Horse Volunteers of London & Westminster. In addition to his unmarried sister, 'Miss Herries the Aunt', there were two unmarried daughters, Isabella (d. 1870) and Julia (1793–1825); the older daughter Catherine had married 1813 Henry-Knowles Creed (q.v.); and the son John-Charles (1778–1855) and his wife Sarah (née Dorington) lived close by at 21 Cadogan-place. For details of JCH's parliamentary and financial career, see ODNB. The family owned first editions of JA's novels, but Isabella disapproved of Emma.

Hey, Revd Dr Thomas. Rector of Wickhambreux, vicar of Eastchurch, Prebendary of Rochester.

Heywood, Mrs (1732–1824). Of Above Bar, Southampton, and widow of Lt-Col Heywood, Mayor of Southampton 1800–1.

Hibbs, John. Hosier and milliner, 152 High Street, Southampton.

pg 535Hicks Beach: see under Beach.

Hill, Revd Herbert (1749–1828). Uncle of the poet Robert Southey (q.v.). Chaplain to the British factory at Oporto, Portugal 1774–1801; rector of Staunton-on-Wye, Hereford, 1801, of Streatham, Surrey 1810 and of Worting, Hants 1815; Chancellor of the Choir of Hereford Cathedral; married 25 October 1808 Catherine Bigg (d. 1848, q.v.); children Edward (1810), Herbert (1811, who married his cousin Bertha, Robert Southey's daughter), Errol (1812), Alfred-Wither (14 March 1815), Georgiana (1816), and Robert-Southey (1817).

Hill, Revd Dr Hugh. Rector of Holy Rood, Southampton, and of Church Oakley near Deane 1792–1824.

Hilliard, Nanny. Maidservant at Steventon Rectory: Anne Knight, married 1795 John Hilliard; one daughter Hannah born 1796. It may be this Hannah Hilliard who was Mrs Digweed's unsatisfactory servant in 1816. John Hilliard was perhaps nicknamed 'Robert' by the Austens, to distinguish him from their other servant John Littleworth (q.v.).

Hinchman, Mr. JA was probably referring to Thomas Henchman (1748–1804), one of the nabobs; of New Burlington Street, London, who may perhaps have married as his second wife Mrs Lawrel or Laurel (q.v.) in 1801.

Hinch-, Hincks-, or Hinxman, Robert. Yeoman farmer, of Sevenhampton, Glos. Eloped with Margaret Craven (d. January 1815, q.v.) and had one son, John; this son died 1828, and left his property to his surviving cousins on the Craven side, who at that date were Mr and Mrs Fowle, Mary Lloyd (Mrs James Austen), Martha Lloyd (by then FWA's second wife), Lady Pollen, and her brothers Fulwar and Charles Craven.

Hinton family, of Chawton. Revd John Hinton (1720–11 April 1802), rector of Chawton 1744–1802, married (1) 1745 his cousin Martha Hinton, 'sole representative of the Knights of Chawton' (d. 1761), and had one daughter Jane (1751) who married 1769 James Baverstock (q.v.); he married (2) post-1761 Jane Harrison (d. 1799), sister of John-Butler Harrison I (q.v.) of Amery near Alton, and had four children: Mary (d. 1851), Elizabeth ('Betsey'), another Jane (1771–1856), and John-Knight ('Jack') (1774–1846). Mr Hinton received a long eulogistic obituary in the GM for 1802, i. 471–2.

Of these four children by the second marriage, Mary married 1793 James Dusautoy (1762–1859, q.v.) and went to live in the West Country; Elizabeth married Revd George Wells and had a daughter Elizabeth who married 1825 Arthur Loveday, and their son Revd Arthur Loveday (1826–85) married 1859 Elizabeth-Lucy Lefroy (1827–96), youngest daughter of Anna and Ben Lefroy (q.v.); Jane II (the 'Miss Hinton' mentioned by JA in 1813) married 1816 Revd Dr James Ventris, vicar of Beeding, Sussex (d. 1841); John-Knight Hinton lived at Chawton Lodge, and his sister Mrs Ventris returned to live with him during her widowhood.

pg 536Both Revd John Hinton and his first wife, Martha Hinton, were kinsfolk of the Knights of Chawton, and on this score their grandson James-Hinton Baverstock (q.v.) commenced a lawsuit against EAK in 1814 for possession of his Hampshire estates, aided in his efforts by his uncle John-Knight Hinton; this lawsuit was not settled until 1818, when the Hintons agreed to be bought off for £15,000.

Hoar, Mr George. (Not 'Hoare' as JA wrote.) Brother of Adml Sir Thomas Bertie and of Mrs Dickens (qq.v.). Married 1787 Elizabeth Cook, and went to India in 1790 as paymaster of the British forces; returned to England 1793 and lived at Worting and also Twyford Lodge, Hants. Mrs Hoar left her husband in 1800 to join a friend of theirs from Indian days, Major Allen; Mr Hoar sued for divorce in December 1800. Mr John Clarke (q.v.) was an old friend of the Hoars, and gave evidence in the divorce case.

Hoblyn family. Perhaps Thomas Hoblyn of 125 Sloane Street; there was also a Mrs Houblon at 36 Baker Street, Portman Square, London.

Hogben/Hogbin, John (1772–1841). Parish clerk of Godmersham.

Holder family. William Holder of Lincoln's Inn Fields (died in Barbados 1752) had two sons: William-Thorpe (1745) and James (1747–post-1813). These two young men took the tenancy of Ashe Park, Hants, in 1770 and, after William married a year or two later, James lived on there as a bachelor until his West Indian fortune failed in the latter part of his life (probably c.1808), and he died senile and in poverty.

William-Thorpe Holder (1745–87), High Sheriff of Dorset 1768; married ante-1772 Philippa-EHiot (surname unknown) (died ?September 1813), and had four children: John-Hooper, William-Philip (1772–97), Margaret-Dehany (d. 1809), and Philippa-Harbin (d. ante-1801). During her widowhood Mrs Holder lived at Bathford and at 16 St James Square, Bath.

John-Hooper Holder, of Cerney House, Glos., married (1) 1808 Elizabeth (d. January 1810) younger daughter of the Hon William Hewitt, and had one daughter Elizabeth-Philippa; in 1811 he paid some court to Miss Eliza Sneade, sister of Mrs Joseph-Thomas Brown of Winifred House, Sion Hill, Bath, but instead married (2) 1812 Anne Ekins (q.v.). See Oman, Ayot Rectory, 62.

Holder, Joseph. Deane villager, married 1805 Mary Tolfree of Ashe.

Holwell, Hester-Anne. Married 24 June 1798 at Pinner, Middx, John-George Children (q.v.); daughter of Lt-Col James Holwell of Southborough, and granddaughter of Governor Holwell of Bengal. Governor Holwell was one of the survivors of the Black Hole of Calcutta, and in 1758 published his Genuine Narrative of that event.

Home, Sir Everard (1746–1832). Of 30 Sackville Street, London; Serjeant-Surgeon to the King; baronet 1813. For more details of his life see ODNB.

Honywood family, baronets of Evington, Kent. Sir John, 5th Bt (1787–1832), married 1808 Mary-Anne, daughter of Revd Sir William-Henry Cooper, Bt. pg 537Sir John's sister Annabella-Christiana (d. 1814) was the first wife of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 9th Bt (q.v.).

Hook, Miss M. (d. 1816). Daughter of Brig-Genl Hook.

Hookey, Mrs. Widow, chemist, and lodging-house keeper in Southampton.

Hope, Mrs. Née Louisa Finch-Hatton (q.v.).

Hore, Mrs. Née Eliza Curling (q.v.).

Howard, Lord. Probably Richard Howard (1748–1816), 4th and last Earl of Effingham; Secretary and Comptroller of the Household to Queen Charlotte, 1784–1814, and Treasurer 1814–16. See J. Kirkland, 'JA and the Celebrated Birthday', N&Q 232: 4 (Dec. 1987), 477–8.

Hughes, Mrs, and children. Probably part of the Hughes family of Betshanger, Kent.

Hulbert, the Misses. Of Speen Hill, Berks. Miss Elizabeth Hulbert died at 32 Gay Street, Bath 17 December 1819; her sister died 21 January 1840 aged 96.

Humphry family. Revd William Humphry was the incumbent of Seal, Kent, and consequently his family were neighbours of the Walters (q.v.); it was no doubt his wife who wrote to the Austens in 1798 to announce the death of William-Hampson Walter.

Hunter, Mrs Rachel (1754–1813). Of Norwich, authoress; for details of her works see ODNB.

Husket, Mr. Servant of Lord Lansdowne, living in the Castle, Southampton.

Hussey, Edward (d. 1817). Of Scotney Castle, Kent; also lived at Pett Place, near Charing, Kent, ante-1813.

Hutchins, Mary. Steventon villager; Mary Bennet, who married John Hutchins 1763.

Inglis, Captn, RN. Charles Inglis, Commander 1800 and Captain 1802; died 1833.

Inman, Rebecca (1738–10 September 1815). Of Ashford, buried 20 September in the centre passage of the nave of Godmersham church; the floor of the nave was raised in 1865–6 and the gravestone is now covered over.

Iremonger, Miss. Presumably Miss Elizabeth Iremonger (d. 1826), younger daughter of Joshua Iremonger (d. 1804) of Wherwell Priory near Andover, Hants.

Irvine family. Lydia-Catherine Chamberlayne (q.v.) married 1763 Laurence Irvine (d. 1778), and had two daughters: Marianne (1775–1853) and Annabella. This family moved into 3 Lansdown Road, Bath, in 1804. They were distant cousins of Mrs GA by virtue of their common ancestor James Brydges, Lord Chandos of Sudeley (d. 1714).

Another Mrs Irvine, Jeanne-Marie, widow of Laurence I's brother Christopher, lived at 19 Lansdown Crescent, Bath.

See R. Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

pg 538Isaac. Apparently the Austens' manservant in Bath.

Isham, Revd Dr Edmund (1743/4–1817). Warden of All Souls, Oxford 1793–1817, and Vice-Chancellor of the University 1797–8. There had been a Leigh-Isham marriage in the seventeenth century, so he was a very distant cousin of Mrs GA.

Jackson, Alicia. Daughter of Josiah Jackson of Belle Vue, Southampton; married 1807 at the age of 18 William Gunthorpe (q.v.), and had four children; died 28 February 1843 in London, described as the relict of Revd William Gunthorpe of Antigua.

Jackson family. Henry Jackson of 9 Sloane Terrace, Chelsea, and his wife Sarah Papillon (q.v.); their three daughters: Eleanor (married 1820 as his second wife HTA, and died 1864), Henrietta, and Sarah. A Charles Jackson succeeded HTA as perpetual curate of Bentley in 1839, and may also be part of this family. See E. Midgley, 'The Revd Henry and Mrs Eleanor Austen', Collected Reports, II. 86–91.

James. The Austens' manservant in Lyme.

Jeffereys, Toomer & Legge. Banking partnership in Basingstoke—more correctly Richard Jeffreys, Samuel Toomer, and M. B. Legg.

Jefferson, Revd Thomas (c.1760–18 February 1829). Curate 1784 of Appledore with Ebony, Kent, but lived in Tonbridge; married twice and had eight children; published by subscription 1808 Two Sermonsalso an Essay. See W. A. W. Jarvis, 'Mr Jefferson's Case', Collected Reports, IV. 143–6.

Jenkins, Mr. Probably the Revd Stiverd Jenkins (b. 1766), curate of Hannington, Hants, in 1794.

Jennings family, servants to the Austens. Jane ('Jenny') Jennings, baptized 16 December 1781, was JEAL's nursemaid at Deane; her brother John was first a labourer on Steventon Manor Farm and later a gamekeeper to the Digweeds and to James Austen; Dinah, maidservant to the Fowles at Kintbury, was their aunt.

Jenny. From Ecchinswell, Hants; the Austens' maidservant at Lyme, Bath, and perhaps Southampton as well.

Jervoise family, of Herriard, Hants. Col George-Purefoy Jervoise (1770–1847) married (1) 1798 Elizabeth Hall of Preston Candover (d. 1821) and (2) Anna-Maria Locke, but died without issue; his brother Richard-Purefoy Major 1st Royal Dragoons, married 1809 Anna-Victoria Story and died 1811, leaving one daughter; his sister Mary-Purefoy married Revd Francis Ellis, rector of Lasham, Hants, and vicar of Long Compton, Warwicks., and this family eventually succeeded to the Herriard estate and took the name of Jervoise.

John. HTA's coachman in London.

Johncock. Butler at Godmersham.

Johnson, Revd Robert-Augustus (1745–99). Married 1773 a sister of the 6th Lord Craven; described by his sister-in-law the 'Beautiful Lady Craven' as 'a mild and good man, but entirely governed by his wife'; rector of the Craven living of pg 539Wistanstow, Shropshire, and also rector 1791–9 of the Leigh living of Hamstall Ridware, Staffs., as there had been a Leigh-Craven marriage in an earlier generation.

In 1799 the Wistanstow living was given to a George Nott, and then in 1806 to Robert-Henry, son of Revd Robert-Augustus Johnson. See W. A. W. Jarvis, 'Some Information about JA's Clerical Connections', Collected Reports, II. 11–17; and also Rothstein (ed.), Barbara Johnson's Album of Fashions and Fabrics, 9–15.

Jordan, Mrs. Dorothy ('Dora') Jordan (1762–1816); famous comedy actress and mistress 1790–1811 of the Duke of Clarence (q.v. under Royal Family), presenting him with a large family of FitzClarences; made her last appearance on the English stage 1814 and died in France two years later. For details of her career see the ODNB.

Kean, Edmund (1789–1833). Famous tragedian, especially in Shakespearean roles; first appeared at Drury Lane as Shylock in January 1814, and took the town by storm. For details of his career see ODNB.

Keith, Lord. Admiral George Keith Elphinstone (1746–1823), Baron Keith 1797; his wife was Hester-Maria Thrale (1764–1857), eldest daughter of Dr Johnson's Mrs Thrale; of Purbrook Park near Havant, Hants, and also 45 Harley Street, London.

Kelly, Mrs. Probably the wife of James Kelly, of 59 Gower Street, Bloomsbury, London.

Kemble, Mr. Unidentified; CEA's dancing partner at Chilham in January 1801 and apparently in the militia; probably not related to the famous Kemble/Siddons dynasty of actors and actresses.

Kendall, young. Probably William Webb Kendall, who joined the Namur on 1 August 1813 as a Volunteer First Class.

Kennet, Mrs. New laundress at Godmersham, 1808.

Kennet, Richard. Perhaps related to the above, and probably a groom at Godmersham. Fanny Knight noted in her diary, 14 April 1804: 'I had a letter from Uncle F. by R. Kennett who brought home the Dun Poney.'

Kerr, Lady Robert. Mary Gilbert, of Cornwall; married 1806 Lord Robert Kerr (1780–1843), younger son of 5th Marquis of Lothian, and died 1861. She very much enjoyed P&P and MP.

Kew, Dame. Steventon villager; Elizabeth, wife of William Kew, whose four children were baptized at Steventon between 1753 and 1762.

Knatchbull family, baronets of Mersham Hatch, Kent. The Knatchbulls can be traced back with certainty to at least the early fifteenth century; those whom JA met or mentioned had a common ancestor in Sir Edward Knatchbull, 4th Bt (d. 1730).

By JA's time the senior line was represented by Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt (1759–1819); MP for Kent 1790–1802 and 1806–19; he married (1) 1780 Mary pg 540Hugessen, co-heiress of Provender, Kent (d. 1784) and had two sons; (2) 1785 Frances Graham (d. 1799, q.v.) and had seven children; (3) 1801 Mary Hawkins (d. 1850, q.v.) and had eight children.

Sir Edward Knatchbull, 9th Bt (1781–1849), was the eldest son by his first marriage of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt, whom he succeeded in 1819. Married (1) 1806 Annabella-Christiana Honywood (d. 1814, q.v.) and had six children, of whom the eldest daughter, Mary-Dorothea, eloped 1826 with Edward Knight II of Godmersham (q.v. under Austen); (2) 1820 JA's niece Fanny Knight (q.v.), and had nine children; their eldest son Edward (1829–93) became 1880 the first Lord Brabourne.

Revd Dr Wyndham Knatchbull (1786–1868), Laudian Professor of Arabic at Oxford, and rector of Smeeth, Aldington and Westbere, Kent, was the eldest son of Sir Edward, 8th Bt, by his second wife.

A junior line derived from Revd Dr Wadham Knatchbull (1707–60), fourth son of Sir Edward, 4th Bt; Chancellor and Prebendary of Durham, Dean of Canterbury, rector of Chilham, Kent; his children were Charles (1747), Wyndham (1750), and Catherine (1753).

(1) Charles Knatchbull (1747–1826), Captain RN; married 1785 his cousin Frances Knatchbull (daughter of Revd Dr Wadham Knatchbull's younger brother Norton), heiress of Babington, Somerset (d. 1818); no issue.

(2) Wyndham Knatchbull (1750–1833), merchant, of 16 Russell Place, London; married 1790 his cousin Catherine-Maria Knatchbull (sister of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt, d. 1807); their children included Revd Wadham (1794–1876), Prebendary of Wells, and Wyndham (1795–1813), Ensign in 1st Regt of Foot Guards. His mercantile firm was presumably that of Knatchbull, Rule, Cunningham & Paterson, of 52 Gracechurch Street, London.

(3) Catherine Knatchbull (1753–14 October 1812), married 1779 Thomas Knight II of Godmersham (d. 1794, q.v.); no issue; later in her widowhood Mrs Knight retired to White Friars, Canterbury. Portraits of Thomas Knight II and Catherine, by Romney, are in the possession of Knight descendants.

An old Miss ('Mrs') Joan-Elizabeth Knatchbull (d. 1801), of Canterbury, was a granddaughter of the 4th Bt and therefore another cousin of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 8th Bt.

Portraits of many members of the Knatchbull family, including FCK in later life, her husband Sir Edward, and their son Lord Brabourne, are now owned by Kent County Council and on display in Maidstone County Hall.

Knight family of Chawton and Steventon in Hants, and Godmersham in Kent. The original Knight family had been living in Chawton since at least the middle of the sixteenth century, but the male line came to an end in 1679 when Sir Richard Knight died childless. He left his estate to the grandchildren of his aunt Dorothy Martin, and they took the name of Knight; however they in turn all died childless and the estate passed to a maternal cousin of theirs, Thomas Broadnax of Godmersham.

pg 541The mother of Thomas Broadnax had been a Miss Anne May, and in 1727 her son changed his name to May in order to inherit the property of his cousin Sir Thomas May; in 1738 he changed his name again to Knight, when he inherited the Chawton and Steventon estates. Mr Thomas Broadnax-May-Knight (1701–81), married 1729 Jane Monk (d. 1765), and had at least five children: Anne (1734–73), Thomas (1735–94), Jane (d. 1793), Sarah (1745–60), and Elizabeth (d. 1809).

Of these children, all the daughters died unmarried; Elizabeth was feeble-minded and had a separate establishment of her own at Eggarton House near Godmersham, looked after by the Misses Cuthbert (q.v.). Thomas Knight II was MP for New Romney 1761–8 and for Kent 1774–80; married 1779 Catherine Knatchbull (d. 1812, q.v.), but had no issue; he therefore looked to his maternal relatives for an heir, and adopted his distant cousin Edward Austen (q.v.).

