Main Text

pg 632BOOK 4

Argument

The Argument makes no mention of the erotic matter which made the end of this book controversial, and which was pruned or significantly rewritten in the manuscript H gave to Anglesey. For the possibility that the Argument may have been rewritten, cf. Introduction, 7.1.

1 his owne high prayses] cf. Dedication, ll. 130–2.

2 misterious] see 1.129n.

3 Species] the atomic films or simulacra, see note to 4.47mn.

4 of] off.

5 superiour] higher, cf. 1.131.

9 glasse] mirror (4.275–300).

10 vnreverst] i.e. in the case of concave mirrors (4.301–30).

13 their] the sceptics' (4.400–6).

18 That Organs … denies] H refers to L's repudiation of a teleological world-view (4.872–904).

23 actiue fancy] see 4.865n.

24–30 How Loue … fades away] H slants her Argument in the direction of her own recasting of L's matter (4.1200–1321); L does not specifically address women.

24 waking dreame] develops L's analogy at 4.1090. There is no sign here of the condemnation given in her marginal note to 4.1083.

26 retire] extricate themselves (4.1213–63).

Liber quartus

1–25 I tread … explaind] H's earlier translation of this passage (the Latin text of which is only slightly altered) appears in her 1.931–54 (L 1.924–48). Remarking on L's repetition of these lines from book 1, Evelyn complains that 'It is indeede somewhat to be admird at, that a person of so rich a fancy & so rare an inuention as our Poet should be so frequently guilty' of such repetition (commentary, 42r). In their new context, however, the lines' claim that poetry can combine philosophical truth with sensuous pleasure introduces one of the book's overriding themes: the dependence of our knowledge on the senses' perception of material emanations or images. Though H's Argument finds the lines arrogant, P notes admirers of this passage, from St Jerome to a contemporary jurist.

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1 by paths yett vntrac't] translating AVIA … loca as 'by paths' ('side path, as opposed to the highroad; a private, retired, or unfrequented path', OED; cf. 'vntrackt paths' in H 1.932); H compresses L's point that no other foot has trodden there.

5 worne] a mistranslation: rather, the muses crown the poets (H is closer to the original at 1.935).

6 explore] L has doceo (4.6), 'I teach'.

7 tangled] for artis (4.6), rendered more closely as 'fast' at 1.938; cf. OD 6.463.

knotts] H, having already translated this line (1.930, H 1.938), and with the confirmation of the Lexicon, recognizes that P's modis (4.7) is a misprint for nodis.

8 With which … captivitie] aside from 'minds' (animum, L 4.7), this line is H's elaboration.

9–10 sweete … easie] H' s version of lepôre (4.9), 'charm, grace', and lucida (4.8), 'clear'. For the presence of line numbers in the MS, see Introduction, 4.2, 7.1.

12 Physitians] P's extensive gloss on this passage includes its citation by Quintilian and Jerome.

weake] more specifically 'thoughtless', improuida (4.14).

17 grave] Tristior, 'somewhat harsh' (4.19).

21 guild] H's mixed metaphor differs from her 'baite' at 1.943.

22 doctrines.] P 4.22 has a colon; see textual note.

23 In fixt attention] expands P 4.23–4; cf. 'that what hath fixt me may fix others alsoe' (R 6).

23–5 while you see … explaind] P's perspicis, 'look at, observe' (4.24) and præsentis, 'foresee, perceive' (4.25); Smith has percipis and persentis.

23 good] vtilitatem (4.25), which replaces compta figura from 1.948.

26–9 From what originalls … creatures rise] H translates four lines repeated here in P 4.26–9, from 3.31–4, already translated in different words at 3.35–8. The following passage down to P 4.54 has been the subject of much reordering of lines from Marullus to the present; it is now widely assumed that L originally intended book 4 to follow on from book 2, and that the text as we have it reflects an imperfectly realized change once he had inserted book 3. Smith follows the MS order.

31 bodies] perhaps influenced by P's misprint corpora (4.31), given in the Lexicon as corpore.

32 first fountains] L has ordia prima (4.32), 'first elements', literally 'first weavings'.

35 from things] L specifies the outer surface of bodies (summo de corpore, 4.35).

36 spatious ayre] the adjective is borrowed from H 2.605.

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40 darke graues enclose] H's addition.

41 terrifie] compressing horrificè … Excierunt (4.40–1), 'have awakened in fear'.

42 Nor doe] L's Néve (4.43), taking up ne forte at 4.41, makes an argument H misses or fails to make explicit: he will explain the doctrine of images lest we fall into the common error of believing images to be immortal entities rather than contingent bundles of atoms, an error that leads to superstitious fear (cf. Brown, Lucretius on Love and Sex, 13). This argument refers back to the preceding book and takes up language broached at 1.122–6.

the ghosts] 'because it is vniuersaly beleeued' that the dead can wander among the living, Evelyn sees no point in disputing this argument for the mortality of the soul (commentary, 43r).

prisons] not in L, cf. H 3.1059.

47mn perpetuall species] in the passage here glossed (4.46–51), L begins his explanation of visual perception: images or simulacra (his translation of Epicurus' eidola) are discharged from the surface of things and impinge on the eye or the mind. L introduces a variety of terms for aspects of this phenomenon, including simulacra, species, effigiae, figurae, imagines; by their repeated use he leads the reader towards the specific and technical meanings he wishes them to denote (Thury, 270, 286). Such images, wrongly interpreted, can be a source of superstitious error and need demystifying; but another level of meaning reminds us that L's own poetry communicates through images. H does not attempt to translate L's terms with consistent equivalents and her version largely lacks this sense of gathering precision: thus here, while figuras becomes 'figures', forma 'form', and species 'species', imago is translated as 'semblance' and effigias as 'images'. 'Species', which L uses sparingly, is frequent in H, cf. Arg 3. In scholastic philosophy, 'the sensible qualities … of objects in the visual field were said to produce species … transmitting images of the qualities … to the eye' (Stuart Clark, Vanities of the Eye: Vision in Early Modern Culture (Oxford, 2007), 15); for its continuing currency as a technical term in the seventeenth century, see OED 'species', †1, †3, †4, †5). John Digby similarly uses it as an equivalent for 'Images' (299). Its use for other words can be confusing, see note to 4.233.

48 from their outmost superficies] P's text reads summo de cortice (4.47), 'frõ the very outmost bark' (Anon, 153). The same word recurs in H's text in the following line to refer to the image thrown off from the body, and Lambinus and later editors have read corpore here (Rouse/Smith, 4.43). H avoids the duplication with the technical term superficies, which she has used at 3.226, there as a trisyllable, for circumcæsura (3.220) (cf. Introduction, 5.1).

49–54 which their owne semblance … What these things are] P's text follows Marullus' extensive rearrangement of the manuscript line-order; what was probably an early draft of the prologue (Smith, 4.45–53) becomes reconstructed as P's 4.26–9, 4.33–4, 4.48–50; H's text places Smith 4.51–3 (P 4.48–50) just prior to Smith 4.44 (P 4.51, H 4.53).

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51 wandring shaddows] the phrase, which lengthens the line, has no direct equivalent in L 1.50. H has used 'shaddow' for species at 1.127 and it may recall vmbras with a similar sense at 4.42; she also uses it for simulacra (4.159) and figuras (4.162). Other contemporary translators do not use this word, which perhaps carries an un-Epicurean undertone of Christian or Platonic disdain for the world of the senses. But on possible Lucretian resonance in H's later shadow imagery (cf. 'Life', 56, Memoirs, 33; 'Elegies', 7.34), see Goldberg, 162–7. H's contemporaries had access to considerable literature on physical theories of sensation, including treatments more or less influenced by Epicureanism: especially Charleton, Physiologia, 136–247; Kenelm Digby, Two Treatises, 242–83; and Gassendi, Animadversiones, I. 236–97.

53–4 And dullest … discerne] P notes that his 4.51 (which the MSS placed earlier, after his 4.47) is explained by what follows, and H joins the sentences with a bridging phrase.

57 smoake and flame] L's smoke rises from Robora, wood (4.54).

58 more entire] contexta magis, condensáque, 'more entwined and condensed' (4.55).

59 old] veteris (4.56), as against the alternative reading teretis, 'smooth' (Rouse/Smith, 4.58).

61 skins] the membranas (4.57) which sheathe the calf at birth; Digby mocks Creech for translating as 'the Membranes of their Horns' (303). L plays this usage against the metaphorical usage at 4.35.

new fallne] i.e. newly born.

63 Among … see] condensed from L's descriptive 4.59–60.

64 subtile] here and in H 4.68 below, 'thin' (tenuis, 4.61, tenuia, 4.64).

65 of bodies] the common early modern reading earum (4.62) avoided the play on rebus … rerum in the MS version (cf. Smith, 4.64).

66–8 Nor … soe] P's 4.63–4 recur at 4.100–1, H 4.105–7.

66 Nor is there any cause we can invent] H's 'invent' here means 'find'. Her phrasing is closer to that in P's gloss—nullamq́ue causam afferri, 'adduce no cause'—than either to P's ostendi, 'showing' (the word glossed, P 4.64) or to Lambinus' hiscendi (304), 'relating' (cf. Smith, 4.66). L's point is that the emission of atomic images is far likelier than the shedding of much less subtle materials such as smoke of which we have daily experience. See 4.105–7n.

69 small attoms] L adds that they are Multam, 'many' (4.66).

71 like] resembling the appearance they had before.

72 easily] L specifies 'more quickly' (citiùs, 4.68).

74–5 For bodies … th'inmost parts] in rendering P 4.70–1 (contrast Lambinus' iaci, atque emergere, 305; Smith has iacere ac largiri, 4.72), H twice makes use of pg 636the marginal glosses. For tergeri, she uses the gloss decedere; for ex alto, penítúsque, her phrasing matches the gloss Ex intimis & penetralibus partibus. Charleton includes twelve lines of this passage in Physiologia (138). As Smith notes (282), L has not yet explained the point about casting off bodies 'from deep inside things'.

77 Theaters] cf. West, 38–41.

78 Carnation] apparently for L's ferruginea (4.74), a rare word not in R/H, and whose meaning was debated (Digby, 305, noting that Creech left it out altogether); Anon has 'crimson' (155); it is normally translated 'rust-coloured'. Cf. OD 8.11.

murray] russá (4.73), purple-red or mulberry (see OED3 'murrey' adj.1).

curtaines] vela (4.73), 'awnings' hung overhead; Evelyn has 'sailes' (4.74).

80 all the Gods … throng] the presence of gods in the theatre is puzzling, and editors since Lachmann have variously emended patrum, matrúmque, Deorúmque (4.77) ('Senators, Matrons, and Gods', Evelyn, 4.78); Smith lists the alternatives. Anon has 'statues of the Gods' (155). H lends a clear division in social rank to the crowd of spectators by translating consessum (4.76, 'assembly') as 'common throng' in distinction from the gods and nobles (Evelyn has 'Spectators', 4.77; Anon, 'seats' (155)). H's phrasing was perhaps influenced by the Latin placement of these seats 'below', subter (4.76).

81 pitt] caueaï (4.76); first OED3 citation in this theatrical sense is from Lovelace in 1649 ('pit' n.110a.); a London theatre was named the Cockpit.

81–2 proiect … reflect] L's awnings dye (Inficiunt) and flutter (fluitare), 4.78.

84 through those vpper curtains] H adds this feature, prompted by P's gloss on 4.81: supernâ.

85 Casts forth] L has conrident (4.81) 'they laugh together'.

86 thin stuffes] lintea (4.82), the awnings.

90 certeine stepps of those formes] formarum vestigia certa, cf. OED 'step' n.1 9†b. Anon has 'certain … portraitures' (155), and Rouse/Smith, 'fixed outlines of shapes' (283).

92 seuerally] separately, one by one.

93 Againe] omitting L's ídeò … quia (4.89–90), H does not make clear that L is resuming his contrast between emanations from deep inside, which become diffused because of the difficulty of pushing their way out, and the more coherent emanations that become images.

95 Conceiud] ortæ, 'arisen' (4.90).

97 species] membrana (4.93).

105–7 Nor can … fall off] P's 4.100–1 repeat 4.63–4, H 4.66–8 and are omitted or bracketed in modern editions (see Smith, 284); Bailey declares it 'impossible to make sense of the lines here' (1192). Lambinus adds yet a third line between pg 637the two, Corpora, res multæ quæ mittunt corpore aperto (305); P omits this but a note raises doubts about the authenticity of his 4.101. The upshot of the passage is that the obvious, visible examples prove the subtle, invisible analogues.

106 species] added here by H.

108 Slender resemblances of formes] tenues formarum, consimilésque | Effigiæ (P 4.102–3), as against tenues formae rerum similesque | effigiae (Smith, 4.104–5; 'thin shapes and like semblances of things', Rouse/Smith, 285).

110 By much reflection] H's version is more succinct but less concrete than L's assiduo, crebróque repulsu | Reiecta (4.104–5). Cf. Anon: 'by the frequent repulse of lookinglasses [sic] reflected' (156).

113–18 Now then … descrie] H slightly rearranges L's 4.108–13.

114 out of this discerne] a little confusing: L aims to prove the fineness of the images on the basis of analogies to the atoms and the microscopic creatures they make up, not the other way around.

117 peirceing & quicksighted] L has no direct equivalent but the adjectives, along with the previous line's monosyllables, match his vivid evocation of the difficulty of seeing the invisible (4.110–11).

121 hearts] cordis globus (4.117), 'the sphere of the heart'.

124 minds & soules] anima, atque animi (4.119).

with which they liue] H's addition.

126 balsamint] H's rendering of L's panaces (4.122), which was presumed to heal all afflictions; P's Lexicon recalls Virgil, Aeneid, 12.649 and a host of commentators. H's 'balsamint' is a variant of 'balsamine', which was applied both to the balsam apple and to the plant balsam or costmary (OED †'balsamine'); the general connotations of healing balm were presumably more important for her (as for Evelyn, 4.122, 'the Balsom tree') than very specific botanical identification. R/H define panaces as the opopanax.

128–9 Rub them but gently … vndiscernable by sence] H's puzzling claim that the invisible images can be seen reflects her struggle with a passage (P 4.124–6) in which modern editors have surmised a (perhaps sizeable) lacuna after 4.125 (see Smith, 286). L probably contrasted the smells lingering on fingers with the invisible particles that caused them, and then moved to discuss other aspects of insensible images. Editors continue to disagree whether L's cassaq́ue sensu (4.126) refers to images deprived of sense or to images which cannot be perceived.

128 Rub] P has the early modern reading ciebis, 'you will stir' or 'move' (4.124) where Smith, 4.126, has duobus, 'two' (posited as anticipating a reference to fingers).

131–2 Of … images] L's 4.127–8 are repeated at 4.174–5, H 4.179–80. The two lines are omitted at this point in Smith but appear later as 4.174–5.

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133 those] simulacra (4.130) or images.

134 singly stray.] i.e. are the only ones floating around. P has a semicolon (4.130).

135 in that heaven] in hoc cælo (4.132), referring to the lower, easily visible sky as opposed to the higher one of æther; not very helpfully glossed in P's Lexicon.

138–9 Nor cease … imitate] H translates two lines (P 4.134–5) found later in Smith (4.141–2), omitting liquentia, 'dissolving' (4.134). For another arrangement of the lines, see Leonard/Smith, 534. This explanation of images combining in the air anticipates the discussion of how we conjure up images of mythic monsters and other fictions. Clouds provide an analogy.

138 formes] H's rendering of speciem (4.134).

