pg 501CRITICAL APPENDIX.
Dedication. In 1590 the Dedication runs simply:—'To the most mightie and magnificent empresse Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queene of England, France and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c. Her most humble Seruant: Ed. Spenser.' The words 'and of Virginia' and 'to liue with the eternitie of her fame', added in 1596, give evidence of the growing importance of the colony and of the increased self-confidence of the poet.
I. i. Arg. 3. entrappe] entrape 1596. In the matter of double letters I attach little weight to the evidence of either quarto. I cannot believe (e.g.) that a scholar like Spenser could have written "oportunitie' (VII. ii. 41 l. 7); so with 'entrape' here, and 'mishapen' at I. vi. 8 l. 7.
I. i. 2 l. 1. But] And 1590. The reading of 1596 brings out finely the contrast between the 'jolly' appearance of the Knight and his dedicated purpose.
I. i. 5 l. 1. So pure an innocent] and innocent 1590: an Innocent 1609. 1596 makes 'innocent' substantive: and so 1609 took it, as the capital shows.
I. i. 9 l. 6. sweete bleeding] sweet, bleeding 1609. But Morris is probably right in regarding 'sweete' as an adverb to 'bleeding'.
I. i. 15 l. 6. poisonous] poisnous 1590. 1596 is less shy of trisyllabic feet than 1590, and both than F. E.; and the second part of F. Q. than the first. Other trisyllabic feet left full in 1596 but elided or contracted in 1590 will be found at I. iv. 37 l. 6; II. ix. 17 l. 4; II. x. 34 l. 1; III. viii. 46 l. 9; cf. also III. ix. 48 l. 6. (Per contra III. viii. 49 l. 1; III. xi. 28 l. 8.) Elisions are proposed by F. E. but ignored by 1596 at I. xii. 32 l. 5, II. vii. 54 l. 8.
I. i. 15 l. 7. shapes] Morris reports 'shape 1596': not so in Bodl. or B. M. copies. But 'shape,' in 1609.
I. i. 20 l. 4. vildly] vilely 1609. The omission of 'd' marks the seventeenth-century editor.
I. i. 21 l. 5. spring] ebbe 1590 &c.: corr. F.E.
to auale] t'auale 1590: corr. F. E. A good example of the relation of 1596 to F. E. The first correction is ignored, the second accepted. But the second correction is obvious, being required by the metre; it must have been made independently. And this is generally the case when 1596 and F. E. agree. For the significance of this ignoring of F. E. see Introduction, p. xvii. Excluding ambiguous instances, I have noted forty-eight places in which 1596 thus ignores F. E.; fifty-four in which they agree. But of these fifty-four only six at most are pg 502significant, the rest being obvious corrections. These are I. vi. 26 l. 5; I. vii. 37 l. 8; I. vii. 43 l. 5; I. vii. 47 l. 3; I. ix. Arg. 2; I. ix. 9 l. 5. Whatever be the explanation in these instances—and it will be noted that they all come close together—they do not invalidate the conclusion maintained in the Introduction, p. xvii, which is based on the negative instances.
I. 31 l. 6. you] thee 1590. The plural pronoun is more courteous than the singular. There is a similar change of 'thy' to 'your' in I. ii. 22 l. 5.
I. i. 48 l. 9. with om. 1596, 1609. One of the instances that show how little use 1609 made of 1590. See further on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
I. ii. 11 ll. 3 and 4. One of several instances in which the punctuation of 1609 brings out the true meaning or construction. See Introduction, p. xvii.
I. ii. 27 l. 9. so dainty] so, Dainty 1609. The editor of 1609 wishes to show that Spenser is quoting the proverb 'Quae rara, cara'. The quartos probably intend the same meaning.
I. ii. 29 l. 2. shade him] shade 1596: shadow 1609. On the significance of this for the relations of 1590 and 1609 see Introduction, p. xviii. Other instances in which 1609 ignores 1590, supplying by conjecture a word or syllable that has been omitted in 1596, are I. vi. 26 l. 9 as a tyrans law 1590, as tyrans law 1596, as proud tyrans law 1609; II. v. 8 l. 7 hurtle 1590, hurle 1596, hurlen 1609; II. vi. 29 l. 2 importune 1590, importance 1596, important 1609; II. x. 51 l. 7 Both in his armes, and crowne 1590, Both in armes, and crowne 1596, In armes, and eke in crowne 1609; II. xii. 52 l. 9 Or Eden selfe, if ought 1590, Of Eden, if ought 1596, Or Eden, if that ought 1609; III. iii. 44 l. 5 foure hundreth yeares shalbe supplide 1590, foure hundreth shalbe supplide 1596, foure hundreth shall be full supplide 1609; III. vii. 45 l. 1 the good Sir Satyrane gan wake 1590, good Sir Satyrane gan wake 1596, good Sir Satyrane gan awake 1609; III. ix. 13 l. 9 And so defide them each 1590, And defide them each 1596, And them defied each 1609; III. xi. 26 l. 7 and with imperious sway 1590, and imperious sway 1596, and his imperious sway 1609.
1609 ignores not only the text of 1590, but F. E., in favour of conjecture, as at II. viii. 25 l. 1 Which those same foes, that stand hereby 1590, 1596, same corr. to his cruell F. E., Which those same foes that doen awaite hereby 1609.
I. iii. 32 l. 9. Who told her all that fell in iourney as she went] told, 1609. The meaning wanted is, 'Who told all that befell her'; and so 1609 takes the line, as its punctuation shows. It is not impossible to get this meaning out of the line as it stands; but the order is excessively contorted, and I have suggested 'all that her fell'.
I. iii. 36 l. 7. morning] mourning 1590. The words are, of course, the same; and I now prefer 1590, for though Spenser uses 'morne' he would scarcely employ so ambiguous a spelling in the participle.
I. iii. 38 l. 7. the] that F.E. referring probably to this line. As the references in F. E. are to pages only, it is sometimes impossible to identify pg 503them with certainty when they concern words like 'the' and 'that'. See again on II. xii. 1 l. 6.
I. iii. 41 l. 9. swerd] sword 1609. It is 'swerd' in all our copies of 1590, 1596.
I. iv. 16 l. 3. hurtlen] hurlen 1609. 1609 makes the same change at I. iv. 40 l. 1 and II. v. 8 l. 7, as if 'hurtle' were unfamiliar. Yet it has 'hurtling' in I. viii. 17, IV. iv. 29; and 'hurtle' in II. vii. 42.