The Austens and Knights had a common ancestor in John Austen III (d. 1705, q.v.); his daughter Jane Austen married Stephen Stringer of Goudhurst; their daughter Hannah Stringer married William Monk; and their daughter Jane Monk was the mother of Thomas Knight II.

Portraits of earlier members of the Knight family are at the Chawton House Library.

Knight families in Hampshire. By JA's time there were many other groups of Knights in the villages of north-east Hampshire, including several families of this name in Chawton, Deane, and Steventon — in a much humbler rank of life, but perhaps originally all connected to the squires of Chawton. For example, in Steventon the Austens' maidservant Mrs Nanny Hilliard had been born Knight; and in Chawton the girls Hannah (baptized May 1798) and Harriet (baptized April 1804) were part of the large family of Abraham and Olive Knight.

Lambould, Mr. Postmaster at Overton.

Lance family. Revd William Lance was rector of Faccombe, Hants 1792–1848, but his rectory was actually a mile away at Netherton. Both Faccombe and Netherton were hamlets not far from Hurstbourne Tarrant, and no doubt the Austens had met him through the Lloyd connection (q.v.).

His brother David entered the HEIC, and was a factor at Canton in 1775, where one of his partners in private trading enterprises was William Fitzhugh, son of Valentine Fitzhugh (q.v.). David Lance made his fortune in the East and returned to Hampshire in January 1789, married his partner's sister, Mary Fitzhugh, and had six children: Mary (1790–1866), twins Eliza and Emma (1791—Eliza died later that year, Emma died 1810), William (January 1793–1822, died unmarried in India), Revd John-Edwin (December 1793–1885, leaving issue), Frances (b. and d. 1801). David Lance built Chessel (Chiswell) House in 1797, on the Bitterne side of Southampton, and the road in its vicinity became known as Lance's Hill. He was Sheriff of Hampshire in 1807, and travelled widely on the Continent with his family before dying c.1819. Mrs Lance and Mary lived on in Paris, where Mrs Lance died in 1835. Mary eventually married Revd W. H. Turner; one of the highlights of her life was attending the Duchess of pg 542Richmond's ball in Brussels on 15 June 1815, the eve of Waterloo. See D. Miller, The Duchess of Richmond's Ball.

Lane, Edward (1760–1826). Of Worting, son of a former Mayor of Basingstoke; a connection of the Bigg-Wither family, and executor to the last Mr William Wither who died in 1789.

Langham family, baronets, of Cottesbrooke, Northants, and 22 Manchester Square, London. Sir James Langham, 10th Bt (1776–1833), married 1800 Elizabeth Burdett (q.v.) and had eight children. Sir James's maternal grandmother Catherine Musgrave (née Chichester) had married secondly Revd John Sanford (q.v.); due to her two marriages, the Sanfords and Tilsons (q.v.) known to JA were all in some degree related to the Langham family The Langhams are not mentioned in JA's letters, but she recorded Sir James's opinions of MP and Emma.

Langley, Flora. Daughter of Flora Fust by her husband George Langley, Captain of Marines, and therefore niece by marriage of Lady Fust (q.v.). See R. Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

Lansdowne, Marquis of. John-Henry Petty (1765–1809), known earlier as Lord Wycombe. A widely travelled but rather solitary man, who settled in Southampton in order to indulge his passion for yachting. He lived initially at Peartree Green just outside Southampton, but in 1804 bought the old ruined castle within the city walls and enlarged it into a Gothic fantasy, selling off his father's library and art collection at Bowood House to pay for the rebuilding. He succeeded as 2nd Marquis in 1805, and then married Mary-Arabella, daughter of Revd Hinton Maddox and widow of Sir Duke Gifford, who had been his mistress for some years; she was described by Lady Bessborough as a 'fat vulgar Irish woman near fifty'. Lady Gifford had children by her first marriage, but none by the Marquis; after his death she lived on at the Castle for a few years, but eventually left Southampton in 1814.

On 24 October 1811 Lady Bessborough visited the Castle, and wrote afterwards: 'We went this morning to see the strange house Ld. Lansdowne built here, and with it, its stranger Mistress, who with her three daughters following her, wrapt in thin lace veils, blue silk shoes, and bare-headed, not only braved the wind and the rain, but the sharp stones and muddy streets of Southampton, and the astonished gaze of the passengers.'

From his boyhood visits to his grandmother's house, JEAL remembered another of the Marchioness's whimsies:

[She] had a light phaeton drawn by six, and sometimes by eight little ponies, each pair decreasing in size, and becoming lighter in colour, through all the grades of dark brown, light brown, bay and chestnut, as it was placed further away from the carriage. The two leading pairs were managed by two boyish postillions, the two pairs nearest to the carriage were driven in hand. It was a delight to me to look down from the window and see this fairy equipage put pg 543together; for the premises of this Castle were so contracted that the whole process went on in the little space that remained of the open square.

The title and estates passed to Lord Henry Petty, half-brother of the 2nd Marquis. It was this 3rd Marquis (who devoted himself to re-establishing the dispersed family collections at Bowood) who admired JA's works and was 'grieved and affected' in 1817 to hear of her death.

Latouche, Mrs. Mary Wilkins, who married (1) 1774 as his second wife Edward East and had three children, including Martha East (q.v.); married (2) post-1785 John-James Digges-Latouche of Jamaica; later of 14 Portman Street, Portman Square, London.

Laurel(l), Mrs. Neighbour of the Cooke family (q.v.), as Lord Howard had sold the manor of Great Bookham to James Laurell in 1801.

Layton & Shears. Mercers, of Bedford House, 11 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

Ledger, the two Misses. Unidentified; at the Manydown ball in January 1796.

Lee, Miss. Probably a sister of Richard Lee, who married 1801 Elizabeth Prowting (q.v.); perhaps Jane, daughter of the late R. Lee, esq, of Mile End, London, who married c.May 1811 the Revd Charles Laprimaudaye, vicar of Leyton, Essex. Not the same as the Miss Lee staying at Chilham Castle, Kent, in 1813.

Lefevre, Mrs. Helena, daughter of John Lefevre, and heiress of Heckfield Place, Hants; her husband Charles Shaw of Reading added her name to his upon their marriage in 1789. Mr Shaw-Lefevre was subsequently MP for Reading and died 1823; between 1790 and 1860 he and his son, Charles Shaw-Lefevre II, bought up all the land in the Heckfield area to create an estate of over 4,000 acres, and in 1857 the son was created Viscount Eversley. See Baigent and Millard, History of Basingstoke, 494–5.

Lefroy families. The earliest English Lefroys were Huguenots, who came to this country in the late sixteenth century and settled in Kent. The families whom JA knew had a common ancestor in Anthony Lefroy (1703–79); he was a banker, in partnership with Peter Langlois of Leghorn, Italy, and in 1738 married his partner's daughter Elizabeth (1720–82). They had two surviving sons: (1) Anthony-Peter (1740) and (2) Isaac-Peter-George (1745, known in the family as 'George'), who were sent back to England to be educated at King's School, Canterbury. (For details of these sons see below.)

Mrs Lefroy had several unmarried brothers, of whom Benjamin Langlois (1727–20 Nov. 1802) in particular took a keen interest in his sister's family. Mr Langlois was Secretary of the British Embassy at Vienna, and, after returning to England, became a Member of Parliament, Secretary of the Board of Ordnance, and Under-Secretary of State. He had a house in Cork Street, Burlington Gardens, London, but for the last few years of his life spent much of his time with his younger nephew at Ashe, and was buried there in November 1802. Sir Egerton Brydges (q.v.), who met him in the 1780s, described him as 'a good pg 544and benevolent old man, with much diplomatic experience, but most fatiguingly ceremonious, with abilities not much above the common'.

(1) Anthony-Peter Lefroy (1740–1819) went into the Army, as his Langlois uncles purchased a commission for him in the 33rd Regiment; it was then stationed in Ireland, and by force of this circumstance Anthony-Peter became the ancestor of the Irish branch of the Lefroy family. He married in 1765 Anne Gardiner and had eleven children, of whom only three concern us: Sarah (1773), Thomas-Langlois (1776), and Anthony (1777). Anthony-Peter Lefroy retired as a Colonel in the 9th Dragoons in 1791, and lived in Limerick thereafter.

(1a) Sarah Lefroy (1773–1836) married 9 May 1799 Captn Thomas Courtenay of Grange, co. Antrim; she was not in fact the 'third Miss Irish Lefroy', as JA wrote, but the fourth daughter.

(1b) Thomas-Langlois Lefroy (1776–1869, the 'Tom Lefroy' of JA's correspondence) was educated at the expense of his great-uncle Benjamin Langlois. Tom went to Trinity College, Dublin, in 1790, entered Lincoln's Inn 1793, was called to the Irish Bar 1797 and thereafter practised law in Dublin, becoming Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1852; he lived in Leeson Street, Dublin, and also bought the Carrigglas estate in co. Longford, where his descendants still live. He married in 1799 Mary Paul, sister of a college friend, and had nine children. See Helen Lefroy, 'The Real Tom Lefroy', Collected Reports, V. 185, 197–200.

(1c) Anthony Lefroy (1777–1857) became a Captain in the 65th Regiment, the commission being purchased for him by his Langlois great-uncles. Unfortunately, Anthony married in 1798 Elizabeth Wilkin, who was considered in some way undesirable, and the Langlois family refused to provide any further financial assistance. Tom Lefroy was eventually able to obtain for his brother the position of Barrack-Master, first in Arundel and later in York, where this branch of the family therefore remained. One of their sons, Thomas-Edward-Preston Lefroy (1815–87) married in 1846 his cousin Anna-Jemima Lefroy (daughter of Anna Austen and Benjamin Lefroy—see below).

(2) I.-P.-George Lefroy (1745–13 January 1806); Fellow of All Souls, Oxford; took Holy Orders; 1777 vicar of Compton near Guildford, Surrey (a Brydges family living); Benjamin Langlois also bought for him three presentations of the living of Ashe in Hampshire. George Lefroy married 1778 Anne Brydges (1749–16 December 1804, q.v.), and they took up residence in Ashe in 1783. 'Madam Lefroy', as she was known locally, became the great friend and mentor of the youthful JA; and in 1808 JA wrote her poem 'To the Memory of Mrs. Lefroy' on the fourth anniversary of her sudden death in a riding accident. The Lefroys had seven children: Jemima-Lucy (1779), John-Henry-George (1782), Julia-Elizabeth (1783), Anthony-Brydges (1784), Christopher-Edward (1785), William-Thomas (1787), and Benjamin (1791).

(2a) Jemima-Lucy (1779–11 March 1862) married 20 July 1801 Henry Rice (q.v.), and had issue.

pg 545(2b) John-Henry-George (12 January 1782–5 September 1823, known as 'George' in the family) married 1806 Sophia Cottrell (q.v.) and had eleven children (see below). He succeeded his father as rector of Ashe and vicar of Compton in 1806; in 1818 he inherited from his maternal uncle Henry Maxwell (q.v. under Brydges) Ewshott House (later known as Itchel Manor) at Crondall near Farnham, Surrey, and following his early death in 1823 his widow Sophia brought up her eight surviving children there. Sophia's opinions of JA's works were very lukewarm.

(2c) Julia-Elizabeth (25 August 1783–6 September 1783) was buried in Basingstoke, where the Lefroys seem to have been living temporarily before moving into Ashe parsonage.

(2d) Anthony-Brydges (21 September 1784–27 January 1800) died as a result of a riding accident two years previously.

(2e) Christopher-Edward (24 November 1785–2 July 1856, known as 'Edward' in the family) entered the law, and in 1819 became British Commissary Judge for the suppression of the slave trade in Surinam; he never married, and in later years returned from Surinam in order to support his brother Benjamin's family; buried at Westham near Basingstoke, Hants.

(2f) William-Thomas (9 October 1787–15 August 1791).

(2g) Benjamin (13 May 1791–27 August 1829) married 8 November 1814 at Steventon Anna Austen (q.v.), and had seven children (see below). The young couple lived with C.-Edward Lefroy in Hendon, Middx, from November 1814 to August 1815, and then returned to Hampshire, renting part of a farmhouse called Wyards just outside Chawton. Ben Lefroy eventually took Holy Orders in 1817 and became curate of Lasham, near Alton; he held the family living of Compton 1819–23, and then succeeded his brother as rector of Ashe in 1823. Following his early death in 1829 Anna and her children lived in various rented houses in Westham, Oakley, Basingstoke, Winchester, Monk Sherborne, and Reading; she died in Reading 1 September 1872 and was buried in Ashe.

At some time in her middle age—approximately 1855 onwards—Anna composed a manuscript volume of family history notes, which is now known as the Lefroy MS. This later came into the possession of her daughter Fanny-Caroline Lefroy (see below), together with letters which Anna had received in her girlhood from JA.

(2b) The children of John-Henry-George Lefroy and Sophia Cottrell were:

(1) George (1807–24) died at school at Winchester.

(2) Anne (1808–89) married 1829 John McLintock, 1st Baron Rathdonnell; no issue.

(3) Charles-Edward (1810–61, the 'little Charles Lefroy' of JA's correspondence) married 1845 Janet Walker, and left two sons: Charles-James-Maxwell and Clement-George. It was Clement Lefroy's wife Euphemia ('Effie') who begged pg 546a scrap of one of JA's letters from her husband's cousin Fanny-Caroline Lefroy (see below).

(4) Frances-Phoebe (1811–59) married 1842 Sir George Kettleby Rickards, barrister and Counsel to the Speaker in the House of Commons; in 1861 he married her cousin Julia-Cassandra, daughter of Anna and Ben Lefroy (see below).

(5) Revd Anthony-Cottrell (1812–84) married 1841 Miss Rickman.

(6) Sophia-Ann (1814–97) married 1852 Revd Ernest Hawkins, Canon of Westminster.

(7) Genl Sir John-Henry (1817–90) became a distinguished soldier, explorer, and scientist; Governor of Bermuda 1871–77 and Governor of Tasmania 1880; founded the Canadian branch of the Lefroys.

(8) Henry-Maxwell (1818–79) founded the Australian branch of the Lefroys.

(9) Lucy-Jemima (1819–27).

(10) Frederick-William (1821–8).

(11) Isabella-Elizabeth (1823–87) married 1854 Revd Charles-Frederick Seymour, rector of Winchfield.

(2g) The children of Benjamin Lefroy and Anna Austen were:

(1) Anna-Jemima (20 October 1815–23 October 1855, known as 'Jemima' in the family); married 1846 at Church Oakley, Hants, her Yorkshire cousin Thomas-Edward-Preston Lefroy (see above) and had three children, dying at the birth of the third: Jemima-Anne (1847), Wiliam-Chambers (1849–1915), and Mary-Georgina-Langlois (1855).

(2) Julia-Cassandra (27 September 1816–1884) married 1861 as his second wife Sir George Kettleby Rickards, widower of her cousin Frances-Phoebe Lefroy (see above).

(3) George-Benjamin-Austen (18 May 1818–1910) married 1853 Emma Cracroft and had six children: Revd Edward-Cracroft (1855–91), unmarried; Florence-Emma (1857–1926) married her cousin Augustus Austen-Leigh (q.v.) but had no issue; Mary-Isabella ('M. Isabel', 1860–1939), unmarried; Franklin-George (1861–1936), married but no issue; Jessie (d. 1941 unmarried); and Louisa-Langlois ('Louie', 1864–1954), unmarried. Miss Jessie Lefroy lived in Winchester, and her sisters Isabel and Louie lived together at Bentworth, Hants, where RWC called upon them in the 1920s and saw the JA letters then in their possession (see below). Miss Louie Lefroy lived on to become a founder-member of the JA Society.

(4) Fanny-Caroline (4 July 1820–85). FCL was the only one of Anna's children who never married, and so lived with her mother till the latter's death in 1872. FCL dabbled in literature, publishing anonymously some small pious Sunday School novels, and also contributing stories to Charlotte M. Yonge's magazine for girls, the Monthly Packet. At some time towards the end of her life—probably in the late 1870s—she composed her manuscript volume of Family History, which was subsequently given by her sister Mrs Bellas pg 547(see below) to their cousin Cholmeley Austen-Leigh in 1886. FCL used for this work her mother's Lefroy MS, the original letters from JA to Anna, and also information contained in other letters and papers collected by her sister Mrs Bellas, referred to by RWC as the Bellas MS. Fanny-Caroline also annotated her copy of Brabourne's Letters of Jane Austen, and these annotations are now published as Lefroy Notes.

(5) Georgiana-Brydges (14 April 1822–82) married 1847 Alured-John-George-Seymer Terry, youngest son of Stephen Terry of Dummer (q.v.), and had issue.

(6) Louisa-Langlois (5 November 1824–1910) married 28 July 1859 Revd Septimus Bellas, vicar of Monk Sherborne, and had issue. After her mother's death, and probably in 1872, Mrs Bellas copied out into a notebook (the Bellas MS, see above) a few extracts from Anna's diaries and also two small collections of letters—the first group being some which Anna herself had received in the earlier part of her life and kept for sentimental reasons, and the second group some which Mrs Bellas had received from her mother in more recent years.

The Lefroy MS, the Bellas MS, and the JA letters to Anna descended to the unmarried daughters of G.-B.-A. Lefroy (see above), apart from those few items given away to other relatives by FCL.

(7) Elizabeth-Lucy (22 July 1827–96) married 10 May 1859 Revd Arthur Loveday (a descendant of Revd John Hinton of Chawton, q.v.), curate of Monk Sherborne and later of Corhampton near Bishops Waltham and Goring Heath, Oxon., and had issue.

Leigh families. Mrs GA, the Leighs of Adlestrop, the Cookes (q.v.) of Great Bookham, the Coopers (q.v.) of Hamstall Ridware, the Turner baronets (q.v.), and Lady Saye and Sele (q.v. under Twisleton) had a common ancestor in Theophilus Leigh (c.1643–1725) of Adlestrop, Glos., who married November 1689 as his second wife Mary Brydges (sister of James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos), and had by her twelve children. Of these twelve only four concern us: (1) Emma (1690), (2) William (1691), (3) Theophilus (1693), and (4) Thomas (1696).

(1) Emma (1690–17??) married 1713 Revd Dr Peter Waldo, rector of Aston Clinton, Bucks., and had thirteen children, of whom only one concerns us: Tryphena (1726).

(1a) Tryphena (1726–1807) married c.1750 Henry Arnold (q.v.) and left issue.

(2) William (1691–1757) married Mary Lord (1695–1756) and had several children, of whom only four concern us: Cassandra (1723), James (1724), Thomas (1734), and Elizabeth (1735).

(2a) Cassandra (1723–70) married September 1739 Sir Edward Turner (q.v.), 2nd Bt of Ambrosden, Oxon., and had several children.

(2b) James (1724–74) married 1755 his cousin Lady Caroline Brydges (b. 1730, daughter of 2nd Duke of Chandos), and had a son James-Henry (1765–1823), who married 1786 his cousin Julia-Judith Twisleton (q.v., daughter of Lady Saye pg 548and Sele), and eventually inherited Stoneleigh Abbey in 1813. Their son Chandos (1791–1850) became 1839 Lord Leigh of the second creation.

(2c) Revd Thomas (1734–26 June 1813), rector of Adlestrop and of Broadwell, married 1762 his cousin Mary (1731–97), daughter of Revd Dr Theophilus (see below) but had no children. In 1806 Revd Thomas Leigh inherited Stoneleigh Abbey from the senior branch of the Leighs (see below).

