Gary Taylor, John Lavagnino, MacDonald P. Jackson, John Jowett, Valerie Wayne, and Adrian Weiss (eds), Thomas Middleton, Vol. 1: The Collected Works

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pg 8391.1

Critical Apparatus Incipit Actus Primus [The throne is set out] Critical Apparatus Enter the new usurping Tyrant; the Nobles of his Editor’s Notefaction, Memphonius, Sophonirus, Helvetius, with Editor’s Noteothers; the right heir, Govianus, deposed
1

tyrant [speaking from the throne] Thus high, my lords, your powers and constant loves

Editor’s Note2Hath fixed our glories like unmovèd stars

3That know not what it is to fall or err.

4We're now the kingdom's love, and he that was

5Flattered awhile so stands before us now

Editor’s Note6Readier for doom than dignity.

govianus So much

7Can the adulterate friendship of mankind,

Critical Apparatus8False fortune's sister, bring to pass on kings,

9And lay usurpers sunning in their glories

Editor’s Note10Like adders in warm beams.

tyrant There was but one

11In whom my heart took pleasure amongst women,

12One in the whole creation, and in her

pg 840

13You dared to be my rival! Was't not bold?

14Now we are king, she'll leave the lower path

15And find the way to us.—Helvetius,

16It is thy daughter. Happier than a king

17And far above him, for she kneels to thee

18Whom we have kneeled to, richer in one smile

19That came from her, than she in all thy blessings.

Editor’s Note20If thou be'st proud, thou art to be forgiven;

21It is no deadly sin in thee. While she lives,

22High lust is not more natural to youth

23Than that to thee: be not afraid to die in't.

24'Tis but the sin of joy. There is no gladness

25But has a pride it lives by: that's the oil

26That feeds it into flames.—Let her be sent for

27And honourably attended, as beseems

Editor’s Note28Her that we make our queen. My lords Memphonius

Critical Apparatus29And Sophonirus, take into your care

30The royal business of my heart. Conduct her

31With a respect equal with that to us.

32If more, it shall be pardoned; so still err.

33You honour us, but ourself honours her.

Critical Apparatus34

memphonius [aside] Strange fortune! Does he make his queen of her?

Exit
Editor’s Note35

sophonirus [aside] I have a wife. Would she were so preferred!

36I could be but her subject—so I'm now.

Critical Apparatus37I allow her her one friend, to stop her mouth

38And keep her quiet, give him his table free,

39And the huge feeding of his great stone-horse

40With which he rides in pomp about the city,

41Only to speak to gallants in bay-windows.

42Marry, his lodging he pays dearly for:

43He gets me all my children; there I save by't.

44Beside I draw my life out by the bargain

45Some twelve years longer than the times appointed,

46When my young prodigal gallant kicks up's heels

47At one-and-thirty, and lies dead and rotten

48Some five-and-forty years before I'm coffined.

49'Tis the right way to keep a woman honest:

Editor’s Note50One friend is barricado to a hundred

51And keeps 'em out. Nay, more: a husband's sure

Critical Apparatus52To have his children all of one man's getting,

53And he that performs best can have no better.

Critical Apparatus54I'm e'en as happy then that save a labour.

Exit
55

tyrant [to Helvetius] Thy honours with thy daughter's love shall rise.

pg 841

56I shall read thy deservings in her eyes.

57

helvetius O may they be eternal books of pleasure

58To show you all delight.

[The Tyrant consults his Nobles]
59

govianus [aside] The loss of her sits closer to my heart

60Than that of kingdom, or the whorish pomp

61Of this world's titles that with flattery swells us

Editor’s Note62And makes us die like beasts fat for destruction.

Editor’s Note63O she's a woman, and her eye will stand

64Upon advancement, never weary yonder;

65But when she turns her head, by chance, and sees

66The fortunes that are my companions,

67She'll snatch her eyes off, and repent the looking.

68

tyrant [to Nobles] 'Tis well advised. We doom thee, Govianus,

69To banishment for ever from our kingdom.

70

govianus What could be worse to one whose heart is locked

71Up in another's bosom? Banishment?

Critical Apparatus72And why not death? Is that too easy for me?

73

tyrant But that the world would call

74Our way to dignity a path of blood,

75It should be the first act in all our reign.

76

govianus She's lost for ever. [To Nobles] Farewell, virtuous men,

77Too honest for your greatness. Now you're mightier

Editor’s Note78Than when we knew the kingdom, your styles heavier;

79Then, ponderous nobility, farewell.

