Main Text

Valdivia, Chile 1237, 247–54; 3284–90
earthquake 3289
forests 3285–6
Valenciennes, –, fish 6(i) x–xi; 15274; 16359
Valentin, –, embryonic experiments 20334
Valerianic acid, Drosera digestion 2467–8
Valleys
Cordillera 3302
pg 529dry, Copiapó 3343
excavation, Chile 3246, 343
St Cruz, excavation 2170–1
Tahiti 3380
Vallisneria 1844
Vallota purpurea 20104
Valpariso, Chile 170, 213–6, 252, 258, 261–2, 280; 2241
geology
metamorphic rocks 9190–1
raised shell beds 936–9
shell species, present 939
uplift/earthquakes 939–40
Vampire bat 221
Van de Hoeven, –, Limulus 1278(35), 79
Van Diemen's Land seeTasmania
Vancouver, –, Hawaiin visit 21193
Vanda 17110
Vandeae 17105–58
insect gnawing 17199
pollinia 17108 (fig.24), 177, 178, 182, 183, 199
structure 17105–124, 106 (fig.23), 200
viscid disk 17179
Vandellia
nummularifolia 2576–8, 253–4; 26233–4
seeds 25280, 286
self–fertile 25319
sessiflora 26234
Vanellus
cayanensis 2104
cinctus see Squatarola cincta
cristatus 22379
Vanessa
reproduction 20122, 141
cardui 2145
Vanessae, colour 22324
Vanikoro, Santa Cruz Islands 3434, 439; 7xv–xvi Pl.I(1)
barrier reef 727, 37, 38, 62, 142
earthquakes/subsidence 7105–6
section 741
Vanilla
fertilization 17197
nectar secretion 17187; 25344(55)
pollen 17181
aromatica 1763; 18119
Vanillidae 1763, 197
Vapour clouds, after rain 223, 27
Variation 1595–122; 193–4; 20317–20; 337–9, 346–62
accumulated effects 15224–7, 318, 332–4; 1670, 106, 216; 201, 32–4
domestic races 1624–5
adaptations causes 16166–7
age–linked 22465
analogous 15114–22; 16390; 19386; 20295–8
fowls 19223–5
horses 1950, 58
birds 22437–43
body parts, use/disuse 20245–68
cabbages 19298–300
causes 101–4, 48–50, 80; 15316, 331, 335–6; 16112–14, 427–8; 20205–24, 222; 2131–66
domestic species 20205–24
embryos 15315–16
environmental 158–9
varieties 1644–5
classification importance 1639, 47
colour, correlation 20285–7
congenital 102, 4–15, 46–47
correlation 16121–3; 20269–87, 299–301, 361
cross–breeds 1929–39; 20218–21
definition 1634
descent theory 219–29, 47
developmental 1510–11; 16407–8, 409
domestication 101–3, 45–9, 57–61; 156–32, 95–7, 331; 165–34, 65–6, 188
adaptation 1623
artificial selection 1522–31
growth correlation 159
inheritance 158, 10–11
limits 1631–2, 112
mental attributes 1085–8; 15149–75
origin 1531–2
pigeons 1515–21
principles 159–10
races, expectation 1512–15
reversion tendency 1511–12, 18–19
species distribution 10137–144
'sports' incidence 158
sterility 157–8
embryology 15103–4; 16419
pg 530environment cause 101–3, 45, 63, 81–2, 92–6; 1596–7; 1644–5
ancestral stock 1047–8, 60
environmental adaptation 22438(35)
environmental conditions 20210–18
fertility 16254–5
flora, natural selection 16182–3
flowers 20292–4
fowls, plumage 166
genera 1645–8
generative 15111–12
generic characteristics 15111–13
geographical area 1686–7
geology evidence 15224
global 16311–15
gradation 22445–57
homologous structures 20288–91
humans 22632
diversity 2130–4
races 21180
spontaneous 21205
hybrids 15190; 1632–3, 261, 270–1
inherent tendency 1036–7, 47–8, 175–8; 1610–11, 75–6
horses 16113, 137
inheritance, survival struggle 1651
insects 16190
instincts 16216–18, 217–18
laws 20197, 245–301
Lepidoptera 22332–5
limitations 20198, 359–60
limits 1057–9, 63–4, 83–4
range 22648
sex 22460–8
mature individuals 10167–8
mental characteristics 16218, 243–4
mongrels 15195–6; 16270–1
morphology 15104–9; 1635–6, 125
natural 103–13, 11(44), 63–8; 1533–44, 46, 59–61; 166–7, 34–49, 183–8
conclusions 16438–47
domestic comparison 15332
individual differences 1533–5
instincts 1013, 85–96; 15152–7
interspecific 15224–6
limits 104, 46(4), 63, 64–5