139 shape] for P's ora, 'faces' (4.135), modern editions have oras, 'outlines'; early modern translations and commentaries blur the boundaries between these words via such terms as 'species' (cf. the paraphrase in Creech (1695), 196).

141 darkning the cleare ayre] H combines L's violare (4.137), 'to sully', and mulgentes (4.138; G's reading, in the sense of 'impel', with attendant change to motum); 'cleare ayre' translates mundi speciem … serenam, 'the serene face of the firmanent' (4.137; on different senses of speciem cf. note to 4.47mn); 'heavens lustre shrowds' (4.143) seems to be another attempt at this phrase.

142 figures] renders Ora, 'faces', 4.139; cf. 4.138–9 above and 4.172 below.

143 Whose mighty … shrowds] L has vmbram ducere latè (4.139), to which Evelyn comes closer with 'shades of long extent' (4.139).

144 craggie] auolsa, 'torn away', 4.140; the rocks have been torn from the mountains, 4.141.

145 his bright carre] this familiar attribute is not in L 4.141, but accords with the emphasis on imaginative projection.

146 ayre-borne monsters] L's monster drags the clouds (4.142).

147–8 Now … flie] modern editions assume that an ensuing line has been lost, the Latin subjunctive anticipating a main verb such as 'explain'.

147 fall] the MS gerantur, 'are borne' (4.143), not Lambinus' emendation genantur (312), 'are born' (see Smith, 4.143); a similar difference appears at 4.154.

148 soft] L has facili, 'easy' (4.143).

149 top] the surface, summum (4.145).

150 still] always.

151 other things] it is hard to work out just what alias (4.146) refers to and some modern editors posit a lacuna after P's 4.144; L is contrasting transparent surfaces with the two following types, opaque and reflecting (Godwin, DRNIV 102).

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152 penetrable clothes] H translates vestem (4.147), her adjective prompted perhaps by a note in P: Tenuissimam. Many modern editors emend to the more transparent vitrum, 'glass' (Rouse/Smith, 4.147). Cf. 4.152, H 4.157 for a recurrence.

156 without destruction] H gets this idea from the G/P emendation occidit (4.151), 'perishes'; contrast accidit, 'happens' (Rouse/Smith, 4.151).

158 vnreflected by the smoothnesse] H's version of quàm meminit læuor præstare salutem (4.153), 'the smoothness remembers to furnish such safety'.

159 motion] the Latin verb in H's text, gerantur, 'are borne' (4.154), is not so clear as Smith's redundent (4.154), which captures the action of rebound.

the shaddows] simulacra (4.159), cf. note to 4.47mn and 4.162, 4.169.

160–1 For euery thing … shew] condenses L's 4.155–6.

162 thin shaddows] tenuísque figuras (4.158); in L's chiasmic formulation, interwoven (Texturas) atoms produce their own representation.

164 moove] closer to P's geruntur, 'are borne' (4.159) than to Lambinus' genuntur, 'are born' (312, Smith, 4.159), but see H 4.166n.

in narrow space] breui spatio (4.159), a brief time; cf. H 4.168, 'in short space'.

165 giue] i.e. attribute.

166 Since euery … births receiue] this line has no precise equivalent in L. H would have found the idea of birth in Lambinus' variant genantur for P's gerantur/geruntur (4.143, 4.154, 4.159), which P cites, and can mean 'bring forth'.

168 fluxes yeild] summittere (4.161), 'streams downe' (Evelyn, 4.164; cf. Leonard/Smith, 536).

169 shaddows] simulacra (4.164).

171 you looke] L's experimenter is more active: obuertimus (4.166), 'we turn [the mirror]'.

glasse] for mirrors and mirroring in H's works, see 'Life', 56, Memoirs, 32–3, 'Elegies', 1.46, 'The Inreflecting glasse', Norbrook's introduction to the 'Elegies', 470–2, and Goldberg, 162–6.

172 like your face] like Creech in his English translation, though against P's punctuation, H takes L's oris, 4.166, as the genitive singular of os ('face', 'mouth'), in contrast to the dative plural of ora ('outline'); other early modern editions read Æris and oræ (Creech (1695), 198). For the reverse mistake see note on H 4.142. H is working with the tibi in P (4.167), not the ibi in Lambinus (312) and Smith (4.167).

175–8 Obscures … clowds] L's 4.170–3 recur at 6.250–3, H 6.266–9.

175 mists of hell] H uses one of her favourite words, 'mists', for the darkness of L's Acherunta, Acheron (4.170).

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176 archt vault] L's magnas … cauernas (4.171), 'great caverns'; in a note in P, however, a quotation from Ennius includes the term for arched vaultings, fornices.

177–8 So the black … clowds] H adds the conquered light (in L, the clouds simply gather), and she interjects 'vnnaturall'. L has tetra, 'repulsive, hideous' (4.172). H omits the looming faces (ora) from the storm (4.173; contrast H 4.172n).

179–80 how small … declare] P's 4.174–5 repeat 4.127–8, H 4.131–2 (where she has 'images' rather than 'species' for imago). Smith summarizes the argument: 'The idea is that, if clouds can be formed so swiftly, the images (which are far, far smaller than clouds) will be formed with almost unimaginable rapidity' (290). 182 flie] L's images swim, tranantibus (4.177).

184–7 Performe … skies] H parallels the way L's patterning of his words and lines enacts the contrast between distance and speed or brevity (e.g. the short line at 4.186). Brevity characterizes the Alexandrian poetry his crane simile imitates; on Paruus (4.181) as 'fine or subtle' cf. Thury, 274.

184 Performe vast iourneys … space] cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, DL 10.47.

187 cranes in Northerne skies] as de Q points out, H domesticates the conventional symbolic contrast between birds by reversing L's and Virgil's location for the cranes (they have them in the south, cf. Aeneid, 10.264–6). H 'imagines them over England, where in her day they still bred' (221)–though the imaginative geography here does not favour England. L repeats 4.180–2 at 4.907–9, H 4.957–60.

191 fall downe] L does not specify this movement though it is implicit in his cosmology.

192 they are minted] for cuduntur (4.187): H seems to be the only contemporary English translator to have picked up on this subsidiary sense of cudo, 'hammer'. Cf. H 1.1057, and also 4.254–5n, 4.287–9n.

193 impulsiue] cf. marginal note on protelo in P 4.190: Impulsu producto perpetuo & continuo.

196 While rayes … rayes] condensing two lines into one, H omits L's simile, quasi protelo, 'like a harnessed row of oxen' (cf. 2.529n), though she matches the pattern of repeated words at 4.189–90. P's 4.189 is largely repeated at 5.284, H 5.296.

198 infinite] L has Immemorabile (4.192), 'unspeakable' (Anon, 160), glossed in P as Immensum (cf. PL 8.113).

199–200 First because … drive] commentators have always been puzzled as to the small cause, paruula caussa (4.193) that produces such high speed. Faber suggested emending to plurima causa (235); Creech argued that causa should agree with simulacra (4.191) as object of prouehat, atque propellat (Creech (1695), pg 641191); for differing interpretations see Bailey, 1204–5, Smith, 293, Leonard/Smith, 539 (suggesting that prouehat and propellat may take up the suggestion at 4.190 of driving animals forward). In any case we are faced with a 'certain paradoxical wonder' over the massive power that atoms can produce (Godwin, DRNIV 105). H particularizes caussa as 'litle species'.

200–1 former drive, | Next, being] between these two reasons (4.194–5), Smith includes a line which appears in P as 4.203, largely translated as H's 4.209. Marullus deemed it out of place here, but for a possible reading of the line in this position, see Leonard/Smith, 539.

202 convey] loses L's metaphor, quasi permanare (4.197), 'as 'twere do flow' (Evelyn, 4.199).

206 from heaven, to earth] H translates Ex alto in terras (4.199) found in early editions, not the ex altoque foras, 'outward from the depths', found in modern editions (Rouse/Smith, 4.200), which establishes a contrast with 'thoutside of things' (H 4.211), in prima fonte (4.204).

208 low] added by H to contrast with the heavens above as given in 4.203.

214 as swift … vast] in L, the images must travel farther and faster (4.206). L's 4.207–8 repeat 2.162–3, H 2.158–60.

219 water] L has the splendor (4.211), 'sheen, brilliance', of the water.

221 most glorious tapers] H introduces the metaphor (cf. OD 1.313), perhaps to match the descriptive resonance of this passage.

223 Heavens species] i.e. the imago (4.214) which falls from the boundary of heaven to the boundary of earth (4.215).

224–38 when small … allthings] P's 4.217–29 are largely repeated at 6.923–35, H 6.981–93.

224 small attorns] H's rendering of minima … Corpora in P (4.216–17). P follows G in emending MS mira (Rouse/Smith, 2.216) to minima; modern editors, finding a break in grammar and meaning between P's 2.216 and 2.217, posit a lacuna of one or several lines. Other versions, including Lambinus' mitti (317), have led modern editors to suppose a lacuna here, offering a transition from the speed of visual images to the tactile basis of all sensation (see Smith, 292; Godwin, DRNIV 106). P notes that L moves from the eyes to the nostrils, with smells, to touch, with cold, to the ears, with sounds, and to the tongue, with tastes.

226–8 As … lose] as the triplet rhyme indicates, these lines belong together: L writes that smells flow off things (4.218) and P places a colon to indicate that the following two lines form an analogy (vt, 4.219). H rather confusingly places her 'As' in the first and third lines of the three and the period at 'flowes' disrupts the sequence: this latter may be a scribal error.

228 washt with] L's unique exesor (4.220) means 'devourer'.

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229–31 Varietie … tasts] catches L's alliteration, 4.221–2.

230 ayre] as Zerbino notes (165), P 4.221, prints aures, 'ears', rather than auras, 'air' (Rouse/Smith, 4.221), in parallel with 6.927; P does not give the auras variant, so either H is comparing P with another edition or she has departed from him on her own initiative. She has 'eares' at 6.986.

232 disfuse] a rare version of 'diffuse', found a few times in seventeenth-century texts.

233–4 euery kind of species … euery thing] for omnibus ab rebus res quæque fluenter | Fertur (4.225–6), 'from all things a certain thing is flowingly borne', where L's wordplay blurs the distinction between the things themselves and the emanations that flow from them. H's 'species' in this context narrows the meaning down too much to the visual (though cf. Bailey's gloss, 'each species of thing', 1211); the context indicates that L is referring to 'bits of smell, bits of sound, bits of salt, and bits of wormwood', i.e. as 'emanations' which cannot be called simulacra since those 'affect only the eyes' (Leonard/Smith, 542); the Rouse/Smith translation has 'qualities' (295).

237 new] H's addition.

238 heare, feele] P has the MS reading sentire sonare (4.229), literally 'to perceive sounding', a phrase odd enough to provoke emendations from Lambinus and others.

248 fall] i.e. are to be found, occur, are carried to.

250 our lookes] H accurately reflects L's non-technical use of speciem in 4.242, for which she receives assistance from the gloss in P: Os, faciem, adspectum.

250–1 they rise … shew] H's two verbs translate L's more tactile feriant (4.243), 'they strike'.

252 them] i.e. the 'images'.

distance] echoes P's gloss on 4.244.

254–5 Gives motion … agitated flows] for P's procudit, agítque (4.246), 'forges and moves' (cf. H 4.192, 4.287–9). Cf. Anon: 'it presently striketh … the ayr' (162). The MS reading protudit was much emended; Smith, 4.246, follows Lambinus' protrudit, 'pushes' (321).

256 our sight] L specifies the pupils (4.249); H's alliteration in this line captures the sense of perterget ('brushes through').

257–60 Whence … are] L's point (1.249–53), not made clear by H, is that images allow us to measure distance because the more air is driven off an object, the more it brushes on the eye.

257 glance] perterget (4.252; cf. 4.283, 4.763n, 2.812).

262 formes] H's term for L's Quale sit (4.255), 'what kind of thing it is'.

267 each single part] priuam … Particulam (4.260–1), cf. P's gloss: Singulam.

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271 lay our hands] L's tundimus (4.265) is more violent (cf. P 4.614, 4.932, 4.1277, 4.1280). L's digito (4.265) can mean finger or toe; Godwin has 'stub our toe' (DRNIV 27).

273 the solid hard outside] as de Q notes, H mistakes L, who situates the hardness inside the stone (penitus … in alto, 4.268); H may have been thrown by the difficulty of understanding quite how L's analogy works and how we perceive qualities deep within the stone.

275mn Why the image … beyond the glasse] a major share of seventeenth-century interest in atomism derives from the vigorous optical experimentation and theorizing throughout the period. Epicurus' theory that light consists in species sent out from the emanations flowing from all things, recorded by Gassendi (Animadversiones, I. 146–50, with extensive quotations from DRN4; Joy, 106–29) and Charleton (Physiologia, 136–207), was open to many difficulties, but it was attracting renewed attention in the mid-seventeenth century. The Cavendish-Hobbes circle, including the Earl of Newcastle's chaplain, Robert Payne, were interested in optics as a means of moving beyond scepticism: Richard Tuck, Philosophy and Government 1572–1651 (Cambridge, 1993), 282–4, Noel Malcolm, Aspects of Hobbes (Oxford, 2002), 113–14. Soon after he married Lucy Apsley, John Hutchinson sent his father a 'perspective glasse' with 'too glasses, one … to looke at ye Moone' (Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, ed. C. H. Firth (1906), 388–9), and H mentions her husband's delight in perspective glasses, 'Life', 5, Memoirs, 4. This family interest was perhaps stimulated by Sir Thomas Hutchinson's friendship with his neighbour Sir Gervase Clifton. Clifton's son had been tutored by Hobbes, who compared one of his letters to Clifton to a prospective glass—perhaps with an allusion to DRN 4.333–5: Thomas Hobbes: The Correspondence, ed. Noel Malcolm, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1994), I.25. Evelyn's commentary on these sections of book 4 rehearses current debates over the nature of vision, the role of light, and the characteristics of the viewer. Evelyn debates L on various points, and on a loose leaf poses a debate between Euclid and Epicurus on the causes of reflection, complete with diagram (commentary, 50r). John Digby is interested enough in these questions to offer a detailed summary and refutation of L's major arguments (310ff).

276 glasse] i.e. mirror. H omits nam … videtur (4.270), where penitus, 'deep', repeated from 4.268, clarifies the transition from depth perceived by touch to distance perceived by sight.

277–84 For such like cause … obiects to our sight] L gives an analogy for the way mirror images give a sense of depth, though he contrasts the true (verè, 4.271) perception of things seen beyond an open pair of doors with the illusion of depth given by the mirror. In each case, images sent through the air touch the eye; air from outside, however, takes longer to reach us, just as our image in the mirror takes longer because the air has had to travel from us to the mirror and pg 644back. L heightens his analogy with mirroring effects (cf. 4.271, 4.278) which H does not fully reproduce.

277–8 brings | Within the house] only in the sense that the door provides external things to be seen, transpedum præbet (4.272).

283 glances] perterget (4.277), translated as 'gives … soft touches' at 4.256; cf. 2.812, 4.763n.

285 the glasse the image first eiects] obscures L's striking formulation: the image of the mirror throws itself (se … proiecit, 4.279). The air carries the mirror's image to us before our images are carried to the mirror.

287–9 putts in motion … drives] another version of P's procudit, agítque (4.280, cf. H 4.192, 4.254–5); P notes the alternative reading protrudit, 'pushes' (Rouse/Smith, 4.280).

293 Returning to our sight] H omits in id (4.284), i.e. the mirror, cf. Evelyn, 'to it swiftly flies' (4.289); the line is still textually problematic, cf. Smith's note to his 4.284.

297 beyond] i.e. distant from, remota in P (4.288), semota in Smith (4.288).