Critical Apparatus80

first noble How's that, sir?

81

govianus Weighty and serious.—O, sir, is it you?

82I knew you one-and-twenty and a lord,

Editor’s Note83When your discretion sucked; is't come from nurse yet?

Editor’s Note84You scorn to be a scholar, you were born better.

85You have good lands, that's the best grounds of learning.

Critical Apparatus86If you can cònstrue but your doctor's bill,

Critical Apparatus87Pierce your wife's waiting women, and decline your tenants

88Till they're all beggars, with new fines and rackings,

89You're scholar good enough for a lady's son

90That's born to living. If you list to read,

91Ride but to th' city and bestow your looks

92On the court library, the mercers' books;

93They'll quickly furnish you. Do but entertain

pg 842

94A tailor for your tutor, to expound

95All the hard stuff to you, by what name and title

96Soever they be called.

first noble I thank you, sir.

97

govianus 'Tis happy you have learned so much manners,

98Since you have so little wit. Fare you well, sir.

[Going]
99

tyrant Let him be stayed awhile.

second noble [to Govianus] Stay!

first noble [to Govianus] You must stay, sir.

100

govianus [aside] He's not so honest, sure, to change his mind,

Editor’s Note101Revoke his doom. Hell has more hope on him!

102

tyrant We have not ended yet: the worst part's coming.

103Thy banishment were gentle, were that all,

104But t'afflict thy soul, before thou goest

105Thou shalt behold the heaven that thou must lose

106In her that must be mine;

107Then to be banished, then to be deprived,

108Shows the full torment we provide for thee.

Editor’s Note109

govianus [aside] Here's a right tyrant now: he will not bate me

110Th'affliction of my soul; he will have all parts

111Suffer together.

Critical Apparatus Enter [Memphonius] with the Lady, clad in black

Now I see my loss.

112I never shall recover't. My mind's beggared.

Editor’s Note113

tyrant Black? Whence risse that cloud? Can such a thing be seen

114In honour's glorious day? The sky so clear?

115Why mourns the kingdom's mistress? Does she come

116To meet advancement in a funeral garment?

Critical Apparatus117Back! She forgot herself. 'Twas too much joy

118That bred this error and we heartily pardon't.

[To Attendants]

119Go, bring me her hither like an illustrious bride

120With her best beams about her. Let her jewels

121Be worth ten cities—that beseems our mistress,

122And not a widow's case, a suit to weep in.

123

lady I am not to be altered.

tyrant How?

lady I have a mind

124That must be shifted ere I cast off these,

Editor’s Note125Or I shall wear strange colours. 'Tis not titles

Editor’s Note126Nor all the bastard honours of this frame

Critical Apparatus127That I am taken with. I come not hither

pg 843

128To please the eye of glory, but of goodness,

[To the Tyrant]

129And that concerns not you, sir. You're for greatness.

Editor’s Note130I dare not deal with you. [Indicating Govianus] I have found my match

131And I will never lose him.

govianus If there be man

132Above a king in fortunes, read my story

133And you shall find him there. Farewell, poor kingdom!

[To the Tyrant]

134Take it to help thee, thou hadst need on't now.

135I see thee in distress, more miserable

136Than some thou lay'st taxations on, poor subjects.

137Thou art all beset with storms, more overcast

Critical Apparatus138Than ever any man that brightness flattered.

139'Tis only wretchedness to be there with thee,

140And happiness to be here.

tyrant [aside] Sure some dream crowned me.

141If it were possible to be less than nothing,

142I wake, the man you seek for. There's the kingdom

143Within yon valley fixed, while I stand here

144Kissing false hopes upon a frozen mountain,

Editor’s Note145Without the confines. I am he that's banished.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus146The king walks yonder, chose by her affection,

147Which is the surer side, for where she goes,

148Her eye removes the court. What is he here

149Can spare a look? They're all employed on her!—

[To Helvetius]

150Helvetius! Thou art not worth the waking, neither.

151I lose but time in thee. Go, sleep again:

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus152Like an old man, thou canst do nothing.

153Thou tak'st no pain at all to earn thine honours.

154Which way shall we be able to pay thee

155To thy content, when we receive not ours?

156The master of the work must needs decay

Editor’s Note157When he wants means, and sees his servant play.

158

helvetius [to the Lady] Have I bestowed so many blessings on thee,

159And do they all return to me in a curse?

Editor’s Note160Is that the use I ha' for 'em? Be not to me

161A burden ten times heavier than my years.

