John K. Hale and J. Donald Cullington (eds), The Complete Works of John Milton, Vol. 8: De Doctrina Christiana, Vol. 2
pg 1102[MS 624] Caput 10.mum de Secunda specie virtu= tum ad officia hominis erga se pertinentium.1
Dictae sunt virtutes quae in appetendis2 bonis modum servant: dicendae nunc sunt quae versantur in propulsandis aut sustinendis malis.
Eaéque sunt fortitudo et patientia.
3Fortitudo elucet maximè in malis propulsandis aut non metuendis. Ios. 1. 6. 7. 9; nonne4 praecepi tibi? confirmare et fortis esto: ne expavescito neque consternator. Heb. 11. 32 &c; deficiet me tempus, narrantem de Gedeone,—; qui per fidem debellarunt regna—. Psal. 3. 75; non timebo à myriadibus populi, quas circum disposuerint metatores contra, me.6 7Psal. 18 328 &c ⁓ et 23. 4; quum ambularem per vallem lethalis umbrae, non timerem [MS 625] malum, quia, tu—. et 37. 12; &c;| cogitante improbo contra iustum,—. Gladium eduxerint improbi,—. Gladius eorum intrabit in cor eorum—. et 46. 2. 39; Deus nobis est receptas et robur:—. Idcirco non timeremus, si commutaret terra locum—. et 56. 1210; in Deo confido, non timebo quid faciat homo mihi. et 118. 6, idem, et 112. 7. 8; à rumore malo non timet—.11 Prov. 3. 24. 25; quum cubabis, non expavesces;—. et 24. 5. 6; vir sapiens est cum robore, et vir sciens fortificat vires:—. et 28. 1; iusti sunt similes iuveni leoni confidenti. Isai. 41. 10; ne timeto, quia, tecum sum,—. et 51. 7; ne timetote probrum mortalis, et prae contumeliis istorum ne consternamini. et v. 12; ego ipse sum consolator vester: quis es tu quòd, timeas—. Dan. 3. 16; dixerunt regi, ut [MS 626] respondeamus tibi non| sumus solliciti—. Matt. 10. 28 &c; ne timete vobis ab iis qui trucidant corpus,—. 12Fortitudinis exemplum maximum est servator
pg 1104noster Iesus Christus tota vita ac morte: et Luc. 13. 31 &c; dicite vulpi isti, Ecce eiiciam daemonia, et sanationes peragam hodie et cras, tertia autem die13 consummabor. Ioann. 11. 7. 8; dicunt ei, Modo studebant Iudaei te lapidare, et rursum illuc abis? 2 Timoth. 1. 7; non enim dedit nobis Deus spiritum formidinis, sed roboris, et charitatis et sanitatis animi. 1 Ioann. 2. 14; scripsi vobis,14 adolescentes, quia fortes estis, et verbum Dei habitat in vobis, et illum malum vicistis.
Huic opponitur timiditas. Psal. 27. 1; Iehova lux mea et salus mea; à quo [MS 627] timerem—? et Psal. 112. 7.15| Prov. 10. 24; quod formidat improbus, id eveniet ei. et 25. 26; ut fons calcibus conturbatus, aut scaturigo corrupta; est iustus16 qui dimovetur coram improbo. et 28. 1; fugiunt improbus quisque nemine persequente. et 29. 25; trepidus homo sibi ponit tendiculam. Isai. 41. 13. 14; ne timeto vermicule Iacobi—. Neh. 6. 11; an vir qualis sum ego fugerem—? Matt. 24. 6; futurum est ut audiatis bella et rumores bellorum; videte ne turbemini. Apoc. 21. 8; formidolosis et incredulis—, portio assignata est in stagno—.
Et temeritas; ubi quis non necessario periculum adit. Prov 14. 16; sapiens timet ac recedit à malo, stolidus verò infert se, adeo praefidens est.