(2d) Elizabeth (17 November 1735–18 April 1816) never married, but lived with her brother Revd Thomas at Adlestrop Rectory; she was CEA's godmother, and is referred to in JA's correspondence as 'Mrs' Elizabeth Leigh in accordance with her age, even though single.

(3) Revd Dr Theophilus (1693–1784) married 1728 Anne Bee (d. 1766), and had six children, of whom only two survived: Mary (1731) and Cassandra (1744). He was Master of Balliol College, Oxford, for many years, and was renowned for his witty sayings.

(3a) Mary (1731–97) married 1762 her cousin Revd Thomas Leigh of Adlestrop (see above), but had no children. After her death her husband commented: 'She wrote some novels highly moral and entertaining, on which she spent more time than accorded with her health'—but it does not seem that any of her literary works were ever published. She was also very proud of her ancestry, and left a short manuscript history of the Leigh family, completed in 1788.

(3b) Cassandra (1744–1826) married 1768 Revd Samuel Cooke (q.v.), and had issue.

(4) Revd Thomas Leigh (1696–1764); Fellow of All Souls, Oxford; rector of Harpsden near Henley-on-Thames, Oxon. 1731–64. He married 1732 Jane Walker (1704–68) and had four surviving children: James (1735), Jane (1736), Cassandra (1739), and Thomas (1747).

(4a) James (1735–28 March 1817) added -Perrot to his name in 1751 in order to inherit the estate of his maternal great-uncle Thomas Perrot. Married 9 October 1764 Jane Cholmeley (d. 1836, q.v.); of Scarlets near Maidenhead, Berks.; also rented 1799–1810 No. 1 Paragon Buildings, Bath, then purchased 1810 No. 49 Great Pulteney Street, Bath; died at Scarlets and buried at Wargrave, Berks.; no issue.

(4b) Jane (1736–83) married 1768 Revd Dr Edward Cooper (q.v.) and left issue.

(4c) Cassandra (baptized 10 September 1739–18 January 1827) married 1764 in Bath Revd George Austen (q.v.), and became JA's mother.

(4d) Thomas (1747–1821) was 'imbecile' and in accordance with the custom of the time presumably did not live in the Harpsden Rectory but was sent to foster-parents. It seems that in later years both he and Mrs GA's second son, the handicapped George Austen junior (q.v.), were living together at Monk Sherborne, cared for by the Culham or Cullum family of that parish.

The Leighs of Adlestrop in Gloucestershire and the Leighs of Stoneleigh Abbey near Kenilworth in Warwickshire had a common ancestor in Sir Thomas Leigh, Lord Mayor of London, who died 1571. In 1643 a Thomas Leigh of the pg 549Warwickshire line was created Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh, but this family came to an end with Edward, 5th Lord Leigh (1742–86), who was single and in 1774 declared lunatic. His unmarried sister the Hon Mary Leigh died in July 1806, when the Stoneleigh estate devolved upon Revd Thomas Leigh of Adlestrop (see above).

Leven and Melville, Earls of. Alexander Leslie-Melville, 7th Earl of Leven and 6th Earl of Melville (1749–1820), married 1784 Jane Thornton (d. 1818); their portraits agree with JA's description of them. Of their eight children the eldest son David (1785–1860), styled Viscount Balgonie until he succeeded as 8th and 7th Earl, was in the Navy—Lieutenant 1806, Captain 1812, and Rear-Admiral 1846; the youngest daughter, 'pretty little Lady Marianne', married 1822 Abel Smith, MP, and died 1823.

Despite—or perhaps because of—his naval service, Viscount Balgonie seems to have been frequently unwell; as late as 1814 he was described as 'a good-humoured, pleasing young man, but seems in bad health'. However, he survived to the reasonable age of 75, and remained a constant friend of CJA to the end of the latter's life.

In 1818 Lord Balgonie met Miss Beaujolois Campbell and her sisters in Italy; the 15-year-old Beaujolois summed him up in her journal in truly Austenian style:

He has a good countenance and is very near being handsome. He is not rich and was a sailor for many years which has as usual affected his walk. He is one of those men whom any body could marry for the trouble of making love to him. He liked us very much and I beleive was rather inclined towards Eleanor, but he was here too short a time and she giving no encouragement it naturally ended in nothing. He is poor and is not what I should wish for as a husband. At the same time he is of good rank and might make one very happy. (H. C. Beaujolois Campbell, A Journey to Florence in 1817)

Lewis, Susannah (1780–1844). Daughter of James Lewis of Clifton and formerly of Jamaica (not Antigua); married 1813 Revd Samuel Blackall (q.v.).

Lillingston, Mrs. Of 10 Rivers Street, Bath; died 1806 and buried at Charlcombe. See Le Faye, '"A Persecuted Relation": Mrs Lillingston's Funeral and JA's Legacy', Bath History, 7 (Bath, 1998), 92–106.

Limbrey, Mr. (Not 'Limprey' as JA wrote.) Probably Mr John Limbrey of Hoddington House, Upton Grey, Hants; or possibly a member of the Limbrey-Sclater family, who lived at Tangier Park, near Manydown, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Lipscombe, Dame. (Not 'Libscombe', as Lizzy Knight wrote.) Chawton villager; Hannah, widow 1807 of Thomas Lipscombe; the 'deafly child' was probably her illegitimate granddaughter Mary-Winter Lipscombe (baptized 1809), whose mother Mary married another man in 1813.

pg 550Liston, John (1776–1846). Actor; first appeared on the London stage 1805 and became a popular comedian 1807, noted especially for his double-act with Charles Mathews (q.v.); retired 1837.

Littlehales, Dr John, FRCP (1754–1810). Physician at Winchester Hospital, and lived in Southgate Street.

Littleworth family. Deane villagers, and the foster-family of Mr GA's children. See Le Faye, 'The Austens and the Littleworths', Collected Reports, III. 64–70. Anne ('Nanny') Littleworth was one of the Austens' maidservants at Steventon (perhaps the cook or dairymaid), her husband John was coachman to James Austen, and JA was godmother to their eldest daughter Eliza-Jane. A cousin of theirs, William Littleworth of Alton, was manservant at Chawton Cottage and later married Mary Goodchild (q.v.).

Lloyd family, of Enborne, Deane, and Ibthorpe. Martha Craven (1729–16 April 1805, q.v.) married 1763 Revd Nowis or Noyes Lloyd (1719–89), of Epping, Essex; rector of Little Hinton, Wilts., and also 1771 of Enborne near Newbury, Berks.; three daughters: Martha (1765–1843) who became 1828 the second wife of FWA, and died at Portsdown; Eliza (1767–1839) who married 1788 her cousin Revd Fulwar-Craven Fowle (q.v.) and died at Kintbury; and Mary (1771–1843) who became 1797 the second wife of James Austen, and died at Speen. After Mr Lloyd's death his widow and her two unmarried daughters lived in Mr GA's parsonage at Deane, moving in 1792 to Ibthorpe, a hamlet near Hurstbourne Tarrant, Hants.

Lloyd, Mrs. Friend of Miss Sharp (q.v.); not apparently connected with the Lloyds above.

Lock(y)er, Captn RN. Lt-Governor of Greenwich Hospital for Seamen, succeeded 1801 by Captn Sir Richard Pearson (q.v.).

Lodge, Jane. Daughter of John Lodge of Great Blakenham near Ipswich, Suffolk; married (1) 1799 John Lyford (q.v.), and (2) 1801 William Fendall (q.v.).

Long, Flora. Younger daughter of Florentina Wrey (q.v.), who married Richard-Godolphin Long of Rood (or Rowde) Ashton, Wilts.

Louch, William-Stevens. HTA's banking partner in Alton and Hythe.

Lovell, Betty. Probably 'Lovell' rather than Lord Brabourne's reading 'Londe'; the Steventon parish register shows that an Elizabeth Lovell was buried on 9 March 1808—'died in consequence of the fire which took place at the house where she lived'.

Lovett, Mr. John Lovett of Overton, Hants.

Lucan, Earl of. Richard Bingham (1764–1839), succeeded as 2nd Earl 1799. He married in 1794 Lady Elizabeth Belasyse, whom he had seduced from her husband Bernard-Edward Howard (later Duke of Norfolk), and by whom he had six children. In 1804 they separated—

pg 551

More from disagreement of temper and extreme absurdity on both sides than any other cause. How extraordinary after giving up the world for each other, and living happily near 10 years! At the end of that time they went to Brighthelmstone, where he had the gout. She took to racketing and neglected him, he grew low-spirited and scolded her. Incessant wranglings ensued, mix'd up with accusations of flirtation on one side and stinginess on the other. This continued for near two years …

so it is perhaps not surprising that the Earl took a mistress in 1807.

Ludlow, Arnold. Widower, of Andover, married January 1799 Sal Pugh of Andover.

Lushington, Stephen-Rumbold (1776–1868). Of Norton Court, Kent, and 4 Cleveland Square, London; fourth son of Revd James-Stephen Lushington of Rodmersham, Kent; married 1798 Anne-Elizabeth, daughter of 1st Lord Harris; MP for Rye 1807–12 and for Canterbury 1812–30; Governor of Madras 1827–32; MP again for Canterbury 1835–7; his portrait is in Canterbury Art Gallery.

Lyddy. Maidservant in Southampton.

Lyell, Mrs. Widow of Charles Lyell, of Kinnordy, Forfarshire; settled in Southampton 1808 with her son and two daughters Mary and Anne, the latter of whom married Gilbert Heathcote (q.v.).

Lyford family, of Basingstoke and Winchester. John Lyford (1740–1829), surgeon of Basingstoke; probably the son of Giles Lyford (1700–83, four times Mayor of Basingstoke); married 1766 Mary Windover and had three children: Revd John (1769–12 June 1799) of Queen's College, Oxford 1786, Lincoln's Inn 1789, curate of Basing and Nately 1793, married 19 April 1799 at Great Blakenham Jane Lodge (q.v.), died suddenly and buried at Basingstoke; Mary Susannah (1772–1840) married June 1803 Revd James Digweed (q.v.); Charles (1778–1859), partner and successor to his father, and became a well-known surgeon. See W. A. W. Jarvis, 'Who Was John Lyford?', Collected Reports, I. 216–18.

Charles Lyford (1743–1805), brother of the elder John Lyford, practised as a surgeon in Winchester, living in Peter Street; his son Giles-King Lyford (1764–1837) was Surgeon-in-Ordinary at the County Hospital, Winchester, and attended JA in her last illness; his daughter Louisa married September 1798 Mr Marsh, surgeon of the Wiltshire Supplementary Militia. There was also a third Charles Lyford (? son of the above Charles), who was an apothecary and druggist in Southampton 1791.

Lynch, Revd Dr John (1735–1803). Rector of Adisham, Kent, and also 1781 Prebendary and 1788 Archdeacon of Canterbury; lived in what is now 17 Cathedral Precincts, Linacre House.

Lysons, Mrs. Wife of Dr Lysons of 3 Paragon Buildings, Bath.

Mackays, the. Perhaps the family of Donald-Hugh Mackay, Captn RN, January 1806.

pg 552Maitland families. Thomas Maitland of Lyndhurst (d. 1797) married Jane Mathew (1759–1830), daughter of General Mathew (q.v.); five sons and three daughters; the widowed Mrs Maitland lived in Albion Place, Southampton. Her eldest daughter Jane married 25 March 1800 Lt-Col Warren of the 3rd Foot Guards (q.v.); Caroline (1782–1830) married 1812 Captn William Roberts, RA; Eliza married post-1812 Revd Mr Rankin.

The eldest son, Sir Peregrine Maitland (1777–1854), who commanded the Guards at Waterloo, eloped October 1815 with the Duke of Richmond's daughter Lady Sarah Lennox, as the Duke had refused his consent to their marriage on account of Sir Peregrine's poverty. 'Sir P, who was extremely handsome, afterwards became Governor of the Cape [of Good Hope, South Africa]. But the Duchess of Richmond always spoke contemptuously of her daughter as "Barrack Sal". Lady Sarah died in 1873.'

The Mr Maitland whom JA met in Bath — Mrs Busby's nephew — may perhaps be Charles-Barclay Maitland, whose son Charles (born in Bath c.1786) became rector of Little Longford, Wilts. This family does not appear to be related to the Lyndhurst/Southampton Maitlands.

Malings, the. Probably Mrs Maling of 21 Hans Place, or C. T. Maling of 146 Sloane Street.

Manon. Eliza de Feuillide's French maidservant.

Mant, Henry. Attorney, of 23 Gay Street and 4 Green Park Buildings, Bath; Lieutenant of Infantry in the Bath Military Association.

Mant, Revd Dr Richard (1745–1817). Master of King Edward's Free Grammar School, Southampton 1770–95; Rector 1793 of All Saints, Southampton, and of Fonthill Bishop, Wilts.

Mapleton family. David Mapleton (1749–1803), married Mary-Anne Golding 1773; practising in Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., as surgeon-apothecary 1774–83; MD from Aberdeen University 1785; practising at Odiham, Hants, 1786–97; practising at Bath 1797–1803, where his professional address was 14 Belmont, and his home at 11 The Circus — he also rented 12 The Circus. In addition to three sons, he had the daughters whom JA mentions — Jane (b. 1774, married Thomas Steel), Marianne (1779–18 May 1801), and Christian(a) (1781–1839). The family had been known to the Leigh-Perrots since the 1770s. See D. H. Mapleton, The Indomitable Breed: A History of the Mapleton Family (Vancouver, 1987).

March, Charles, Earl of. Eldest son of the Duke of Richmond; married 10 April 1817 Lady Caroline Paget (q.v.).

Marlow, Revd Dr Michael (1759–1828). Vicar of St Giles, Oxford, and rector of Handborough; President of St John's College, Oxford 1795–1828; Vice-Chancellor of the University 1798–1802; Prebendary of Canterbury 1808.

Marriott, Mrs. Perhaps wife or daughter-in-law of Revd Dr James Marriott (1743–1809), patron and rector of Horsmonden, Kent 1785–1809.

pg 553Marshall, Mr and Mrs. Landlords of the George, Sittingbourne, Kent.

Marshall, Richard. Lived in Alton; rented the Wyards farmhouse from Winchester College, and sublet the larger part.

Martha. Sometime maidservant to Mrs Leigh-Perrot.

Martin, Mrs. Probably the Mary Martin who was landlady of the Maidenhead Inn and also held the Excise Office at Basingstoke 1791.

Mascall, Robert-Curteis (1795–1816). Oriel College, Oxford 1811 and BA 1815; Lincoln's Inn 1814; died at Nice.

Mathew family. Edward Mathew (1728–1805), born in Antigua; of Argyll Street, London, and Clanville Lodge near Andover, Hants. Equerry to George III 1783; Governor of Grenada 1783 and CinC of the Windward and Leeward Isles; General 1797. Married at Bath Abbey January 1753 Lady Jane Bertie (d. 1793) daughter of the 2nd Duke of Ancaster, and had four children: Jane (1759, later Mrs Maitland, q.v.); Anne (1759, twin with Jane, later Mrs James Austen, q.v.); Brownlow (1760–1826) of Clanville Lodge and later of Shrubshill near Lyndhurst, Hants, married 1807 Henrietta Taylor and in 1819 took the additional surname Bertie; Penelope-Susannah (Mrs Dewar, q.v., later Mrs Cumberland).

Daniel Mathew (1730–77), of Felix Hall, Essex, brother to Genl Edward; his daughter Louisa married Adml Lord Gambier, and his daughter Jane married Samuel Gambier (qq.v.).

Mathews, Charles (1776–1835). Actor; a comedian and mimic, performing in London and the provinces, and noted for his double-act with John Liston (q.v.).

Maunde, Henry. One of HTA's banking partners; of 5 York Buildings, New [Euston] Road, Marylebone, who died September 1816, leaving children. His sister, Anne-Jane, married in 1820 William Skrine; contemporary pronunciation of this name was Skreen or Scrane; but as Mrs William S. was not a widow in 1816, it must have been some other member of the Skrine family whom William Seymour (q.v.) was contemplating marrying.

Mawhood, Collet and Mrs. Of 10 Belmont, Bath.

Maxwell, Mr. Perhaps James Maxwell, of Lewes, Sussex, who entered Trinity College, Cambridge 1804 aged 18; ordained 1811 and went to a Norfolk living.

May, Mr. Either Thomas May (1765–1843) or his brother Charles (1767–1844); the May family had lived in Basingstoke for many generations, and became brewers c.1750. Thomas and Charles were very prominent in local affairs in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and Thomas was Mayor of Basingstoke eleven times.

Meyer, Mr. Harp teacher, of Upper Marylebone Street. Presumably Philip-James Meyer (1732–1820) from Strasbourg, who was the first musician to play the pedal harp in this country.

pg 554Middleton, John-Charles (1755–1826). Mr Middleton seems to have had no fixed home or estate of his own, but moved constantly from one rented property to another throughout his life. He was at Hinton Ampner and Twyford in Hampshire, and Weybridge in Surrey; at Chawton Great House 1795 and again 1808–13; and finally at Hildersham House, Cambridge 1824–6. Married 1793 Charlotte Beckford (d. 1803, q.v.) and had six children: John (born c.1794, perhaps the JM who joined the RN as a First-Class Volunteer 1804, and was midshipman 1805 and Lieutenant 1811); Susan; Charlotte-Maria (married 1831 her cousin Revd Charles-Douglas Beckford); Lucy; Charlotte-Lydia-Elizabeth (married 1824 Septimus Burton); and Frederick-Graeme (1802–63, later incumbent of Bembridge, Isle of Wight, and rector of Medstead 1851–63). His wife's sister, Miss Maria Beckford, lived with him as his hostess.

Middleton, Mrs. Perhaps Mrs Robert Middleton—see under Woodd.

Mildmay family. Jane Mildmay, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Carew Mildmay of Shawford, Hants, married 1786 Sir Henry-Paulet St John (q.v.) of Moulsham, Essex, 3rd Bt, who took 1790 the additional surname of Mildmay; her eldest son was Henry-Paulet St John-Mildmay (1787–1848), afterwards (1808) 4th Bt, of Dogmersfield, Hants. He married Charlotte Bouverie in 1809, and then caused great scandal by eloping with her sister Harriet, whom he later married in Germany in 1815, where he lived for the rest of his life.

Jane Mildmay's sister Anne married Mr John Clarke (q.v.) of Worting, Hants.

Miller, Robert. Pastry-cook, 143 High Street, Southampton.

Miller, Sir Thomas, 5 th Bt (c.1735–4 September 1816). Of Froyle Place near Alton, Hants; MP for Portsmouth 1806–16.

Milles family, of Nackington. Richard Milles (1736–1820), MP for Canterbury 1761–80; married 1765 Mary-Elizabeth, daughter of Revd Thomas Tanner, Prebendary of Canterbury; their only daughter Mary married (1) 2nd Baron Sondes (q.v.) and (2) Sir Henry Montresor (q.v.).

Milles, Mrs Charles (1723–6 March 1817), widow (1749) of Charles Milles, uncle of Richard Milles of Nackington; her daughter 'Molly' or 'Moy'; lived in Canterbury, renting various houses in the Cathedral Precincts from absentee Prebendaries—first of all at No. XI, then at Meister Omer's House (modern No. 16) for fifty years, then in Canon Norris's house No. IX (blitzed in 1942), and finally moving to modern No. 14(C) in the Precincts in 1808.