162Thou'dst wont to be kind to me and observe

163What I thought pleasing. Go, entreat the king.

164

lady I will do more for you, sir—you're my father.

165I'll kiss him too.

[She kisses Govianus]

helvetius How am I dealt withal!

166

lady [Pointing to the Tyrant] Why, that's the usurper, sir.

[Pointing to Govianus]

This is the King.

167I happened righter than you thought I had,

Editor’s Note168And were all kingdoms of the earth his own,

pg 844

169As sure as this is not, and this dear gentleman

170As poor as virtue and almost as friendless,

Editor’s Note171I would not change that misery for thy sceptre

172Wherein I had part with him. Sir, be cheerful!

173'Tis not the reeling fortune of great state

174Or low condition that I cast mine eye at.

175It is the man I seek; the rest I lose

176As things unworthy to be kept or noted.

177Fortunes are but the outsides of true worth.

178It is the mind that sets his master forth.

Critical Apparatus179

tyrant Has there so many bodies been hewn down,

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus180Like trees in progress, to cut out a way

181That was ne'er known, for us and our affections,

182And is our game so crossed? There stands the first

183Of all her kind that ever refused greatness.

Editor’s Note184A woman to set light by sovereignty?

185What age can bring her forth, and hide that book?

186'Tis their desire most commonly to rule

187More than their part comes to, sometimes their husbands.

188

helvetius 'Tis in your power, my lord, to force her to you

Editor’s Note189And pluck her from his arms.

tyrant Thou talk'st unkindly.

190That had been done before thy thought begot it,

191If my affection could be so hard-hearted

Editor’s Note192To stand upon such payment. It must come

193Gently and kindly, like a debt of love,

194Or 'tis not worth receiving.

govianus Now, usurper,

195I wish no happier freedom than the banishment

196That thou hast laid upon me.

tyrant [aside] O, he kills me

197At mine own weapon. 'Tis I that live in exile,

198Should she forsake the land. I'll feign some cause

Editor’s Note199Far from the grief itself, to call it back.—

[To Govianus]

200That doom of banishment was but lent to thee

201To make a trial of thy factious spirit

202Which flames in thy desire. Thou would'st be gone.

203There is some combination betwixt thee

204And foreign plots; thou hast some powers to raise,

205Which to prevent, thy banishment we revoke,

Critical Apparatus206Confine thee to thy house nearest our court

207And place a guard about thee. Lord Memphonius,

208See it effected.

memphonius With best care, my lord.

209

govianus Confine me? Here's my liberty in mine arms.

pg 845

210I wish no better to bring me content.

Critical Apparatus211Love's best freedom is close prisonment!

Exeunt Lady and Govianus [with Memphonius]
212

tyrant [aside] Methinks the day e'en darkens at her absence.

Editor’s Note213I stand as in a shade, when a great cloud

214Muffles the sun whose beams shine afar off

215On towers and mountains, but I keep the valleys,

Editor’s Note216The place that is last served.

helvetius My lord!

tyrant Your reason, sir?

217

helvetius Your grace is mild to all but your own bosom.

218They should have both been sent to several prisons,

219And not committed to each other's arms.

Editor’s Note220There's a hot durance! He'll ne'er wish more freedom.

221

tyrant Thou talk'st not like a statesman. Had my wrath

222Took hold of such extremity at first,

223They'd lived suspectful still, warned by their fears.

Editor’s Note224Where now that liberty makes 'em more secure,

225I'll take 'em at my pleasure. It gives thee

226Freer access to play the father for us

227And ply her to our will.

helvetius Mass, so it does.

228Let a man think on't twice, your grace hath happened

Editor’s Note229Upon a strange way, yet it proves the nearest.

230I do beseech your majesty, look cheerful.

231You shall not want content, if it be locked

232In any blood of mine: the key's your own,

Editor’s Note233You shall command the wards.

tyrant Say'st thou so, sir?

234I were ingrateful, then, should I see thee

pg 846

Critical Apparatus235Want honour, that provides content for me.

Exeunt [The throne is withdrawn]

Translation

1.1

Incipit Actus Primus [The throne is set out] Enter the new usurping Tyrant; the Nobles of his faction, Memphonius, Sophonirus, Helvetius, with others; the right heir, Govianus, deposed Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus A sennet
1

tyrant [speaking from the throne] Thus high, my lords, your powers and constant loves

Critical Apparatus2Have fixed our glories like unmovèd stars

3That know not what it is to fall or err.