modification 15250, 254
morphology 16187–9
occurrence 15316; 2044–9
polymorphic 1534–5
species/varieties 1540–4
neutral 1636
parallel 20295–8
phenotypes 159–11, 30–1; 169–11, 15–17
pigeons 1581–2, 110, 119; 19144–58
plants, nutation 27362
plumage markings 22445–57
polymorphic species 1636
potential 1034(61)
principles 1595–122; 16138–9
rabbits, osteology 19104–18
radicle sensitivity 27397
random change 15128
rate 16144
reflex actions 2331
reproductive 101–2, 33, 48–9, 165–6; 15190; 20317–20
reversion 15115; 16132–8
phenotypes 15117–22
rudimentary organs 15321–22; 16415
secondary sexual characteristics 16126, 130–1
selection 1666–72, 153–4; 20150–1, 195
sexual 15110–11, 113–14, 121–2; 1673
sexual selection 22640
speciation 15293; 16112–39
specific characteristics 16128–30
spontaneous 16179
strawberry plants 1630–1
struggle for survival 1592–4; 1692–4
succession 15318–20
summary 16138–9
swamping effect 101–3, 63–8, 83–4, 73
transmission 22440
within species 1688, 240–3
Variegation, foliage 19357–8; 20131
Varieties
British flora 1650
classification 15301–2; 1639–45, 386–9
common ancestral stock 1611, 434
cross–breeds 15192–4; 16265, 291–2
domestication 2067–79
dispersal 16291–2
pg 531divergent evolution 1690
domestic extinction 1580; 16267, 270–1
evolution 1634, 43
fertility 15327; 16266–70, 422
geographical range 1644–5
horses phenotypes 16137–8
insects 1639–40
intermediate species 1637–45, 134
islands 1640
local 1676, 326
natural 1533–7; 1669, 430
pollination 1681–2
range restrictions 1648
rarity 15124–9
reversion 16132–8
speciation 1644–7, 172–3
species 194–5; 20354–5
comparison 15333–4; 1640–5, 48–9
fertility comparison 20141–51
sterility 16268
struggle for survival 1555–6; 1661
summary 16274–5
transitional, rarity 15124–9
Vasey, –, cattle, vertebrae 1971(32)
Vaucher, Jean Pierre Etienne
Acorus calamus 20133
carrots 266
Ilex aquifolium 26215(13)
Labiatae 26215(14)
Lyrhrum 2699, 103, 119
nastic movement 27378
Ranunculus ficaria 20133
Soldanella alpina 2639
Viola 26228
Vaughan Thompson seeThompson
Vavoa, Friendly Islands 7111, 136
Veddahs, monogamy 22615
Vegetable mould formation
ancient remains, burial 2879–102
chalk downs 28132–5
chemistry 28106–9
protective qualities 28109
soil movement/worms 2858–78
worms' role 28105, 107–9, 138–9
Vegetables
climbing plants 18129
reversion 206
Vegetation 1280, 397(42)
changes 2108
Cordillera, opposite sides 3313
improving by fire 2103
Keeling Island 3424–5
luxuriant 277–8, 227
New South Wales 3405
St Helena 3454, 456
Tasmania 3418–19
tropical 125, 377–9; 3462
Vegetative repetition 16125
Veitch, –, Royal Exotic Nursery, climbing plants 1814(14), 52
Veitch, James Jnr
Cycnoches ventricosum 17155
orchid donations 1790(1)
Veitch, Robert Toswill, Japanese beauty 22604
Veith, –, horses 1944(2)
Venezuela, geology, gneiss 9166
Ventana, Sierra seeSierra Ventana
Venus 13609 Pl.21(6)
shell beds 3284
South America
raised shell beds 920, 35, 41
tertiary 9137, 140, 146, 150, 178
auca 9147
cancellata 4(i)xvi
chilensis 944, 151
cleryana 9151
costellata 932–3, 55
dombeyi 953
flexuosa 93
hanetiana 9151
incerta ? 9151
meridionalis 9294 Pl.II(13)
Argentina 9131, 138
Chile 9149, 155, 156
munsterii 9103, 107, 127
opaca 942
petitiana 9151, 152, 153
purpurata 996
rostrata 996
simulans 8122
sinuosa 92, 3, 90
Venus' fly–trap seeDionaea muscipula
Venus, Point, Tahiti 3376, 380
Veratrine, Drosera action 24168
Verbascum 15194
cross–breeds 15194; 16252, 269
hybrids 19311, 356, 371, 425; 2062, 72–3, 129; 2654–7
self–sterility 20102
villosity 20231(26)
legitimate/illegitamate unions 2621
pollination 16248
sterility 15180; 16248
pg 532austriacum 20101
blattaria 2072–3