I. iv. 23 l. 5. seldome] seeldome 1590, sildom 1609. See Introduction, p. v.
I. iv. 23 l. 7. dry dropsie. Upton's conjecture, 'dire dropsie' ('dirus hydrops'), is worth noticing.
I. v. 7 l. 9. helmets hewen] hewen helmets 1590. This is one of those slight changes of order, made here for the sake of grammar, but more often for the sake of rhythm, which reveal the poet's own hand in 1596 more conclusively than more conspicuous alterations. Others are recorded at II. i. 18 l. 6; II. iii. 38 l. 4; II. v. 5 l. 9; II. vi. 3 l. 6; II. vi. 12 l. 9; III. ii. 8 l. 5; III. ii. 30 l. 5; III. iv. 59 l. 5; III. v. 40 l. 4; III. xi. 4 ll. 4 and 9; III. xi. 22 l. 8.
I. v. 10 l. 6. Doest] Doost 1609 passim. See Introduction, p. v.
I. v. 17 l. 5. can] gan 1590. 'Can' (in the sense of 'did') and 'gan' are easily confused, and difficult to pronounce between.
I. v. 23 l. 8. Nightes children] Nights drad children 1609. On the significance of this variant see Introduction, p. xviii. Other instances in which 1609 fails to recognize syllabic -es are I. x. 34 l. 8; III. vi. 6 l. 5; III. x. 46 l. 6.
I. v. 26 l. 6. am] ame 1590. This is the one eye-rhyme of 1590 that is generally avoided in 1596. Otherwise, so far as I have compared them in this respect, there is little or no difference; both are excessively addicted to eye-rhyme. The current heresy on this subject is expressed by Puttenham (1589):—'It is somewhat more tollerable to help the rime by false orthographie then to leaue an vnpleasant dissonance to the eare by keeping trewe orthographie and loosing the rime.' (The Arte of English Poesie, Bk. II. ch. ix.)
I. v. 38 l. 6. cliffs] clifts 1590 &c.: corr. F. E. There is the same correction in I. ix. 34 l. 6. Together they suggest that Spenser meant at first to change 'clift' to 'cliff' throughout; but found that it would impair the rhyme, e.g. in I. viii. 22 l. 5.
I. v. 45 l. 4. On the 1609 'woundez' see Introduction, p. xviii.
I. vi. 23 l. 8. noursled] nousled 1590. This change is systematically made in 1596, which uses 'nousle' in a different sense=nuzzle; cf. IV. xi. 32 l. 8. There is the same difference between the first quarto of S. C. and later quartos.
I. vi. 26 l. 5. fierce and fell] swifte and cruell 1590: corr. F. E. In Malone 615 these words are on a slip of paper, probably cut (says Mr. Bliss) from 1596 and pasted over the original copy.
I. vi. 37 l. 9. hath] had Grosart: not so in any of our copies.
I. vi. 47 l. 8. to] two 1596, 1609. Morris assigns 'two' to 1611; but it is in all our copies of 1596 and 1609.
I. vii. 37 l. 7. trample] amble 1590. One of those changes of words which reveal Spenser's hand clearly in 1596. A steed so spirited would not amble.
I. viii. 11 ll. 5–9. Closely imitated in 2 Tamburlaine iv. 3. Cf. Introduction, p. xi.
I. viii. 21 l. 5. their] his Grosart, adopting a suggestion by Church. But 'their' may mean 'Orgoglio's and Duessa's'.
I. viii. 33 l. 5. sits] fits 1596, 1609. But 'sits' = sied, as in I. i. 30 l. 9.
I. viii. 44 l. 4. delight] dislike conj. J. Jortin. As 'delight' is repeated by parablepsy from l. 3, the form of the word is not much of a guide in emendation. Others suggest 'despight'.
I. ix. 42 l. 7. Morris reports 'hold' as in 1590: not so in any of our copies.
I. ix. 53 l. 1. feeble] seely 1596: silly 1609. I do not think that Spenser would have tolerated a combination like 'seely, fleshly'; and comparison with I. vii. 6 l. 5 and I. vii. 11 l. 8, where 'fraile' and 'feeble' occur together in lines which this line was meant to recall, convinces me that 'seely' (=feelie) is a misprint for 'feeble'.
I. x. 7 l. 8. simple true] simple, trew Morris. But see note on I. i. 9 l. 6.
I. x. 20 l. 5. See Introduction, p. xviii.
I. x. 27 l. 6. The correction in 1596 (v. footnote) was apparently made to avoid the ambiguity of 'salt water sore'.
I. x. 52 l. 1. since] sith 1609. See Introduction, p. vi.
I. x. 62 l. 9. As for loose loues are vaine] As for loose loues they are vaine 1590. The reading of 1596 eases the metre, and V. iii. 22 ll. 5 and 6 shows an exactly parallel construction. But the main reason for preferring 1596 is the proximity of 62 l. 4 and 62 l. 8, which are certainly author's corrections. See Introduction, p. xvii.
I. xi. 3. See Introduction, p. xvi.
I. xi. 26 l. 6. swinged] singed 1609. The quartos are right. The form 'swinge' is wide-spread in modern dialect. Webster quotes the noun 'swinge' (=a singe) from Beaumont and Fletcher.
I. xi. 37 l. 2. yelded] yelled 1609. Though I have hesitated to change the reading of the quartos, it is probably a misprint. Spenser elsewhere has 'yell'. The nearest parallel to 'yeld' is 'befeld'=befallen, IV. iii. 50 l. 3. The true reading may, after all, be 'yelped'.
I. xi. 51 ll. 7 and 8. The original punctuation makes l. 8 refer to the lark.
I. xii. 7 l. 3. sung] song 1590. Here 1596 forgoes the eye-rhyme to avoid ambiguity.
I. xii. 17 l. 1. that] the 1596, 1609. The change may be Spenser's, but cf. 21 l. 7 where 'the' of 1596 is probably wrong and occurs in the same line with a word in which 1596 is certainly wrong.
I. xii. 17 l. 4. note] no'te 1609, 1611. Morris reports 'no'te 1596': not so in Bodl. or B. M. copies.
I. xii. 28 l. 7. her] his 1596, 1609. The change may be Spenser's. Having personified truth as Una, he may have felt an objection to personifying it here. But the misprint is not uncommon: cf. 40 l. 9.
I. xii. 34 l. 3. improuided] vnprouided Todd &c.: not so in any of the copies examined.
I. xii. 38 l. 3. frankincense] frankencense 1596, 1609. The spelling 'encens' was not yet quite extinct, and I now incline to think that the more archaic form was deliberately introduced in 1596. Cf. note on 'vpsidowne' at II. vii. 4 l. 8.