4We're now the kingdom's love, and he that was

Critical Apparatus5Flattered awhile so stands before us now

6Readier for doom than dignity.

govianus So much

7Can the adulterate friendship of mankind,

8False fortune's sister, bring to pass on kings,

9And lay usurpers sunning in their glories

10Like adders in warm beams.

tyrant There was but one

11In whom my heart took pleasure amongst women,

12One in the whole creation, and in her

13You dared to be my rival! Was't not bold?

14Now we are king, she'll leave the lower path

15And find the way to us.—Helvetius,

16It is thy daughter. Happier than a king

17And far above him, for she kneels to thee

18Whom we have kneeled to, richer in one smile

19That came from her, than she in all thy blessings.

20If thou be'st proud, thou art to be forgiven;

Critical Apparatus21'Tis no deadly sin in thee. While she lives,

22High lust is not more natural to youth

23Than that to thee: be not afraid to die in't.

24'Tis but the sin of joy. There is no gladness

25But has a pride it lives by: that's the oil

26That feeds it into flames.—Let her be sent for

27And honourably attended, as beseems

28Her that we make our queen. My lords Memphonius

29And Sophonirus, take into your care

30The royal business of my heart. Conduct her

31With a respect equal with that to us.

32If more, it shall be pardoned; so still err.

33You honour us, but ourself honours her.

34

memphonius [aside] Strange fortune! Does he make his queen of her?

Exit
35

sophonirus [aside] I have a wife. Would she were so preferred!

36I could be but her subject—so I'm now.

Critical Apparatus37I allow her her own friend, to stop her mouth

Critical Apparatus38And keep her quiet, gi' him his table free,

39And the huge feeding of his great stone-horse

Critical Apparatus40On which he rides in pomp about the city,

41Only to speak to gallants in bay-windows.

42Marry, his lodging he pays dearly for:

43He gets me all my children; there I save by't.

44Beside I draw my life out by the bargain

45Some twelve years longer than the times appointed,

46When my young prodigal gallant kicks up's heels

47At one-and-thirty, and lies dead and rotten

48Some five-and-forty years before I'm coffined.

49'Tis the right way to keep a woman honest:

50One friend is barricado to a hundred

51And keeps 'em out. Nay, more: a husband's sure

52To have his children all of one man's getting,

53And he that performs best can have no better.

54I'm e'en as happy then that save a labour.

Exit
55

tyrant [to Helvetius] Thy honours with thy daughter's love shall rise.

56I shall read thy deservings in her eyes.

57

helvetius O may they be eternal books of pleasure

58To show you all delight.

[The Tyrant consults his Nobles]
59

govianus [aside] The loss of her sits closer to my heart

60Than that of kingdom, or the whorish pomp

Critical Apparatus61Of this world's title that with flattery swells us

62And makes us die like beasts fat for destruction.

63O she's a woman, and her eye will stand

64Upon advancement, never weary yonder;

65But when she turns her head, by chance, and sees

66The fortunes that are my companions,

67She'll snatch her eyes off, and repent the looking.

68

tyrant [to Nobles] 'Tis well advised. We doom thee, Govianus,

69To banishment for ever from our kingdom.

70

govianus What could be worse to one whose heart is locked

71Up in another's bosom? Banishment?

72And why not death? Is that too easy for me?

Critical Apparatus73

tyrant But that the world would call

74Our way to dignity a path of blood,

75It should be the first act in all our reign.

76

govianus She's lost for ever. [To Nobles] Farewell, virtuous men,

77Too honest for your greatness. Now you're mightier

78Than when we knew the kingdom, your styles heavier;

Critical Apparatus79Then, ponderous nobility, farewell.

[Going]
80

tyrant Let him be stayed awhile.

second noble [to Govianus] Stay!

first noble [to Govianus] You must stay, sir.

81

govianus [aside] He's not so honest, sure, to change his mind,

82Revoke his doom. Hell has more hope on him!

83

tyrant We have not ended yet: the worst part's coming.

84Thy banishment were gentle, were that all,

Critical Apparatus85But to afflict thy soul, before thou goest

86Thou shalt behold the heaven that thou must lose

87In her that must be mine;

88Then to be banished, then to be deprived,

89Shows the full torment we provide for thee.

90

govianus [aside] Here's a right tyrant now: he will not bate me

Critical Apparatus91Th'affliction of my soul; he'll have all parts

92Suffer together.

Enter [Memphonius] with the Lady, clad in black

Now I see my loss.

93I never shall recover't. My mind's beggared.