298–9 for a wonder passe | That things] as P notes, Lambinus considered 4.289–91 spurious; modern editors posit a lacuna after 2.289, in which 'there may have been some comparison made between the objects seen through a doorway and the images reflected from a mirror' (Leonard/Smith, 547).

304 species] referring back to imago (4.294).

307 figures made of chalke] i.e. clay or plaster (Cretea, 4.297); 'figures' for persona is slightly confusing given H's other usages (e.g. for figuram at her 4.311, imago at 4.314). H omits L's detail that the right eye of this figure becomes the left and vice versa. L has in mind masks made of plaster.

309 right] i.e. 'correct' (rectam, 4.298).

318 of the roome] L is describing how repeated mirrors can reflect from room to room. Evelyn (commentary, 54r) gives a diagram to explain this passage and compares the long gallery at the Vatican Library and the Louvre.

320 the image passes] L says that it 'shines through' (tralucet) (4.308); H's internal rhyme matches some of L's linguistic play in a line full of elisions (4.308).

323–30 Now when-ere | The image … reflection turnes about] H's translation fails to make explicit the fact that P 4.311–17, 'probably the most difficult passage in Lucretius' (Leonard/Smith, 550), concerns mirrors with concave sides. See Bailey's illustration, 1218. The image bounces from one curved side to the other before it returns to the viewer. Alternatively, the curve of the mirror turns the simulacra around 'in ricochet' (Godwin, DRNIV 112).

328 From glasse to glasse] from side to side of a curved mirror (4.314).

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329 Cylindricall] L has Flexa figura (4.317), 'curved shape'. H could have got the idea of a cylinder from the gloss in P: Teres speculi figura, instar columnæ. L has it that the glass teaches (docet) the image to turn around.

332 shew] L says that the images imitate our moves (4.319).

335 streight lines] L's point is rather that the images leap back ad æquos … flexus (4.323), 'at equal angles'. Commentators disagree on whether L's argument is relatively sophisticated—the angle of reflection equalling that of incidence (Smith, 302, following Munro)—or simple, 'no more than "directly opposite the subject"' (Godwin, DRNIV 112). H omits L's point that nature 'forces' this phenomenon (cogit, 4.322).

337 splendid] in the Latinate (Splendida, 4.324) sense of 'bright' (OED 2.a).

338 gazing on] the G/P reading cernere (4.325), 'discern', comes to much the same as the usual tendere, 'aim' (cf. Smith, 4.325).

341 Through … light] the line's movement from slow monosyllables to its truncated end matches L's rhythm (4.327).

342 disturbe … sight] L has feriunt oculos turbantia composituras (4.328), 'strike the eyes so as to disturb their structure' (Rouse/Smith, 303). P's gloss and Lexicon note that words like composituras and disposituras (1.1025, cf. H 1.1040) use an archaic ending, replaced in later Latin by words in itio; Evelyn gives 'fabric' (4.334). Cf. H 4.348n.

347 iaundice] P's Lexicon provides an extensive history of medical terminology for Arquati (4.333).

348 humor] a familiar early modern term for the more technical luroris … Semina, 'seeds of yellowness' (4.333–4); L's idea of the outgoing atoms mingling with the incoming ones deviates from Epicurus (Brown, DRNIV 113).

349 in its owne colour] palloribus (4.336), 'with its own pale colours' (pallor connoting a yellow tinge).

355–6 shaddows … ayre] L has caliginis aër | Ater (4.338–9), 'black air of darkness'.

359–60 this … they] i.e. light is faster than darkness, and light's atoms are smaller yet more powerful. H's 'subtile' translates minutior (4.343).

363 disclosd] the adaperta of some early modern texts (P 4.346); later editors have emended this passage, aer | ater, continuo rerum simulacra sequuntur (Smith, 4.345–6).

365 on the other side] contrà (4.348), 'on the other hand'.

368 passages] vias oculorum (4.351), 'the wayes of the eyes' (Anon, 167): commentators still disagree on whether this means to the eyes or in them.

370 Which might … convey] ne simulacra | Possint … contecta moueri, 'lest the covered images might be moved' (4.351–2). P defends the MS reading contecta pg 646against the rivals coniecta ('thrown together', G's reading) and conlecta ('gathered together'). Smith has coniecta and the later emendation of the passive moueri to the active movere (Rouse/Smith, 4.352).

371 the square turretts of the cittie] having used the Tower of London as an example, Evelyn (commentary, 52r) comments that he has often noticed this phenomenon in landscape paintings or engravings. Most painters, excepting Hollar, he says, mistake the shape. As Bailey notes, Epicurean epistemology is vulnerable to sceptical attack in this and other instances of troubled vision (1224–5); cf. 4.400–6n.

376 species] for L's Plaga, blow (4.357); H blurs L's distinction between the films (simulacra, 4.358) and the impact upon the eyes (Plaga, ictus, 4.357, eum, 4.359) of the air pushed ahead of them.

378 encounters] in the sense, frequent in her writing on the Civil War, of a battle (offensibus, 3.359): an emphasis reinforced by the sentence's alliteration.

380–1 The turrett … cleare] converting into 'roundbuilt' L's detail that the structures appear to be rounded by a lathe (tornum, P 4.361), H follows the gloss based on Lambinus, quasi tornata, 'as though turned on a lathe', and renews the reference to the 'turrett' in H 4.371. L has saxorum structa, 'structures of stone' (4.361). H's text has tuantur (4.361), H's 'seemes', not Munro's terantur, 'are rounded' (cf. Smith, 4.361).

382 mists] for the apparently unique adumbratim (4.363), not in R/H (derived from umbra, shadow, glossed by P as 'not exact', 'unlike'). Cf. 1.150n.

383 on vs waite] L says that the shadows move with us (4.364). Creech's shadows 'servilly obey' (113).

384 imitate.] H has rendered imitari (4.365) as 'shew' in an earlier closely parallel passage (H 4.331–2, L 4.318–19). P's comma at 4.365 makes the sense clearer than the period in the MS.

385 vnenlightned] literally, without light (priuatum lumine (4.366)); contrast H 5.17.

395 As wool by spinsters drawne] H is clearly working from P (4.376), for Lambinus (329) and G both have quasi in ignem lana trahatur, 'as if wool were being drawn into a fire'. Bailey thinks the phrase is probably proverbial and that 'we cannot quite know the point' of it (1227). But P follows Scaliger's suggestion, which involves a novel sense of carmen, quasi carmine lana trahatur, 'as if wool were being drawn with a card'. Anon follows the Lambinus-Gifanius version: 'as if wooll should be drawn into the fire & consumed' (168); Creech omits the phrase, and Digby gives a lengthy explication of varying interpretations (332–3): 'That new Beams flow from the Sun as fast as the first vanish, as from a Heap of Wool new Threads are drawn in the Card, so that when the first are drawn and taken away, new ones may still be drawing in the same Card: But this Interpretation seems not so natural as the former'. H's version emphasizes the pg 647continuity and mobility of the thread, as similar to the moving shadow. It is H who highlights the agency of the 'spinsters' (the word could refer to male or female workers), in keeping with a general interest in the imagery of weaving and of needlework, cf. Introduction, 5.1, note to Dedication, l1. 45–6, and 2.692n.

397 earth] terra (4.377) is the ground, not the planet; 'sable shaddows' (4.399) may suggest H is here thinking of cosmic phenomena (she borrows the phrase from Denham's translation of the Aeneid, 2.250–1, which she had transcribed in her commonplace book, DD/HU1, 13; cf. OD 17.165).

398 reinvest] i.e. re-clothe.

399 dispelld] in L the earth 'washes away', abluit, the shadows (4.378).

400–6 Nor can we here … not natures misteries] L defends the infallibility of the senses and attributes error to incorrect reasoning, for it is not the role of the senses to make meaning out of what they infallibly perceive by the touch of atomic films (4.379–85). With abrupt shifts from example to example, L will enact the point about perception's instability before rounding on the sceptics (H 4.483ff). The locus classicus is Diogenes Laertius, 10.50–2, 147. Seventeenth-century interest in answering scepticism is reflected in Evelyn's full commentary on this passage (55r–57r), which credits Socrates among the ancients, Descartes and Gassendi among the moderns, with a more astute critique of and response to scepticism. For relations between scepticism and Epicureanism in mid- and late seventeenth-century England, see Kroll, and Tuck, 285–9. Montaigne read and marked the succeeding parts of book 4 in great detail and quoted from them in his 'An Apology for Raymond Sebond' (Essays, II:12, 664–78, cf. Screech, 472–6).

402 They may be seene] L's tueri | Illorum'st (4.380–1) means 'it is for them [the eyes] to see'; Evelyn has 'they do appeare' (4.389).

402–3 the reallitie | Of lights] H's interpretation of L's concern with whether it is the same light or not.

404–5 a new | Be allwayes made] H fills in the second option with help from a gloss on 4.383 in P.

406 natures misteries] L's naturam … rerum (4.385). Cf. 1.129n.

407 Againe lett not your sight … deceiue] H's rendering of 4.386 is unclear; as at 4.379, L's point is that the eyes should not be blamed for mental errors.

408–10 At sea … stand still] adding the wind to L's image, H omits his detail of the glimpse gained of another vessel which, though moored, appears from the vantage of one's own ship to be in motion (4.388). Repetzki (229) prints Evelyn's commentary on this passage.

411 glorious] added by H.

412 dayly] H's version of assiduo (4.392), 'ceaseless'.

413 their bright charriots] a stock phrase in seventeenth-century poetry; L has corpore claro, 'with bright body' (4.394); cf. 4.145.

pg 648

414 in their declining spheares arise] a kind of prolepsis matching L's striking juxtaposition in obitus exorta reuisunt, 'rising, they revisit their settings' (4.393).

419 Though farre asunder plac'd] H translates P 4.399, a line not found in modern editions.

426 purple] L has rubrum (4.405), red; but cf. OED3 'purple' n.2a; for H's preference for this term cf. 5.689 and OD 2.212, 11.148, 14.176. For this scene of deception, which adopts a heroic register, H's colour is made all the more royal by her added metaphor of crowning and, more subtly, by her conversion of L's tremulis (4.405, 'flickering') into a masque-like dancing. Cf. 'Elegies', 3.11, for the sun as a 'Gawdy Masker'. The choice of 'glaring torch', presumably for iubar (4.405, 'radiance, sunbeam'), adds to the masque-like effect. Anon has 'flaming torch' (169).

430 flightshotts] the distance covered by a flight-arrow, 'a light and well-feathered arrow for long-distance shooting', OED 'flight' n.115, 'flight-shot' 1; H omits L's second measure of distance, the throw of a javelin (veruti, 4.410). Cf. Anon: 'scarce distant fro vs two thousand bow-shoots, or oftentimes scarce five hundred throws of a dart' (169).

435 drills] rivulets (OED n.12).

437 Scarce a foote deepe] L's puddles are shallower, not more than a finger deep (4.415).

439–40 shew … below] H follows P's 4.419–20, whose authenticity Lambinus questioned and which remain textually vexed; for a defence of this text, despite the paradoxical sense of 'bodys hidden in a wonderfull maner under the earth in the heaven' (Anon, 170), see Godwin, DRNIV 117–18. The 'bodies' are not necessarily celestial.

441 horse … swift river] H transfers the adjective acer (P 4.421) from horse to river, in order to explain why the horse stops in the first place as well as to anticipate the power of the illusion.

444 back … side] L's transuorsum (4.423) rather suggests a movement back upstream.

447 a gallerie on pillars] L's Porticus (4.427) has columns of equivalent height. Creech refers to it as 'Courts' (115), Evelyn a 'Porch' (4.438).

449 length] following the Longa given in the gloss, not the adverbial Longè in P 4.429.

452 Contract … cone] H replicates L's alliteration (4.432).

455 Nor … eies] more specific than L's general cautions against lightly (leuiter, 4.436) distrusting the senses; H is prompted to a pun on 'light'.

458 vnskilld] maris ignaris (4.437), ignorant about the sea and ships.

maimd and vnperfect] H omits L's detail that the ship appears to be struggling against the waves (obnitier vndis, 4.438).

pg 649

463 nights reigne] H adds the political metaphor to Tempore nocturno (4.445).

466 race] i.e. direction.

467 Part of one eie being … held] Anon captures L's details (4.448–9) more accurately: 'But if perhaps you put yor hand under one eye, & presse it up & down' (171).

469 shining] florentia, flowering (4.451). H imitates L's alliteration in this line.

472 With … weare] the alexandrine compounds the effect of doubleness.

473–4 weary men … ease] slightly softened and amplified: L's deuinxit (4.454) means 'chained up' rather than 'unchained'; H's 'weary' and 'toyld' are not in L.

476–8 thinke we see … streames] H adds 'bright beames' to the sun but omits the 'sky' from L's list.

480 nights silence … reignes] L's reigning silence is seuera (4.461), which P glosses as meaning variously sad, sacred, or oppressive and austere. Evelyn (4.473) also omits the adjective; Anon (171) has 'severe'.

482 many such like visions] L characterizes these sights as wondrous (4.463, mirando).

484–8 While our illusions … thoughts vnseene] having assembled examples that may seem to discredit the senses and thus strengthen the arguments of the Sceptics, L now rounds on them and claims that error derives from mental error, from opinion, not the senses. This passage is textually problematic and Creech trimmed it.

485 imagination] for opinatus animi, 'preconceptions' (4.466)—L's coinage in place of the metrically inadmissible opinio. Anon has 'opinations of the mind' (172), Evelyn 'fault o'th' Mind' (4.477). John Smith, Select Discourses, 78, cites this passage to show that L's epistemology is self-contradictory, for it concedes a faculty higher than the senses. H's 'imagination' draws on an early modern tradition of linking that faculty with error; perhaps H was led to think of it by L's previous passage on dreams. On the related 'fancy', see H 4.865n. H derives from L a less sympathetic view of the imagination than her contemporary Margaret Cavendish (Poems, and Fancies, 39 and passim). H omits quos addimus ipsi, 'which we add ourselves'.

487 tis most noble] nihil egregius est, 'there is nothing more distinguished' (4.468); modern texts have aegrius, 'more difficult' (see Smith, 4.467).

discerne] G/P's discernere (4.468) for the usual secernere, 'to separate' (Rouse/Smith, 4.467).

488 Reall] res … apertas (4.468); cf. 'reallitie' in H 4.402.

euen by thoughts vnseene] an attempt to make sense of P 4.469, animus quas ab se protinus abdit, which Evelyn renders as 'which the Mind dos reject | From it immediatly' (4.481–2). Modern texts have the alternative reading addit, 'adds' (Rouse/Smith, 4.468).

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489mn Their obiection] i.e. the Sceptics' or Academics'.

490 They know not that] too compressed for clarity: according to his own premises, the Sceptic cannot know whether he can know.

492 Those who … dispute] H follows the paraphrase in P, peruerso est indicio, of the colourful 4.473, rendered by Anon: 'who goeth upõ his head backward' (172) and by Evelyn 'Who deviats quite from his owne institute' (4.487). The line was textually uncertain; Smith has qui capite ipse sua in statuit vestigia sese (4.472), 'who has placed his head in his own footsteps' (Rouse/Smith, 313).

495 From whence … flow] devised by H from L's Vnde sciat (4.476).

497–500 For you … can shew] H translates L's 4.477–80 in as many lines. Her compression appears to have been abetted by the repetition of L's language in the lines, for she seems to have jumped from 4.476 to 4.479 before working back to pick up the previous point.

498 knowledge] Notitiam (4.477, 4.780) or notities, Epicurus' prolepsis, cf. H 2.751n.