II. i. 1 l. 7. caytiues hands] caytiue 1609. 'Caytiue bands' has been conjectured, but perhaps needlessly.
II. i. 18 l. 6. did he] he did 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9. This transposition seems designed to get another alliteration in 'd'.
II. i. 34 l. 6. Grosart reports 'steady 1590': not so in our copies.
II. i. 58 l. 4. fry] fryze sugg. Church. As a contrast is wanted to 'melt' in l. 3, there is much to be said for Church's 'fryze' (i.e. freeze). (The spelling actually suggested by Church is 'frieze', as in II. i. 42 l. 3, or 'frize', as in VI. x. 33 l. 9; but neither of these would so readily be corrupted.)
II. ii. 7 l. 7. chace] pray sugg. Collier. This is the first of those substitutions discussed in Introduction, p. viii.
II. ii. 21 l. 1. cald] calth 1596, 1609. Changes of tense like this are not uncommon in 1596, but here 'calth' seems an error due to the following 'forth'.
II. i. 34 l. 9. thought their] though ther 1590. 1590 seems to be simply a wrong division of 'thought her', which we should perhaps read.
II. ii. 42 l. 6. make] hold conj. edd. See Introduction, p. viii.
II. ii. 44 l. 4. introld] entrold 1590: enrold conj. edd. 'Enrold' is more obvious than convincing: it is typographically improbable, and it makes poor sense. The problem is complicated by the ambiguous rhyme with 'world' and 'told', for which, however, cf. I. xi. 27 ll. 1, 3 'world' ='extold'. I am not convinced that Spenser did not coin 'introld', though I do not know what he meant by it.
II. iii. 4 l. 5. A pleasing vaine of glory vaine did find] A pleasing vaine of glory he did find 1590. It is natural to regard the second 'vaine' as a mere printer's repetition of the first. But the collocation of 'glory' and 'vaine' appears in two other descriptions of Braggadocchio, viz. III. viii. 11 ll. 8 and 9; IV. iv. 14 l. 5. And the play on words is quite Spenserian; cf. I. iv. 6 l. 6 array.. arras; II. i. 37 l. 9 leaue … leaue; II. ii. 12 l. 3 fairely fare.
II. iii. 10 l. 1. On the spelling of Braggadocchio see Introduction, p. vi. In the second volume of 1596 we find cc in IV. ii. 4; IV. iv. 14; IV. iv. 20; c in IV. iv. 8; IV. iv. 10; IV. v. 23; IV. v. 26; and always in V. iii.
II. iii. 20 l. 5. their haire on end does reare] does vnto them affeare 1590: vnto corr. to greatly F. E. It seems as if Spenser originally wrote 'appeare', forgot this when he made F. E., and in turn forgot F. E. when he corrected the copy for 1596; or knowingly changed his mind twice.
II. iii. 28 l. 7. play] sport conj. ed. See Introduction, p. viii. I do not wish to read 'sport' in the text, as the form of the footnote might imply. This substitution does not seem to have been noticed by previous editors.
II. iii. 38 l. 4. haue I] I haue 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
II. iii. 45 l. 4. one] on 1590, 1596. For the converse misprint cf. II. i. 31 l. 4.
II. iii. 46 l. 9. erne] yerne 1609. These two words are regularly interchanged in 1609, in accordance with modern usage. Cf. VI. vii. 15 l. 9.
II. iv. 35. This is the stanza quoted by Fraunce in 1588. See Introduction, p. xi.
II. iv. 41 l. 8. A hexameter in the eighth line. It might be corrected by omitting 'is sonne'; but for this there is no authority. See Introduction, p. vii.
II. v. 5 l. 9. do not much me faile] doe me not much fayl 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
II. v. 12 ll. 8 and 9. A very difficult passage. The meaning wanted seems to be, 'Do not think that it is thy force but the unjust doom of fortune that has thus laid me low.' This meaning comes more easily if we read 'but' for 'by': a conjecture in which I find that I was anticipated by a friend of Jortin's. But no good meaning can be got out of 'maugre her spight' without taking 'maugre' in the sense of 'curse on', or the like, which it never bears outside F. Q., if there. The nearest parallels are III. iv. 39 l. 8; III. v. 7 l. 5; VI. iv. 40 l. 3. See Introduction, p. ix.
II. v. 19 l. 7. do] garre 1590. A very interesting change. Had it been objected to 'garre' that it was peculiar to Northern dialect? pg 507I believe that several changes in 1596 were made to meet such criticisms. Spenser uses 'garre' in S. C., but not elsewhere in F. Q.
II. v. 29 l. 5. pricking] prickling 1590. The quartos differ repeatedly over this particular letter—cf. II. i. 31 l. 2; II. vi. 18 l. 7; II. xi. 13 l. 5; II. xii. 30 l. 6 (where 1590 is certainly right). Here usage favours 1596, but sound 1590.
II. v. 31 l. 5. See note on II. iii. 20 l. 5.
II. vi. 3 l. 4. that nigh her breth was gone,] as merry as Pope Ione, 1590. The earlier reading was apparently thought too colloquial.
II. vi. 3 l. 6. might to her] to her might 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9. The authenticity of the transposition here is made probable by the proximity of l. 4.
II. vi. 5 l. 6. cut away. We should perhaps read 'cut a way'; cf. II. viii. 5 l. 9.
II. vi. 12 l. 9. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
II. vi. 14 l. 9. loud] loue 1590. The reading of 1596 is supported by the proximity of II. vi. 12 l. 9.
II. vi. 18 l. 7. griesly] griesy 1590. On the variants see note on II. v. 29 l. 5. 'Griesy' is here explained as 'sluggish'. But we find 'griesie', I. ix. 35 l. 4 (but 'griesly' 1611); 'grysie', II. xi. 12 l. 3 and III. xii. 19 l. 2; 'gryesy', III. i. 67 l. 7. These are all one word, and the meaning is always 'squalid', 'hideous'.
II. vi. 29 l. 2. importune] importance 1596: important 1609. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
II. vi. 42 l. 4. steept] stept 1590 should have been recorded in footnote.
II. vii. 4 l. 8. vpsidowne] vpside downe 1590. The original form, as I learn from Sir James Murray, was 'upsodown' or 'upsadown'; 'upsidown' became current in the second quarter of the sixteenth century; 'upside-down' appears first in Coverdale. By the last decade of the century 'upsodown' was obsolete, 'upsidown' archaic, 'upside-down' or 'upset-down' current. There is little doubt that here, as at I. xii. 38 l. 3, Spenser deliberately returned in 1596 to the more archaic form.