Critical Apparatus94

tyrant Whence risse that cloud? Can such a thing be seen

95In honour's glorious day? The sky so clear?

96Why mourns the kingdom's mistress? Does she come

97To meet advancement in a funeral garment?

98Back! She forgot herself. 'Twas too much joy

99That bred this error and we heartily pardon't.

[To Attendants]

100Go, bring me her hither like an illustrious bride

101With her best beams about her. Let her jewels

102Be worth ten cities—that beseems our mistress,

103And not a widow's case, a suit to weep in.

104

lady I am not to be altered.

tyrant How?

lady I have a mind

105That must be shifted ere I cast off these,

106Or I shall wear strange colours. 'Tis not titles

107Nor all the bastard honours of this frame

108That I am taken with. I come not hither

109To please the eye of glory, but of goodness,

[To the Tyrant]

110And that concerns not you, sir. You're for greatness.

111I dare not deal with you. [Indicating Govianus] I have found my match

112And I will never lose him.

govianus If there be man

113Above a king in fortunes, read my story

114And you shall find him there. Farewell, poor kingdom!

[To the Tyrant]

Critical Apparatus115Take it to help thee, thou hast need on't now.

116I see thee in distress, more miserable

117Than some thou lay'st taxations on, poor subjects.

Critical Apparatus118Thou'rt all beset with storms, more overcast

119Than ever any man that brightness flattered.

120'Tis only wretchedness to be there with thee,

121And happiness to be here.

tyrant [aside] Sure some dream crowned me.

122If it were possible to be less than nothing,

123I wake, the man you seek for. There's the kingdom

124Within yon valley fixed, while I stand here

125Kissing false hopes upon a frozen mountain,

126Without the confines. I am he that's banished.

127The king walks yonder, chose by her affection,

128Which is the surer side, for where she goes,

129Her eye removes the court. What is he here

130Can spare a look? They're all employed on her!—

[To Helvetius]

131Helvetius! Thou art not worth the waking, neither.

132I lose but time in thee. Go, sleep again:

133Like an old man, thou canst do nothing.

Critical Apparatus134Thou tak'st no pains at all to earn thine honours.

135Which way shall we be able to pay thee

136To thy content, when we receive not ours?

137The master of the work must needs decay

138When he wants means, and sees his servant play.

139

helvetius [to the Lady] Have I bestowed so many blessings on thee,

Critical Apparatus140And do they all return to me in curses?

141Is that the use I ha' for 'em? Be not to me

142A burden ten times heavier than my years.

143Thou'dst wont to be kind to me and observe

144What I thought pleasing. Go, entreat the king.

145

lady I will do more for you, sir—you're my father.

146I'll kiss him too.

[She kisses Govianus]

helvetius How am I dealt withal!

147

lady [Pointing to the Tyrant] Why, that's the usurper, sir.

[Pointing to Govianus]

This is the King.

148I happened righter than you thought I had,

149And were all kingdoms of the earth his own,

150As sure as this is not, and this dear gentleman

151As poor as virtue and almost as friendless,

Critical Apparatus152I would not change this misery for that sceptre

153Wherein I had part with him. Sir, be cheerful!

154'Tis not the reeling fortune of great state

155Or low condition that I cast mine eye at.

156It is the man I seek; the rest I lose

157As things unworthy to be kept or noted.

158Fortunes are but the outsides of true worth.

159It is the mind that sets his master forth.

160

tyrant Has there so many bodies been hewn down,

Critical Apparatus161Like trees in progress, to cut out a way

162That was ne'er known, for us and our affections,

163And is our game so crossed? There stands the first

Critical Apparatus164Of all her kind that ever refused greatness.

165

helvetius 'Tis in your power, my lord, to force her to you

166And pluck her from his arms.

tyrant Thou talk'st unkindly.

167That had been done before thy thought begot it,

168If my affection could be so hard-hearted

169To stand upon such payment. It must come

170Gently and kindly, like a debt of love,

171Or 'tis not worth receiving.

govianus Now, usurper,

172I wish no happier freedom than the banishment

173That thou hast laid upon me.

tyrant [aside] O, he kills me

174At mine own weapon. 'Tis I that live in exile,

175Should she forsake the land. I'll feign some cause

176Far from the grief itself, to call it back.—

[To Govianus]

177That doom of banishment was but lent to thee

178To make a trial of thy factious spirit

179Which flames in thy desire. Thou would'st be gone.