500 none … shew] H is closer to the generally accepted MS reading neque sensus posse refelli, 'and that the senses cannot be refuted', than to G's conjectural emendation, strongly endorsed by P, neque sensibus posse refelli, '[the concept of truth] cannot be refuted by [the unreliability of] the senses'. But P gives sensus in a gloss on 4.480; cf. Smith, 4.479.

501 Wee can trust … confidence] H's version of L's 4.481, which in the Latin stresses the urgency of finding the reliable criterion.

502 convince] de Q: '"expose," "prove untrue"; likewise in 520' (221; cf. OED †2, Milton, Paradise Regained, 3.3). The first usage is H's version of vincere (misprinted in P 4.482), 'to conquer or refute', the second her version of conuincere, to 'refute'.

505 false sence] i.e. reasoning, which cannot countervail the veracity of the senses. Reason cannot overturn its very basis, nor can one sense testify against the others.

508 denie] L has reprehendere, 'prosecute' (4.487).

511 severall powers] i.e. separate, distinctive faculties. Despite the shared foundation of the senses in atomic touches, L asserts propriety in nature's distribution of the instruments of perception.

514 what's hott … descrie] unlike Smith (4.492), H's Latin text, following Lambinus, presents two versions of the line she translates here (P 4.492–3), and H conflates them. Both lines include durum, 'hard', a quality not found in Smith.

515–16 Colours … discernd] unlike Smith (4.493), who prints Lachmann's videre, H's text has necesse est (4.495), probably a scribal error picked up from P 4.497.

520 convince] see 4.502n.

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521 Nor … deceiud] L's reprendere sese (4.499) rather means 'refute themselves'. But P's gloss stresses the danger of believing in the senses' fallibility.

526–8 Twere better … both figures] referring back to the tower example, H 4.371–82. As Bailey notes (1241), this passage makes 'a curious concession … Compare the constant hesitation in the astronomical portion of Book V between various possible explanations of phenomena'. It is better, L allows, to give oneself over to false explanations of either shape (round or square) than to repudiate the senses.

527 wanteth reason] i.e. is lacking in an argument (5.504).

529 hold … hands] picks up L's play on manibus manifesta (4.506), as part of a structure of especially heavy alliteration reinforcing L's anti-sceptical confidence.

537 Wherefore … abound] in the MSS this is the first part of a sentence completed as omnis, quae contra sensus instructa paratast, 'all … which has been prepared and marshalled against the senses' (Rouse/Smith, 317, Smith, 4.512); P, following G, omits it after his 4.513, though he prints it in the margin.

538–40 when you … inclines] H departs a little from L to find equivalents for his parallels between architecture and philosophy. L's references to the builder's instrument, the regula or norma (4.514–15), translate Epicurus' canon, his figurative carpenter's rule expressive of the epistemological criterion; H's 'ground' deploys a comparable double meaning. She does not translate the idea of an uneven level at 4.516.

539 the first drawne lines] rather, regula prima, 'the original ruler' (4.514).

541 thoroughout] emended in the MS to an older pronunciation which in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was giving way, as elsewhere in H's L, to a disyllable (OED); the scribe seems to have had difficulty with the word.

542 awry, confusd, vneuen] H cuts the number of modifiers in L's asyndeton (4.518).

544 The whole house is … made] H tidies up a deliberate tension in L's analogy, which has it that some of the house seems just about to fall, and some of it does fall: on the imagery here see West, 69–72.

547mn How sounds … the eare] cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 52–3, Gassendi, Animadversiones, I. 272–87. Of the arguments about taste and smell, Evelyn comments that even if one cannot agree that all sensation derives from atomic properties and touches, nonetheless 'we will not thinke it sufficient (wth most)' to attribute sensation to 'the effect of an occult quality, which is for most part an answer fit to satisfie none but either the laisy or the ignorant' (commentary, 66r–67r). On occult qualities cf. commentary on H 2.736mn.

547 th account's] L now moves from visual perception to the other senses, beginning with hearing (4.523–615, H 4.547–641), and moving to taste (4.616–73, H 4.642–701) and smell (4.674–708, H 4.702–41). He does not deal separately pg 652with touch, which for him underlies all perception (1.304, 2.434–5). H's contemporaries had access to considerable literature on physical theories of sensation, including treatments more or less influenced by Epicureanism: especially Charleton, Physiologia, 136–247; Digby, Two Treatises, 242–83; and Gassendi, Animadversiones, I. 236–97.

not difficult] H removes L's metaphor of a rocky way (scruposa (4.524)), opting instead for the gloss in P, Difficilis.

551–2 since they may | Themselues … convey] H's version of quoniam possunt impeliere sensus (4.528), 'since they can hit the senses'.

553–4 iawes … arteries] fauces (4.529) can mean 'jaws' but here refers to the lower part of the windpipe, the upper part being the arteria (Bailey, 1244)—a sense then current in English, see Evelyn, 4.552, and OED3 'artery' †1. Anon also has 'jaws' and 'Artery' (174).

563 ruddy] added by H, perhaps intending a glance at L's slightly mock-heroic description of long-winded orators; the Senate's meetings ended at nightfall. Cf. Spenser, Faerie Queene, III.x.52.

564 mist] L has nigraï noctis … vmbram (4.538), 'the shadow of black night'; cf. 1.150n.

567–8 whence it goes. | Nor is the eare] between these two lines in P (4.542–3), Lambinus (344) and modern editions (Smith, 4.542–3) insert the two lines that turn up as 4.552–3 in P, and are translated in that later position by H (her 4.577–9). Without the lines in the earlier spot, H lacks the transition to the argument that differently textured atoms create different sounds.

569 murmuring] L's murmure (4.544), 'roar'.

570 Its hoarce … hills] the ostentatiously alliterative 4.545 is textually problematic, variously emended by many scholars, who disagree amongst other things as to whether one or two instruments are involved in 4.544–5; Evelyn has a trumpet and a cornet (4.568–9), Anon a 'sackbutt' (175). Rouse/Smith read as P, rendering the lines 'when the barbarous horn bellows with low and hollow roar and is re-echoed with a hoarse reverberating boom' (319). The 'hills' are added by H, perhaps with a cue from Virgil's Georgics (3.223), as cited in P's note, with its reference to magnus Olympus.

571–2 And … bewaile] as de Q explains of the 'very corrupt' Latin text, the gloss in P for nece in 4.546 (morti vicini) drives home 'the old belief in the swans' song at death's approach' (222). H makes the valley dark; P has torti (4.546), 'twisting'.

573 rise] in L, 'we force out' (Exprimimus, 4.549) the voice.

575 the mooving tongue] H omits L's brief paean to the tongue, verborum dædala, 'skillful maker of words' (4.550).

577–9 Harsh voyces … tones] on the placing of P's 4.553–4, see 4.567–8n. The pg 653point that follows these lines in P and H, about distance, lapses once again into a concession to the sceptical critique of the senses.

583 drownds] drowns, a form used at 5.429 and OD 7.250.

585 eare] an obvious reminder of the organ involved, but also prompted by P's audire (4.561), as against Smith's sentire (4.560).

587 words] L has edictum, 'Edict' (Anon, 176) in P (4.564) and Lambinus, but Lambinus points out the alternative verbum (347). Given the evidence of line placement in favour of P (see note on 4.577–9 above), it is likely that H simply interpreted a crier's edictum as 'words'.

588 A thousand eares] H provides the number (cf. P 4.564–5).

589–90 Wherefore … flie] i.e. one voice becomes many voices reaching many ears.

591 new created] H adds the newness and removes L's metaphor of sealing (Obsignans, 4.568).

595 hard rocks] H concretizes L's 'odd expression' (Bailey, 1249) solidis … locis (4.571), her enjambement looking forward to the ensuing discussion of echoes.

596 the vayne voyce] H works in L's notion that the rebounding voice frustratur, 'tricks' those who hear it (4.572).

597mn The reason of the eccho] between Margaret Cavendish and John Evelyn, H's contemporaries exemplify respectively a poetic and a scientific approach to this argument, yet each acknowledges the other approach, especially Cavendish (Poems, and Fancies, 37–8). Evelyn commences his note by protesting that 'we shall not much trouble the reader wth the fictions of this blabing & vaineglorious Nimph' found in Ovid (commentary, 60r). Instead, he appeals to his own experiences of echoes and adds a diagram of the artificial echo in the Jardin des Tuileries, Paris. L himself invokes traditional fictions and myths associated with the echo, only to explode them.

597 considerately] carefully, cf. H 4.853.

599 woods] not in L, who describes solitary places (4.574), but perhaps taking up his opacos, 'shady', at 4.576.

602 knowne] L has vidi, 'I have seen' (4.578), but the verb can connote perception in general (R/H; Godwin, DRNIV at 4.577, 4.598).

seven repititions] L has six or seven (4.578).

603 repulst] current in the Latinizing sense of 'forced back' (OED3 1.a).

604 Which … fill] L has no direct equivalent for this evocative line; H reuses 'ambient ayre' from 2.1091, cf. 4.986. For textual variants at 4.579–80 see Smith's apparatus (320).

605 ancient borderers] H's version of Finitimi (4.582), 'neighbouring people'; in L this passage is in the present tense.

pg 654sayd] L's fingunt (4.582), 'fain' (Anon, 177).

609 musick] H omits L's reference to strings and his detail of the player's fingers (4.585–6). L's 4.586 is repeated at 5.1384, H 5.1435.

610 imitate] a notion introduced by H.

611 clownes] peasants or farmers. Evelyn has 'Plough-man' (4.613), Creech 'Swains' (119).

Pan … head] L's Pinea … velamina (4.588) refers to a piny covering, i.e. pine-leaves or possibly pine-cones; H omits L's semiferi, cf. 2.709: 'halfe men, halfe beasts'.

613 vgly lips] for the lips, L has Vnco (4.589), literally 'hooked or 'curved', more specifically here 'pursed'; rendered at H 5.1458 as 'with bended lipps'. Anon has 'with his dented lip', 177.

614 Insteed of pipes] L's Fistula … ne cesset (4.590) means 'that his pipe may not cease'.

615 fictions] L has monstra, ac portenta (4.591).

616 desarts … deities] H imitates L's own scornful alliteration (4.592, Ne loca deserta ab diuis). H's 'want' = 'lack'. This whole passage, in its sensuous evocation and then deflation of myth, is appropriately compared by Leonard/Smith, (576) with Milton, PL 1.781–4.

618 vulgar men by vaine beliefe] the first phrase is H's addition, the second her version of aliqua ratione alia (4.594); she responds to L's heavy alliteration. For 'vulgar', see 1.322n.

619 still covetous of news] H's 'news' gives a topical ring to L's satire of mankind's greedy little ears (4.595), cf. Evelyn: 'too greedy … of newes' (4.621). The hunger for novelty was satirized in seventeenth-century works such as Jonson's Staple of News (first acted in 1625), and it was made all the more prominent in the 1640s and 1650s by the role of newspapers and by the mutual accusations of sinful innovation in politics and religion. H is perhaps influenced by P's quotation of Acts 17:21. On innovation, cf. 5.1212n, 5.1353n, 5.1509n, 6.682.

624 lett in sounds] H's formulation does not choose between P's tenemus, 'hold', 'obtain' (4.599), and the more common reading videmus, which P gives in the margin and Smith (4.598) follows (cf. H 4.602n).

626 cannot soe] renutant, 'refuse' (4.601).

628 penetrable] compressing L's species quæ trameat omnis (4.603); for trameat, 'moves through', Lambinus (348) and Smith (4.602) have travolat, 'flies through'.

629 Againe … flies] the lengthened line parallels L's enactment of division through verbal play (4.605–7).

632 each place] i.e. even those hidden from view.

pg 655

633 lie] fuerint, 4.609; Smith (4.608) follows Munro's emendation fervunt.

637–9 Nor … cleare] H's translation is unclear but is not aided by difficulty in the early modern texts, which have Se supra, 'above himself' (4.612), for the MS sæpe, 'hedge' or 'wall' (Rouse/Smith, 4.611), and viarum for the modern emendation domorum (Smith, 4.611–12): images cannot travel over a wall but sounds may do so. Anon has Wherefore no man can see ‸above himself, but he can receive voyces without' (178). Once again, H uses 'species' for simulacra.

639–41 Yet … there] the triplet ending with an octosyllabic line marks the end of the section on hearing.

642–3 The reasons … perteine] an obscure rendition reflecting difficulties with a reading, Hæc quîs [queis] (4.616), which Munro considers 'without sense' (1.180); the reading Nec (cf. Smith, 4.615), modifying Plusculum ('one jot') and plus, helps to clarify that the work (operaí) in question, H's 'action', is the poet's. L is saying that nothing needs to be added to explain taste. Cf. Evelyn, who like H reads L to be saying that taste has 'Causes much more difficult and vast' (4.645). Anon has 'Those Organs, whereby we have a perceptiõ of the juyce of things, namely the tongue & palat, have more of reasõ in them, & more of labour' (178).

643 its organs] L lists the tongue and the palate (4.616). H's translation is succinct, not to say compressed, in this passage. The first twelve Latin lines are rendered in twelve English.

644 meate] cibum (4.618), 'food', as at H 1.822, 3.739.

647 perplext veins] i.e. intricate, winding orifices. Where Smith has per flexa foramina (4.621), P has per plexa foramina (4.622).

648 concaves] for caulas, 4.621: '"cavities," "pores"' (de Q 222, OED 'concave' n.†1.). P's gloss has per cauernas & cauitates.

651 humid pallaces] H's version of Humida … templa (4.625), 'wet areas', perhaps recalling 'pallat', H 4.648. Cf. 1.1115n.

653 the tast offend] L has pungunt sensum, lacerantq́ue (4.626), 'they sting and mangle the sense'.

654 sweete] H adds this modifier to P 4.628.

655 the veines] H's translation of artus (P 4.630). Anon has 'the joynts' (179), Evelyn 'th' bowells' (4.659).

656 iaws] see 4.553–4n.

659 concoction] i.e. digestion. H compresses three Latin lines (4.631–3 in P) into two English; her text has the early modern emendation of umidum to humectum, 'grown moist', at 4.633; Smith has validum, 'strong' (4.632).

661 persons] L does not specify that humans are at issue here (4.634–5).

665 die] L's serpents gnaw themselves to death (4.640).

pg 656

666 Hellibore] a note in P identifies L's veratrum (4.641) as Helleborum.

plover] it is hard to see why H thus rendered L's capris, 'goats', other than that plovers and quails often appeared close together in lists of birds; R/H gives pardalus, pluviarius for 'plover'.

673 th outward … case] L's 4.648 is largely repeated from 3.220, H 3.226, though here G/P's circumtextura departs from the circumcæsura (noted in the margin) of Lambinus (351) and Smith, 4.647; P refers to textura at 4.658. See also 4.48n. H's 'entrailes' highlights L's contrast between exterior and interior, perhaps in the sense of the 'organs and parts enclosed in the trunk' (OED 3a.); cf. 4.725.

674 differ] P follows Lambinus' emendation from constant variantque to distant, variantq́ue at 4.649; Smith (4.648) has constant variante.

677 limbs] H moves membris (P 4.652) from its proper position in the sentence and thus replaces L's palato, a term which makes more sense in a discussion of taste.

686 the pallatts pores are wide] H inserts the adjective for the pores (caulas … palati (4.661)).

wide] H's addition (4.661).

687 equall] i.e. 'smooth'.

smoothly] L's term, Contrectabiliter, 'caressingly' (4.661), appears only here in Latin literature (cf. Godwin, DRNIV 132); its sensuality is caught by Anon's 'in a feeling maner' (180).