II. vii. 40 l. 5. that] the 1590 &c.: corr. F. E. F. E. might refer to 43 l. 2. See note on I. iii. 38 l. 7. The earlier stanza is quoted with 'the' in England's Parnassus (1600). But the quotation is full of mistakes and has no authority.
II. vii. 52 l. 6. With which] Which with 1590, 1596: Which-with 1609. At IV. vii. 25 l. 1 'Which' is 'With' in 1596.
II. viii. 3 l. 8. Come hither, come hither] Come hither, hither 1609. But the trisyllabic foot is probably genuine, and expresses agitation. See note on I. i. 15 l.
II. viii. 25 l. 1. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
II. viii. 29 l. 7. vpreare] vpheaue MS. corr. in Malone 615. See Introduction, p. viii. Kitchin speaks of these MS. corrections as 'co-temporary'; pg 508and a note in the Bodleian catalogue ascribes them to Lord Burleigh. But most of them are in a hand much later than 1600.
II. viii. 40 l. 4. so wisely as it ought] so well, as he it ought 1590. 1596 means, 'As wisely as it ought to be used.' For the construction cf. II. viii. 32 l. 4; VII. vii. 9 l. 8. But 1590 gives an excellent meaning, 'As well as he who owned it'; and it is hard to see why Spenser changed it. This is one of the few corrections that I suspect of being editorial. Cf. II. x. 49 l. 8. A converse confusion of the two meanings of 'ought' is shown by the variants on VI. viii. 50 l. 4.
II. viii. 44 l. 8. no more] not thore 1590. 'Thore', if not a misprint (and it does not look like one), was probably meant for 'there', as 'tho' = then, rather than for 'through' ('thorough'). In either case Spenser felt it licentious.
II. viii. 48 l. 8. Prince Arthur 1609: Sir Guyon 1590, 1596. See Introduction, p. xviii.
II. ix. 9 l. 1. weete] wote 1590 &c. Not an imperfect rhyme, but a misprint; for the form is wrong.
II. ix. 35 l. 3. idly] idle 1609 should have been recorded in the footnote.
II. ix. 38 l. 2. mood] word 1590 &c. Collier credits Drayton with the emendation (see on 49 l. 4 below); but Morris seems to have first adopted it. There is a similar misprint of 'word' for 'wood' in 1590 at III. xii. 7 l. 8.
II. ix. 38 l. 9. twelue moneths] three years 1590. See note on II. ix. 7 above.
II. ix. 49 l. 4. reason] season Drayton (teste Collier). Collier professed to have a copy of the 1611 folio that had belonged to Drayton and had corrections in his hand. On questions of this nature no weight can be attached to Collier's unverified statements, and I am not aware that this statement has been verified. The corrections with which he credits Drayton are often ingenious, but not more ingenious than those which he puts forward as his own.
II. ix. 52 l. 9. the house] th'house 1609. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
II. x. 6 l. 6. safeties sake] safety 1590. 7 l. 7. liued then] liueden 1590. Either of these corrections might be editorial; but by their proximity they support each other.
II. x. 15 l. 9. munifience] munificence 1590, 1609. Spenser certainly means 'fortification', and has either coined a noun from munify + ence, or applied 'munificence' in this unexampled sense. The reading 'munifience' is found only in 1596.
II. x. 24 l. 9. F. E. shows that Seuith was printed in some copies of 1590. Church, Upton, and Todd all had copies in which the missing words were supplied.
II. x. 34 l. 1. Riuallo] Riuall' 1590. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
II. x. 43 l. 1. Sisillus] Sifillus 1590 &c. We should perhaps read Sisilius with Geoffrey of Monmouth (Historia Britonum, Lib. III, § 13: in § 14 he spells it Sisillius).
II. x. 67 l. 2. Ambrose] Ambrise 1596, 1609. Geoffrey of Monmouth (Historia Britonum, Lib. VI) supports 1590.
II. x. 49 l. 8. defrayd] did defray 1596, 1609. Here at least the printer of 1596 is seen to have assumed the editor. He betrays himself by losing the rhyme-scheme, rhyming line 8 with lines 2, 4, 5, 7 instead of 6, 9. Setnote on II. viii. 40 l. 4.
II. x. 51 l. 7. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
II. x. 67 l. 2. Ambrose] Ambrise 1596, 1609. Geoffrey of Monmouth (Historia Britonum, Lib. VI) supports 1590.
II. xi. 10 l. 2. dessignment] assignment 1590. It is the proximity of the indubitable author's correction in 9 l. 9 that decides in favour of 1596.
II. xi. 11 l. 4. dismayd] mismayd conj. Jortin. Jortin's 'mismayd' (i. e. mismade, miscreated) gives a good meaning, and the misprint is paralleled at III. ix. 7 1. 3 disdonne 1590, misdonne 1596. Others think that 'dismayd' may bear the same meaning. II. xi. 13 l. 5. assayled] assayed 1590. See note on II. v. 29 l. 5. II. xi. 21 l. 8. their] there 1609. I should now prefer to read 'there' in all such cases.
II. xii. 1 l. 4. Formerly] 'Formally' is a conjecture of my own, and should have been indicated as such in the footnote. It was suggested by II. xii. 81 l. 5, where 'formally' = secundum artem. 'Firmëly' has been proposed; but that is impossible. The text may be sound.
II. xii. 1 l. 6. Others take F. E. to refer to l. 1. See note on I. iii. 38 l. 7.
II. xii. 23 l. 9. Upton, Todd, &c., keep Monoceros, scanning 'immeasùrëd', which is without example. The reading adopted by Child was originally suggested by Jortin.
II. xii. 27 l. 4. sea the resounding] sea resounding 1609. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
II. xii. 30 l. 6. pleasaunt] peasaunt 1596. See note on II. v. 29 l. 5.
II. xii. 43 l. 5. Nought feard their force] they conj. ed. This correction gives the desired meaning, 'They had no fear of force.' Those who defend the text take 'feard' to mean 'frightened', and 'their' to refer to the beasts. (I find that my conjecture has been anticipated by Church and others.)