Millman, Dr. Kentish ?physician, attending EAK; possibly Dr Thomas Milner, MD, of Maidstone.

Mitchell, Sarah. Probably the Chawton village girl Sarah (baptized 1790), daughter of William and Mary Mitchell, who had an illegitimate daughter Frances (baptized 1816).

Moira, Lord (1754–1826). Francis Rawdon, succeeded his father as Earl of Moira 1793; appointed 1812 Governor-General of Bengal and CinC of the forces in pg 555India, and left England in 1813; created first Marquis of Hastings 1817; died heavily in debt.

Between 1806 and 1813 HTA, as his banker, had lent Lord Moira a total of £6,000, but despite numerous promises Lord Moira never repaid the loan. This in part contributed to HTA's bankruptcy in 1816. In 1839 HTA approached the 2nd Marquis (1808–44) with an appeal to him to honour his father's debts; but the young man was interested only in hunting, had married an extravagant wife in 1831, and already had six children, and it seems that this appeal was similarly ignored. See Clive Caplan, 'Lord Moira's Debt and Henry Austen's Appeal', Collected Reports, VI. 447–60.

Molly. The Austens' maidservant at Steventon, who followed them to Bath and Southampton—if the references are to one and the same person.

Montresor family of Nash Court, Kent. General Sir Henry-Tucker Montresor (1767–1837), KCB; married (1) January 1809 Lady Sondes (q.v.); (2) April 1822 Annetta Cage (q.v.), and had issue. His sister Maria-Lucy married September 1801 Lt-Genl Sir F. W. Mulcaster.

Moore families. There are three separate Moore families mentioned in JA's correspondence:

(1) Rt Revd John Moore (1730–1805). Dean of Canterbury 1771–75, Bishop of Bangor 1775–83, Archbishop of Canterbury 1783–1805; his portrait by Lawrence is in Southampton City Art Gallery. Married 1770 as his second wife Catherine Eden (q.v.) and had several children; she lived at No. VI in the Cathedral Precincts, Canterbury, during her widowhood—the house was demolished in 1845.

The Archbishop's eldest son by his second marriage, Revd George Moore (1771–1845), was Prebendary of Canterbury 1795, rector of Brasted, Kent 1795–1800, rector of Wrotham, Kent 1800, vicar of East Peckham, Kent 1805; he married (1) 29 June 1795 Lady Maria-Elizabeth Hay, seventh daughter of the 14th Earl of Errol (d. 3 June 1804 aged 33); and had a daughter Caroline (b. c.1800); (2) 1806 Harriot-Mary Bridges (q.v.) and had several children by her—JA mentions Eleanor, George, and Harriot.

Edward Hasted, having published his History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent between 1778 and 1799, continued to keep notes on local events, perhaps with a view to a new edition. Under 'Wrotham' he recorded 11 October 1806: 'The Rector Mr Moore is so universally hated here that when he made his first appearance at Church, on his marriage with Miss Bridges, to shew it the clerk put up & they sung the funeral hymn instead of the usual Nuptial Psalm'—Canterbury Diocesan Record Office, Irby Collection (U.11, V/514). See also M. Wilson, 'The Revd George Moore', Collected Reports, VI. 360–5.

The Archbishop's third son, Revd Robert Moore, married 1800 a Miss Bell, daughter of the late Matthew Bell of Wolsington, Northumberland; the Miss pg 556Bell mentioned by JA as having been governess to Revd George Moore's daughter Caroline, may perhaps be a poor relation of Mrs Robert Moore.

(2) Dr John Moore (1729–1802), MD, and writer, and his wife Jane; lived in Surrey and attended the Lock family at Norbury, and so were known to Fanny Burney and her circle and also to the Cooke family at Great Bookham; parents of Genl Sir John Moore (b. 1761, killed at Corunna 1809).

(3) The Misses Harriet and Eliza Moore, of Hanwell; perhaps nieces or granddaughters of Mr Gordon of Cleveland Row (q.v.). Harriet admired Emma very much, but MP was her favourite of all.

Morgan, Revd Nathaniel. Master of the Grammar School, Broad Street, Bath.

Morgan, Miss. Unidentified; she was presumably ailing in December 1798.

Morley, Countess of. Frances Talbot (1782–1857), daughter of a surgeon at Wymondham, Norfolk; married August 1809 as his second wife John Parker (1772–1840), 2nd Lord Boringdon, created 30 September 1815 1st Earl of Morley; his estate was at Saltram, near Plymouth, Devon.

Lord Boringdon's first wife, Lady Augusta Fane, whom he had married in 1804, objected to sharing her husband's favours with his mistresses, and eloped with Sir Arthur Paget (q.v.) in 1808, whom she married in February 1809 as soon as her divorce from Lord Boringdon was finalized. Frances Talbot, however, was able to make the Earl into a good husband, and their marriage lasted thirty-one years.

Lady Morley was an attractive and witty woman, with literary interests, and for a time some people believed her to be the authoress of both S&S and P&P. It is not known how JA became acquainted with her, but the likeliest explanation is that it was through HTA, with his many contacts in London society. Although Lady Morley thanked JA warmly for the gift of Emma, in her letters to her sister-in-law Mrs George Villiers she spoke of it less than enthusiastically, rating it below P&P and MP. See W. A. W. Jarvis, 'JA and the Countess of Morley', Collected Reports, IV. 6–14, 79; and C. Viveash, 'Lady Morley and the "Baron so Bold"', Persuasions, 14 (1992), 53–6.

Morley family. Mr James Morley (1743–98), an East India merchant, had briefly owned the Kempshott Park estate, near Basingstoke 1787–8; these girls are presumably his daughters, and probably living in Winchester.

Morrell family. Rich brewers; James Morrell, of 1 St Giles, Oxford, was the father of Revd Deacon Morrell (1775–1854). Deacon Morrell was perhaps one of Revd GA's pupils at Steventon, c.1791–2; Christ Church, Oxford 1792, MA 1799; Lincoln's Inn 1796; of Streatley and Henley, Oxon., also of Moulsford, Berks., and finally of 35 Sackville Street, London; although ordained it seems that he never actually held a living.

Deacon Morrell never married, but his younger brother Baker, a solicitor in Oxford, did, and one of the latter's descendants was the Philip Morrell who married Lady Ottoline Cavendish-Bentinck of the Bloomsbury set.

pg 557Morrice family, of Betshanger, Kent. (Not 'Morris' as JA wrote.) The Revd James Morrice was rector of Betshanger, and the 'two Morrises' who came to Godmersham in 1808 to play with young JEAL were probably his children.

Morton, Mr and Mrs. Martha Lloyd's friends, perhaps the William Morton with wife Louisa Strangeways, who lived at Masham, a village about 18 miles north of Harrogate; they were married on 31 December 1801 and subsequently had thirteen children.

Mulcaster, Lt-Genl Sir F. W. Married September 1801 Maria-Lucy Montresor (q.v.); his sister Miss Mulcaster.

Murden, Jane (17??–1820). Daughter of—Murden and Christiana Fowle (q.v.); lived most of the time at Kintbury Rectory, and died at Hungerford, Berks. She thought Emma was inferior to all the other of JA's novels.

Murray, Lady Augusta (1761–1830), daughter of 4th Earl of Dunmore; married morganatically in Rome 1793 Prince Augustus-Frederick, Duke of Sussex (see under Royal Family), and had two children, Augustus-Frederick and Augusta-Emma, who were given the surname of D'Este. Lady Augusta owned a first edition of NA&P.

Murray, John (1778–1843). Of 50 Albemarle Street, London; publisher. Brought out Emma, NA, and P and also the second edition of MP. Described by the 1st Earl of Dudley as 'the excellent Murray. He is the prince of all booksellers and publishers—liberal-minded, well-educated and well-mannered, and of a pleasing aspect.' JA's assessment of him as 'a rogue of course, but a civil one' is unwittingly corroborated by a fellow-publisher, Mr Samuel Bagster, who records in his autobiography (Samuel Bagster of London, 1772–1851, 16–19) an anecdote which shows Mr Murray in a rather equivocal light.

Musgrave, Miss. (Not 'Musgrove'.) She did in fact marry Mr Richard Harvey on 31 January 1797.

Mussell, Mrs. Dressmaker/milliner, wife of William Mussell, hairdresser, of 9 Queen Street and later 7 Pulteney Bridge, Bath.

Newton, Isaac. Linen-draper, 14 Leicester Square, London.

Nibbs, James-Langford (1738–95). Of Antigua, and later of Devonshire; matriculated at St John's College, Oxford 1758; godfather to James Austen. His son George (1765–1832) was one of Revd GA's pupils c.1781–3; Oriel College, Oxford 1783, BA 1787; vicar of Cutcombe with Luxborough, Somerset 1791. The picture to which JA refers jokingly as 'Mr Nibbs' may be a portrait of either the father or the son—or perhaps just any picture given to the Austens by this family.

North, Rt Revd Brownlow (1741–1820). Bishop of Winchester 1781–1820.

North, Miss. Visitor or resident in Bath 1799.

Nottley, George (or perhaps 'Knottley'). Landlord of the Bull & George in Dartford.

pg 558Nunes, Mrs. Mistress of a boarding school in Overton, Hants, where Mary-Jane Fowle (q.v.) was educated.

Nutt, Mr. A connection of the Pearson family, and apparently a military cadet at Woolwich Academy.

Ogle, Mr. The Court Guide for 1815 shows four gentlemen of this name in London: Henry Ogle of 12 Stratton Street; H. M. Ogle, MP, 13 John Street, Adelphi; J. Ogle of Southampton Street, Bloomsbury; Richard Ogle of 65 Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury; there was also a Miss Ogle in Kensington Gore.

O'Neil, Mr. Drawing-master to Fanny Cage jr.

O'Neill, Eliza (1791–1872). (Not 'O'Neal' as JA wrote.) A tragedy actress and classic beauty; first appeared on the London stage in 1814, and was a reigning favourite until her retirement in 1819: 'Her face is not expressive, perhaps, but her actions are most graceful, her voice melodious, and her manners so natural that you can scarcely believe she is not the person she means to represent. I believe there was not a dry eye in the house.'—Mrs Calvert, describing her in the role of Mrs Haller, June 1815; Miss Berry, later that year, met her offstage and reported: 'Miss O'Neil is in society what she is on the stage—gentle, pleasing, and interesting.' Miss O'Neill married 1819 Sir William-Wrixon Becher of Ballygiblin, co. Cork, Ireland (1st Bt 1831), and had five children; in 1849 Thomas Carlyle visited Ballygiblin, and wrote to his sister: 'This house is the mansion of Sir Wm. Beecher [sic], whose "Lady Beecher" my present hostess was the once celebrated actress Miss O'Neil. She is now an elderly, austerely religious, stately and I really think worthy tho' not very lovable woman.'

Orde family. Of Northumbrian origin, with branches at Nunnykirk and Weetwood Hall, but several had come south to Hampshire:

(1) Thomas Orde (1746–1807) of Nunnykirk married 1778 Jean Powlett, illegitimate daughter of Charles, Duke of Bolton (q.v.).

(2) A kinsman of Thomas Orde, Lt-Genl Leonard-Shafto Orde (d. 1820) of Weetwood Hall, married 1800 as his second wife Lady Louisa Jocelyn (d. 1807), daughter of Robert, 1st Earl of Roden (q.v.).

(3) Revd John Orde (1771–1850, brother of Leonard-Shafto); vicar of Kingsclere, Hants 1796–1817, of Winslade, Hants 1811–29, of Itchenstoke and Abbotstone 1817–29, and rector of Wensley, Yorks. 1829; married 1802 Frances Carleton, second daughter of Guy, 1st Lord Dorchester (q.v.), and had six daughters.

(4) Lt-Col James Orde (brother of Leonard-Shafto and Revd John) married 15 May 1811 Margaret Beckford (d. 1818, q.v.).

(5) Juliana-Anne, daughter of John Orde of Weetwood, married 1804 as his second wife the 2nd Earl of Roden (q.v.).

(6) William Orde, described by JA as 'a cousin of the Kingsclere man'—perhaps William Orde of Nunnykirk, who died unmarried in 1843.

Orléans, Duke and Duchess of. Members of the French royal family who had sought refuge in England—Louis-Philippe (1773–1850), eldest son of the Duc pg 559d'Orléans, Egalité (1747–93), and his wife 1809 Marie-Amélie; Louis-Philippe was King of the French 1830–48.

Osborne, Mr and Mrs. Probably connections of the Tylden family; there had been an Osborne-Tylden marriage earlier in the eighteenth century.

Owen, Mrs. Either Mrs Owen of 14 Portland Place, or Mrs Maria Owen of 7 Axford Buildings, Bath.

Oxenden family, baronets, of Deane Park, Wingham, and Broome House, Kent. Sir Henry (1756–1838), 7th Bt 1803; married 1793 Mary Graham (q.v.), and had twelve children; his portrait is in Canterbury Art Gallery. His daughter Mary-Graham (8 May 1794) married 15 July 1815 at Bearsted Wiliam-Osmund Hammond (q.v.).

Oxford, Lady. Edward Harley, 5th Earl of Oxford (1773–1848), married 1794 Jane Elizabeth (1773–1824), daughter of James Scott, vicar of Itchen Stoke, Hants. Her notoriously free lifestyle after her marriage resulted in her children being referred to as the Harleian Miscellany.

Paget family, of Beaudesert, Staffs., and Plas Newydd, Anglesey. JA's comments in 1817 on the immorality of the Paget family were no more than the truth: Henry-William Paget (1768–1854), previously Lord Uxbridge and 1815 created 1st Marquess of Anglesey, married 1795 Lady Caroline Villiers (1774–1835) and had eight children, before eloping in 1808 with Lady Charlotte Wellesley, sister-in-law of the Duke of Wellington, who herself had four children. Both marriages ended in divorce, and in 1810 Lady Caroline married the Duke of Argyll while her erstwhile husband married Lady Charlotte and had a further ten children by her. The 1st Marquess's younger brother Sir Arthur Paget (1771–1840) seduced in 1808 Lady Boringdon (q.v. under Morley), whom he married in 1809 when her divorce was finalized and six weeks before their child was born.

The Lady Caroline Paget who married the Earl of March in 1817 was the eldest daughter of the Marquess of Anglesey's first marriage.

Paget, Revd William, and wife. William Paget, of Queens' College, Cambridge; ordained deacon in Winchester diocese 10 March 1805, with letters dimissory from Canterbury diocese.

Painter, Thomas. Haberdasher in Andover.

Palmer family. John Grove Palmer (d. 11 May 1832), sometime Attorney-General of Bermuda, later of 22 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, London, and finally of Alverstoke, Hants, where he is buried; married Dorothy Ball; one son Robert-John Palmer, with whom he was on bad terms; daughters Esther (married John-Christie Esten, q.v.); Harriet (d. 1867) and Frances (d. 1814) both married CJA (q.v.) and had issue.

The Mrs and Miss Palmer mentioned in 1816 may be different people.

Papillon family. Thomas Papillon (1757–1838), of Acrise Place, Kent, was a distant connection of the Knights (q.v.) of Chawton, due to a Papillon-Broadnax pg 560marriage in the mid-seventeenth century; another child of this marriage, Sarah Papillon, married Samuel Rawstorn (q.v.) of Lexden, Essex. Thomas Papillon's younger brother Revd John-Rawstorn (1763–1837, unmarried) was vicar of Tonbridge, Kent 1791–1804 and rector of Chawton 1801–37, and their spinster sister Elizabeth lived with him in Chawton as his hostess; another sister, Sarah, married 1791 Henry Jackson (q.v.). Revd John-Rawstorn Papillon owned a first edition of S&S and signed his name in it.

The Papillon archive (U.1015) is at the Centre for Kentish Studies, Maidstone.

Parry, Caleb-Hillier, MD (1755–1822). Physician, of 27 The Circus, Bath; daughters Gertrude, Maria, Sarah, and Caroline, and son Rear-Admiral Sir William-Edward Parry (1790–1855), the Arctic explorer.

Payne family, of Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey. Cousins of Revd GA and his family through their common Hampson ancestry: Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Hampson, 4th Bt (q.v.), married c.1728 Capel Payne, Town Clerk of Gloucester, and had two children, George and Catherine; she became one of the Women of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, and died in Gloucester 1786.

George Payne (1729–7 December 1800) entered Merton College, Oxford 1746; barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple 1753; bencher of the Inner Temple 1791. He built a house on Crown land at Brooklands, Surrey c.1764; married Elizabeth (surname unknown) and had five children: Maria, Harriet (1759), Amelia (1767), Louisa-Anne (1770), and one son George jr. (1777). George Payne seems to have maintained his mother's court connections, and was sent as Ambassador to the Emperor of Morocco in 1784—unfortunately his expenses for this service were never reimbursed. He was also 'Patentee of the Lion Office in the Tower' (i.e. keeper of the royal menagerie in the Tower of London); and when he died suddenly and intestate in 1800 his widow had to pay for the upkeep of these animals until his estate was eventually settled in 1807.

George Payne was also an old friend of Warren Hastings (q.v.), and in later years George's eldest daughter Maria seems to have lived almost permanently at Daylesford as a companion to Hastings's wife Marian. In Surrey the Paynes were neighbours of the 3rd Earl of Portmore (q.v.). Mr Payne was buried at Walton-on-Thames 15 December 1800; his widow Elizabeth moved to Thames Place, Shepperton, where she died in 1818 but was also buried at Walton. Payne family letters are in the Hastings Papers, British Library.

The Catherine Payne who married c.1743 George Cure (q.v.) was probably a sister of Capel Payne of Gloucester.

Peach, Revd Isaac (1754–1816). Pembroke College, Cambridge 1773; BA 1777 and MA 1786; curate of Wootton St Lawrence, Hants 1779 till his death in 1816.

Pearson, Miss. Mary Pearson, elder daughter of Captn Sir Richard Pearson, RN (1731–1805), Lt-Gov of the Greenwich Hospital for Seamen 1801, succeeding Captn Lock(y)er. See Family Record, 95–8, 105, 215.

pg 561Pellew, Adml Sir Edward (1757–1833). First Viscount Exmouth; for details of his career see ODNB.

Penlington. Tallow-chandler at the Crown & Beehive, Charles Street, Covent Garden, and later at 15 Hanway Street, Oxford Street.

Percival, Edward (1783–1819), MB. Physician at Southampton, and son of Dr Thomas Percival of Manchester (1740–1804) who wrote A Father's Instructions to his Children (1768).

Perigord, Mme/Mrs Mary. One of HTA's servants, daughter of Mme/Mrs Bigeon (q.v.)

Peters, Mr. Perhaps Charles Peters, of St Clement's, Cornwall, who entered Queen's College, Oxford 1786 aged 18, and died 1824. Mr Peters (whether this Charles or not) seems to have been a clergyman (probably a curate) at Tichborne and later at Ovington, Hants. The Powlett correspondence contains letters from Anne Powlett (q.v.) to her friend Miss Peters in Truro, in which reference is frequently made to this clergyman, her brother. A letter of 1 November 1800 speaks of talk about him and Miss Lyford; but a later letter, 5 August 1801, reports that 'we have ceased to talk of your Brother and Miss Lyford'.

Phebe. The Austens' maidservant in Southampton.