689 vneuen] H recognizes the error in P, with hamatáque 'hooked', printed as humatáque (P 4.663). P's Lexicon corrects the term and provides enough of the line to assure the bewildered reader, an erroneous reference to 4.963 notwithstanding.

straite] i.e. narrow, H's addition to counter her 'wide' (4.686). In L the unevenness and roughness reside in the atoms, not the gullet.

691 All which … to our sence] H's version of 4.664, 'Now it is easy on this basis to grasp each case'.

692 choller] H's version of L's bili (4.665).

697–8 please … delight] H adds the element of pleasure; L stresses suitability: conueniebant (4.669), conueniant (4.670), apta (4.670).

700 hony … have shewd] L's prior discussions of honey have not pointed out this mixture of smooth and rough atoms, though P directs readers to book 2, and Smith cites 2.398–407 and 3.191–5 (328–9).

703 Approach] H's phrasing diminishes the tactile emphasis of L's adiectus and Tangat (4.674–5). As Leonard/Smith explain (235), 'tangere and tangi … mean "to act" and "to be acted upon" and are general terms for sensory experience'.

pg 657

703–4 flowes … breath forth] H trims L's verbs describing smells' flowing motion but animates mitti (4.677).

707 prevalent] 'effective' (OED †1.a), for aptus (4.678), 'suitable'.

711 beast] could occasionally appear as a plural form (OED 1.3); de Q emends to 'beasts'.

713 Romes high towers] Romulidarum arcis, 'the citadel of Romulus' race' (4.684), more specifically, as P notes, the Capitol, saved by the warnings of the sacred geese. L has no 'high', though the antonomasia recalls Ennius' epic style.

719 In different wise … goes] despite P's clarifying note, H omits longiùs, 'further' (4.689); Anon gives the sense: 'one [odour] may be further diffused then another' (182).

721 species] res (4.691), implying simulacra.

724–5 while they not from … entrailes come] H adds the negative clause for clear contrast, yet omits L's detail that smells come forth with difficulty (vix, 4.695). H's 'while' renders quia (P 4.695), 'because'; 'inmost entrailes' renders Ex alto, 'from deep inside', cf. 4.673.

728 melted] H captures the sense of G/P's concalefacta ('warmed thoroughly'), 4.698, together with the destructive aspect of Lambinus' conlabefacta ('disintegrated') (354), which is rejected in P's margin though followed by other editors (see Smith, 4.697).

729 The opend … expire] this line is not in L; for 'expire' as 'exhale', cf. 2.1127.

730–2 bodies … Because they penetrate not] i.e. the atoms constituting smells are too large to penetrate barriers that the smaller atoms of sound can invade.

735 by sence] H's addition.

736 slow touch … coole] 'coole' has 'touch' (for plaga, 'blow', of the olfactory emanation, 4.704) as its subject.

737 new done things] L personifies the smell as a lazy messenger (4.705), but H's 'new done' goes beyond her text, perhaps prompted by P's plaga, recens nuntiatrix rerum.

739–40 nor only in this kind | Is there a losse] L's hoc (4.707) probably refers back to the earlier discussion of the differing effects of emanations (4.674–86) rather than the immediately preceding discussion of smell, which may have been a late insertion; H takes genere to agree with hoc rather than saporum.

740 species] L's species (4.708) here applies to visual simulacra. 742 an equall vigorous sight] H obscures L's point that some sights are disagreeable (acria, 4.710), here 'pungent' (Bailey, 399), 'stinging' (Rouse/Smith, 333) to certain species while not at all so to others.

743–5 The shrill cock … the fierce ravenous lions] as P's glosses to 4.711, 4.713 note, the standard reference work for such habits of animals is Pliny's Natural History.

pg 658

743 shrill] renders L's clara … voce (4.712).

744 Clapping] catches the theatrical metaphor of explaudentibus (4.711).

745 ravenous] early modern texts have rapidi (P 4.713), one of whose senses R/H gives as 'ravenous', not rabidi (see Smith, 4.712).

747 runne away] H renders P's gloss on 4.714; L has meminere fugaï, 'thinke of flight' (Evelyn, 4.751). Aesop's treatment of this belief helped to continue its circulation in early modern emblem books.

750 Offend the sight] L has Pupillas interfodiunt (4.717), which means more graphically that 'they bore into the pupils'. The note in P offers pungunt (either 'puncture' or 'disturb') and stimulant ('goad' or 'disturb').

753 passe away] i.e. pass back out of the eye.

754 backwards flow] renders the common early modern reading remeando (P 4.721), not Smith's remorando (4.720), 'lingering'.

756mn The cause of thought and imagination] in bringing 'imagination' back into focus, H clarifies the main claim of L in this passage (4.723–57, H 4.756–823): that thought is generated in the same manner as vision, by images or simulacra that penetrate and touch the mind. Sensation and thought are equally corporeal, tactile, and kinetic. Also, the reference to imagination anticipates the later discussion of dreams (H 4.1019–84). P's gloss on 4.723 prompts her: Hactenus docuit sine imaginibus sentiri & cerni non posse: nunc ne quidem cogitari ('thus far he has taught that feeling and perception are impossible without images: now that not even thinking [is thus possible]').

756 mind] L's animum (4.723) and mentem (4.724) are jointly translated by Rouse/Smith (333) and others as 'mind'; cf. H 3.149n, 4.798n.

757 have influence] H changes L's verb from a repetition of 'they come' (veniunt, veniant (4.724)); 'influence' can mean both 'flowing in' and 'effect'.

758 subtile] as often, H's word for Tenuia (4.727), 'thin'.

761 spiders webs] cf. Cavendish, Poems, and Fancies, 'Of Aire' (7): 'For Atomes long, their Formes are like a Thread, | Which interweaves like to a Spiders W'. For many occasions on which the subtlety of atoms leads to seventeenth-century metaphors, see Barbour, English Epicures and Stoics, ch. 1. H omits L's point that these images join easily.

763 glancing] closer to P's percutiunt ('they hit', 4.730) than to Lambinus' and Smith's percipiunt (4.729), 'they take or seize'; cf. 4.283n.

cause] here and in H 4.765 below, H renders L's lacessunt ('they assail', P 4.730 and 4.732) non-violently.

765 the minds seate] L's Tenuem animi naturam (4.732) refers to the mind's rarefied yet still material nature rather than to its location.

wake] for lacessunt (4.732).

pg 659

766 threefacd Cerberus] L has Cerbereasq́ue canum facies, 'Cerberus-like faces of dogs' (4.734). Cf. H 5.928–31.

768 images] here (4.734) L returns to the superstitious simulacra he has discussed at the start of the book (4.34), to correct the term again with a more scientific meaning.

769 Dead men … enclose] as P notes, L's 4.735 largely repeats 1.135, which H translates comparably at 1.138, turning tellus, 'earth', into tombs. H adds 'drie' to suggest L's designation 'of those for whom death is past' (Rouse/Smith, 335).

sepulchers] L has tellus ('earth') (4.735).

771 of their owne accord] spontaneously.

773 And what … make] new images formed from combinations of the preceding categories (4.739).

775 creature] the MS anima was emended in early printed editions to animai, by Lambinus to animalis, '(non-human) animal' (Lambinus, 358; Smith, 4.740) and by G to animantis, 'living creature' (P 4.741).

777 those strange shapes begett] H's version of Herescit facilè extemplò (4.743), 'it [the combined image] readily takes hold at once'.

779 thin webbs … be] H's amplification of L's tenuia texta (4.744).

780 monsters] H's addition to 4.745.

782 proper] L has summa (4.746), 'extreme'.

783 soules] for animum, 4.748.

784 soules] for mens, 4.749.

786 comprize] comprehend (OED †2.a), for cognoscere (4.750).

793 soule] not in L 4.756.

796mn The cause of dreames] L's materialist account of dreams (4.758–77) is first broached at his 4.37–45, developed at 4.454–62 and fully amplified at 4.959–1030, a passage to which H's heading 'The reason of dreames' is more appropriate. L aims to undercut traditional beliefs about nocturnal visitations. The images of the gods, we later learn, can be glimpsed in sleep (5.1170–81), but these calming visions, like all images, depend on correct interpretation and are all too liable to arouse superstitious fear. H is typical of her contemporaries in being at once fascinated by the possible significance of dreams and suspicious of this fascination: cf. 'Autobiography', 16; 'Life', 371, Memoirs, 242; OD 14.43–174 (modelled on Ovid, Metamorphoses, 11.592–625), 19.27–64, 'Elegies', 11.3. Evelyn's commentary assembles a number of key references, from Aristotle to Meric Casaubon (73v).

796 gives … libertie] H's version of profudit (4.758), 'poured out', metaphorically 'prostrated, relaxed' (cf. 6.744). Cf. 4.473.

pg 660

798 The mind] L's Mens animi (4.759) highlights the intellectual as opposed to the affective part of the animus; cf. 3.616, H 3.641.

800 soules] animos (4.760).

802 exchangd] H's rendering of Reddita, 'given back' (4.762; Smith, 4.761, has the later emendation rellicta) might have been nudged by a gloss in P: mors cum vitâ commutata.

802–3 & haue | Long time layne … silent grave] L 4.761–2 have death and earth actively taking possession of the deceased, cf. 4.735; H imports a traditional elegiac language of silence and imprisonment, cf. OD 5.250, 6.627–8, 17.70, 'Elegies', 22.8.

806 convince] conuincere (4.765), 'refute', cf. 4.502 and note.

809–11 And dullnesse … by dreames] perhaps thrown by the use, unique in Latin, of dissentit (4.767) as 'protest that'—though P's note paraphrases the passage—H slides from 'differ' as 'disagree' to 'be different', having the dreamer no different from the dead. In L, memory is no longer awake to protest that the apparently living person the mind perceives has long been dead. H prepares the way for her reading by the additional phrase at 4.809.

812–23 Nor lett … supply] the main ideas of P's 4.769–77 recur at 4.789–800, in a somewhat clearer form, and modern editors assume that the passage needed further revision; the exact arrangement of the lines is still subject to debate. P notes that his 4.775–7 had been rejected as spurious by Lambinus; Evelyn and Creech did not translate them. His 4.775 recurs at 4.800; versions of his 4.772–3 appear as Smith's 4.800–1.

815 swift] H's addition.

817 state] statu (4.773), 'position'.

820 then the birth of new] H's addition.

821–3 In such large plentie … supply] for P's 4.775–7; mistranslates the difficult phrase sensibili … tempore in vno, which refers to the Epicurean concept of a minimal perceptible unit of time (developed further at P 4.795): 'in every sensible space of time to make a supply' (Anon, 185). Lambinus considered that 4.776–7 did not make sense and Evelyn did not translate this passage.

824mn Obiection] L (4.778–94) writes of questions and clarifications rather than explicit objections: if images are material, and hence finite, why are they not in short supply? Why do they seem to move and change shape? The second question has in effect already been answered in the immediately preceding passage, where L already broaches a more general answer to both, to be developed at 4.795–9: dream-images coalesce from an enormous number of minute simulacra beneath the normal threshold of perception (cf. Gilles Deleuze, The Logic of Sense, trans. Mark Lester with Charles Stivale, ed. Constantin V pg 661Boundas (1990), 310–14). Thus the illusion of intense reality is constructed by optical illusions: some critics write of L as anticipating the cinema.

827 presently] 'instantly', for extemplo (4.781).

829 bends attend] matches the tone of L's sardonic wordplay (simulacra … simulac, 4.782–3).

831 pomps] pompam (4.785), 'parade, procession'.

832 presently] for sub verbó (4.786), 'at a word'.

833 Chiefely] L's præsertim (4.787) is here concessive: this hypothesis of images bending to the will is especially unlikely given how many conflicting wills there are.

835–7 Further when in our dreames … cadence meete] H compresses L's scene of imagistic revelry, omitting 4.791, 'swinging one supple arm after the other in rippling movement' (Rouse/Smith, 339), and like other contemporary translators has difficulty with oculis in 4.792, which Creech omitted from his translation and emended in his text (Rouse/Smith: 'repeating before our sight the same gesture with foot answering to hand').

838 quallities] cf. the note on this usage in the Dedication, l. 44.

840 instructed art] arte madent, 'they are steeped in art' (4.793), an idiom P glosses at length.

841–5 that in … knows?] H rearranges and finds it hard to make sense of a difficult and textually problematic passage, which Evelyn reduced to 'in one tyme many tymes be' (4.837). Taking up the argument and some of the wording from 4.775–7, L writes that many moments lie concealed (latent, 4.797) in a particular moment, as in the sound of a single word; he has in mind the analogy of atoms' divisibility.

842 ioyne] translating G/P's Consentimus, 'we agree, assert together' (P 4.796); the word has often been emended from the sixteenth century onward (e.g. cum sentimus, 'when we perceive', Smith, 4.795). The passage is very condensed and H explicates with 'many motions' (cf. Watson's 'variety of motions', 175) and 'which passe away | So vndiscernd'.

844–5 we … perceiues not] amplifies Tempora multa latent, 'many moments are lurking' (4.797).

846 in euery place] obscures L's continuing discussion of time, tempore (4.798).

848 swift, numberlesse, and subtile] H compresses these epithets together from two separate sentences, with one of the lines (P 4.800) repeating P 4.775. Between these two sentences her Latin text lacks two lines repeating an earlier point about why thought images appear to change postures (in Smith's edition, 4.771–2—P 4.772–3—are repeated as 4.800–1, with slight change to 772). In the Latin, only the thinness is given as the reason why we notice only what we want to notice.

pg 662

849 any images can see] the Latin modifies this point with acutè (4.801); i.e. it notices no image clearly unless it wishes to notice it fervently.

850 apply] OED3 1.b, 'bring into … more or less prolonged contact'; for contendit, 4.801.

851 carelessely past by] H's addition.

852 soule] once again H introduces the soul where L's subject (understood) is animus, 'mind' (4.802).

853 With … view] H intensifies L's insistence on the mind's freedom, against the apparently deterministic tendency of his model of perception; her 'considerate' echoes P's gloss on 4.803–4, considerat.

854–5 Hoping … gaines] despite P's gloss on 4.804–5, whose seriem may prompt her 'chaines', H misses L's exact sense, in a difficult play of language which tries to reconcile freedom with determinism: the mind predisposes itself, anticipating a series of images whose appearance it has partly caused (more literally, 'the mind hopes for it to come about that it may see what follows whatever thing: so it does happen').

855 humane] not in L.

859 The heedlesse mind] Si non aduortas animum (4.810), 'if you do not turn your mind'.

cleare matters] rebus … apertis (4.809), obvious things as opposed to the 'subtile obiects', tenuia quæ sint (4.806); without careful attention, the mind fails to grasp even these.

860–1 vnmarkt … in any season bene] the 'cleare matters' seem as if remote in time or space; her alexandrine perhaps matches L's play on semotum … remotum (4.811).

862–71 What … strange] the more actively the mind shapes its experiences, the less it pays attention to experience and cheats itself of truth (4.812–20).

863 intentiuely] for in rebus deditus, 4.813: 'with earnest attention or application', OED.

864 appearances we guesse] from L's Latin terms for Epicurean concepts, adopinamur de signis, 'we conjecture from signs', i.e. from indirect evidence (4.814). L returns to a topic he has discussed earlier (L 4.466, H 4.485n). Such conjecture is essential to knowledge of remote things, but always liable to mislead.