180There is some combination betwixt thee

181And foreign plots; thou hast some powers to raise,

182Which to prevent, thy banishment we revoke,

183Confine thee to thy house nearest our court

184And place a guard about thee. Lord Memphonius,

185See it effected.

memphonius With best care, my lord.

186

govianus Confine me? Here's my liberty in mine arms.

187I wish no better to bring me content.

Critical Apparatus188Lovers' best freedom is close prisonment!

Exeunt Lady and Govianus [with Memphonius]
189

tyrant [aside] Methinks the day e'en darkens at her absence.

190I stand as in a shade, when a great cloud

191Muffles the sun whose beams shine afar off

192On towers and mountains, but I keep the valleys,

193The place that is last served.

helvetius My lord!

tyrant Your reason, sir?

194

helvetius Your grace is mild to all but your own bosom.

195They should have both been sent to several prisons,

196And not committed to each other's arms.

197There's a hot durance! He'll ne'er wish more freedom.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus198

tyrant 'Tis true. Let 'em be both forced back.

[To departing Attendants]

Stay, we command you!

[To Helvetius]

199Thou talk'st not like a statesman. Had my wrath

200Took hold of such extremity at first,

201They'd lived suspectful still, warned by their fears.

202Where now that liberty makes 'em more secure,

203I'll take 'em at my pleasure. It gives thee

204Freer access to play the father for us

205And ply her to our will.

helvetius Mass, so it does.

206Let a man think on't twice, your grace hath happened

207Upon a strange way, yet it proves the nearest.

Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus208

tyrant Nay, more to vex his soul, give command straight

209They be divided into several rooms

210Where he may only have a sight of her

211To his mind's torment, but his arms and lips

212Locked up like felons from her.

helvetius Now you win me.

213I like that cruelty passing well, my lord.

214

tyrant Give order with all speed.

helvetius Though I be old,

215I need no spur, my lord. Honour pricks me.

216I do beseech your grace, look cheerfully.

217You shall not want content, if it be locked

218In any blood of mine: the key's your own,

219You shall command the wards.

tyrant Say'st thou so, sir?

220I were ingrateful, then, should I see thee

221Want honour, that provides content for me.

Exeunt Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus A flourish [The throne is withdrawn]