II. xii. 52 l. 9. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
III. i. 47 l. 7. which] that 1590. The correction is due to 'that' in l. 8.
III. i. 56 l. 8. Basciomani] Bascimano 1590. In Spenser's day the correct form was basciamano or basciamani, the latter not being plural of the former, but an independent formation of verb stem + plural noun, like Fr. porte-montres. Ordinarily it would be fair to credit Spenser with a knowledge of the right Italian form. Yet in this place the Bascimano of 1590 has clearly been corrected: a fresh corruption in an author's correction is not highly probable; and I am accordingly disposed to think that Spenser really coined Basciomani as a substantival use of the phrase bascio le mani. Cf. the familiar Spanish bezo los manos.
III. ii. 4 l. 1. Guyon] Redcrosse MS. corr. in Malone 615. See Introduction, p. vii.
III. ii. 8 l. 5. Which I to proue] Which to proue, I 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. ii. 30 l. 5. in her warme bed her dight] her in her warme bed dighte 1590. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. ii. 49 l. 7. a earthen] an earthen 1609. Spenser may have intended to pronounce 'yearthen'. N. E. D. describes the y-form of 'earth' as going down to the sixteenth century, though no y-forms are quoted under 'earthen'. In Northern dialect, with which Spenser was familiar, 'a' takes the place of 'an' even before a vowel. If the quartos are right, this is another archaism unfamiliar to 1609.
III. iii. 6 l. 1. auisd] aduis'd 1609. See note on IV. ii. 22.
III. iii. 15 l. 3. 1609 makes 'businesse' three syllables, and then seeks to avoid the trisyllabic foot. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. iii. 44 l. 5. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
III. iii. 50 l. 9. See Introduction, p. xviii.
III. iii. 53 l. 3. Evidently an author's correction; but the reason for the change is obscure.
III. iv. 39 l. 9. sith we no more shall meet] till we againe may meet 1590. Spenser has remembered, or been reminded, that Cymoent is a heathen goddess.
III. iv. 40 l. 6. 1611 modernizes to 'ielly'd blood'.
III. iv. 59 l. 5. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. v. Arg. 4. sownd] swound 1609. 'Sownd' is one of the rarer spellings of the multiform 'swound', 'swoune', &c. At VI. i. 34 l. 2 we find 'sound' ( = swound) in both 1596 and 1609.
III. v. 5 l. 5. A] And 1596, 1609. 'And', though defensible, is probably due to 'And' in l. 6.
III. v. 37 l. 6. follow] followd 1590 should have been recorded in footnote.
III. v. 40 l. 4. their loues sweet teene] their sweet loues teene 1590. Spenser transposed, either for rhythm, or to bring out the oxymoron 'sweet teene'. Cf. note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. v. 50 l. 8. To him, and to all] To him and all 1609. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. v. 51 l. 9. to] it 1611.
III. v. 52 l. 6. The punctuation of the quartos connects 'admire' with 'In gentle Ladies brest'; but this leaves 'and bounteous race' without construction.
III. vi. 12 l. 2. The rhyme is imperfect, but I find no authority for reading 'aspect'.
III. vi. 26 l. 4. both farre and nere om. 1590. 1596 here completes a line left imperfect in 1590, which makes it possible than Spenser may have intended to complete other broken lines, such as II. iii. 26 l. 9; II. viii. 55 l. 9.
III. vi. 39 l. 1. 1611 reads 'and all', to avoid the trisyllabic foot. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. vi. 40 l. 6. See Introduction, p. viii.
III. vi. 45 l. 4. See Introduction, p. xviii.
III. vii. 5 l. 1. the tops] th'tops 1609. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. vii. 9 l. 3. two] to conj. Hughes. Morris reports 'to' from 1596: not so in copies examined. See also I. vi. 47 l. 8 and note there.
III. vii. 13 l. 6. had] hath 1590. The notes of Todd and Morris imply that some copies of 1596 also read 'hath'. If so, it should be adopted as the better reading.
III. vii. 32 l. 7. muchell] much ill 1611, puzzled by the archaism.
III. vii. 34 l. 2. See Introduction, p. vii.
III. vii. 45 l. 1. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
III. vii. 48 l. 4. Spenser has remembered, or been reminded, that Ollyphant reappears in III. xi.
III. viii. 30 l. 3. frory] frowy 1590, 1596. The reading of 1609 is established by comparison with III. viii. 35 l. 2. 'Frowie' occurs in S. C. (July 111); but it means 'musty'.
III. viii. 46 l. 9. vnworthy] vnworthy' 1590. 49 l. 2 T'haue] To haue 1590. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. ix. 13 l. 9. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
III. ix. 20 l. 9. persant] persent 1609: present 1611.
III. ix. 48 l. 6. to sea] to the sea 1596—perhaps rightly: cf. note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. x. 41 l. 7. Morris reports 'wild forest 1609': not so in any of the copies examined.
III.xi. 12 l. 1. singultes] singulfes 1590, 1596. This word occurs again in F. Q. V. vi. 13, Colin Clout 168, Tears of the Muses 232; and in all four places is spelt with 'f' in the original editions. We must suppose, either that the printers made the same mistake four times, or that Spenser misspelt a word with whose Latin form he must have been quite familiar. Neither alternative is acceptable; but I find the second incredible.
III. xi. 19 l. 9. death] life conj. Jortin. Jortin's emendation gives the sense required; yet Spenser was capable of writing 'death'. Cf. Introduction, p. ix.
III. xi. 22 l. 8. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. xi. 23 l. 2. Inglorious, beastlike 1611, to avoid the trisyllabic foot. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
III. xi. 26 l. 7. See note on I. ii. 29 l. 2.
III. xi. 39 l. 8. Stag conj. Jortin: Hag 1590 &c. In support of Jortin's emendation Upton quotes Natalis Comes, Mythologia, iv. 10 'Fertur hic deus [i.e. Apollo] in varias formas ob amores fuisse mutatus, in leonem, in cervum, in accipitrem'. As the chapter deals with Apollo, and mentions Hyacinth, Coronis, &c, it is clear that Spenser had been reading it, and Jortin's emendation is irresistible. (Spenser would have written 'an Hag', not 'a Hag'.)
III. xi. 47 l. 9. heauen bright] heauens hight conj. Church. But identical rhymes are not infrequent in this particular place in a stanza. Yet the possibility of parablepsy lowers the authority of the quartos in such cases. The printers would be peculiarly liable to this error in this place if, in Spenser's manuscript, the Alexandrine overflowed into the eighth line of the stanza. (Church spells 'heuens', following 1590).
III. xii. 12 l. 6. wingyheeld] winged heeld 1590. The change seems to have been made for euphony. See note on I. v. 7 l. 9.