865 And so … cheate] for Ac nos in fraudem induimus, frustramur id ipsi (4.815), we 'couzen or selves, & are frustrated' (Anon, 187); early modern editions do not have the frustraminis now favoured (Rouse/Smith, 4.817). As in her use of 'imagination' for opinatus animi (see 4.485n), H's choice of 'fancy' (cf. 'th'actiue fancy', book 4 Arg 23) for false conclusions derived from adopinari implies a largely negative view of these faculties, cf. 1.769n, 3.93, 3.494, 4.1072. Cf. the preface to OD pg 663(*)2r, OD 9.29, 19.54, 'Elegies', 11.1, and for the range of values placed on fancy in seventeenth-century religious discourse, see Reid Barbour, Literature and Religious Culture in Seventeenth-Century England (Cambridge, 2002), ch. 3.

866–7 And … kind] H's transition (her Latin has no paragraph break) obscures the fact that this is really a fresh point about dreams. Non sequiturs are common in dreams, L notes, and while we are dreaming, we are not bothered or even struck by the incongruities.

869 if … neere] L's In manibus (4.818) may mean 'at hand', 'before our eyes', or more literally evoke a dream embrace; Evelyn, 4.858–9, translates near-identically.

pg 664

872mn They are condemnd … for the sence] in a shift of direction, L satirizes the teleological arguments which had been at the heart of Aristotelian and Stoic philosophy (see Smith, 342, Bailey, 1280–2, Godwin, DRNIV 140) and which remained powerfully influential in H's time. The example of the eye as an organ too complex to have evolved without an external design (4.834) has been used by defenders of natural theology down to William Paley and modern defenders of 'intelligent design'. Evelyn's commentary reflects how repugnant L's argument is to seventeenth-century notions of a providential cosmos in which all things are invested with a purpose. Evelyn marshals Aristotle, Lactantius, and Galen's 'admirable extasies' in The Usefulness of the Parts of the Body (book 10) to defend the divine design of the eye (commentary, 70v, reprinted by Repetzki, 230–1). Similarly, in The Darknes of Atheism Charleton attacked the Epicureans as unique amongst the ancients in failing to recognize some form of divine teleology (40–2). In OD, H would strongly affirm her belief in a final cause and the teleological design of the human body (1.71–7, 3.13–122). Her translation, however, does not blunt L's undermining of any notion of a supernatural design behind the universe. De Q argues that H's 'repeated use of "created" or "creation" … suggests her teleological mind-set' (222; cf. 4.875, 4.883, 4.889, 4.901, 4.903); but four of these usages directly translate different forms of creare (4.823, 4.833, 4.835, 4.837). Despite her repugnance for the denial of final causes, H would have been aware of contemporaries who found in Epicureanism a useful weapon against the particular form of teleology embodied in Aristotle's system. This system could be considered over-presumptuous, pre-empting fuller study of the complexity of the means by which the divine purpose was realized. Francis Bacon had warned natural philosophers away from their rash recourse to the final cause—though he allows for a coexistence between final and physical causes (see Advancement of Learning, ed. Kiernan, 86–7). Gassendi tried to synthesize Epicureanism with an underlying model of final causes. Boyle rejected the 'easy Theory of Vision' of those who defined the eye's function without detailed knowledge of the organism (The Christian Virtuoso, in Works, XI. 296): see Margaret Osler, 'Whose Ends? Teleology in Early Modern Natural Philosophy', Osiris, 2nd series, 16 (2001), 151–68.

872–4 Condemne we … say] P's 4.822–4 have been much emended by later editors, and Smith reads vementer avemus | te fugere, errorem vitareque praemetuentur, | lumina ne facias, 'which we earnestly desire you to escape, shunning error with exceeding fearfulness: do not suppose that the clear light of the eyes was made' (Smith, 4.823–5; Rouse/Smith, 341).

875–6 feete and leggs … props] H has compressed a good deal here. L refers to the calves and thighs; but 'props' catches the satirical tone of fundata, 'based' or 'founded' (4.826).

880 all the rest were made] transfers Cetera de genere hoc (4.830) from the false opinions to the organs.

881 severall] separate, distinctive, proper.

882 Nature … compose] H adds the hypothetical artistic agency of Nature; L twice has natum'st, 'is born' (4.832–3).

890 But then to fight] H's 'But then' does not sufficiently clarify L's At contrà, 'but on the contrary' (4.841). Bailey paraphrases this key distinction between human invention and natural processes (1281): 'Man having come into existence with certain faculties can conceive a purpose and invent weapons and utensils in order to carry out this purpose; but such a process must not be attributed to nature'. It remains for L to establish in book 5 whether the rise of civilization has been mainly good or bad.

891 distaind] 'stained', 'discoloured', OED v.1.

892 bright weapons] L has lucida tela (4.843), 'bright darts, shafts'; and he has them in flight (volarent). Note the contrast between Epicurus' intellectual dispersion of the sun's rays', lucida tela, 1.147, and merely military weapons.

892–5 found … yeild] Evelyn's wording and rhymes are close to H here (4.884–7).

904–22 Neither … gives] L returns (4.856–74) to the body and its desires, cf. 2.1158–70; some editors have considered the passage an afterthought.

904 admire] wonder.

905–20 That … drie] H runs three sentences together.

905 That … require] a compressed version of L's difficult corporis … animantis (4.856–7), 'the nature of the body of every living thing of itself seeks food' (Bailey, 407); on 'require' for quærit, see OED3 'require' v.10.a.

906–7 in all things … Bodies] in P's text, L explains that the bodies flow off from things in many ways. P 4.859, unusually, departs from G's Multa modis docui, itself a departure from the MS reading, retained by modern editors (Rouse/Smith, 4.861), multa modis multis docui: 'I have shown you … that many bodies are thrown off flowing from things in many ways' (Rouse/Smith, 345).

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907–8 they loose … be] H follows P's version, 4.859–60, of a frequently emended passage; Smith has ex animalibu'. quae quia sunt (Rouse/Smith, 4.862), 'from living creatures; for since these are always in quick movement' (Rouse/Smith, 345).

914 wasting strength] despite (or because of?) P's lengthy note, H omits the unusual word interdatus (4.866), 'by filling the interstices' (Rouse/Smith, 345), part of a sustained double architectural and gastronomic metaphor (West, 65–6).

915 hungers … reignes] more condemnatory than L's patentem … amorem … edendi (4.866–7), 'the gaping desire to eat' (Rouse/Smith, 345), in which L portrays the body as a leaky vessel or building in need of patchwork.

924mn The cause of motion] at 4.875–904 L struggles to reconcile the language of voluntary choice, which recalls his earlier discussion of the swerve at 2.225–93, with a mechanistic account of will—provoked into action by images striking the mind. Cf. Bailey, 1287. H may have recalled Hobbes's comparison of the body to a machine in the introduction to Leviathan. Cf. commentary on 2.211mn.

924 vigorous force] H's addition.

926 actiue power] L has res (4.877).

927 into motion driue] L treats such action as a habit (insuerit, 4.878), viewed by classical moral philosophers as a crucial factor in shaping ethical behaviour (Godwin, DRNIV 142); cf. 4.1275.

930 the will provokes] cf. 4.758–65. H fills in the mechanical sequence where L is more vague: Inde voluntas fit (4.881). Anon (190) has 'Hence ariseth the will'.

931–3 For neuer any motion … the image prooves] a difficult rendering of a rather obscure passage. Cf. P's note on 4.883: At id, quod mens præuidet, illius rei, quam quis facere instituit, est imago. For 4.883 Evelyn has 'But what it doth foresee, that needes must be | The Image of yt thing' (4.928–9); Creech has 'Now what the Mind perceives, it only sees | By thin, and very subtle Images' (128).

934 mind its owne force mooves] animus … sese ita commouet (4.884): H's translation heightens L's emphasis on the active role of animus, which is free to decide whether to instruct the body to move, a message delivered by the anima (Godwin, DRNIV 142–3).

936 soule] i.e. the anima (4.886).

938 they dwell in neere coniunction] coniuncta tenetur (4.887): the dispersed powers of the spirit (anima) are intimately connected to the mind (animus).

941 This motion … rarefie] H provides the causation to an occurrence that seems simultaneous to motion in L: the body 'becomes porous' (rarescit, 4.890). Cf. Leonard/Smith, 602, who argue that indeed 'this condition [of becoming porous] results from the mere fact of motion'. H may have remembered L 4.861–4.

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945 two impulsiue causes] L has rebus … duabus (4.894). As Smith points out, these two are '[t]he limbs and the air' (346). Bailey paraphrases the argument: 'exercise rarefies the texture of the body, and air rushes in to fill the void and so assists in moving the limbs as wind does the sails of a ship' (1286–7).

947 be borne] a fairly weak rendering of Contorquere (4.898), which caps an alliterative sequence (4.896–7) to emphasize the initial implausibility of the process: 'To winde or wreathe about, to turne round, to wrest to, to cast [cf. 1.969]' (R/H). Evelyn picks up an emergent nautical metaphor, developed at 4.902, with 'steere' (4.942).

952 single hands] G/P emend unus to vna at 4.902, having it agree with manus (see the gloss in P on 4.902) rather than gubernaclum, 'one rudder' (Smith, 4.904; Rouse/Smith, 347); H conflates the hands from 4.901–2 and omits the rudder of 4.902.

954 cranes and engines] L offers three mechanical terms (4.903–4): the general subject (machina) and two means of moving heavy bodies, trochleas (a 'block with pulleys', OLD), and tympanum, which P explains as a wheel worked like a treadmill or crane.

955mn The cause of Sleepe] L's most extended discussion of sleep (4.905–58) refers back to his discussion of the mortality of the soul in book 3; sleep is deprived of mystical associations and seen as a daily reminder of the precariousness of the conjunction of animus and anima.

956 creepe] L has Inriget (4.906), 'pours in' (cf. rigantur, 4.1023; P notes the metaphor from watering plants and gives many classical parallels including Virgil, Aeneid, 1.691–2).

957–60 I shall … skies] L's repetition of this poetic manifesto (4.180–2, 4.907–9) signals that he is now tying the book's themes together in a fuller discussion of sleep, dreams, and the erotic imagination, highlighting both the errors that false interpretation of images can produce and the possibility of avoiding them. H again turns south to north (see 4.184–7n) though her wording is slightly different.

965 the soules powers] in reference to the anima (4.915).

967 inmost seate] more centred than L's altum (4.916), 'the depths'.

968 Dissolving] for Dissoluuntur (4.917), '"relaxing," "enervating"' (de Q 222, OED 'dissolve' †4).

969 begetts] not L's metaphor, 4.918–19.

971 during sleepes reigne] H's addition.

972 in a distracted state] perturbatam (4.920), Evelyn, 'troubled' (4.966).

976 sparkes] H's metaphor for pars (4.923) anticipates L's analogy to the fire in ashes, but (together with the 'seeds' that she adds in H 4.979) also offers one of the most pervasive early modern images for the soul. See Maryanne Cline pg 667Horowitz, Seeds of Virtue and Knowledge (Princeton, 1998), Hiro Hirai, Le concept de semence dans les théories de la matière à la Renaissance: De Marsile Ficin à Pierre Gassendi (Turnhout, 2005).

979 seeds] H adds this noun to L's cæco (4.926), connecting with L's fire metaphor.

981 suddaine accidents] nouitas, 'changed state' (4.927).

arriue] H does not take up the metaphor of confletur, 'may be inflamed' (4.927) (this reading, probably influenced by reconflari (4.925), is now emended to confiat, 'comes to pass', Smith, 4.929).

984 so my words be] L addresses his audience more aggressively: tu fac ne (4.929), 'do you see to it that I do not' (Rouse/Smith, 349).

987 frequent strokes] renders Tundier … pulsarier (4.932), 'thumped and buffeted' (Rouse/Smith, 349).

988 All kind … enclos'd] H omits the logical connection, Proptereáque (4.933), 'And for that reason', and ferè (4.933), 'nearly'. H does not take up P's hints in his gloss at a logic of purpose: things are covered so that they will not be injured; he cites the providential and Stoic second book of Cicero's De natura deorum.

991 darke seates] H's addition, cf. 4.967.

992 respired] when air is breathed in and out (4.936); P glosses cùm attrahitur & cùm respiratur.

993 both these wayes] vtrimque (4.937); H takes L to refer to the air that surrounds and buffets the whole body and to the air inhaled and exhaled.

995 lifes springs] L has elementáque prima (4.939) to go with primas partis.

998 Bodie and mind compose] modern scholars and editors have questioned L's use of animi (4.942), since 'the animus is unaffected in sleep' (Smith, 350). H's 'mind' is accurate, but Smith agrees with Bailey that 'Lucr. here uses animus in the inclusive sense of animus + anima, or perhaps that he made a slip' (Smith, 351).

999 expird] for Eiiciatur, 4.943, 'cast out' (Evelyn, 4.991); cf. 1.1126–7n.

1000 holds] as in 4.967 above, H gives a sense of centred place to L's vague references to the inner reaches of the body (introrsum pars abdita cedat, 4.943); her metaphor might refer to a ship cavity for cargo, a fortress, or receptacle as well as a refuge.

1004 close] deep (alté, 4.947).

1005 deserted] H's compression of 4.948, 'since there is nothing as it were to prop up the limbs' (Rouse/Smith, 351), which echoes 4.865.

1008–9 at length. | Againe sleepe] with P, H omits a line found in Lambinus (375) and modern editions (Rouse/Smith, 4.953): saepe tamen summittuntur virisque resolvunt, in which the limbs' collapse is brought to a conclusion. G/P's procubant (4.950) pg 668was an emendation of an uncertain word; Lambinus has the closely related procumbunt. Smith (4.952) has cubanti. H adds the adjectives for parts of the body; alliteration and assonance parallel to L's are heightened by 'limber': 'limp, flaccid, flabby' (OED 1.a. †1c); see 6.797.

1013 seedes] for Corpora (4.955).

1014 perturbation] P's concusa, 'forced' (4.955), not Lambinus' (375) and Smith's (4.958) contusa, 'subdued, suppressed'.

1015 inwarder retreate] Altior (4.957), glossed by P as est abstrusior, reconditior, 'it is more hidden, more retired'.

1016 More of the spiritts] early modern texts have the emendation porrò (P 4.956), where later editors read parte (from MSS, see Smith, 4.959; 'part is thrown', Rouse/Smith, 351) or Lachmann's partim (Godwin, DRNIV 4.959).

1018 at a wilder distance] H is translating distractior (4.958), 'more scattered'; for 'wild' in this sense cf. 2.224n.

1019mn The reason of dreames] H's Argument, l. 24 notes that this passage (L 4.959–1030) prepares for the ensuing discussion of 'Loue, the waking dreame'. On dreams see further commentary to 4.796mn.

1022 fancies] H's addition; cf. 4.865n.

1023 statutes write] H's reading of componere leges (4.963), which, as P's Lexicon indicates, is more likely to mean something like comparing laws ('collate laws', Rouse/Smith, 353); H's contemporary English translators, however, share her interpretation (cf. Evelyn, 'Statutes to make', 4.1014).

1025 Saylors … contend] for a summary of variants on the bellum in P 4.965, see Smith, 352, note on 4.968.

1026 natures misteries] as usual, H's slant on naturam … rerum (4.966), which L here associates with the title of his poem.

1027 Translating them into our natiue speech] in rendering exponere as 'Translating', H discreetly signals her own agency as translator: at 4.967 L does not specifically point the contrasts between Greek and Latin as he does at 1.831–2. Cf. Evelyn, 'We in or Mother Tongue explaine' (4.1018); and Anon, 'consigning the same & setting-it-forth in my native language' (193–4). L's patriis … chartis (4.967) may refer to writings about his 'father' Epicurus or to his native tongue (Leonard/Smith, 608). As Zerbino points out (150), H shows no sign of having been misled by P's misprint of iuuentam (4.967) for inuentam (the reading in the Lexicon).