[MS 628] Huius exemplum est Amazia, 2 Reg. 14. 817; age, videamus alter| faciem alterius. Et Iosias, 2 Chron. 35. 20. 21. 22; et quamvis mitteret ad ipsum legatos, dicendo,— tamen non avertit Iosia faciem suam ab illo—. Quam exemplo suo vitandam Christus docuit. Ioann. 7. 1; nolebat enim in Iudaea versari, quia studebant eum Iudaei interimere. et 11. 53. 54[;] Iesus ergo palam amplius non versabatur inter Iudaeos. Matt. 10. 23; quum persequentur vos in ea urbe, fugite in aliam.
Patientia est in malis atque iniuriis perferendis. Psal. 69. 818; propter te sustineo opprobrium, operit ignominia faciem meam. Prov. 11. 12; spernente proximum suum demente, vir prudentissimus surdum agit. et 17. 27; cohibet sermones suos vir sciens, et frigidus est spiritu vir intelligens19. et 19. 11; [MS 629] intellectus hominis longanimem| efficit eum. Eccl. 7. 21; etiam ad omnia verba quae dicuntur, ne adhibeto animum tuum; cum non debeas audire vel pg 1106 servum tuum maledicentem tibi. Isai. 50. 7. 8; compono faciem meam tanquam saxum adamantinum,—. Matt. 5. 39; ne obsistite improbo; sed qui te caedet in dextram tuam maxillam, obverte ei et alteram[.] 1 Cor. 6. 7; quare non potius iniuriam patimini—? 1 Thess. 5. 14; patiente animo estote erga omnes. Vide supra de patientia erga Deum. At compensationem quandam iniuriarum nonnunquam etiam viri sancti requirunt: Act. 16. 37; caesos nos publicè, indicta causa—.
Huic opponitur impatientia et mollities. Prov[.] 24. 10; si remissè te geras, tempore angustiae angusta, erit virtus tua.
Et patientia hypocritica: quae in illis cernitur qui cruciatus non necessarios sibi accersunt; ut Baalitae, 1 Reg. 18. 28; incidebant sese—; et [MS 630] flagellatores| Papistici.
pg 1103[MS 624] Chapter TenOnthe Second kind of [special] virtuesrelating to a person's duties
We have discussed the virtues which preserve measure in pursuing [external] goods: now we must discuss those which are concerned with repelling or else enduring evils.
And those are fortitude and patience.
Fortitude is most conspicuous when one is repelling evils or else not fearing them. Josh, 1: 6–7, 9: have I [i.e. God] not commanded you [i.e. Joshua]? Be strengthened and have courage: you are not to be terrified or dismayed; Heb. 11: 32, etc.: time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, [and other heroes]; who through faith conquered kingdoms …; Ps. 3: 6: I shall not be afraid, of the tens of thousands of people which camp-measurersii array all round against me; Ps. 18: 31, etc.; and 23: 4: though I were walking through a valley of deathly shadow, I should not fear evil, because you [i.e. God, are [MS 625] with me]; and 37: 12, etc.: when a wicked person plots against the righteous one, [… The Lord laughs at him …]. The wicked may unsheath a sword, … Their sword shall enter their [own] heart …; and 46: 1–2: God is a refuge and bulwark for us: … Therefore we should not be afraid if the earth were changing position …; and 56: 11: I trust in God; I will not fear what man may do to me; and 118: 6, the same; and 112: 7–8: he [i.e. a righteous person] is not afraid of evil rumour …; Prov. 3: 24–5: when you lie down, you shall not be terrified; …; and 24: 5–6: a wise man is possessed, of might, and a, man with knowledge boosts his strength: …; and 28: 1: righteous people are like a confident young lion; Isa. 41: 10: you [i.e. Israel] are not to be afraid, because I [i.e. God] am with you, …; and 51: 7: you [i.e. the righteous] are not to fear a, mortal's reviling; and do not be shocked because of their [i.e. people's] insults; and v. 12: I [i.e. God] myself am your [i.e. Zion's] comforter: who are you that you should be afraid …[?]; Dan. 3: 16: they [i.e. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego] said to the king, We are [MS 626] not troubled about answering you …; Matt. 10: 28, etc.: have no fear for yourselves of those who kill the body, … The greatest example of fortitude pg 1105 is our saviour Jesus Christ, throughout [his] life and in [his] death: and Luke 13: 31, etc.: tell this fox [i.e. Herod], Behold, I [i.e. Jesus] will cast out demons and accomplish healings today and tomorrow: but on the third day I will be made perfect; John 11: 7–8: they [i.e. the disciples] say to him [i.e. Jesus], [Rabbi,] just now the Jews were eager to stone you, and [yet] you are going off there again?; 2 Tim. 1: 7: for God has not given us a spirit of dread, but of might and love and healthiness of mind; 1 John 2: 14: I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and, God's word dwells in you, and you have conquered that evil one [i.e. the devil].