Notes Settings

Notes

Critical Apparatus
A1.1.0.1–2 Actus Prim.s (left, opposite 1.1.0.4)
Critical Apparatus
A1.0.3–5 Enter the new Vsurping Tirant; The Nobles of | his faction, Memphonius, Sophonirus, Heluetius | with others, The right heire Gouianus depos'de,
Editor’s Note
1.1.0.4 Helvetius 'man of Switzerland' (a country associated with the Protestant faith)
Editor’s Note
0.5 right true, as at 5.1.2
Govianus Pronounced 'Jovianus', and deriving from 'Jove' (i.e. the classical god), meaning king-like (and suggesting 'Giovanni', i.e. John).
Editor’s Note
A2 Hath the use of a singular verb with plural reference was not uncommon (as at A5.2.70/B5.2.56), but was here assumed to be a mistake and so corrected, apparently by Sir George Buc, the censor.
Editor’s Note
2 unmovèd stars According to the Ptolemaic system, the region of fixed stars was not subject to change. The Tyrant's elevation, both in terms of status and position on stage, and Govianus's degradation are emphasized throughout the scene.
Editor’s Note
6 for … dignity to be judged than honoured (as at l. 68)
Editor’s Note
6–8 So … kings Thus men's false friendship, like the related treachery of fortune, can bring about the fall of kings. The theme of false friendship links this scene with the next.
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.8 on] scribe, o altered from i
Editor’s Note
10 adders … beams Like poisonous snakes in the sunshine. Images of sunshine and storm recur in this scene, like those of height and depth.
Editor’s Note
20–6 If … flames Though pride can be a deadly sin, your pride in your daughter, while she lives, is as natural as the energy of the young, and as forgivable. Every happiness is fed by some kind of pride—it's the oil that feeds the flame.
Editor’s Note
28–9 Memphonius … Sophonirus Their names derive from Greek, Memphonius meaning 'a fault-finder' and Sophonirus meaning clever or wise of mind (with irony).
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.29 care] scribe, written over charge (erased)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.34.1 Exit] scribe (Exit Mempho:)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.34.1 Exit Mempho:
Editor’s Note
35–54 I … labour This soliloquy of the contented cuckold anticipates that of Allwit in Chaste Maid (1.2.12–56). It consists of a series of double meanings. Sophonirus wishes his wife might become queen, since he is already her obedient 'subject'. He persuades himself that this is to his advantage, since her present lover ('friend') performs all the sexual duties required of a husband. Mouth-stopping, feeding, riding, speaking (like 'intercourse') can all be used of the sexual act; a stone-horse is a stallion (like 'stud'); 'gallants in bay-windows' are ladies of fashion (or prostitutes). The lover pays for his 'lodging' (his possession of the wife's body) by begetting all her children, which he will pay for in another sense, since copulating was supposed to shorten one's life ('kicks up's heels', i.e. dies).
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.37 her her] scribe, second her interlined
Editor’s Note
50 barricado barrier
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.52 one] reviser (?), altered from ones scribe (final letter uncertain)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.54 Exit] scribe (Exit Sophonirus)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.54 Exit Sophonirus
Editor’s Note
62 beasts … destruction animals fattened for slaughter
Editor’s Note
63–4 stand | Upon remain fixed on
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.72 too] scribe (to), second o added by reviser (?)
Editor’s Note
78 styles titles
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.80 first noble] lancashire; 3. Noblem⁞; scribe. Memphonius and Sophonirus are the first two noblemen; '3 Noble.' also speaks at ll. 96, 99 and '4 Nobl.' at l. 99.
Editor’s Note
A83 when … yet When your wisdom was being suckled—is it weaned now?
Editor’s Note
A84–96 You … called In a sequence of complex puns, the young nobleman substitutes sexual and social exploitation for education, and in particular, learning Latin: he construes (i.e. inspects/translates) his doctor's bills, because he has caught a venereal infection; he pierces/parses (i.e. penetrates his wife's maids/identifies parts of speech) and declines (i.e. reduces the living standards of his tenants/inflects). Fines and rackings are fees and excessive rents charged. A living is an estate providing a source of income. Mercers' books are the account books of cloth-dealers. In an age of extravagant dress, tailors could expound (explain or comment on) the stuff (material, in both senses) and its title (i.e. the name, whether of a book or a type of cloth).
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.86 cònstrue] scribe (conster)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.87 wife's] scribe (wyues)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.87 women] scribe, e altered from a
Editor’s Note
A101/B82 Hell … him Hell's hopes (of receiving him) are better than mine are (i.e. that he will change his mind).
Editor’s Note
A109/B90 bate spare, abate
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.111.1 Enter with the | Lady clad in Black.— (left, opposite 1.1.110–11)
Editor’s Note
A113/B94 risse rose (older form)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.117 too] scribe (to), second o added by reviser
Editor’s Note
A125/B106 strange colours The Lady's black expresses her sobriety, as well as her mourning for the state. She would not be true to herself if she wore imposed colours (and see A5.2.72/B5.2.58, A124/B110).
Editor’s Note
A125–7/B106–8 'Tis not … with See ll. A171–2/B152–3, and No Wit 2.20–6, for comparison especially with l. A126/B107 here.
Editor’s Note
A126/B107 frame world
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.127 hither] scribe (hether, th altered from re and er added)
Editor’s Note
A130/B111 match partner
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.138 any] scribe, y altered from n
Editor’s Note
A145/B126 Without outside
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.146 affection] scribe, a final s erased
Editor’s Note
A146/B127 chose chosen
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.152/B1.1.133 Like an old man,] scribe, written at the end of A1.1.151/B1.1.132, then crossed out
Editor’s Note
A152/B133 thou … nothing You are useless ('Like an old man' may be read with the previous or the following clause).
Editor’s Note