III. xii. 18 l. 8. hony-lady. 'Hony-laden' is a tempting suggestion of Upton's, and Morris adopts it.
III. xii. 26 l. 7. with that Damozell] by the Damozell 1590. According to 1596 the Damozell is Amoret, according to 1590 Britomart.
III. xii. 27 l. 3. and bore all away] nothing did remaine 1590. A striking change, designed to remove the imperfect rhyme.
l. 8. It] In 1611.
III. xii. 29 l. i. wandering] wondering 1611.
III. xii. 34 l. 4. her] him 1590, 1596. Comparison with the variants in stanza 42 suggests some oblivion in Spenser's mind of the sex of his Championess.
III. xii. 43 to 45. On these stanzas see Introduction, p. xvi.
IV. ii. 22 l. 7. aduizing] auising 1609. For 'aduize'=observe cf. II. ix. 38 l. 3. Similarly we find 'adward' 1596, but 'award' 1609; conversely 'dis-auentrous' 1596, 'disaduentrous' 1609. Todd quotes from Sir T. More, 'Whoso well aduise her visage, &c.'
IV. iii. 43 l. 5. quite age] quiet-age Morris. Morris's reading (originally suggested to Jortin by a friend) is very plausible, though the word does not occur elsewhere in F. Q.
IV. iv. 1 l. 4. minds] liues 16(11)-12-13. Morris reports 'liues 1609': not so in genuine copies examined. See Bibliographical Note.
IV. iv. 2 l. 3. als] els 1596. I now think that 1596 is right. The proposition illustrated is twofold:—(1) 'For enmitie, that of no ill proceeds, But of occasion, with th'occasion ends'; (2) 'And friendship, which a faint affection breeds Without regard of good, dyes like ill grounded seeds'. Reading 'As als' we have two illustrations of this twofold proposition. Reading 'As els' we have an independent illustration of each of its parts. For 'As els' cf. the second letter to Harvey:—'For, why a Gods name, may not we, as else the Greeks, &c.'
IV. iv. 8 l. 2. Ferrau] Ferrat 1596. Called Ferraugh in IV. ii. 4; Ferraù in Ariosto, O. F. i. 14. Spenser mentions Ferragh as an Irish name in the 'Vue'.
IV. iv. 17 l. 4. maiden-headed] satyr-headed conj. Church, referring to III. vii. 30 l. 6. In the Bodleian copy of Church's edition is a note by Mr. G. L. Way, the former owner: 'Perhaps Maidenheaded Shield may mean "the shield of him who was one of the Knights of Maidenhead"—see st. 22.'
IV. iv. 24 l. 1. beamlike] Upton reports that one of his quartos had "brauelike', the other 'beamlike'.
IV. v. 4 l. 4. Lemno] Lemnos 16(11)-12-13.
IV. v. 5 l. 5; 6 l. 1. According to Upton and Todd some copies of 1596 here err with 1609.
IV. v. 35 l. 4. vnpared] prepared 16(11)-12-13.
IV. v. 40 l. 7. wheresoeuer] whersoere 16(11)-12-13.
IV. vi. 24 l. 8. his om. 1609. But see note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
IV. vi. 33 l. 6. ranging] raging 16(11)-12-13.
IV. vi. 46 l. 5. who] whom 16(11)-12-13. Morris reports 'whom 1609': not so in genuine copies examined.
IV. vii. 32 l. 7. oft] eft conj. Hughes, to improve the rhyme.
IV. viii. 1 l. 9. infixed] infected 16(11)-12-13.
IV. viii. 64 l. 1. this] his 16(11)-12-13. Morris reports 'his 1609': not so in genuine copies examined.
IV. ix. 11 l. 9. The conjecture 'them', approved by Church, was originally made by Hughes.
IV. ix. 17 l 7. bequest] request 16(11)-12-13.
IV. x. 8 l. 8. Upton reports that one of his quartos had 'his', the other 'this'.
IV. x. 23 ll. 2, 8. The words 'ghesse' and 'bee' are transposed in all copies examined except 4° Art. Seld. S. 22 in the Bodleian and C. 12. h. 17, 18 in the British Museum. The correction was evidently made as the sheets went through the press. See Introduction, p. xix. 16(11)-12-13 reads 'I ghesse'.
IV. x. 27 l. 1. Hyllus 1596: Hylus 1609. Spenser evidently means Hylas. There was a Hyllus, son of Hercules and Deianeira; but it is unlikely that Spenser confused the two, for he has Hylas rightly in a similar context, III. xii. 7.
IV. x. 35 ll. 5, 6. Else would the waters ouerflow the lands, And fire deuoure the ayre, and hell them quight. In this difficult passage two lines of interpretation are offered:—(1) taking 'hell' as sb. and 'quight' as vb., 'And hell requite them,' i.e. punish the elements by reducing all to chaos: (2) taking 'hell' as vb. and 'quight' as advb., 'And cover them (i.e. the lands) quite.' The second explanation involves a difficult parenthesis of 'And fire deuoure the ayre': 'hell' does not occur elsewhere in F. Q. as a verb, even in the form 'hele', though 'vnhele'=uncover is found in II. xii. 64 l. 8; hence it has been proposed to read 'mell'=confuse. But the first line of interpretation seems the more satisfactory.
IV. xi. 4 l. 6. seuen] three Malone 616 and G. 11537 in B. M. All other copies of 1596 'seuen'. This is another instance of correction at press. See above on IV. x. 23. 1609 reads 'three'. I cannot say which reading represents the poet's second thought.
IV. xi. 17 l. 6. times] age Todd. But see Introduction, p. viii.
IV. xi. 34 l. 5. Grant] Guant 1596, 1609: corr. Child. 'Grant' is for Granta, i.e. the Cam, as Upton noted.
IV. xi. 52 l. 7. but] both conj. edd. The text is sound. Floods and fountains, though originally all derived from ocean, are yet akin to sky and sun.
IV. xii. 23 l. 9. That no old sore it was 16(11)-12-13.
V. Proem 2 l. 2. at earst] as earst 16(11)-12-13. But cf. S. C. Dec. 105, where there is the same contrast between 'first' and 'at earst'. Also F. Q. VI. iii. 8 l. 7; 39 l. 1.
V. Proem 2 l. 9. degendered] degenerd 16(11)-12-13.
V. Proem 7 l. 8. thirtie] thirteen conj. Child. Child's 'thirteen' is said to be astronomically correct, or nearly so, for Spenser's date. V. Proem 9 l. 4. ne] no 16(11)-12-13. V. Proem 11 l. 2. stead] place 1596. On this substitution see Introduction, pg 515p. viii. This is the only correction of this nature in 1609, and I have accepted it for reasons given in Introduction, p. xix.