Set against this is timidity. Ps. 27: 1: Jehovah [is] my light and, my salva- [MS 627] tion; of whom would I be afraid …?; and Ps. 112: 7; Prov. 10: 24: what a. wicked person dreads, that thing will result far him; and 25: 26: as a, spring muddied by gravel, or a polluted fountain; [so] is a righteous person who is shaken in the presence of a wicked one; and 28: 1: each wicked person flees with no one in pursuit; and 29: 25: an apprehensive person lays a snare for himself; Isa. 41: 13–14: you [i.e. Israel] are not to be afraid little worm of Jacob …; Neh. 6: 11: would a man such as I [i.e. Nehemiah] am be fleeing …?; Matt. 24: 6: it will happen that you [i.e. the disciples] will hear of wars and rumours of wars; see that you be not alarmed; Rev. 21: 8: for the fearful and unbelieving …, their assigned, lot is in the pool [where fire and sulphur burn].
And rashness, when one goes to meet danger unnecessarily. Prov 14: 16: a wise person is afraid and draws back from evil, but a dolt charges ahead, so overconfident is he. Amaziah is an example of this, [MS 628] 2 Kgs 14: 8: come, let us [i.e. Amaziah and Jehoash] see each other's face. And Josiah, 2 Chr. 35: 20–2: and although he [i.e. Necho, king of Egypt] was sending envoys to him [i.e. Josiah], to say, [What have I to do with you, king of Judah? …] Yet Josiah did not turn his face away from [fighting] him … Christ taught by his own example that one should avoid it. John 7: 1: for he [i.e. Jesus] did not wish to move about in Judaea, because the Jews were eager to do away with him; and 11: 53–4: Jesus, therefore, was not moving about publicly among the Jews any more; Matt. 10: 23: when they [i.e. people] persecute you [i.e. the disciples] in that city, flee into another.
Patience consists in enduring evils and injustices. Ps. 69: 7: for your [i.e. God's] sake I endure disgrace; shame covers my face; Prov. 11: 12: while a demented person despises his neighbour, a very prudent man acts like a deaf one; and 17: 27: a man with knowledge restrains his words, and a man with understanding is cool in spirit; and 19: 11: a person's understanding makes him [MS 629] long-suffering; Eccles. 7: 21: also you are not to apply your mind to all the words which are said, since you ought not to hear your servant, for instance, pg 1107 cursing you; Isa. 50: 7–8: I [i.e. the suffering servant] compose my face like an adamantine rock, …; Matt. 5: 39: do not stand in the way of a wicked person; but to him who strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also; 1 Cor. 6: 7: why do you not rather [i.e. instead of going to the law] suffer injustice …?; 1 Thess. 5: 14: you are to be of a patient disposition towards all. See above concerning patience towards God [MS 491f, 501f]. But even holy men sometimes demand a certain compensation for injustices: Acts 16: 37: when we [i.e. Paul and Silas] had been publicly flogged without a hearing [… the magistrates threw [us] into prison].
Set against this are impatience and effeminacy. Prov. 24: 10: if you should conduct yourself slackly, in a time of shortage your vigour will be in short supply.
And hypocritical patience, which is discerned in those who bring on themselves unnecessary tortures, like the prophets of Baal, 1 Kgs 18: 28: they began to cut themselves [… with their swords and their spears]; and the [MS 630] Papistical self-flagellators.
And the Stoic apatheia,iii for sensibility to feelings of pain, and complaints or lamentations, are not inconsistent with [true] patience, as may be clearly seen in Job and the other holy people when bearing adversity.iv