Philips, Mr. Proprietor of 12 Green Park Buildings, Bath; perhaps William Phil(l)ips, builder, of 12 Portland Place, Bath.

Phil(l)ips, Mr. One of HTA's bank clerks in London.

Phillott, Ven Dr James (1749–1815). Archdeacon and rector of Bath 1798, vicar of Lyncombe and Widcombe, rector of Stanton Prior, Somerset, Prebendary of Wells 1791, and Chaplain to the Bath Military Association; of Parsonage House, Upper Borough Walls, Bath; married October 1808 Lady Frances St Lawrence (q.v.).

Philmore, John (1734–17 March 1817). 'Old Philmore', Chawton villager; his wife Mary was buried 27 February 1809; married Rachel Stubbington 13 September 1809; buried by HTA 22 March 1817; 'his son' was Edward, baptized 1763; other members of the family are also buried in Chawton churchyard. See J. Hurst, 'Old Philmore and Miss Benn's Wretched Abode', Collected Reports, VI. 230–2.

Pickford, Mr and Mrs. Visitors to Bath 1801.

Piersy, Mrs J. (Not 'Percy' as JA wrote). Married June 1799 Revd Dr Gardiner (q.v.) of Bath.

Pilkington family, baronets of Chevet near Wakefield, Yorks. Sir Thomas Pilkington, 7th Bt (1773–1811), married 1797 Elizabeth-Anne Tufnell of Langleys, Essex (d. 1842); four daughters: Eliza (married 1819), Anne (married 1822), Louisa (married 1830), Catherine (married 1831), to whom Miss Sharp (q.v.) was governess. The baronetcy was inherited by Sir Thomas's younger brother William (1775–1850), who married 1825 Mary Swinnerton.

pg 562Pinckards, the. Perhaps Dr George Pinckard, of 18 Bloomsbury Square, London—see ODNB.

Plumptre family, of Fredville, Kent. John Plumptre (c.1760–1827), married 1788 Charlotte Pemberton, and had eleven children, including John-Pemberton, Henry-Western, Charlotte-Sophia, Emma-Maria, Mary-Louisa, and Frances-Matilda.

(1) John-Pemberton (1791–1864); St John's College, Cambridge 1808, BA 1813, MA 1816; Lincoln's Inn 1813 and called to the bar 1817; MP for East Kent 1832–52. FCK nearly became engaged to him c.1814, but his 'very serious disposition' and his religious views which eventually 'induced him to think dancing and other social amusements of the same sort things which ought to be eschewed and avoided by Christian people' made her change her mind (Brabourne ii. 269–72); he married 2 April 1818 Catherine-Matilda Methuen, of Corsham House, Wilts., and had three daughters. Mr Plumptre approved of MP and especially of Sir Thomas Bertram—'his conduct proves admirably the defects of the modern system of Education'. See M. Wilson, 'What Became of Mr J.P.?', Collected Reports, IV. 315–17, and V. 65, 69.

(2) Revd Henry-Western, rector of Eastwood, Notts., married 1828 Eleanor Bridges, only daughter of Sir Brook-William Bridges (q.v.).

(3) Charlotte-Sophia died unmarried 1809.

(4) Emma-Maria married 1812 Revd Henry Gipps (q.v.).

(5) Mary-Louisa married Captn John Smyth, RE, and died 1833 in Demerara.

(6) Frances-Matilda married 29 July 1816 Robert Ramsden (q.v.).

Pococke, Mr. Perhaps George Pocock (1765–1840), MP; of 39 Charles Street, Berkeley Square, London, and also of Hallwood, Kent.

Pollens, the two Mrs. Of Above Bar, Southampton.

Poore family, of Andover. Philip-Henry Poore (1764–1847), surgeon, apothecary, and man-midwife; originally at Littleton near Winchester, but moved to Andover and 1788 became a Capital Burgess of the Corporation; c.1800 he bought a house in New Street; his descendants were prominent in Andover civic affairs. By his first wife Mr Poore had several children, of whom the two eldest sons William and John went into the Navy; he married September 1797 as his second wife Mary Harrison (q.v.), and their daughter Mary-Anne was born March 1799.

Portal family. Of Huguenot origin; the senior line lived in Hampshire and owned the mills at Laverstoke which made paper for the Bank of England notes, and a junior branch lived in London.

William Portal (1755–1846) of Laverstoke, also owned Ashe Park, tenanted for many years by James Holder (q.v.); one daughter, Sophia. Mrs Portal admired MP very much.

John Portal (1764–1848), younger brother of William; of Freefolk Priors and later of Ashe Park, Hants; married twice and had several children. A daughter by his first marriage, Caroline, married 1825 William Knight; a daughter by his pg 563second marriage, Adela, married 1840 as his second wife Edward Knight II of Godmersham and Chawton (qq.v. under Austen).

Revd Benjamin-William Portal (1768–1812), elder son of William Portal of London; Scholar and Fellow of St John's College, Oxford 1785–1812; BA 1789, MA 1795, BD 1798, Select Preacher 1804; rector of Wasing, Berks., and vicar of Sandford, Oxon. Contributed some articles to James Austen's magazine The Loiterer.

Portman, Mr and Mrs. Edward-Berkeley Portman (1771–1823), of Bryanston, Dorset, and Orchard Portman, Somerset; married at Bath 28 August 1798 Lucy Whitby (q.v.); their son Edward-Berkeley (b. 1799) was created 1837 Baron Portman of Orchard Portman, and 1873 Viscount Portman of Bryanston.

Portmore, Earl of. William-Charles Colyear, 3rd Earl (1745–1823); of Ham Haw Park near Chertsey, Surrey, and 13 Foley Place, London; a neighbour of Mr George Payne (q.v.); his youngest daughter Lady Catherine-Caroline Colyear married 1810 James Brecknell (q.v.).

Portsmouth, Earl of. John-Charles Wallop (1767–1853), 3rd Earl 1797; of Hurstbourne Park near Andover, Hants. He had been Revd GA's pupil for a few months in 1773, when Mrs Austen noted that he stammered and was very backward for his age (see Family Record, 26); although he was not ineducable, by the time he reached manhood his family knew his mental state was such that he would be unable to live a normal life, and in 1790 appointed trustees to supervise him and manage the estate; a marriage was also arranged for him in 1799 with a much older woman, the Hon Grace Norton, who was able to control him and make him play a reasonably decent part in society, until her death in 1813. The Earl's lawyer and trustee Mr John Hanson (q.v.) then cynically married off his daughter Mary-Anne to his ward, who by now was obviously a sadistic and necrophiliac lunatic. The marriage took place on 7 March 1814 at St George's, Bloomsbury, and Lord Byron was persuaded—possibly bribed—by Hanson to give away the bride. Mary-Anne herself was under no illusion as to her husband's mental condition, and lost no time in bringing her lover William-Rowland Alder to join her at Hurstbourne Park, where they together had three children and maltreated the wretched Earl—perhaps unwittingly with poetic justice—just as he had maltreated his servants and animals in previous years. Mr Hanson, for his part, took over control of the Wallop estates and occupied Farleigh House rent free, supposedly in lieu of his legal fees. Eventually the Earl's younger brother, Hon Newton Wallop Fellowes, rescued him from his wife's family, and then brought a lawsuit for a Commission in Lunacy; in 1823 the Commission decided that the Earl had been insane since 1809, and the marriage with Miss Hanson was accordingly annulled. The Earl lived on at Hurstbourne Park for many years, and was eventually succeeded by his brother; Miss Hanson married her lover in 1828 and disappeared into obscurity.

Potter, Mrs. Lodging-house keeper, High Street, Cheltenham. See C. S. Greet, 'Jane and Cassandra in Cheltenham', Collected Reports, VI. 233–40.

pg 564Pottinger, Mrs. Probably a member of the Pottinger family, squires of the village of Compton, Berks. A Miss Eliza-Head Pottinger married 1807 Revd James-Wilkes Best of Chieveley, Berks.; it may perhaps be this Mr Best's elderly father Charles Best (1732–1813) who did not escort Martha Lloyd to Harrogate in 1806—see 'Oh! Mr Best', in Later MSS, 244–5, and also Selwyn (ed.), Collected Poems and Verse of the Austen Family, 5–6.

Powlett families. Charles, 3rd Duke of Bolton, had three sons by his mistress Lavinia Beswick alias Fenton (an actress who was the original 'Polly Peachum' in The Beggar's Opera): Revd Charles (1728–1809), Percy (c.1734), and Lt-Col Horatio-Armand. Percy Powlett became a Lieutenant in the Navy and died young, leaving one son Charles, born c.1765. This child was brought up by his elder uncle, Charles, largely at the ducal home of Hackwood Park, where 'he became acquainted with rank and fashion in abundance, which somewhat unsettled him for the sphere to which his ill-starred fortunes destined him'. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1781, but did not graduate; held various Bolton family livings: rector of St Martin-by-Looe, Cornwall 1790–1807, rector of Winslade, Hants 1789–94, rector of Blackford, Somerset 1794–6, back to Winslade 1796–1811, rector of Itchenstoke, Hants 1796–1817, perpetual curate of Swingfield, Kent 1817–26, and finally rector of High Roding, Essex 1817–34; Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Prince of Wales 1790. For some years he took pupils, one of whom, Lord Roden, presented him to the High Roding living. He married in November 1796 Anne ('Nancy') Temple (q.v.) and had several children; following his wife's death, his extravagant habits obliged him to flee to France in 1827, and he died at Brussels in 1834.

A premature obituary notice for Revd Charles Powlett appeared in the GM for 1830, ii. 471; while acknowledging that he was 'cheerful, benevolent, conscientious, and virtuous', the anonymous biographer added that 'His person was diminutive, and his limbs not well formed. He had a quick apprehension, and an excellent memory; but he was somewhat deficient in judgment and profundity. His opinions were apt to run to extremes, and to be lightly taken up, and lightly abandoned. He was a little too free of his advice, which was given with a self-sufficiency not always well received'—and so on, for several further candid comments, adding up to a general picture of an affable but foolish man.

Although a number of his letters written between 1789 and 1801 survive in the Powlett archive, in which the Lefroys and Lyfords are mentioned, unfortunately there are only passing references to the Austens.

Powlett, Lt-Col Thomas-Norton. A distant kinsman of the above, being descended from a junior but legitimate branch of the family, one of whom became in 1794 the 12th Marquess of Winchester; Lt-Col 1802, Col 1811, Maj-Genl 1815, died 1824. Married 1798 at Ashbourne, Derbyshire, Letitia-Mary Percival; while they were living at Albion Place in Southampton she eloped with the 2nd Viscount Sackville (q.v.), later (1815) the last Duke of Dorset—meeting him at the White pg 565Hart in Winchester. Col Powlett won £3,000 damages in his crim. con. case against Lord Sackville in 1808.

Powys family. Caroline Girle (1738–1817, q.v.), married 5 August 1762 Philip-Lybbe Powys (1734–1809) of Hardwick Hall, Oxon., and had three children: Philip-Lybbe junior (1765), Thomas (1768), Caroline-Isabella (1775); the latter married 1793 Revd Edward Cooper (q.v.) and had eight children.

Revd Thomas Powys (1736–1809), younger brother of Philip-Lybbe Powys of Hardwick; St John's College, Oxford 1753; BA 1757, MA 1760, BD and DD 1795; rector of Fawley, Bucks. 1762 and of Silchester, Hants 1769; Prebendary of Hereford 1769, Dean of Bristol 1779, Chaplain to the King 1781, Canon of Windsor 1796–7, Dean of Canterbury 1797–1809 and lived at the Deanery in the Cathedral Close; unmarried. See M. Lane, 'The Very Revd Thomas Powys', Collected Reports, IV. 290–4.

Mrs Powys kept diaries and journals (now in the British Library, Add. MS. 42,160–73), and in 1899 Mrs Emily J. Climenson, wife of the vicar of Shiplake, Oxon., edited these under the title of Passages from the Diaries of Mrs. Philip Lybbe Powys of Hardwick House, Oxon, A.D. 1756 to 1808. While this volume has undoubtedly been of use in making the diaries known to historians, unfortunately Mrs Climenson's editing was often inaccurate, so that her version of Mrs Powys's text must be used with caution.

Prince of Wales/Prince Regent, Princess of Wales. See under Royal Family.

Prowting family, of Chawton. The Prowtings had been copyholders and then freeholders in the parish of Chawton since the sixteenth century, and had gradually risen in local importance; several of their headstones still exist in Chawton churchyard. The family whom JA knew were William Prowting (1754–1821), JP, DL, and his wife Elizabeth (1752–1832), who had five children: Elizabeth (1778); Catherine-Ann (1783–1848, unmarried); William (1784–99); Ann-Mary (1787–1858); and John-Rowland (1791–1800).

Elizabeth married 1801 Richard Lee (q.v.) and had at least two sons, but the Prowting property in Chawton passed to her sister Ann-Mary, who had married 1811 Captn Benjamin Clement, RN (q.v.), and to their descendants.

Pugh, Miss. Of Andover, married 1799 Arnold Ludlow (q.v.).

Pyne, Mr. Owner of the lodgings in Lyme Regis which the Austens rented in 1804; probably the cottage in Broad Street, Lyme, known now as Pyne House.

Rawstorn, Miss Anne. Of Lexden, Essex, and 29 Bedford Row, London; a cousin of the Papillon family (q.v.) of Acrise, as a Sarah Papillon of an earlier generation had married Samuel Rawstorn of Lexden; the Papillons inherited Lexden Manor at her death in 1816.

Rebecca. Maidservant at Godmersham.

Redding, Grace. Linen- and woollen-draper in Andover.

Remmington, Wilson & Co. Silk manufacturers, 30 Milk Street, London.

pg 566Remnant, T. Glover, etc., 126 Strand, London.

Reynolds, Sir Joshua (1723–92). Artist; President of the Royal Academy; for details of his career see ODNB.

Rice family, of Kent. Henry Rice, of Bramling near Canterbury was a commander in the HEIC's merchant service 1770–81, captain of the East Indiaman Dutton, and an Elder Brother of Trinity House; he married Sarah Sampson of Dover (1755–1841) and had three sons: Henry (1776), John-Adamson (1778), and Edward-Royd (1790); died 1797.

(1) Henry Rice was cheerful and amusing but a hopeless spendthrift and gambler, always expecting his widowed mother to pay the debts he constantly incurred. He entered Christ's College, Cambridge 1796 and resided till 1800, but did not graduate; married 20 July 1801 Jemima-Lucy Lefroy (q.v.) of Ashe, and had three children: Henry-George (1802–21), Sarah (1804–42), and Anne (died unmarried); curate of Ashe 1800–5, and of Deane 1801–5(?); by 1807 had moved to Cholderton near Salisbury, Wilts.; in 1809 his mother apparently bought the advowson and estate of Great Holland in Essex for him and he may have lived there for a time, as in 1812 he was instituted to the rectory; also in 1812 his brother-in-law C.-Edward Lefroy sued him for debt; in 1813 he was at Tollard Royal near Salisbury; in 1818 the Great Holland estate was sold, and in 1819 he had to flee to Dunkirk to avoid his creditors; he returned to England c. 1822, and after receiving his share of his mother's estate in 1841 seems to have managed to avoid getting into debt again thereafter; eventually died 17 September 1860 at 10 Cavendish Place, Bath; his widow Jemima died 1 March 1862 at 2 St James Square, Bath; both buried Lansdown Cemetery. See M. Hammond, 'Mrs Henry Rice', Collected Reports, IV. 14–17; and also 'Jemima-Lucy Lefroy', Persuasions, 14 (1992), 57–61.

(2) John-Adamson Rice followed his father into the HEIC, and died unmarried in India 1804.

(3) Edward-Royd Rice (1790–1878) married October 1818 JA's niece Lizzy Knight (q.v.) and had fifteen children; old Mrs Rice bought Dane Court near Dover for the young couple, and they lived there for the rest of their lives; Edward was MP for Dover for over twenty years, and a portrait of him, in later life, is in the Dover Museum & Art Gallery.

Richard. HTA's manservant, successor to William.

Richis. Maidservant at Rowling.

Richmond, Duchess of. Mother of the Earl of March who married 1817 Lady Caroline Paget.

Rider (or Ryder), Mrs. Draper/haberdasher in Basingstoke, died ?December 1800.

Ripley, Revd Thomas (1752–20 October 1813). Rector of Wootton Bassett, Wilts.; married 1780 Sophia Pemberton; the 'young Ripley' at school in Bath 1805 may perhaps be his son.

pg 567Rivers family. Baronets of Chafford, Kent. Revd Sir Peter, 6th Bt and Prebendary of Winchester (1721–90), married 1768 Martha Coxe (d. c.1835); several children alive in 1796: sons Thomas (7th Bt, d. 1805), James (8th Bt, accidentally killed 1805), and Revd Henry (9th Bt, d. 1851) rector of Martyr Worthy, Hants; and daughters Amelia, Maria, and Louisa. The 'Sophy' Rivers whom JA mentions in 1813 may perhaps be fictional.

Robert. The Leigh-Perrots' manservant.

Robinson, Dr. Physician at Lyme Regis, 1804.

Robinson, Mary. Presumably a maidservant at Rowling.

Robinson, Revd Matthew (c.1775–1827). Rector 1800–27 of Burghfield near Reading, Berks.; cousin of Lord Rokeby and brother-in-law of Sir Egerton Brydges (q.v.).

Roden family. Robert Jocelyn (1756–1820), 2nd Earl of Roden, married (1) 1788 Frances-Theodosia Bligh (d. 1802) and had six children; (2) 1804 Juliana-Anne, youngest daughter of John Orde (q.v.) of Weetwood, Northumberland, and had two sons. The second son of his first marriage, James-Bligh, was Lieutenant RN 1811, but died of asthma July 1812, aged 22.

Rogers, Mrs. Draper/haberdasher in Basingstoke, succeeding Mrs Rider, in 1801.

Roland, Mr. ?Hairdresser visiting Godmersham from ?Canterbury.

Rolle, the Misses. Lucilla (c.1757–1851) and Ann (c.1758–1842), sisters of Lord Rolle of Stevenstone, Devon (1756–1842); of 82 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London; friends of the Cooke family (q.v.), and of the Locks of Norbury; rented Fanny Burney's 'Camilla Cottage' at West Humble 1802–3.

Roope, Mr. Tutor or music-master to the Finch-Hatton family.

Rosalie. Sometime maidservant to Eliza de Feuillide, Mrs HTA.

Roworth, C. Printer, at 38 Bell Yard, Temple Bar, London.

Royal Family. George III (1738–1820) ascended the throne 1760, and married 1761 Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818); they had fifteen children (see below); later in life the King began to suffer bouts of illness which affected him mentally as well as physically, and in 1811 he became a hopeless invalid and so remained until his death in 1820. From the symptoms recorded by his doctors it is now believed that he was suffering from porphyria—a genetic disorder associated with abnormal metabolism of various pigments.

George III had a younger brother Wiliam-Henry (1743–1805), created Duke of Gloucester; his son Wiliam-Frederick (1776–1834) became the 2nd Duke in 1805 upon his father's death, and later married his cousin Mary, fourth daughter of George III.

George III's children were:

(1) George-Augustus-Frederick (1762–1830); Prince of Wales from his birth until 1811, when he became Prince Regent following his father's incapacitation; succeeded as King George IV in 1820. He married in 1795 his cousin, Princess pg 568Caroline of Brunswick (1768–1821) — a marriage which was immediately unhappy — and had one daughter, Charlotte, born 1796. Princess Charlotte married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg in 1816 and died in childbirth November 1817.