1029 busie] for frustrata ('in vain', 'delusional', 4.969). H's term might suggest 'restless' (OED 5) or 'anxious' (OED †6a); cf. 'to reclaim a busie roving thought from wandring in the pernicious and perplexed maze of humane inventions' (OD 1679, (*)1r).

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1030 excessiue pleasures] more insidious than L's example of the man who is always thinking about sports or games (ludis, 4.970). H gives the lighter sense in 4.1035 with 'sportfull dayes'. Cf. Evelyn, 'publique Shews' (4.1021).

1031 dayly] in L, over many days (4.972).

1032 reall] not in L.

1037 the chorus … time] H adopts the terminology 'chorus' for saltantis from the gloss in P on 4.977. In L's highly alliterative passage, dancers are said to move their 'soft limbs' (mollia membra mouentis, 4.977, reprising 4.790), but H stresses their perfect timing.

1038 rhime] following P's suggestion that loquentes is a metaphor for 'sounding' (sonantes), H also metaphorizes the noun that it modifies, chordas ('strings') in 4.978, perhaps with a further prompt from carmen in the line.

1039 On crowded theaters] for consessum cernere eundem (4.979), 'to see the same assembly', probably referring back to the dancers, but taken by Evelyn to refer to the spectators (4.1030); H's 'On … theaters' may perhaps mean 'on stages', OED †3.

1040 oft-changd scæne] L's varios … decores (4.980) implies rich decorations but H seems to have in mind the changing scenery that was becoming fashionable in plays and masques. Evelyn envisages 'Maskers' hearing a 'Recitative' (4.1028–9).

1042 mens dreames rise] filled in by H after P 4.982.

1043 euery beasts] a crucial point for stressing that dreams are natural, not supernatural or prophetic (see Godwin, DRNIV 146).

1044 generous] i.e. noble, gallant, ample; also used of horses at OD 8.237. Evelyn uses the same term (4.1034) for fortis (4.984), an epithet for horses used also at 3.8 and 3.764.

1046 Loosd from the post] translates the first part of 4.987; the anticipation of sæpe quiete from the following line made P and other early modern editors consider this line spurious, and modern editors still differ on the text (Smith has rumpere sese, 4.990).

1047 swift hound] for Venantum … canes (4.988), 'the dogs of hunters'.

1051 windes] i.e. gets the wind of (4.990).

1054 vaine apprehensions] H is working with P's terroribus (4.994) rather than Lambinus' now-accepted emendation erroribus (378).

1057 soft sleepes] based on a line found in P (4.996) and Lambinus (378) but not in modern editions (between Smith 4.998–9).

1061 fearefull doves] H specifies the dove, a bird with emblematic and religious associations: cf. OD 2.305–6, 7.373–4, 8.126–66. P's gloss on 4.1002 highlights the birds' fear.

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1062 Flie to] H omits the detail that they disturb the groves with their wings. 'Lucretius impiously insinuates, That the Gods cannot protect their Intimate Birds from the Image of a Hawk' (Digby, 392).

1063–4 Dreaming … for food] in L, the birds have awakened from their dream to seek shelter. H omits L's reference to 'soft sleep' but adds the hawks' desire for food. In L, they are preparing for battle.

1066 Dreames … breeds] awkward phrasing: 'breeds' is the main verb.

1067 Kings dreame … gaine] the Latin syntax here is ambiguous; Evelyn, 4.1056, has 'They vanquish Kings', taking Reges as object of expugnant (4.1007) with hominum mentes, 4.1005, as subject; Anon has 'Kings overcome others' (195). L does not specify towns.

1068–9 readie … cries] H omits the graphic detail that they think their throats are to be cut (iugulentur, 4.1008), and adds the amazed cries.

1069–84 At which … engage] this example and the following ones are hardly noble or heroic. In dreams, the great ambitions of human nature are cut down to size. The dreams become so ignominious, in fact, that H's manuscript resorts to large-scale omission of the sexual ones. The discussion of dreams modulates into a discussion of love.

1072 those vayne fancies cause] H's retrospective recognition of L's quasi, 'as if', 4.1010. For 'fancy', see 1.769n, 4.865n.

1078 suddenly] i.e. immediately or easily.

1080 drinke] omitting L's propè, 'nearly' (4.1019).

1081 Young boyes] H shortens by half this example of bedwetting during dreams of urination (4.1020–3) (Creech omitted these lines altogether). She translates the Pueri in P (4.1020), not the MS reading puri, 'pure ones', Lambinus' emendation Pusi (381), 'boys', or Smith's parvi, 'children' (4.1026).

1083–4 And youths … engage] H greatly trims L's explicit account of wet dreams at puberty, called forth by erotic images (4.1024–9). L's language lacks the censoriousness of 'lusts' in the somewhat Spenserian alexandrine of 4.1084.

1083mn much here was left out] the entire text from P 4.1025 to 4.1128 has no equivalent in H's manuscript. Via his discussion of dreams, L moves from perception in general to the potentially damaging effect of false perception in erotic matters. For Epicurus, sexual pleasures rank amongst the natural but unnecessary pleasures, which 'do not involve the removal of pain and hence can be neglected without deleterious physical consequences' (Brown, Lucretius on Love and Sex, 106). Moreover, such pleasures may become harmful, easily passing over into limitless desires which necessarily cannot be fulfilled: empty pleasures. In the passage H here omits, L describes sexual arousal and intercourse in vivid, sometimes violent terms, then calls on the reader to fly from images, fugitare … simulacra (P 4.1056), to gain a simpler and less unnatural pleasure by discharging an ejaculation in corpora quæque, 'casting the collected moisture on any bodyes pg 671whatsoever' (P 4.1058, Anon, 197). The final sections of book 4 serve two related roles: to explain human sexuality and reproduction in atomic terms, and to test the reader's capacity to achieve Epicurean tranquillity in the face of sexual desire and the literary conventions that frame that desire.

Early modern readers responded intensely though somewhat equivocally to this part of the book (see further Introduction, 4.2). There was some unease about its sexual explicitness. Evelyn declared 'The End of the fowrth Booke' after 'Babylonish Coverlett' and translated no further (Diary and Correspondence, III. 218, Repetzki, 125); he therefore omitted any discussion of these passages in his commentary, which likewise declares 'The End of the 4th booke' at a point which is not the end (75r). Creech omitted some especially graphic lines (he broke off his translation at 4.1249). Fayus' 1680 Dauphin edition breaks off at P's 4.1023, declaring that it was unfit to translate and annotate these lines for the chaste reader (though the offending lines were published in an Appendix and indexed separately). Marolles and Anon translated the whole book but the former toned down the graphic language. As late as 1851, John Selby Watson considered it inappropriate to offer a literal translation of 4.1024–280, substituting lines from Good's verse translation (Watson, 182–91). Some seventeenth-century writers were more enthusiastic about these lines, however. George Sandys enthusiastically translated 4.1069–106 (in P's numeration) in his Ovid's Metamorphoses Englished (Oxford, 1632), 1.0–1: Stuart Gillespie, 'Lucretius in the English Renaissance', in Gillespie and Hardie, 242–53 (249–50). In 1685 Dryden highlighted Creech's relative caution when publishing a full translation of 4.1052–287, declaring that if 'nothing of this kind be to be read, Physicians must not study Nature, Anatomies must not be seen', and insisting that 'neither he nor I have us'd the grossest words; but the cleanliest Metaphors we cou'd find, to palliate the broadness of the meaning' (Sylvae, 12–13). He had distinguished precedents: Lambinus (Screech, 486) and G agreed that the passage beginning at 4.1056 was a powerful and morally appropriate condemnation of sexual excess, and Montaigne, who marked the whole section very carefully, claimed to have put it into practice ('On Diversion', Essays, III:4, 941; Screech, 158–9, 486). Faber lamented the poet's fate: some people wanted to remove one of his best and most salutary pieces of writing (Digby, II. 398–400). L's cure for love informed Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy and Swift's 'The Lady's Dressing Room'.

Such praise took for granted the perspective of a male reader who was liable to see erotic excess as an impediment to the effective management of his life, and who might take a pragmatic view of marriage. The element of homosocial identification is manifest in an eighteenth-century prose version where the anonymous translator, having rendered most of the end of book 4, breaks off with 'I can translate no further. Dryden, in his Miscellanies, goes on in full Vigour, and keeps up to the Original': T. Lucretius Carus of the Nature of Things, 2 vols. (1743), II. 105. As a woman translator of a potentially scandalous Latin text, and one with a pronounced commitment to an ideal view of marriage, Hutchinson pg 672was in a very difficult position. The only known contemporary comment her translation received was a warning that this part of book 4 ruled out L as a suitable author for women, who should not concern themselves with 'geniall things', affirming that the 'task is masculine' (Aston Cokayne, Small Poems of Divers Sorts (1658), 204); see Introduction, 2.3. Her response is double-edged. In the manuscript presented to Anglesey, her marginal note and omissions distance her from the passage. On the other hand, H left hints that she may in fact have translated the passages which she omitted from this particular manuscript. She resumes P at 4.1129 on a line that is the second half of a couplet and whose sense is incomplete. Her decision to insert line numbers in book 4 highlights a conspicuous jump between her 4.1080 and 4.1210. The gap in the English lineation is one of 116 lines; the Latin lines omitted total 102. The ratio of English to Latin lines implied here is a little above the norm for her translation, indicating that she may conceivably have translated these lines and done so fairly fully, but that she did not feel it appropriate to include them in a manuscript addressed to a male friend and patron. OD 16.267–80 discusses love in terms similar to some of the omitted lines. De Q (237–40), prints the passages which H omitted in Anon's translation. At least as striking as her omissions are her bold attempts to rewrite significant passages of this final section, several times qualifying L's perspective with a specifically female one, with the emphasis on the wife's role in marriage. In the process, she plays down the provocative anti-humanism of L's challenges to conventional discourses of love. It is possible that this rewriting and the Argument date from the 1670s rather than the 1650s (cf. Introduction, 6.1).

midwife … whose obsceane art] H displaces criticism of female authorship on to professional women with lower social status. She perhaps glances particularly at Jane Sharp's The Midwives Book (1671), which described the female genitalia in unprecedented detail. Thomas Brown linked pornography with midwives' handbooks when he attacked Dryden for making 'a very formal Apology for Translating a certain luscious part of Lucretius (he could not find in his heart, he tells you, to give it a worse name) though some people are apt to believe it ought only to keep company with Culpeppers Midwife, or the English Translation of Aloysia Sigea' (Thomas Brown, The Reasons of Mr. Bays Changing his Religion (1688), sig. B1v). The analogy is misleading: though L writes of sexual matters, he manages to do so by conveying an impression of explicitness which his metaphorical richness frequently eludes.

nicer pen] compare H's account of her reluctance to have her early literary compositions circulated: 'howeuer this song is stollen forth, she is the nicest creature in the world of … suffering her perfections to be knowne', 'Life', 52, Memoirs, 29, listed at OED3 'nice' †6b, 'shy, reluctant, or unwilling', and her account of her husband's linguistic care, 'his iudgement was so nice that he could neuer frame any speech before hand to please himselfe', 'Life', 6, Memoirs, 4, listed at OED3 'nice' 3†e: 'Fastidious in matters of literary taste'.

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1085/1200 So to consume in sloth] H resumes at the end of a passage where L chronicles the vanity of love, ending with the famous medio de fonte lepôrumSurgit amari aliquid (4.1126–7); it is not clear why she would have omitted these lines. H omits L's lustrisque perire (4.1129), translated by Anon as '& haunting brothells' (200).

1086/1201 left in doubt] H omits L's metaphor of the mistress' shooting an ambiguous word like a dart into his heart, which takes up imagery of love as warfare found at 4.1043–9.

1089/1204 scornefull countenance] L has the more elegiac vestigia risus (4.1133), traces of a smile or laugh.

1092/1207 are dayly seene] 'dayly' is not in L; H is translating the standard early modern reading aperto, 'open', in P (4.1136), not the operto, 'shut', in Smith, 4.1143.

1095/1210 To shun the foe] P seems to point the moral with marks of emphasis at caueréque ne inliciaris (4.1138; not in G); H emphasizes the point in her Argument, 26.

1098/1213 cords] cf. H 1.1099.

1100–1/1215–16 libertie … thralldome free] L's emphasis on taking flight from danger and on not impeding oneself is certainly congruent with H's language, but the stress on freedom is hers (cf. P 4.1142–3). P's gloss offers exsoluere, which can mean 'to free'.

1101mn/1216mn The remedie of loues inconveniences] 'inconveniences' had a residual sense of '[m]oral or ethical unsuitableness' (OED 'inconvenience' †2); but in the 'Life' Hutchinson always uses the word in sense †3, '[h]arm, injury, mischief' or 4, 'trouble, discomfort, disadvantage'; the latter senses seem to the fore in 'see | What inconveniences in riches be' (OD 11.107–8). Anon uses the word too ('innumerable inconveniencies' (200)).

1102/1217 Passe by the errors] on both occasions when L refers to overlooking (prætermittere) a woman's faults (4.1144, 4.1184, H 4.1102, 4.1150, cf. Nugent, 197), H takes the reference to be to the lover's own faults—not inconsistently with L's satire of love-idolatry. In H's version, vitia must be understood as the man's not the woman's, a reading made a little easier by the punctuation in her edition, though at some cost to the balance with corporis in the following line. For different readings of these passages see Nussbaum, 182, Nugent, 197.

1105/1220 idolls] H's addition.

1108–9/1223–4 Soe … disease] H either misconstrues or rewrites 4.1151–2, which Lambinus considered spurious and Creech and Dryden omitted (see Digby, II. 405–7); P, however, affirmed its authenticity. She omits L's detail about how one benighted lover will mock another, and replaces it with the point about idiosyncratic fancy; she adds the poison.

pg 674

1110/1225 who … payne] H's addition.

1112/1227–1124/1239 A foule … gluttonous] L 4.1153–62 presents very particular difficulties for translators. The wit depends on a quickfire succession of varying and often arcane epithets. Drawing on Plato's Republic, 474D, L represents lovers' strategy of deceiving themselves by finding an attractive label for their beloved's worst qualities—a linguistic counterpart of the general tendency to be blinded by images. On early modern interest in the rhetorical figure of redescription or paradiastole, see Quentin Skinner, Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes (Cambridge, 1996), 138–80. Anon renders G's note: 'A proof of the witt & elegancy of the Poët' (201). L satirizes the fashion for Greek terminology in the language of love—a rival to his own mission of translating Greek philosophy into Latin. It is difficult to find an equivalent: Anon and Creech abandoned most of the Greek names; French is used as a comparable amatory language by Rouse/Smith, though Smith's revisions of Rouse indicate some uncertainties of register (367). Though some of the Greek complimentary terms were actual names, and critics still differ over whether they should be capitalized or not (Brown, Lucretius on Love and Sex, 281), many of them certainly were not. Anon (201–2) and Creech (135–6) Anglicize almost all of them. H retains them but takes them all as proper names, passing by their euphemistic character and using their exotic ring as a running contrast with grotesquely uncomplimentary language to make a general point about lovers' delusions, perhaps on the pattern of satirical names in Horace or Donne. It may be, as Munro (1858, 137) and de Q (222) surmise, that she misunderstood the Greek jokes, even though the Greek words are transliterated and explained by P. It is unlikely, however, that she would have missed the irony in calling a dwarf 'Charita', H's version of charitôn mia, one of the Graces (P 4.1155). She may have decided that she could not keep both the Greek names and the full scope of L's wordplay and chosen a simpler though still quite forceful reworking. Her changes from L would not seem to have been motivated by a desire to decrease the passage's misogyny, for only the approbatory terms are veiled from the reader. Emma Rees, Margaret Cavendish: Gender, Genre, Exile (Manchester and New York, 2003), 194, argues that H's 'evident enjoyment of this, one of Lucretius' most misogynist passages, perhaps undermines her subsequent abjuration'.