V. ii. Arg. 3. Munera] Momera 1596, 1609: corr. Hughes. As a rule I do not accept such corrections in proper names. But this is a printer's not an author's error.
V. ii. 11 l. 4. Who] Tho conj. Church: When Morris. But such changes of construction are not uncommon when a clause intervenes as here.
V. ii. 46 l. 9. way] lay 1609. But identical rhymes, especially of homonyms, are not uncommon in this part of the stanza. See, however, note on III. xi. 47 l. 9.
V. iii. 19 l. 1. the azure] th'azure 1609. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
V. iv. 1 l. 3. Had neede haue] Had neede of 16(11)-12-13.
V. iv. 22 l. 2. pinnoed] pinniond 16(11)-12-13.
V. iv. 36 l. 8. Ere long their Queene her selfe, halfe like a man] selfe halfe, 1596: self, arm'd 1609. 1609 may be right; 'halfe' in 1596 may have been repeated by parablepsy from 'selfe': the punctuation of 1596 points to that.
V. iv. 37 l. 1. neare] newe conj. Church.
3 so few] to feare conj. Collier. Imperfect rhymes are not rare in F. Q., but scarcely in this form; here there is no assonance. Nor does this seem to be one of the 'substitutions' discussed in Introduction, p. viii. Of conjectures, Church's is the best.
V. iv. 37 l. 6. there] their 16(11)-12-13.
V. iv. 39 l. 3. So cruell doale amongst her maides diuide].. doile … dauide 1596. There are two words 'dole' in Spenser, (a) portion, (b) mourning. This is (a): for the phrase cf. Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV, 1. i. 169, 'That in the dole of blows your son might drop.' Spenser does not elsewhere use 'dole' in sense (a); in sense (b) it is common in F. Q., and is spelt 'dole' or 'doole'. The spelling 'doile' (Fr. deuil) belonged rather to sense (¿), but no sixteenth century instance is quoted in N. E. D. It is not impossible that Spenser wrote 'doile' in sense (a), intending a play upon the two meanings. But more probably 'a' and 'i' have simply been interchanged, as 1609 takes it. (1596 generally has 'deuide'; but 'diuide' also occurs.)
V. iv. 48 l. 7. yesterday] yeester day 1596. Morris keeps 'yeester'; but Spenser has 'yester' elsewhere, and a misprint is probable. The latter part of this canto, as these notes show, is unusually full of such difficulties.
V. v. 18 l. 4. to'a] The apostrophation shows synezesis, thcugh the vowel is not omitted.
V. v. 38 l. 8. And, though (vnlike)] And, though vnlike 1596. The meaning is, 'And even if (as is unlikely) they should last, &c.'
V. vi. 5 ll. 6, 7. For houres but dayes; for weekes, that passed were,
She told but moneths 1596, 1609.
Church would transpose 'houres' and 'dayes', 'weekes' and 'moneths'. Spenser may have meant that she reckoned in months instead of weeks to make the time look shorter; e.g. said three months instead of twelve weeks. pg 516dwelling on the numeral and wilfully ignoring the noun. But this is one of those subtleties in which we feel the difference between Spenser and Shakespeare. See Introduction, p. ix.
V. vi. 16 l. 7. That this is things compacte] thing conj. Church. Others defend 'things' as genitive. Church's conjecture is preferable to that. But there is no real objection to taking 'things' as nom. pl.
V. vi. 19 l. 3. the euen-tide] th'euen-tide 1596. See note on V. iii. 11.
V. vi. 25 l. 9. nights] Knight's conj. Church. This conjecture, like others of Church's, is rather plausible to common sense than convincingly Spenserian.
V. vi. 26 l. 5. Ne lesse] Sense requires 'Ne more'; but see note on II. v. 12.
V. vi. 29 l. 2. armed] arm'd 1596. See note on V. iii. 11.
V. vi. 33 l. 7. auenge] reuenge 16(11)-12-13. Morris and Grosart report 'reuenge 1609': not so in genuine copies examined.
V. vii. 6 l. 9. her] From stanza 15 it appears that 'her' should have been 'his'. But the mistake may be Spenser's.
V. vii. 13 l. 5. to robe] to be 16(11)-12-13.
V. vii. 23 l. 6. See note on III. v. 53 l. 3.
V. viii. 40 l. 6. knowen] knowne 1596. 1596 might be upheld by comparison with VI. iv. 36, where 'vnknowne'='showen'='blowen'='sowen'. But these are at the end of lines, where the number of syllables is indifferent.
V. ix. 21 l. 1. knights] knight 16(11)-12-13.
V. ix. 44 l. 1. appose] oppose 1609. Mr. Chapman has pointed out to me a parallel use of 'appose' in Drayton (p. 44, l. 4 of the Oxford edition):— Against these folkes that think them selues so wise, I thus appose my force of reason wholly.
V. x. 3 l. 6. Armericke] Americke conj. Todd. Todd's conjecture is highly probable. Otherwise we must take Armericke to mean Armoric, i. e. of Brittany.
V. x. 6 l. 4. See note on I. i. 15 l. 6.
V. x. 18 l. 8. fastnesse] safenesse 16(11)-12-13.
V. x. 23 l. 4. threating] threatening 16(11)-12-13.
V. x. 24 l. 5. farewell open field] well fare conj. edd. needlessly: 'farewell' here=welcome.
V. xi. 5 l. 9. have riue] not riue 16(11)-12-13.
V. xi. 40 l. 6 is a very effective tetrameter as it stands. The reading of 16(11)-12-13 is not, I think, authentic.
V. xi. 41 l. 6. Upton's correction had already been made in Hughes's second edition.
V. xi. 54 l. 9. corruptfull] corrupted 16(11)-12-13. Morris and Grosart report 'corrupted 1609': not so in genuine copies examined.
V. xi. 61 l. 7. meed] hyre conj. Church. But see Introduction, p. viii. The reading 'meed' in this stanza makes the rhyme-scheme ababbcacc.
V. xii. 14 l. 8. steale] Steele 1609. But 'steale' here = handle.
VI. i. 37 l. 5. pot-shares] pot-shards 16(11)-12-13.
VI. i. 34 l. 2. For 'sound' = swound cf. III. v. Arg.
VI. ii. 3 ll. 3, 4. 'Eyes' and 'eares' ought of course to have been transposed. But there is no evidence that the error is not Spenser's. And this must raise a doubt as to whether the printer is responsible for 'euery act and deed, that he did say' in l. 2.