(2) Frederick (1763–1827), Duke of York; married 1791 Princess Frederica of Prussia (1767–1820), but died without issue.

(3) William-Henry (1765–1837), Duke of Clarence; lived with the actress Dorothy Jordan (q.v.) for many years and had ten children by her, all given the surname of FitzClarence; married 1818 Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1792–1849); succeeded as King William IV in 1830; no surviving legitimate issue.

(4) Charlotte-Augusta-Matilda (1766–1828), Princess Royal; married 1797 Prince Frederick of Wurttemberg (1754–1816); no issue.

(5) Edward-Augustus (1767–1820), Duke of Kent; married 1818 Princess Victoire of Saxe-Cobourg (1786–1861) and had one daughter, Alexandrina-Victoria (1819–1901), who succeeded in 1837 as Queen Victoria.

(6) Augusta-Sophia (1768–1840) died unmarried.

(7) Elizabeth (1770–1840), married 1818 Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (1769–1829); no issue.

(8) Ernest-Augustus (1771–1851), Duke of Cumberland; married 1815 Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1778–1841); 1837 ascended throne of Hanover as King Ernest; one son, King George of Hanover (1819–78).

(9) Augustus-Frederick (1773–1843), Duke of Sussex; married morganatically

(1) 1793 Lady Augusta Murray (1761–1830) (q.v.); and (2) 1831 Lady Cecilia Buggin (1793–1873).

(10) Adolphus-Frederick (1774–1850), Duke of Cambridge; married 1818 Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel (1797–1889) and had three children: George (1819–1904), Augusta (1822–1916), and Mary-Adelaide (1833–97).

(11) Mary (1776–1857); married 1816 her cousin William, 2nd Duke of Gloucester; no issue.

(12) Sophia (1777–1848) died unmarried.

(13) Octavius (1779–83).

(14) Alfred (1780–82).

(15) Amelia (1783–1810) died unmarried.

Russell. Manservant at Godmersham.

Russell, Mrs Anne. Née Kirshaw, married 11 January 1770 Francis Russell of Basingstoke (d. 1795); no issue; died of dropsy 5 October 1803, aged 51; they are both buried at Old Basing. Francis Russell may have been a connection of Revd Dr Richard Russell (1695–1783), vicar of Overton 1719–71 and rector of Ashe 1729–83. This Dr Russell, predecessor at Ashe of the Lefroy family, was the grandfather of the authoress Mary Russell Mitford, best known now for her Our Village essays.

pg 569S., Miss. Governess to the Moore family at Wrotham.

Sa(y)ce, Sarah. Lady's-maid at Godmersham; niece of Susannah Sackree (q.v.); married a German, John Stephen Ziegler, in 1822 and died at Stuttgart ante-1842.

Sackree, Susannah (1761–2 March 1851). Nursemaid at Godmersham from 1793 to the end of her life, and known as 'Caky' to her charges; a portrait of her is now at Chawton Cottage, and there is a MI in Godmersham church. See Collected Reports, II. 172–6.

Sackville, Viscount. Charles Sackville-Germain (1767–1843), 2nd Viscount Sackville of Drayton, Northants; also of 46 Harley Street, London; 1815 succeeded his cousin as 5th and last Duke of Dorset; died unmarried. 'A little, smart-looking man, and a favourite with the ladies'—q.v. Thomas Powlett.

St Helens, Lord. Alleyne Fitzherbert, created 1791 Lord St Helens, died unmarried 1839.

St John families. Revd Ellis St John junior, of West Court, Finchampstead, Berks., had three sons: Henry-Ellis (1776–1842), rector 1800–9 of Winchfield, Hants; Edward (1778), vicar 1805–19 of Hartley Wintney, Hants, and rector of Winchfield 1839; also John, of Quidhampton near Overton.

At this period there were several other St Johns in Hampshire: Revd William (1749–97), vicar of Hartley Wintney 1786–97 and rector of Dogmersfield 1773–97; Revd Oliver-Goodyer (1741–1804), rector of Mottisfont 1775; and his son Revd Oliver-D'Oyley (1779) of Lockerley and East Dean, later following his father to Mottisfont. See also under Mildmay.

St Lawrence, Lady Frances. Third daughter of the 1st Earl of Howth; of 1 Russell Street, Bath; married October 1808 Ven Dr James Phillott (q.v.); died 1842.

St Vincent, Lord. John Jervis (1735–1823), Earl of St Vincent. For details of his naval career see Marshall, Royal Naval Biography, and ODNB.

Salkeld, Mrs. Housekeeper at Godmersham.

Sally. The Austens had one or more maidservants of this name.

Salusbury, Mr. Friend of FCK, in Kent.

Sanford family. Early in the eighteenth century Catherine Chichester, daughter of Sir John Chichester of Youlston, Devon, married (1) George Musgrave of Huish, Somerset; their daughter Juliana married 1767 Sir James Langham of Cottesbrooke, 7th Bt, and became the mother of Sir William 8th Bt and Sir James 10th Bt (q.v.). Mrs Musgrave married (2) Revd John Sanford of Welford, Somerset, and had another nine children; of these, her eldest son Henry-William Sanford had a son, also Henry; and her third son William had a daughter Frances (1777–8 August 1823) who married James Tilson (q.v.).

Henry Sanford was HTA's friend and business associate, and lived at apartment F.3 in Albany, Piccadilly; he was first cousin to Frances Sanford, and they were both also cousins, though only by half-blood, of the Langham baronets. Mr Sanford was very much pleased with Emma, but MP was still his favourite.

pg 570Sankey, William (1763–1833). Surgeon, of Wingham, attending Marianne Bridges.

Saunders, Mr. Mentioned only as a friend of the Austens' cousin Sir Thomas-Philip Hampson (q.v.); the Court Guide shows six gentlemen of this name in London: Mr D. of 19 Buckingham Street, Mr G. of 252 Oxford Street, Mr John of 4 Weymouth Street, Mr Thomas of 25 Howland Street, Mr W. of 19 Chapel Street, Grosvenor Place, and Mr William of 11 Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square.

Sawbridge, Miss. Perhaps Elizabeth-Jane, sister of Revd Henry Sawbridge, rector of Welford near Newbury, Berks.

Saye and Sele, Lady. See under Twisleton.

Scarman, Mr. James Austen's London dentist.

Sch(u)ylers, the. Capt Sch(u)yler and his wife Catherine, son-in-law and daughter of Mrs Fe(a)ver (q.v.).

Sclater family. Mrs Penelope Lutley-Sclater (1750–1840), tenant of Tangier Park, Hants; also her nephew, Mr Sclater of Hoddington, who in fact lived with his aunt at Tangier Park. Mrs Lutley-Sclater liked Emma very much, more than MP, and her copy of the first edition of Emma was sold in December 2009 in New York for $16,250.

Scott family, of Scot's Hall, Smeeth, Kent. Cecilia Scott, eldest daughter of George Scott of Bombay, married (1) Brice Fletcher (d. 1776, q.v.) and had issue; (2) c.1777 her cousin Francis-Talbot Scott (1745–89), and had two sons: Revd George (1778–ante-1839), and Francis-Peach (1779). Francis-Talbot Scott was the last member of the family to live at their ancestral home Scot's Hall; when he left there in 1765 the income from the estate was reduced to £800 p.a. and the property was mortgaged for £12,000.

Scott, Sir Walter (1771–1832). In 1813 he was known to the reading public as a poet; his novel Waverley and its successors were published anonymously 1814 onwards.

Scrane, Mrs. Possibly a relation by marriage of HTA's banking partner Henry Maunde (q.v.), and possibly living at 9 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London. In 1816 FCK believed her to be on the verge of marrying William Seymour (q.v.). Her surname is more likely to have been spelt 'Skrine'.

Scudamore, Edward. Of Canterbury; married 1813 Mary Toke (q.v.); physician, surgeon, and apothecary, and attended the Knights of Godmersham.

Seagraves, the. Perhaps a fictional family.

Serle, Mr. Of Bishopstoke; perhaps James Serle, Receiver-General of Hampshire, died 1809 aged 64, MI in St Lawrence's, Winchester.

Seward, Bridger. EAK's farm bailiff at Chawton, who died February 1808. He and his wife occupied the cottage at the crossroads in Chawton from 1787 to 1808, which EAK refurbished in 1809 for the use of Mrs GA and her daughters.

pg 571Seymer, Maria-Bridget. Daughter (1795–1841) of Lt-Col Seymer of Hadford, Dorset; married by special licence in Bath 1805 Stephen Terry (q.v.), and had several children.

Seymour, William (1770–1855). HTA's friend and lawyer; of 19 Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, London, with his office entrance round the corner at 12 Little Portland Street. His wife Tryphena-Letitia née Foulston died 1811, leaving three young sons; at some time thereafter he contemplated proposing to JA, but in the end never did so. He may perhaps have married Mrs Scrane (q.v.) in 1816. In the 1830s he moved to Brighton, where he became a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for Sussex, and lived there for the rest of his life. See Le Faye, 'JA's Laggard Suitor', N&Q 245: 3 (Sept. 2000), 301–4.

Sharp, Anne. Governess to FCK at Godmersham from 21 January 1804 to mid-January 1806, but had to resign owing to continual ill-health; in March 1806 she was with a Mrs Raikes as governess to one little girl aged 6; but even this was too much for her strength, and in May 1806 she moved to become companion to Mrs Raikes's sister, the crippled Miss Bailey, at Hinckley, Leics. In the summer of 1811 Miss Sharp left Miss Bailey and by October 1811 was governess to the four young daughters of the recently widowed Lady Pilkington (q.v.). It is not known when Miss Sharp left this employment; but by 1823 she was running her own boarding-school for girls at 14–15 Everton Terrace, Liverpool, where she remained until 1841; she retired to York Terrace, Everton, and died on 8 January 1853, leaving instructions for her burial in a vault in Everton churchyard. When JA wrote to her in 1817 at South Parade, Doncaster, Yorks., she may perhaps have been staying or even working at Mrs Anne Haugh's boarding-school there, 1 South Parade, perhaps gaining experience before starting up her own establishment.

Miss Sharp's opinions of JA's novels were that MP was excellent, but she preferred P&P, and rated Emma between these two. Her copies of the novels were sold at Bonhams on 24 June 2008, and Emma, being a presentation copy direct from the publishers, went for £180,000. After passing through the hands of dealers it was sold to a private British collector in the spring of 2010 for £325,000.

It is not certain from JA's surviving letters whether Miss Sharp did eventually manage to visit Hampshire in the late summer of 1811, but she certainly was at Chawton in June 1815, and again for a longer visit in August–September 1820, when JEAL met her at the Cottage and told his sister Anna that she was 'horridly affected but rather amusing'.

The Miss Sharp whom JA mentions as being in Bath in 1805 is clearly not the same as this Miss Anne Sharp.

Shaw, Anna-Maria. Married 1819 Maximilian-Dudley-Digges Hammond (q.v.).

Sherer, Revd Joseph-Godfrey (1770–1823). Vicar of Blandford Forum, Dorset, 1800; vicar of Westwell, Kent, 1806–23; and vicar of Godmersham 1811–23. He liked MP best of all, and ranked Emma below that and P&P; he was in general displeased with JA's pictures of clergymen. His son Joseph entered the Navy as a pg 572First-Class Volunteer 1811, was Midshipman 1813, Lieutenant 1822, Commander 1829, and Captain 1841.

Shipley, Conway (1782–1808). Son of Revd William-Davies Shipley, Dean of St Asaph, who lived at Twyford House, Hants. Entered RN on his eleventh birthday and was in battle the following year; Lieutenant 1800, Commander 1803, Captain 1804, and killed in action off the Portuguese coast April 1808.

Sibley, the Misses. Daughters of Joseph Sibley of Hall Place, West Meon, Hants.

Siddons, Mrs Sarah (1755–1831). The famous tragedy actress; for details of her career see ODNB.

Simpson, Captn, RN, and his brother. Robert Simpson, Captn 1806 and died suddenly 1808; he had been notably successful in acquiring prize money, hence JA referring to him as the Captain Simpson; and brother John Simpson, Captn 1809. See S. J. Kindred, 'The Influence of Captain Charles Austen's North American Experiences on Persuasion and Mansfield Park', Persuasions, 31 (2009), 115–29.

Skeete, Mrs Mary. Widow, of Basingstoke; married 1799 Peter William French (q.v.) of Reading, Berks.

Sloane, Stephen. Married September 1800 Mrs Estwick (q.v.); Trinity Hall, Cambridge 1801; BA 1805, MA 1809; sinecure rector of Gedney, Lincs. 1806–12; died at his father's house in Upper Harley Street, London 16 April 1812.

Sloper, Mr. Robert Orby Sloper (1769), of 20 Montague Street, London, only legitimate son of General Sir Robert Sloper (1728–1802), of West Woodhay, Berks., who left five illegitimate children, three sons and two daughters. Robert Orby Sloper married Anne Prade on 8 August 1808 at St Marylebone, London.

Small, Miss. Dressmaker in ?Overton.

Smallbone families. Villagers of Steventon and Deane; Daniel Smallbone(s) married 1790 Jane ('Jenny') Read and had eight children; of these Mary (1792) was CMCA's nursemaid in 1808, married 1834 James Hutt, a widower from Longparish, and died at Deane 1859; Betsy (1794) replaced her sister as CMCA's attendant in 1809. There was also another Daniel Smallbone (presumably a cousin of the above), who married 1796 Sarah Tilbury (q.v.).

Smith, Miss. Actress; appeared in Merchant of Venice at Drury Lane, with Kean as Shylock, March 1814, and also as Desdemona to his Othello.

Smith, Mr and Mrs. Friends of the Tilsons and of HTA, in London;

Smith, Col and Mrs Cantelo. Probably jocular, in allusion to their singing; a Charles Cantelo had been performing in Bath in 1801.

Smith, Captain. William-Richard Smith, Commander RN December 1808 and Captain January 1809.

Smith family, of Suttons and Tring. In the mid-eighteenth century Joshua Smith, MP, of Stoke Park, Wilts., had four daughters, of whom only two concern us: Elizabeth (c.1770–1842) and Augusta (1772–1845).

pg 573(1) Elizabeth married 1793 William-John Chute (q.v.) of The Vyne but had no children. She therefore paid much attention to the children of her younger sister Augusta (see below).

(2) Augusta married 1798 Charles Smith (1756–1814) of Suttons, Essex, and had nine children: Augusta (1799–1836), Charles-Joshua (1800–31), Emma (1801–76), Frances (1803–71), Spencer (1806–82), Sarah-Eliza (1808–94), Charlotte-Judith (1810–40), Drummond (1812–32), Maria-Louisa (1814–87). JEAL met this family when they came to visit their aunt Mrs Chute, and in 1828 he married Emma.

Joshua Smith's younger brother Drummond, of Tring Park, was created a baronet 1804, with special remainder to the male heirs of the Smiths of Suttons; Charles-Joshua therefore succeeded his great-uncle as 2nd Bt in 1816.

Sir Drummond Smith married as his second wife Elizabeth (d. 1835), daughter of 2nd Viscount Galway; Mrs Augusta Smith rented Tring Park from her in 1827, and when JEAL married Emma the young couple lived there with the rest of the Smith family till 1833.

Smith, James (1775–1839), and Horace (1779–1849). The 'two Mr Smiths of the City' who wrote 1812 the Rejected Addresses.

Smith, Robert. Apothecary, of 62 Sloane Street, Chelsea, London; Charles Haden (q.v.) succeeded to his practice and premises.

Smithson, Mr. A friend of HTA; perhaps John Smithson, of 10 Montague Street, Portman Square, London.

Somerville, Mrs Maria. Perhaps a sister of Revd William Somerville of 21 Belvedere, Bath, and rector of Aston Somerville, Glos. 1774–1803.

Sondes, Lady. Mary-Elizabeth (26 May 1767–29 September 1818), only daughter of Richard Milles of Nackington (q.v.); married (1) 30 November 1785 Lewis-Thomas Watson, later 2nd Baron Sondes of Lees Court (d. 20 June 1806) and had seven children; (2) 23 June 1809 Genl Sir Henry-Tucker Montresor (q.v.). See M. Wilson, 'Lady Sondes—her Portrait and her Marriages', Collected Reports, VI. 467–72.

South, Mr, of Winchester. Possibly a younger brother of Revd Henry South, curate of Fawley, Hants 1791, and of Dibden near Fawley 1792.

Southey, Robert (1774–1843). Nephew of Revd Herbert Hill (q.v.); poet and writer, Poet Laureate 1813; married 1795 Edith Fricker and had eight children: Margaret (1802–3), Edith-May (1804, married 1834), Herbert (1806–16), Emma (1808–9), Bertha (1809, married her cousin Herbert Hill junior), Katharine (1810), Isabel (1812–26), Charles-Cuthbert (1819).

Southey visited the Hill family at Streatham in 1813, and they evidently told him of their friendship with JA, for in later years he wrote to Sir Egerton Brydges (q.v.): 'You mention Miss Austen; her novels are more true to nature, and have (for my sympathies) passages of finer feeling than any others of this age. She was a person of whom I have heard so well, and think so highly, that I pg 574regret not having seen her, nor ever having had an opportunity of testifying to her the respect which I felt for her.'

Spence, Mr. Either George Spence, dentist to George III, of 17 Old Bond Street, or Spence & Son of 1 Arlington Street, London.

Spencer, Mr and Miss. Friends of HTA; four Spencers are shown in the Court Guide: Mr F. of 4 Northumberland Street, Marylebone; Mr H. of 12 Great Marlborough Street; Mr J. of 2 Golden Square; and Mr R. L. of 53 Lambs Conduit Street.

Spencer, George John (1758–1834). 2nd Earl, and First Lord of the Admiralty 1794–1801.

Spicer, John. Owner 1805 of Esher Place, the manor house of Esher, Surrey; also of 8 Hanover Square, London.

Stacey, Mary. There were several Stacey families amongst the Chawton villagers; this would appear to be the Mary Stacey who was buried 5 July 1819. A William Stacey and family lived at Wood Barn Farm in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Stanhope, Adml and Mrs. Sir Henry-Edwin Stanhope, Rear-Admiral 1801, Vice-Admiral 1805, Admiral 1812; of 10 Seymour Street, Bath. The Admiral was a very distant cousin of Mrs GA, as they had a common ancestor in James Brydges, Lord Chandos of Sudeley (d. 1714). See R. Vick, 'Cousins in Bath', Collected Reports, IV. 394–9.

Staples, Dame. Steventon villager; Elizabeth (1753–1828) wife of Thomas Staples, and her nine children, of whom Hannah was born 1791.

Steel & Meyer. Lavender-water warehouse, Catherine Street, Strand.

Steevens families. There were several Steevens amongst the Steventon villagers; Mary Pain (1738–1822) married 1759 Thomas Steevens, and John Steevens (1765–1816) was their son. Mary Tilbury (q.v.) married 1789 William Steevens.

Stent, Mary (d. 24 December 1812). 'With Mrs Lloyd had also lived to the last Mrs Stent, an early friend, of rather inferior position in life, and reduced, from family misfortunes, to very narrow means. I remember her quite an old lady, lodging at Highclere in a small cottage, near to Mrs Criswick.'—CMCA's Reminiscences, 3.