A157/B138 wants lacks (its most usual meaning in the play, as at 1.2.98, 191, 195, etc.)
Editor’s Note
A160/B141 use I ha' the treatment I get; also, the capital interest I receive (i.e. on his blessings given)
Editor’s Note
A168/B149 his own i.e. the Tyrant's
Editor’s Note
A171–2/B152–3 I would … him I would not exchange that misery which I might share with him (Govianus) for the sceptre (you offer). 'Thy' must be colloquial; a daughter would not normally use this intimate form of address to her father.
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.179 Has] scribe, S altered from v
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.180 Like … way] scribe, originally omitted, then interlined. See also textual note on B1.1.161.
Editor’s Note
A180–1/B161–2 Like … known During a royal visit ('progress'), trees were cut down to create new routes.
Editor’s Note
A184–5 A … book A woman who does not take royal power seriously? What age can produce such a woman and then conceal the record ('that book') of her existence?
Editor’s Note
A189/B166 unkindly 'Kind' means both considerate and natural (kin being blood relatives), here and elsewhere.
Editor’s Note
A192/B169 stand upon to insist upon
Editor’s Note
A199/B176 call it back retract (i.e. the sentence of banishment)
Critical Apparatus
A1. 1.206 thy] scribe, altered from our
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.211.1 Exiunt Lady and | Govianus (right, opposite 1.1.211–12)
Editor’s Note
A213–16/B190–3 I … served Here the repeated images of sunshine and cloud and height versus lowliness are brought together.
Editor’s Note
A216/B193 Your reason, sir? i.e. for speaking,—What do you want?
Editor’s Note
A220/B197 a hot durance a harsh (also burning, passionate) imprisonment
Editor’s Note
A224/B202 secure confident
Editor’s Note
A229/B207 nearest most direct
Editor’s Note
A233/B219 wards the notches or guards on a lock so that only one key can open it (thus giving access to the Lady)
Critical Apparatus
A1.1.235 Exiunt.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.0.6 A Senate (left, opposite B1.1.2)
Editor’s Note
Bo.6 sennet trumpet fanfare, here accompanying the procession to the throne
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.2 Have] reviser, altered from hath scribe, and rewritten in the right margin; ink cross, right margin, and large pencil and ink crosses, left margin BUC. For the attribution of these markings to BUC, see Howard-Hill, 'Marginal Markings', 176–7.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.5–6 Flattered … dignity.] The Second | Maydens Tragedie written in the right margin in anunidentified seventeenth-century hand
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.21 'Tis] reviser (t'is), altered from: it is scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.37 own] reviser (owne), interlined; one scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.38 gi'] reviser, altered from: giue scribe. See also B3.1.121.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.40 On] reviser; wth scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.61 title] reviser; titles scribe, final s deleted (?)
Critical Apparatus
1.1.73–5 But that … reign] this edition; 2 lines scribe: dignity
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.79 Then … farewell.] this edition cuts after this line and resumes at A1.1.99/B1.1.80 (conj. Greg); A1.1.80–98 in scribe ('how's that … Fare you well Sr') marked to be cut. A1.1.80 ('how's that Sir') is unmarked and reviser has added a question mark. The first half of A1.1.81 ('waightie and serious,—') has been deleted, and a line in the left margin indicates a cut from A1.1.82 to A1.1.99, though its limits are not precise. Greg's conjecture seems preferable as it produces the most coherent dialogue. The Tyrant's change of mind (A1.1.99/B1.1.80) is necessary for the action that follows.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.85 to afflict] reviser, altered from: t'afflict scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.91 he'll] reviser, altered from: he will scribe, by first deleting wi, then inserting 'll after he and deleting wi'll.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.94 Whence] reviser, altered from: Black? whence scribe, by deleting the first word
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.115 hast] reviser, altered from: hadst scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.118 Thou'rt] reviser (th'art), altered from: thow art scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.134 pains] reviser, altered from: paine scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.140 in curses] reviser, altered from: in a curse scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.152 this … that] reviser; that … thy scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.161 Like … way] this line originally omitted, then interlined by scribe; large pencil cross, left margin, B1.1.160–2 BUC. Howard-Hill ('Marginal Markings', p. 177) suggests that BUC'S cross drew attention to an omitted line, subsequently written in by scribe.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.164 greatness.] A1.1.184–7 in scribe ('A woman … husbands,') deleted with diagonal lines by reviser
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.188 Lovers'] reviser (Louers), r interlined; Loue's scribe
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.198 'Tis … you!] scribe2 in first addition slip, not in scribe; a circle in the left margin at B1.1.198–9, indicating the point of insertion for these 2 lines bookkeeper
Editor’s Note
B198 'Tis true … you ;
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.208–15 tyrant Nay … me.] scribe2 in first addition slip, not in scribe; a circle in the left margin at B1.1.207–16, indicating the point of insertion for these eight lines bookkeeper
Editor’s Note
B208–15 Nay, … pricks me. The additional passages here respond to Helvetius's point, that the Tyrant's punishment will be ineffectual unless the lovers are kept apart. Despite his orders, they are shown freely together at 2.1, although a further additiondition at B2.1.3–10 explains why. Anne Lancashire points out that the order to keep them apart would have reminded the audience of the separate imprisonment of the royal lovers Arabella Stuart and William Seymour (both of whom had claims to the throne) in 1610–11.
Critical Apparatus
B1.1.221.1–2 A Florish (left, under B1.1.221)
Editor’s Note
B221.1 flourish i.e. of trumpets
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