1112/1227 A foule … Melichra] H runs two women into one, perhaps put on a wrong footing by P's capitalizing of Melichrus (4.1153) but not acosmos; G capitalizes neither. Melichrus is glossed by P as mellei coloris, 'honey-coloured'; H apparently wishes to give the word a Latinate feminine form. The lover reinterprets a swarthiness normally considered unattractive. H's 'vngracefull' renders a second example of euphemization, acosmos, which can be read as a fashionable term of praise for studied artlessness, 'Negligent' (Creech, 135), 'a sweet disorder' (Rouse/Smith, 367). P's note here does not help: he renders acosmos as sordida, immunda illuuie, nihil ornata, neglecta, indecora, all negative pg 675terms stressing filth and neglect, and hence not permitting a witty euphemization of the other negatives.

1113/1228 Dorcas] 'gazelle'. P's gloss explains that the joke would thus flatter a dried-up, emaciated mistress.

kex] de Q notes that these are 'dried-up hollow-stemmed plants; hence a sapless person' (222; OED 'kex' †4). The Latin includes neruosa, & lignea (4.1154), 'stringy and wooden' (Rouse/Smith, 367).

Palladions … grey] the lover compares a woman with unfashionably coloured eyes to a little Pallas, Homer having given that goddess an equivalent epithet. The Latin colour vocabulary remains unclear: R/H translates Cæsia (P 4.1154) as 'Gray-skie colour', Bailey as 'grey-blue' (1311), Brown as 'blue' (285). Anon has 'Hazle-eyed' (201), Creech and Dryden do not commit themselves to colours; Rouse/Smith have 'green-eyed' (367).

1114–15/1229–30 Pumilio … ieers] again H makes two women out of L's one. Pumilio, 'dwarf' (4.1155) is not one of the euphemistic Greek terms in L, but one of the negative terms which the lover euphemizes as charitôn, 'one of the Graces' (P's Lexicon expatiates on the Greeks' association of small stature with beauty). H may have been misled by P's semicolon after pumilio.

1115/1230 full of ieers] H's rendering of tota merum sal (4.1155), 'pure salt', noted by P as a stock term for wit and eloquence; in L, another attribute of the dwarf-like woman; 'small' is not in the Latin.

1115–16/1230–1 another … Cataplexis] again H creates two women where L has one. L's description of great size, Magna … immanis (4.1156) is meant to lead up to the euphemism cataplexis, plenaque honoris (4.1156), but again H may have been thrown by the semicolon in P 4.1156. The large woman is called a wonder, full of majesty; P explains that she is compared to a goddess or a cosmic body, arousing awe, and his Lexicon cites parallels from G with Dido's amazement at Aeneas and other classical texts. P glosses cataplexis with horror, admiratio, obstupefactio.

1117/1232 Balba] 'stammering'. H misses the point that Balba (capitalized as the first word in 4.1157) is the transliteration of an adjective, not a proper name in L; the euphemism for balba follows with traulizi. P's preceding semicolon may have misled her, though there is a succeeding colon.

1118/1233 Trauliza] again H makes a euphemistic term, 'she lisps', into a name, giving it a Latin feminine form; unusually, P glosses the word with a German term, Lispeln, in black letter, and offers Stamlen for Balbutire.

holds her tongue and sneakes] H conflates a new joke with the previous one. The joke—muta, pudens est (4.1157)—attributes a mute woman's silence to her modest restraint. Apparently, H took pudens to mean 'afraid of shame' rather than 'honourable'.

pg 676

1119/1234 Lampadian] L's Lampadion, a unique word in Latin, is a diminutive form of lampas (Greek for 'lantern'). Cf. the gloss in P, Parua fax, 'a little torch'; L moves from defective to excessive speech.

1120/1235 Withered Ischnos] both P's gloss on 4.1159 and the Latin text help H identify this woman as dying from emaciation, though not necessarily old. L's Ischnon, 'small', agrees with the neuter eromenion, 'dear one'; H changes the form to the masculine singular. P's Lexicon glosses the phrase as amicula gracilis, 'a thin little friend'.

1121/1236 Rhadine] P glosses rhadine (4.1160) as gracilis, 'slender'; Rouse/Smith have svelte (367).

1122/1237 Big brested … wine] L's 4.1161 presented difficulties for the editor and translator. The second word, iamina in the MSS, was amended by Avancius to Lamia, 'witch'; G followed him (144). Lambinus (393) proposed instead gemina, 'twin'; unusually, P followed him rather than G, and his Lexicon presents Lambinus' argument that the word is a poetic usage for 'very fat'. Smith has the later conjecture tumida, 'swollen' (4.1168). Another problem was the oddly placed phrase ab Iaccho. Modern editors, including Godwin (DRNIV 73), Brown (Lucretius on Love and Sex, 292), and Smith (367), interpret the phrase as agreeing with mammosa (4.1161): she is big-breasted from feeding her son Iacchus (identified by the Romans with Bacchus). P, however, in line with other early modern editors, regards Bacchus as Ceres' lover, not her son. Creech omits Bacchus; Anon has 'if Fatt, & of strutting duggs, they stick not to affirm her to be very Ceres coming fro Bacchus' (202). H tries to find coherence in the line by taking ab Iaccho more directly with Ceres, reading the god's name as a metonymy for 'wine', as at 5.14: the Ceres-like woman's size stems from heavy drinking. Her 'foggie' renders gemina: 'swollen with flabby and unhealthy corpulence' (OED †3a).

1123–4/1238–9 Simula false, Silena lecherous … Satura gluttonous] H's version of L's Simula, Silena ac Satura est (4.1162). She is misled by the triple capitals in P to think that L is introducing three women, when in fact he is describing one pug-nosed woman (simula) as 'a feminine Silenus' or 'a Satyress' (Leonard/Smith, 627). H simply invents vices deemed apt for the three words, changing L's joke about lovers' euphemisms into one in which the imperfections are accurately named. Following commonplace English meanings of 'simulate' (OED v.1.a.trans.; cf. Latin simulatio), she associates 'false' with Simula, 'snub-nosed'; it is possible that she missed P's gloss, which explains the word, since it lacks a key in the text. The other two words are not glossed, though satyrs and Silenus, Bacchus' attendant, were notoriously unruly.

1124/1239 Philema] a 'luscious kiss' (Leonard/Smith, 627).

1126/1241 All the defects] expanding on 4.1162, again presumably H's attack on faulty women, not on L's besotted men. By contrast, Anon treats the preceding passage as a catalogue of 'nicetyes' (202).

pg 677

1130/1245 What … one] at P 4.1166, H interjects the metaphor of being tied down to one person. L simply says, 'there are others, and we have lived previously without this one'.

1131/1246 Without her] H infers P's misprint of sine (4.1166) as fine (so in Lexicon, mislineated 4.1160).

1132/1247 Even … deformitie] L 4.1167 says more generally that the addressee's loved one does and is known to do the same things as an ugly woman; H's 'conceald' links with the ensuing line.

1134/1249 loath and deride] for L's cachinnant, 'laugh loudly' (4.1169, cf. 1.917), perhaps coloured by R/H on cacchino, 'A great laugher, derider, or scorner'.

1138/1253 when she breathes] commentators have long disputed, sometimes behind a veil of Latinity (cf. Nussbaum, 179–81), what L understands to be the source of the offensive aura (4.1173) or odour, ranging from flatulence to some specifically female element, in menstruation or medication for gynaecological disorders. Since bad breath could be attributed to disorders in the womb (Nugent, 194 n. 65), H's translation does not fully decide the issue.

1143/1258 our wantons] H's version of Veneres nostras (4.1178), 'our Venuses'. Anon: 'or mistresses' (203).

1144/1259 behind the Arras] like Anon, who uses the identical phrase (203), H gives a seventeenth-century touch to the theatrical metaphor that L coined, vitæ post scænia, 'the things behind the scenes of life' (4.1179).

1146/1261 loath to loose] L's Venuses wish to keep their lovers bound by love (4.1180).

1147/1262 their subtiltie] added by H.

1148/1263 arts] influenced by P's gloss on 4.1182: in omnes fallacias & artes, quibus sua vitia legere annituntur. MS risus, 'laughter', was much emended; some early modern editions including G have usus; P follows Lambinus' emendation nisus (Lambinus, 394), referring to the women's 'efforts' at concealment. Anon: '& spy out all their practises' (203).

1149–50/1264–5 Nor … hide] aided by the new sentence at this point in P's text, H transfers the emphasis from the lover who is urged to overlook female defects to the woman who expects honesty in her lover.

1149/1264 ingenious] probably in the sense of 'ingenuous', 'honest', OED II†4, for bello animo, a colloquial term for 'kind-hearted' (4.1183; Anon, 203); Creech has 'free' (136).

1151–6/1266–71 Nor doe the female sex … the females did possesse] L's Nec … ficto … amore (4.1185), H's 'feigne', contrasts the theatrical cult of love in which men and women have just been shown to be complicit with the common generative impulse which in Epicurean terms is a natural even if not a necessary pleasure.

pg 678

1152/1267 Sometimes … conteine] H condenses into one general line a graphically alliterative description of a woman active in sexual intercourse, 4.1186–7.

1153–4/1268–9 One fire … same] retaining L's strong emphasis on equality and mutuality, H replaces with fire his metaphor of an athletic contest, spatium decurrere amoris (4.1189).

1155–6/1270–1 Nor … possesse] H condenses 4.1191–3, and then omits 4.1194–1200, which describe copulating dogs being enchained in mutual pleasure; 4.1201 is close enough in sense to 4.1193 to form a link. H's syntax leaves ambiguous whether 'females' or 'desires' is the subject, and many later editors and translators have struggled with the propriety of discussing female desire. Creech entirely omits 4.1191–1201, losing both the explicit sexual description and the stress on mutual pleasure.

1157/1272 Both sexes must all generations make] H's transitional paraphrase is true to L's very strong emphasis on the active female role in sex and conception (subitâ vi conripuítque, 4.1203). Lambinus (402) notes that L rejects Aristotle's claim that seed is contributed only by males; Gassendi discusses L's account of generation enthusiastically, Animadversiones, I. 546–9. Early modern medical opinion increasingly accepted a significant role for female seed (Ian Maclean, The Renaissance Notion of Woman (Cambridge, 1980), 35–7, Jane Sharp, The Midwives Book, or, The Whole Art of Midwifry Discovered, ed. Elaine Hobby (New York and Oxford, 1999), 52–3). H condenses the passage on heredity, toning down the sexual elements (4.1207–10). P draws attention to linguistic decorum by recording the reading immulsit, 'expelled [milk into]', 4.1203, as an obscænum verbum, comparable to words for males' urinating; modern editions have Salmasius' emendation of vi mulcit to vim vicit (Rouse/Smith, 4.1210). 1160/1275 Even … menkind] inserted by H, perhaps troubled by L's studied refusal to make clear distinctions between human and animal sexuality. It is hard for a translation to convey L's use of such technical terms as semina and corpus to indicate a congruence with a deeper, atomic level, at odds with more organic conceptions of generation.

1161–6/1276–81 Their fathers … voyce] L moves on to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from generations before the parents'; slightly condensing the original, 4.1206–18, H blurs this issue with the question of the respective role of the sexes. For L's theory, Leonard/Smith invoke Hippocrates, Degen. 7–8 (633).

1165/1280 Wherein … arise] not in L.

1167/1282 face] H's word; L's language (4.1220–1) is more somatic: the girl comes from the father's 'seed'; the boy from the mother's 'body'. 1174/1289 cursing … fruite] elaborating slightly on 4.1228. 1175/1290 which … pensiue hart] H's addition; the adjective describes the pregnant Sarah at OD 17.120.

pg 679

1176/1291 happie] not in L.

1179/1294 Burne … heave] not in L.

1181/1296 When … proceeds] L's 4.1232 is more explicitly anti-religious: 'It is all vanity that they weary the gods' power and magic lots' (Rouse/Smith, 373).

1182–6/1297–1301 But … fruite] H greatly condenses L's discussion of seed and conception (4.1233–43).

1182/1297 heate] L says that the seeds are nimium crasso, too thick (4.1233).

1185–6/1300–1 For natures … fruite] L says more explicitly that some men may impregnate, and some women conceive, more easily than others (4.1241–3). H's 'natures … coniunctions' may be prompted by a gloss in P, for L's harmoniæ Veneris (4.1241): Conuenientiæ, a term that suggests a natural suitability.

1187–92/1302–7 Thus … crownd] H has telescoped and simplified L's two examples (4.1244–9): (a) a woman who is childless in previous marriages becomes fruitful when she finds her proper mate; (b) men whose former wives (albeit fruitful) have been unable to conceive children with them end up finding their proper mate (thus 'barren' at 4.1187/1302 is, unusually, applied to the male). H then identifies the second case with a reformed libertine and her paean for wedded love and its fertility is entirely her own. Creech ends his translation of book 4 at this point, having omitted the discussion of male infertility.

1193–5/1308–10 Tis … other meate] before and after these lines, H omits nineteen lines of the Latin (4.1250–2, 1256–70). In the omitted passage, L describes the best way for different seeds to combine, and then moves on to the effects of sexual positions and movements on fertility, arguing that women conceive best in the manner of beasts, and warning that if they take too much sexual pleasure, or try to give it in the manner of courtesans, they will endanger conception. There seems to be no basis in Epicurean or other written sources for these beliefs, apparently derived from popular lore (Brown, Lucretius on Love and Sex, 361).

1196–1206/1311–21 Wives … teares] omitting L's opening point (4.1271–2), that love has no dependence on divine influence, H redirects the emphasis of the concluding passage towards her ideal of marital love. As Greer et al. put it, 'In the Latin, Lucretius writes to convince men that a plain girl with gentle ways might be worth loving, for really it is only custom that makes love; Hutchinson seems rather to be subtly advising women what behaviour to adopt to make a good marriage' (219). H also softens the violent terms with which L records the attrition of male resistance—tunditur ictu (1277), pertundere (1280), cf. Nugent, 205—and turns L's guttas, 'drops', 4.1279, into 'teares'. H's slant and additions are clarified by a comparison with Anon: 'Nor doth it come to pass by the power of any God, or by the shafts of Venus, that men sometimes fall in love with unhandsome women, for women oftentimes by their actions & buxome carriage, & cleanly dressing of their bodyes make men willing to marry with ym. Besides, acquaintance procureth love, for that wch is stricken often, though but lightly, is pg 680in a long space overcome & quailed. do you not see drops of water falling upõ stones by long continuance wear hoals in them?' (207).

1197/1312 Nor … be in love] 'our husbands' conspicuously contrasts with L's use of pronouns to align himself with a male reader. Cf. 'Life', 57, Memoirs, 33: John Hutchinson 'neuer had occasion to number his marriage among his infelicities'. On Hutchinson's representation of her own marriage, see N. H. Keeble, '"But the Colonel's Shadow": Lucy Hutchinson, Women's Writing, and the Civil War', in Thomas Healy and Jonathan Sawday (eds.), Literature and the English Civil War (Cambridge, 1990), 227–47 (Suzuki, 241–61).

1201/1316 husband] P has secum vir (4.1275) where Smith has te secum (4.1282).

1205–6/1320–1 hard … solid] H's additions.

1206/1321 teares] adds an affective dimension not in L 4.1280, whose language here as throughout draws attention to the atomic structures underlying familiar human emotions.

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