VI. ii. 39 l. 2. implements] ornaments 1609. This change looks less like a printer's error than an editorial improvement.
V. iii. 12 l. 7. saue] salue 16(11)-12-13.
VI. iii. 21 l. 8. default] assault conj. Collier. See note on V. ii. 46 l. 9. But Collier is very likely right here. The chance of parablepsy, always present in such cases, is here unusually strong with 'affault'> <'default'.
VI. iii, 23 l. 2. Serena] Crispina 1596 Bodl. All the B. M. copies 'Serena'. A striking instance of correction made during the printing of the sheets. See Introduction, p. xix.
VI. iii. 24 l. 5. in vaine om. 16(11)-12-13. These words, which make the line a hexameter, are not omitted in any of the genuine 1609 copies examined. See Bibliographical Note.
VI. iii. 35 l. 3. Which] That 1596 Bodl. The four B. M. copies have the superior reading 'Which'. The change was evidently made at press to avoid the repetition of 'that'.
VI. iii. 37 l. 9. did for her] for her did 1596 Bodl. Again the four B. M. copies have the superior reading: change made at press for euphony. Mr. Ostler points out that the corrections in stanzas 23, 35, and 37 all occur in the outer forme of signature B b, which explains the agreement of the B. M. copies. Had the corrections been on both sides of the sheet, there would probably (he thinks) have been a further dispersal of various readings.
VI. iii. 42 ll. 4, 7. The rhyme-words have been transposed in 1596.
VI. iv. 4 l. 7. stroke] strokes 1609 should have been recorded in the footnote.
VI. iv. 16 l. 8. hurts] hurt 16(11)-12-13. The latter reading is more grammatical, but is not found in any of the genuine 1609 copies examined.
VI. v. Arg. 1. Matilda] Serena corr. Hughes rightly. The confusion is due to the Matilde of Canto iv; but it is Spenser's own.
VI. v. 39 l. 3. full gladly they did take in glee] gree 1609. The reading pg 518of 1609 is supported by V. vi. 21 l. 7. On the other hand, the alliteration favours 'glee'; and we find 'nor for gold nor glee' in I. ix. 32 l. 7.
VI. vi. Arg. 3. He refers to Arthur; but no emendation is possible.
VI. vi. 4 l. 4. Of] In 16(11)-12-13.
VI. vi. 16 l. 1. the] th' 1596. See note on V. iii. 11.
VI. vii. 3 l. 7. armed] arm'd 1596. See note on V. iii. 11.
VI. vii. 15 l. 9. yearned] earned 1609. See note on II. iii. 46 l. 9.
VI. vii. 49 l. 9. Words] Swords conj. Church. The sense, as often, favours Church's conjecture; but the alliteration favours the text.
VI. viii. 50 l. 4. what they ought] what shee ought 1609, taking 'ought' = owned. For the converse see note on II. viii. 40 l. 4.
VI. ix. 28 l. 6. the heauens] th'heauens 1596, 1609. See note on V. iii. 11.
VI. x. 2 l. 9. in] on 1596. Spenser is apparently thinking of the Latin proverb 'in portu nauigare'; yet it does not mean exactly what he desires to convey here. In Terence, Andria, i. 3. 22 ego in portu nauigo = I am out of danger: Spenser means 'never reaching the land'. Possibly 1596 is right, and we have here a nautical phrase that has been lost.
VI. x. 24 l. 7. froward] forward 1596, 1609: corr. 16(11)-12-13. The leading 'froward', though not found in any of the genuine 1609 copies examined, is clearly right, as is shown by the Gloss on S. C. for April, where the Graces are thus described:—'And Boccace saith, that they be painted naked … the one hauing her backe toward us, and her face fromwarde, as proceeding from us; the other two toward us, &c.'
VI. x. 36 l. 6. And hewing off his head, it presented 1596, 1609: (he) it presented edd. Though Spenser is not above this kind of bad rhyme, I do not find that he ever accents 'presented'.
VI. x. 44. The reading and punctuation of 1609 (which makes a long parenthesis of ll. 3–7) are, of course, much more logical; but not therefore more Spenserian.
VI. xii. 12 l. 8. loos] praise 1609. We may have here an authentic after-thought of Spenser's. He may, on reflection, have disliked the collocation of 'losse' and 'loos'. If so, this line should be added to the instances cited in the Introduction, p. xviii. But it is equally probable that the editor of 1609, failing to recognize the obsolescent 'loos'—which nevertheless occurs in Puttenham—took it for a printer's repetition of 'losse', and corrected accordingly.
VI. xii. 41 l. 3. clearest 1596, 1609: cleanest Hughes. Hughes's conjecture, though not supported by any of the old copies examined, is nevertheless very probably right; for the stanza is carelessly printed in 1596, as the variants recorded in the footnotes show. But Spenser has too many imperfect rhymes to allow us to consider the emendation certain.
VII. vi. 38 l. 2. wealths] wealth Hughes &c. The plural may be defended as=different kinds of wealth; but the misprint is easy.
VII. vii. 9 l. 7. kindes] kinde Morris after Upton; and so Chaucer calls it in the Parlement of Foules 316.
VII. vii. 10 l. 4. mores] more Hughes. Upton defends 'mores', as = roots, plants; and most editions, and the N. E. D., accept this. Nor did 'mores' offend the editor of 16(11)-12-13; so that it is probably right, though I do not find that 'more' elsewhere ever means anything but root, or stock.
VII. vii. 28 l. 3. did om. 16(11)-12-13.
VII. viii. 1 l. 7. to cast] and cast 16(11)-12-13.
VII. viii. 2 l. 9. Church's conjecture (made also by Upton) makes Spenser distinguish between Sabaoth=hosts and Sabbath=rest. The distinction exists in Hebrew; but it seems to spoil the point of the stanza to suppose that Spenser drew it here. No inference can be based on the varying spellings of 'Sabaoth' in 1609, 16(11)-12-13.
Of the Letter to Raleigh, Commendatory Verses, and Dedicatory Sonnets, only the verses by W. R. and Hobynoll are found in 1596 Bodl., or in Mr. Cannan's 1609, where they are printed in their original position at the end of Book III. The rest of this additional matter is here reproduced from 1590 Bodl., with which C. 12. h. 17 of B. M, agrees, It was evidently thrown together in some haste; there are several dislocations and omissions in the other B. M. copy of 1590. The Bodleian folios omit the last two sonnets; the verses by W. R. and Hobynoll they print twice over.