Stephens, Catherine (1794–1882). Actress and singer; first appeared at Covent Garden in September 1813 as Mandane in Artaxerxes, and was an immediate success. Some critics said she had the sweetest soprano voice of the time, a natural manner and a simple style; others, that she lacked dramatic instinct and her enunciation was very bad. She retired from the stage in 1835 and three years later married at 5 Belgrave Square, London, the 5th Earl of Essex, an octogenarian widower, who died 1839. Lady Essex survived him forty-three years, dying in the house in which she was married.

Stockwell, Mrs. Revd Thomas Stockwell (1716–81) was rector of Dummer 1742–81, and married Ann Terry (1710–84). This Mrs Stockwell is presumably their unmarried daughter Ann Stockwell (d. 23 July 1820).

pg 575Storer, Dr & Mrs. Apparently a physician at Bridlington, Yorks.

Streatfeild, Henry (1757–1829). Of Chiddingstone, Kent; High Sheriff of Kent 1792.

Street, Mr. There are two men of this name mentioned in JA's letters: (1) her dancing-partner in 1799, who was probably Revd George Street, curate of Kingsclere, Hants 1798; (2) of Key Street, Kent, who was Purser on CJA's ship HMS Namur.

Summers, Miss. Dressmaker in the Steventon area, 1800.

Sussex, Duke of. See under Royal Family.

Sweny, Mark-Halpen (b. 1785). (Not 'Sweeney/Sweney', as JA wrote.) Lieutenant RN 1806, Commander 1821, Captain 1838; one of FWA's officers on HMS St Albans and HMS Elephant, and went with him to China 1809; twice severely wounded and lost a leg, for which in 1816 he received a pension and a place at Greenwich Hospital.

Taylor family, of Bifrons near Bridge, Kent. Revd Edward Taylor (1734–8 December 1798), patron and vicar of Patrixbourne; his son Edward (1774–1843), MP for Canterbury 1807–12, married 1802 Louisa Beckingham, not his cousin Charlotte.

Temple family. Revd William-Johnston Temple of St Gluvias, Cornwall (Boswell's correspondent), had eight surviving children, of whom his eldest daughter Anne (1772–1827) married November 1796 Revd Charles Powlett (q.v.). His second son Frank (1771–1863) was in the Navy: Lieutenant 1793, Commander 1803, Captain 1805, Vice-Admiral 1847, and Admiral 1854. Frank and his friend Lt Samuel Butcher, RN (q.v.), had stayed previously with the Powletts in March or April 1797. 'The horrid one of all' is probably one of Frank's next three brothers Robert, John, or Frederick, who at this date ranged in age from 20 to 24.

Terry family, of Dummer, Hants. Thomas Terry (1741–1829) married Elizabeth Harding (1751–1811, q.v.), and had thirteen children: Stephen (1774), Revd Michael (1775), Jane (1776), Mary (1778), Patience (1780–1860, 'Patty'), Col Robert (1781–1869), Ann (1782), Thomas-Harding (1784–1803, drowned at sea), John (1786), Eliza (1788), Richard (1789–1872), Charlotte (1791), George (1793).

(1) Stephen (1774–1867); King's College, Cambridge 1794, BA 1802, Fellow 1797–1805; 1798 Lieutenant in North Hants Militia and stationed at Gosport; married 1805 Maria-Bridget Seymer (q.v.); at least four children: Eliza (1809), Stephen (1812–82), Marcia-Harriett (1814–59), and his youngest son, Alured-John-George-Seymer Terry (1820–97) married 1847 Georgiana-Brydges Lefroy (q.v., Anna's daughter) and left issue. From 1811 to 1815 Stephen and his family lived at Wyards, near Chawton.

(2) Revd Michael (1775–1848); St John's College, Cambridge 1794, BA 1798; rector of Dummer 1811–48; engaged briefly to Anna Austen during the winter of 1809–10. See Family Record, 181–2.

(3) Jane (1776–1860) married 1808 Harry Digweed (q.v.) and had issue.

(4) 'Miss Terry'—presumably Mary—admired Emma very much.

pg 576(5) Patty (1780–1860) died at Bath Easton.

(6) Eliza (1788–1841) married 1810 Charles Harwood (q.v.) of Deane and had issue.

Stephen Terry kept a diary/journal, and twenty-nine miscellaneous volumes (including other notes and memoranda) are now in the Hampshire Record Office (24M49/1-29); they cover the period 1841–62, and deal mostly with his daily round of farming and foxhunting. Occasionally he included reminiscences of events in his earlier years; but unfortunately his memory was no longer reliable, and his anecdotes of past times are demonstrably inaccurate. These journals were edited by A. M. W. Stirling as The Diaries of Dummer (1934), but to confound confusion still further the editing was in itself very bad, so this work must be used with caution.

Terry, Daniel (?1780–1829). Actor and playwright; performed mature male roles, both tragedy and comedy, at Covent Garden 1813–22 and at Drury Lane thereafter.

Thistlethwaite, Thomas (b. 1779). Of Southwick Park; High Sheriff of Hampshire 1806, and MP for Hants 1806–7; JP, DL.

Thomas. EAK's manservant.

Tickars, Mrs. Presumably a London staymaker or dressmaker.

Tilbury, Dame. In JA's time there were two Tilbury families amongst the Steventon villagers: (1) Mathew (1718–1800) and Susannah (1732–1824) married 1758 and had four children: Mary Betty, William, and Mathew; (2) John (d. 1812) and Anne (d. 1809), probably married c.1765, who likewise had four children: Anne, Mary, Sarah, and William. One or other of the Mary Tilburys married 1789 William Steevens (q.v.); Sarah married 1796 Daniel Smallbone (q.v.); and an Elizabeth Tilbury (presumably the 'Betty' above) married at Church Oakley 1793 George Smith of Dummer—their daughter Charlotte Smith was baptized at Steventon on 5 September 1798.

Tilson family, of Watlington Park, Goring, Oxon. John Tilson (1722–79) married 1767 Maria Lushington (d. 1805) and had five children: John-Henry (1768), George (1770), Christopher (1771), James (1773), and Maria-Chowne (1776).

(1) John-Henry (1768–1836); Lt-Col in Oxfordshire Militia 1803; married 1809 the widowed Mrs Sophia Langford (d. 1829), and had seven children, of whom only the youngest daughter, Maria-Susan, survived to marry 1842 Thomas-Shaen Carter of Castle Martin, Kildare. The Carters lived on at Watlington Park till 1875.

(2) George (1770–95); Captn RN; died unmarried in Antigua.

(3) Christopher (1771–1834); in 76th Regt, Brigadier-General 1804, Major-General 1808, Lieutenant-General 1813, General 1830; 1812 changed his surname to Chowne in accordance with a cousin's will and inherited an estate at Alfriston, Sussex; married 1823 in Brussels Jane Craufurd; no issue; she married (2) 1836 Revd Sir Henry-Robert Dukinfield.

pg 577(4) James Tilson (1773–1838); HTA's partner in the Austen, Maunde & Tilson bank in London; married February 1797 Frances Sanford (1777–8 August 1823, q.v.) and had at least eleven children: William (1798–1804), George (1799–1828), Mary-Juliana (1801), Frances-Melesina (1802), Amelia-Maria (c.1803–ante-1839), Charlotte-Sophia (1804–1902), another daughter 'G—' (c.1806), Anna (1808 23), Margaret-Augusta (1810), James-Henry (1812–post-1872), Caroline-Jane (1813).

(4a) George died unmarried at Goring, Oxon.

(4b) Mary-Juliana married 29 January 1834 Revd S. F. Morgan (d. 1872), rector of All Saints, Birmingham, and later incumbent of Chepstow and of Creech St Michael.

(4c) Charlotte-Sophia married 28 October 1834 at Ryde, Isle of Wight, Revd John-Thomas Austen (q.v.), and had one daughter.

(4d) Anna died 27 August 1823, a few days after her mother's death.

(4e) Margaret-Augusta married 8 June 1832 at Edgbaston Revd Thomas Moseley (d. 1882), rector of St Martin's, Birmingham.

(4f) James-Henry changed his surname to Chowne at his uncle's death in 1834; initially a Captain in the Bengal Infantry, but later took Holy Orders; married 1835 Mary Braddon, and had issue; living in Bath 1872.

The other Tilson daughters seem to have died in the 1820s.

When the James Tilsons were first married their elder children were baptized in the parishes of St George's Hanover Square and St Marylebone; between 1808 and c.1816 they were living at 26 Hans Place, Chelsea, and their four youngest children were baptized in that parish; they later moved to Foley Place, Marylebone; and following the deaths there of his wife and daughter Anna Mr Tilson returned to the family home at Watlington Park.

(5) Maria-Chowne (1776–1833); married November 1806 Revd Dr William Marsh (1775–1864), vicar of Basildon, Oxon., and had five children; from c.1814 to 1829 in Colchester, and c.1829 onwards in Birmingham; after her death in 1833 Revd Dr Marsh married twice more and ended his life as rector of Beckenham, Kent.

Maria Tilson became 'serious'—i.e. Evangelical—in her youth, and her husband was all his life a devoted and well-known Evangelical preacher. Under their influence all the other members of the Tilson family became Evangelical, and three of the James Tilson daughters 'established a Bible Association in their own house. Their father and mother are patron and patroness; the eldest is secretary, the others are collectors; the servants subscribe, and also procure subscriptions from their friends.' These strict religious views may account for the fact that Mrs Tilson preferred MP to P&P.

It may have been due to her friendship with the James Tilsons that JA was initially drawn towards Evangelicalism (see Letter 109); however, by 1816 she seems to have found either their or else her cousin Revd Edward Cooper's enthusiastic piety rather excessive (see Letter 145).

pg 578Tincton, Mr. Unidentified; a possible dancing-partner for CEA in Hampshire, September 1796.

Toke family, of Godinton near Ashford, Kent. Mr John Toke (1738–1819), High Sheriff of Kent 1770; married 1762 Margaretta Roundell (d. 1780); his eldest son Nicolas-Roundell (1764–1837) married 1791 Anna-Maria Wrey (q.v.) and had one daughter; his second son Revd John Toke (1766–1820) was vicar of Bekesbourne and rector of Harbledown, Kent; his daughter Mary married 1813 Edward Scudamore, MD (q.v.).

Triggs, William. EAK's gamekeeper at Chawton.

Trimmer, Robert (1767–1813). Of Farnham, Surrey; attorney-at-law; came to Alton and married Elizabeth Bradly, and founded the legal partnership of Bradly Trimmer, which still exists in Alton though no members of the original families are now involved; EAK's lawyer for his Hampshire properties; died suddenly in London 11 September 1813 and buried 20 September 1813 in Alton. Mr Trimmer had at least three sons, and his descendants were prominent in Alton civic affairs for several generations. For more information on the Trimmer family and their connections, see Le Faye, 'JA's Friend Mrs Barrett identified', N&Q 244: 4 (Dec. 1999), 451–4.

Turner baronets, of Ambrosden, Oxon. Sir Edward Turner, 2nd Bt (1719–66), married 1739 Cassandra (1723–70) daughter of William Leigh of Adlestrop (q.v.), and had five children: Elizabeth (1741), Gregory (1748), John (1752), William, and Cassandra.

(1) Elizabeth (1741–1816), married 1767 Thomas Twisleton (q.v.), 13th Lord Saye and Sele, and had issue.

(2) Gregory, 3rd Bt (1748–1805), added 1775 the surname of Page-, and became the ancestor of later Page-Turner baronets.

(3) John (1752–97), married 1781 Elizabeth Dryden and took her name; created a baronet 1795; ancestor of later Dryden baronets of Canons Ashby, Northants.

(4) William was alive in 1815, but presumably died unmarried thereafter.

(5) Cassandra (d. 1813), married 1771 Martin Bladen, 2nd Lord Hawke (1744–1805), and had four children: Edward, Martin-Bladen, Annabella, and Cassandra-Julia. This last daughter married (1) 1793 Samuel Estwick (q.v.); (2) 1800 Revd Stephen Sloane (q.v.); and (3) post-1812 Thomas Green.

In 1788 Lady Hawke published a two-volume novel Julia de Gramont ('By the Right Honourable Lady H****'); in 1811 her daughter Annabella Hawke published Babylon and Other Poems.

Due to their common Leigh ancestry, the Turners, Drydens, and Twisletons were all in some degree related to the Steventon Austens, the Cookes, and the Coopers.

Fanny Burney met Lord and Lady Saye and Sele, together with Sir Gregory Page-Turner and Lady Hawke, in 1782:

pg 579[Lady Saye and Sele] seems pretty near fifty—at least turned forty; her head was full of feathers, flowers, jewels, and gew-gaws … her dress was trimmed with beads, silver, persian sashes, and all sort of fine fancies; her face is thin and fiery, and her whole manner spoke a lady all alive… . Lady Hawke . is much younger than her sister, and rather pretty; extremely languishing, delicate, and pathetic; apparently accustomed to be reckoned the genius of her family, and well contented to be looked upon as a creature dropped from the clouds.

Lord Saye and Sele was 'a square man, middle-aged, and hum-drum'; Sir Gregory Page-Turner was 'younger, slimmer, and smarter'. See Barrett, Diaries and Letters of Madame D'Arblay, ii. 116–22, for a full description of Fanny Burney's meeting with this family group.

Turner, Mr. Presumably a naval agent or supplier, perhaps the manager or despatch clerk for the business of W. Morgan, at 85 High Street, Portsmouth. In 1791 Morgan advertised in nautical slang: 'MORGAN. Mercer and Sea-Draper, No. 85, opposite the Fountain Inn, High Street: Sailors rigged complete from stem to stern, viz., chapeau, mapeau, flying-job and flesh-bag; inner pea, outer pea, and cold defender; rudder-case, and service to the same, up-haulers, down-treaders, fore-shoes, lacings, gaskets, etc.'

Turner, G. Chawton farm labourer; probably the George Turner who married 1810 Sarah Browning.

Twining, Messrs R. J., R. G., and J. A. Tea-merchants, with their warehouse at 216 Strand, London.

Twisleton family, of Broughton Castle, near Banbury, Oxon. Elizabeth Turner (1741–1816, q.v.) married 1767 Thomas Twisleton (1735–88) 13th Baron Saye and Sele (commonly but erroneously called the 10th Baron) and had four children: Gregory-William (1769), Thomas-James (1770), Julia-Judith (1771), and Mary-Cassandra (1774). Lord Saye and Sele committed suicide at his house in Harley Street, London—according to family tradition, this was because he had been told that a disease which gave him a violent pain in his head was incurable.

(1) Gregory-William (1769–1844) became the 14th (not 11th) Baron; his only son William-Thomas, 15th Baron (1798–1847) died unmarried, and the title descended to the latter's cousin Frederick-Benjamin (see below).

(2) Hon and Revd Dr Thomas-James (1770–1824); in his boyhood became devoted to amateur dramatics, and while at Westminster School appeared with great success as Phaedria in Terence's comedy The Eunuch. In May 1788 he acted in a lavish private production of Julia opposite a Miss Charlotte Wattell, said to be a very beautiful young lady of very respectable connections, and four months later, while still a schoolboy, eloped to Gretna Green with her. The young couple maintained their theatrical interests for a time, in a semi-public fashion, until Mrs Twisleton decided she wished to become a professional actress, which gave her pg 580husband one reason for obtaining first a deed of separation in 1794 and then a divorce in 1798. They had had five children, of whom only one daughter survived to maturity; before their divorce, however, Mrs Twisleton had another son, 'the result of an affair with a merchant named Stein, who accepted paternity of the boy and helped educate him'. In later years it 'became necessary to prove that Mrs Twisleton's son was not the rightful heir. Mr Stein was discovered still living, but over eighty, and prepared to admit the truth that he considered the son to be his; and the son, now a man of fifty-two, was also found, at some sea port on the eve of embarking as a sailor in the commercial marine. He readily confirmed the statement made by Stein whom he thought to be his father.' See D. Verey, The Diary of a Cotswold Parson, 169.

Thomas Twisleton returned to his studies, entering St Mary Hall, Oxford 1789; BA 1794, MA 1796, and DD by decree 1819; received the family livings of Broadwell and Adlestrop, Glos., and Woodford and Blakesley, Northants; went to Ceylon as Secretary and Chaplain to the Colonial Government, 1802; Archdeacon of Colombo 1815 until his death there in 1824. He married (2) 1798 Anne Ashe, and had several more children, of whom the eldest son, Revd Dr Frederick-Benjamin (1799), became 1847 the 16th Lord Saye and Sele.

(3) Julia-Judith (1771–1843) married 1786 her cousin James-Henry Leigh (q.v.) of Adlestrop, and had issue.

(4) Mary-Cassandra (1774–1843) eloped 1790 with Edward-Jervis Ricketts (afterwards Viscount St Vincent) and had three children; she then committed adultery 1797 with Charles-William Taylor, the MP for Wells, at his London house; divorce finalized 1799; married (2) 1806 Richard-Charles Head-Graves (1782–1822), but had no further children.

Twitchen, Farmer Andrew, and wife Sarah. Of Warren Farm, Ashe.

Twyford, Revd Charles-Edward (b. 1788). Curate 1812 of Great (East) Worldham, Hants, and 1813 became rector of his home parish of Trotton, Sussex.

Tylden family. Richard Tylden (c.1755–1832), of Milsted, Kent; sons Revd Richard-Osborne, vicar of Chilham, Kent 1809–62, and Sir John-Maxwell (knighted 1812). His brother, Revd Richard-Cooke Tylden (d. 1819), rector of Milsted, took the additional name of Pattenson 1799. See also under Osborne.

Utterson, Alfred (1792–1841). Son of John Utterson of Fareham, Hants; entered St John's College, Oxford 1810; BA 1815, MA 1820; rector of Layer Marney, Essex 1828–41.

Valentine, David. Lieutenant RN 1795, and apparently 1st Lieutenant of HMS Endymion 1801, Commander 1806.

Vincent, William. HTA's banking partner in the Alton branch.

W., Mr. Unidentified; Martha Lloyd had hoped to marry him.

pg 581Wake, Revd Henry. Married 26 March 1813 Urania Wallop (q.v.), and was presented to the family living of Over Wallop the following month.

Wakeford, Joshua. Deane villager, and buried there 30 October 1800.

Waller, Richard. Of Bevis Hill, Southampton; died 11 June 1808. A Mrs Waller called on Mrs Chute at The Vyne in 1793.

Wallop, family name of Earls of Portsmouth. The Hon and Revd Barton Wallop (1744/5–81), brother of the 2nd Earl, married 1771 his cousin Camilla-Powlett Smith of Crux Easton, Hants (d. 1820), and had a daughter Urania; Mrs Wallop and her daughter lived in Above Bar, Southampton, and Miss Wallop married at Southampton 26 March 1813 Revd Henry Wake (q.v.).

Hon Coulson Wallop (1774–1807), younger brother of 3rd and 4th Earls of Portsmouth (q.v.); MP for Andover 1796–1802.

Walsby, Revd Dr and Mrs. Revd Dr Edward Walsby (1750–1815), Prebendary of Canterbury Cathedral 1793–1815, and lived at No. XII The Precincts—a house which was demolished in 1851.

Walter family, of Tonbridge, Kent. Rebecca Hampson (q.v.) married (1) c.1720 William Walter, MD (1697–1726), son of George Walter of New Trench in the parish of Tonbridge, and practising as a physician in Gloucester, and had one son William-Hampson Walter, (1721); she married (2) 1727 William Austen (q.v.), and by him had George, Philadelphia, and Leonora Austen (qq.v.).

William-Hampson Walter (1721–98) lived initially at Shipbourne near Tonbridge, Kent, and afterwards at other villages in the same area, finally settling at Seal; married c.1745 Susannah Weaver (1716–1811) of Maidstone, and had seven children: Weaver (1747), Susannah (1749, 'Sally'), William (1750), George (1754), John (1757, died young), James (1759), and Philadelphia (1761).

(1) Weaver (1747–1814), Head Boy of Tonbridge School 1764; Christ's College, Cambridge 1764, BA 1767, MA 1770, Fellow 1779–1802; ordained 1776; under-usher at Newcastle-upon-Tyne Grammar School 1767–78 and later took pupils at Penshurst; curate of Penshurst, Kent 1779; obtained college livings of Brisley and Gately, Norfolk 1801; married in Penshurst 1806 Sarah Pearch; then lived in Brisley till his death in 1814; no issue.

(2) Sally (1749–70) died suddenly when on the verge of marriage.

(3) William (1750–87) went to Jamaica and died there.

(4) George (1754–79) followed his brother to the West Indies and died there.

(5) James (1759–1845), Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 1777, BA 1781, Fellow 1783; Assistant Master at Louth Grammar School, Lincs. 1783–7; Headmaster of the Free Grammar School, Brigg, Lincs. 1787–1834; rector of Market Rasen, Lincs. 1789–1845; married 1784 his distant cousin Frances-Maria Walter of London and had eighteen children, of whom only eight survived to maturity: Henry (1785), John-Charles (1787), Frances (1788), George (1792), Sarah (1795), Weever pg 582(sic) (1797), Anna-Maria-Philadelphia (1799), and Edward (1801). As well as his academic and clerical occupations, James was a keen horse-breeder, of local renown, and one of his stable was 'Copenhagen', the horse ridden by the Duke of Wellington at the battle of Waterloo.

(5a) Henry (1785–1859), St John's College, Cambridge 1802; BA (2nd Wrangler and Smith's Prize) 1806, MA 1809, BD 1816, Fellow 1806–24; ordained 1810; Professor of Natural Philosophy and Mathematics at HEIC College, Haileybury 1806–30; Fellow of Royal Society 1819; married Emily-Anne Baker 1824; rector of Hazelbury-Bryan, Dorset 1821–59; wrote a seven-volume History of England (1840). See M. Wilson, 'Henry Walter, Jane's Academic Cousin', Collected Reports, V. 209–13; also ODNB.

(5b) John-Charles (1787): grandfather of John-Charles-Guy Nicholson (d. 1925), sometime owner of JA's Letter 8.

(5c) Frances (1788) married Revd Joseph Stockdale, vicar of Kingerby, Lincs., and had twelve children.

(5d) George (1792) married twice; went to Tasmania and had a large family.

(5e) Sarah (1795) married 1822 Patteson Holgate; no surviving issue.

(5f) Weever (1797–1860) married twice and left issue; incumbent of Gate Burton, Lincs. 1828–35, and of Bonby, Lincs. 1835–60, Canon of Lincoln 1846.

(5g) Anna-Maria-Philadelphia (1799) unmarried; inherited family papers and other items from her aunt Philadelphia (see below).

(5h) Edward (1801–77) married 1828 and had issue; incumbent of Woodhall and of Langton-by-Horncastle, Lincs. 1828–77.

(6) Philadelphia (1761–1834) married 1811, at Brisley, George Whitaker of Pembury, Kent; no issue.

Waltham, Lady (1743–1819). Drigue-Billers Olmius, 2nd Baron Waltham of New Hall, Essex, married 1767 Miss Coe, and died 1787 without issue; she died at Goodnestone, Kent.

Wapshare family, of Salisbury, Wilts. The eldest daughter Mary (1776–1825) married 1800 as his second wife Captn Sir Thomas Williams (q.v.) but had no issue; her brothers were Revd Charles (married 1802 Miss Dyneley of Bloomsbury Square, London) and Revd William-Sandford, vicar of Chitterne, Wilts. (married November 1813 Cooth-Ann Austen of Ensbury, Dorset (q.v.)).

Warneford, Revd John (b. 1778). Son of Revd John Warneford of Dorking; ordained 1801; later vicar of St Bartholomew's, Winchester, and rector of Oakley, Hants.

Warren, John-Willing (1771–c.1831). Probably one of Mr GA's pupils at Steventon, c.1785; entered St John's College, Oxford 1786, BA 1789; Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford 1791; Inner Temple 1798; barrister-at-law and a Charity Commissioner; married 1807; of 13 Harcourt Buildings, London; cousin of Lt-Col Richard Warren (see below). He was one of the contributors to James Austen's Oxford magazine The Loiterer.

pg 583Warren, Lt-Col Richard (1763–1820). Entered Christ Church, Oxford 1781, but did not graduate; 3rd Regt Foot Guards 1783–1800, retiring as Lt-Col; Gentleman Usher and Daily Waiter to the Prince of Wales 1790; married 25 March 1800 Jane Maitland (q.v.); their daughter Mary-Jane was born 15 March 1801 at Houghton, Hants, and was followed by at least three sons; cousin of John-Willing Warren (see above).

There was also a Revd Thomas-Alston Warren (1769–1853), who entered St John's College, Oxford 1787, BA 1791, MA 1795, BD 1800; Fellow until 1814 and Chaplain 1834–53; rector of the College living of South Warnborough, Hants 1814–53; he too contributed to The Loiterer; perhaps related to the two Warrens above.

Watkins family. Revd George Watkins (d. 1798), vicar of Odiham and rector of East Tisted, Hants; his sons Revd George-Nowell (1771–1844), curate of Odiham 1793, perpetual curate of Long Sutton, Hants 1806–44; and Revd Charles-Kemeys (1777–1840), rector of Fenny Compton, Warwicks. 1821–40.

Weatherhead, Anne-Eliza. (Not 'Wethered' as JA wrote.) Daughter or sister of Robert Weatherhead, Collector of Excise, Southampton.

Webb family. Mrs Webb and daughters, living in Chawton May 1811–September 1814; perhaps the Mary Digweed (1761–1825) (q.v.), who married William Webb of Kingsclere.

Webb, Thomas. Pastry-cook, 153 High Street, Southampton.

Wedgwood, Josiah. Ceramic manufacturer, of Staffordshire; his London showroom was in York Street, St James's.

Weippart. (Not 'Wiepart' as JA wrote.) Johann-Erhardt Weippart (b. 1766), and his younger brother Johann-Michael (b. 1775) emigrated to England in the 1790s, and made their names as harpists and harp teachers. They were both working in London in 1811, hence it cannot be certain which of them played at Eliza de Feuillide's party.

Welby, Mrs. Wilhelmina (1773–1847), only daughter of William Spry, Governor of Barbados 1767–71, and his wife Katherine Cholmeley (q.v.); married 1792 William-Earle Welby (1768–1852), who became 1815 2nd Baronet; of Denton Hall near Grantham, Lincs., and of Argyll Street, London; their eldest son William-Earle (1794–1806) died at Eton.

Wemyss, Miss. Perhaps a daughter of Revd James Wemyss of Bogie, Fife.

West, Benjamin (1738–1820). American artist, who settled in London 1763, and was patronized by George III thereafter. Amongst other works he exhibited two enormous canvases with religious themes—Christ Healing the Sick and Christ Rejected by the Elders—seen by JA in London respectively 1811 and 1814.

West, Jane (1758–1852). Wife of Thomas West, a yeoman farmer in Northamptonshire; self-educated authoress, producing many volumes of poems, plays, and novels, from 1780 onwards; see ODNB.

pg 584Whitby family. Revd Thomas Whitby, of Creswell Hall, Staffs., and 3 Portland Place, Bath; his daughters Julia, Lucy, and Mary. Lucy married at Bath 28 August 1798 Edward-Berkeley Portman (q.v.); Mary married June 1809 Ayshford Wise, of Totnes Parva, Devon.

White family, of Hampshire and London. Revd Gilbert White (1720–93) of Selborne, Hants (author 1789 of The Natural History of Selborne) was a bachelor, but had numerous nephews and nieces (referred to in his writings as his 'nepotes'), several of whom either lived in Hampshire, or else came to visit their uncle.

Jane (1755–3 January 1831), daughter of Benjamin White (1725–94) of London; married 1780 Thomas Clement (q.v.) of Alton and had issue.

Edmund (1758–1838), son of Benjamin White of London; vicar of Newton Valence, Hants 1785–1838, and rector of Greatham, Hants 1785–1814; married Anne daughter of William Blunt (q.v.) of Petersfield and had issue.

John (1765–1855), son of Benjamin White of London; married Mary-Anne, daughter of Revd Gabriel Tahourdin of Hannington, Hants; lived for a time in Selborne after his uncle's death.

John (1759–1821), son of Revd John White (1727–80) Chaplain to the Gibraltar garrison; lived during his boyhood with his uncle Gilbert and nicknamed by him 'Gibraltar Jack'; became a surgeon and practised c.1785 in Alton and afterwards at Salisbury and elsewhere.

Gibraltar Jack's mother Barbara (1734–1802, née Freeman) in her widowhood joined Gilbert White in his Selborne home 'Wakes' as his hostess and lived there till his death; she herself was buried in Alton.

White, Mrs. Perhaps wife of Mr George White of Canterbury.

Whitfield, Revd Francis (1743–1810). Son of Francis Whitfield of Ashford, Kent, attorney; rector of Westbere and vicar of Godmersham 1778–1810.

Whitworth, Charles (1752–1825). Earl Whitworth; married 1801 Arabella-Diana (née Cope), widow of the 3rd Duke of Dorset, and lived with her at Knole, Sevenoaks; Lord Lieutenant and Viceroy of Ireland 1813–17.

Wickham, Mr. The Hon William Wickham (1761–1840), politician and diplomat, of Cottingley, Yorks., and Wyck, Hants—a hamlet 3 miles NE of Chawton; in 1814 he had an unmarried son, Henry-Louis, aged 25, which is perhaps why JA mentions FCK's name in her next sentence.

Wiggett, Caroline (1799–1881). Revd James Wiggett was a maternal cousin of William-John Chute (q.v.) of The Vyne; and upon his being left a widower with seven children, Mr and Mrs Chute adopted Caroline, the youngest daughter, in 1803; she married 1837 as his second wife Thomas Workman, surgeon of Basingstoke; no surviving issue. Caroline's younger brother William-Lyde Wiggett eventually inherited The Vyne in 1842, and his family became known as Wiggett-Chute.

pg 585Wigram, Sir Robert (1744–1830). Baronet 1805; of Belmont, Worcs., and also of Walthamstow, Essex, and 57 Portland Place, London. He owned a shipbuilding yard next door to the East India Docks on the river Thames, London. His obituary in the GM for 1830, ii. 563–4, credits him with twenty-one children by two marriages; the Henry-Loftus Wigram (1791–1866) whom JA met was the sixth son.

Wildman family, of Chilham Castle, near Godmersham. James Wildman (1747–1816) purchased Chilham Castle 1792; his son James-Beckford Wildman (1788–1867) married 1820 Mary-Anne Lushington and had ten children. When he succeeded his father in 1816 the estate was worth £20,000 a year, but 'over-generous provision for members of the family' combined with 'mortgages raised to provide funds to work the family estates in the West Indies by machinery, after the emancipation of the slaves' meant that the property had to be sold in 1861; Mr Wildman subsequently lived at Yotes Court, near Maidstone, until his death. See M. Wilson, 'What Happened to George Hatton and Mr JW?' Report for 2009 (2010), 33–40.

Wilkes, Mr. Presumably John-Golding Wilkes, of St John's College, Cambridge; LLB 1816.

William. HTA's manservant in London.

Williams, the Misses. Miss Williams and her sisters Grace and Mary, lodging with one or other of the Dusautoy families (q.v.) in Southampton.

Williams, Mrs. The Mrs Williams of Letter 22 (1799) seems to be in the Steventon area; the elderly Mrs Williams of Letter 54 (1808) may perhaps be the mother of the three Misses Williams of Southampton (see above).

Williams family, of Compton, Hants. Revd Philip Williams (1742–1830): Fellow of New College, Oxford 1760–9; Fellow of Winchester College, Hants 1769–1819; rector of Compton, Hants 1781–1830; Canon of Lincoln 1783; Chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons 1784–7; Canon of Canterbury 1789–97; Canon of Winchester 1797; married (1) 1779 Sarah (c.1757–87), daughter of Thomas Collins, Second Master of Winchester College, and had four children: Elizabeth (born ?1779, 'Betsy'), Philip jr. (1780–1843), Charlotte (b. c. 1783), and Charles (1784–1866); married (2) 1795 Helen Fagg (q.v.) of Mystole, Kent, but had no further issue.

Mr Williams had a prebendal house in Winchester Cathedral Close, originally No. 12, now known as No. 11; the house was renumbered in 1842 following the demolition of the adjacent original No. 11. As he preferred to reside in Compton it was available in 1813 to be rented by Mrs Elizabeth Heathcote and her sister Miss Alethea Bigg (qq.v.). See V. A. Clanchy, 'JA and the Williams Family'; also P. Barrett, 'Philip Wiliams-The Acceptable Face of Pluralism'.

Philip Williams jr. became a successful barrister and Recorder of Winchester; married 30 December 1817 Jane Blachford (q.v.).

pg 586Betsy Williams had intellectual interests, but suffered from physical illnesses and mental depression, and both she and her sister Charlotte spent much time staying at health resorts such as Bath, Cheltenham, and Tunbridge Wells.

Jeremiah Dyson (q.v.), who lived for a time at Compton Rectory, was brother-in-law to Revd Philip Williams, as his wife was Elizabeth Collins, sister of Sarah.

Williams, Edmund. Employed by HTA in the London bank and later sent to the Alton branch partnership; perhaps the son of Thomas Williams of 1 Grosvenor Place, Knightsbridge.

Williams, Captn (later Adml) Sir Thomas (1761–1841). Knighted 1796; captain HMS Endymion; commanded the Sea-Fencibles of the Gosport division 1806–7; married (1) at Steventon 11 December 1792 Jane, daughter of Revd Dr Edward Cooper (q.v.), who was killed in a road accident 9 August 1798, while living on the Isle of Wight; (2) 1800 Mary Wapshare (q.v.) of Salisbury (d. 1824); of Brooklands near Southampton and later of Burwood House, Walton-on-Thames; no issue; for details of his naval career see Marshall, Royal Naval Biography.

Willoughby, Lady (d. 1828). Priscilla-Barbara-Elizabeth, Baroness Willoughby de Eresby in her own right, and wife of Lord Gwydyr; first cousin to Anne Mathew (q.v.) and therefore related to Anna Austen (q.v.). See Vick, 'Some Errors and Omissions in the Indexes to JA's Letters', N&Q 237: 2 (June 1992), 164.

Wilmot (or Wylmot), Mr. MD, of Ashford, Kent; with a wife and family.

Wilson, Mr. Probably John Wilson, innkeeper, of the Three Crowns in Basingstoke.

Winchester, Bishops of. In JA's time they were: Dr Benjamin Hoadly, 1734–61; Dr John Thomas, 1761–81; Dr the Hon Brownlow North, 1781–1820.

Winstone, Miss, and the Winstones. Perhaps the family of Mr Hayward Winstone, of 10 Great Bedford Street, Bath, and Captain of Infantry of the Bath Military Association.

Wise, Mr. '… old Wyse, a civil, respectful-mannered, elderly man, exceedingly fond of hunting, who drove Rogers' coach every day, Sundays excepted, from Southampton to Popham Lane in the morning, and back to Southampton in the afternoon. He arrived at the Flower Pots, Popham Lane, soon after ten o'clock, and left it between three and four.' JEAL, Vine Hunt, 66.

Wither family. There is a mural tablet in the church of Wootton St Lawrence: 'William Wither Esq died 31 Oct 1789 aged 86. On his death all the male issue of an ancient and well respected family, who had resided at Manydown during the space of four centuries, became extinct. This monument was erected by pg 587Lovelace Bigg Wither, Esq., heir general of the line of Wither, and Edward Lane Esq., sole executor.'

The heir was Lovelace Bigg (1741–1813), of Chilton Foliat, Wilts., whose grandmother had been a Wither. He and his male descendants added Wither to their surname, but his daughters did not; q.v. under Bigg-Wither.

Wood, Miss. There are two Misses Wood mentioned by JA: (1) Mrs Evelyn's companion, in Bath; (2) Mrs Rider's shop-assistant, in Basingstoke.

Wood, Mr John. Unidentified; JA's dancing-partner in the winter of 1798–9.

Woodd, Miss. George-Basil Woodd (1724–84) married 1774 as his second wife Gertrude Ballard of Leatherhead, Surrey, and had six children; of these Susanna-Martha married 1801 Robert Middleton, and her younger sister Maria died unmarried 1814. The family had Yorkshire connections, so it may be this Mrs Middleton and her sister who were the subject of the midwinter tragedy of 1808–9 to which JA refers in Letter 64. The Woodds were also Evangelical and friends of the Tilsons (q.v.), which may be how the Austens came to know them; or perhaps the contact was via the Cooke family in Great Bookham, who would probably have known the Ballards not far away in Leatherhead.

Woodford, Captn A. G. Of the Coldstream Guards (captaincy 11 December 1799), and garrisoned at Deal 1805.

Woodward, Revd James. Of Brasenose College, Oxford; married May 1801 at Queen Square Chapel, Bath, Miss Wroe (not 'Rowe' as JA wrote), daughter of the late Major Wroe of Calcutta.

Woolls, Mr Edward and Miss. Living at Farringdon c. 1813–16; perhaps connected with the Wooll family whose MIs were in St Thomas's, Southgate Street, Winchester.

Wren, Mr. Silk-dyer, 76 High Street, Southampton.

Wrey, Sir Bourchier, Bt, of Tawstock, Devon. Of his three daughters, Florentina married Richard-Godolphin Long (q.v.); Dyonisia married 1780 Robert Harding (q.v.); and Anna-Maria, the youngest, married 1791 Nicholas-Roundell Toke (q.v.). Sir Bourchier Wrey himself is not mentioned in JA's letters.

Wright, Mr and Mrs. Revd Robert Wright (1772–1850), curate of Dummer 1797 and 1803 rector of Itchen Abbas and of Ovington, Hants; his wife Elizabeth; their son Robert-John-William was born at Dummer 1803 and became curate to his father at Ovington 1826.

Wynne, Mr. Resident in the boarding-house 17 High Street, Southampton.

Yalden, Mr. Of Alton; owner of a private coach, which he drove from Alton to London one day and back the next.

pg 588Yates, Lady. Probably Elizabeth (née Baldwyn), widow of Sir Joseph Yates (1722–70), a Puisne Justice of the King's Bench and afterwards of the Common Pleas; one son Joseph (1764–1820) and one daughter; the Miss Yates of Letter 91 may perhaps be this daughter—see also Memoir (Sutherland edn.), 172.

York, Duchess of. See under Royal Family.

Young, Charles-Mayne (1777–1856). Tragedian; appearing on the London stage 1809 onwards and considered the successor to John-Philip Kemble. A well-educated man, noted for his dignity, good looks, and strong melodious voice.

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