lychnitis 2072–3, 101; 2575–6, 300, 319; 2621, 55–6
nigrum 20101; 2575, 300, 315; 2656
phoeniceum 2073, 102(74), 255; 25292, 300, 315; 2656
thapsus 2073, 101; 2575–6; 2655–7
self–fertile 25300, 319
virgatum 2656
Verbena 20228, 285
origin 19339
scorching 20186
white 20185
melindres 236; 27152, 153(fig.82), 364
Verbenaceae
floral polymorphism 2688–9, 186
stem nutation 27152
Verenaceae, revolution rate 1820
Verlot, Jean Baptiste
Convulvulus tricolor 2545(13)
flowers 19404; 2040(22), 59(16)
inheritance 19402(37)
Leptosiphon 25338(45)
Nemophila, crossing 25164(25)
plants, colour inheritance 19404
trees, foliage 19337(153)
varieties 16240
Vermiform appendix 2124–5
Verneuil, de, –, succession of species 15232; 16312
Vernon, Col Harcourt 1103
Veronica
agrestis 25319
chaemoedris 25319
hederaefolia 25319
Verreaux, –, Lepidoptera sex ratio 22261
Verruca 13442–68; 2024, 343
body structures 13451–4
classification 13542, 568–9
excavation powers 13455–60
fossils 14(ii)49–53
habitats/origins 13454–5
larvae 119
shell morphology 13440–451
cancri americani see Chelonobia patula laevigata 12148; 13462–3, 568, 609 Pl.21(3)
nexa 13464–7, 568, 609 Pl.21(5)
prisca 13467–8, 609 Pl.21(4)
classification 13569
fossils 14(ii)7, 52–3, 58 Pl.II(10)
spengleri 12147; 13463–4, 568, 609 Pl.21(2, 6)
strömia (strömii) 12147; 13461–2, 608–9, 628 Pl.21(1), Pl.29(7a)
classification 13568
fossils 14(ii)7, 51–2, 57 Pl.II(9)
testudinaria see Chelonobia testudinaria
Verrucidae 1219, 28, 440–500; 13440–68
classification 13542, 568–9
fossils 14(ii)1–12, 48–53
Vertebrata 10161, 169
classification 15297; 16382
common ancestral stock 16400; 21163–4
development 16103, 105
evolution 21162–5
eyes 16153, 159–60
fossils 15235
homology 15310–11
instincts 2376
morphology 1030, 161; 16156, 39
organ gradation 15134, 137
reproduction 1679–80
sexual selection 22638
Vesicula prostatica, uterus homologue 2128
Vesicular rocks, Chile 9205
Vespa sylvestris 1771
Vespertilio chiloensis 4(ii)6–8 Pl.III, 140 Pl.XXXV(3)
Vespertilionidae 4(ii)6–8
Vespucius, –, Brazil 19288
Vessels, spiral, orchids 17165–6
Vestigial organs
descent of man 2115–28
Vibert, –, vine cultivation 19308(4)
Viburnum 264–5
opulus 20146, 265
Vicia 18126;, 26235
epicotyls 2775
geotropism 27378, 385
nutation 2753
faba 25313, 345
geotropism 27385–93 (figs 195–6)
germination 2768 (fig.59)
leaf nutation 27171, 172 (fig.100–1)
nastic movement 27100 (fig.65), 128
pg 533nutation 2721–5 (figs 17–23)
nyctinasty 27236, 329
hirsula 25318
sativa 1874, 122; 20335; 25318, 345
Victoria, Mount Australia 3410, 414
Victoria regia 25316
Vicunas 3344; 20166
Videl, Capt. – 17, 8
Video, Monte seeMonte Video
Vidua 22417, 479
Vigesimal counting, origin 21149
Villa Rica 1253
Villa Vicencio 3318
Villa Vicencio Pass, Cordillera, geology 9230–1, 232, 233(19)
Village Memoirs, Cradock, – 2939
Villarsia 2683, 183
parnassifolia 25335
Villermé, –, French conscripts, height 2135
Villiers, –, Phaseolus coccineus 25135(7)
Villosity, flora 20231(26)
Vilmorin, – 20216(28)
balsams & roses 19402
carrots 19301(79); 20231
flora reversion 209
plants
families, resemblance 19404
inherited characteristics 25381(13)
tulips 19360
Vinca
major 25314
minor sterility 20133
rosea 25314
Vincent, Bory St, –, frogs/toads 3370
Vines 1888–91, 108, 121; 19308–10
see alsoGrapes
acclimatisation 20258
climate 20231
diseases 20185
hybrids 19366
reversion 19349
tendrils 18102, 109, 124, 126
West Indies 20263
Vines, Sydney Howard
Nepenthes, digestive fluid 2473
vetch ferment 24269(12)
Vinson, Augustus, Nephila 22282–3
Viola
morphology 16181
species 19342
alba 26227, 230
bicolor 26230
biflora 26230
canina 25311; 26226–8, 231
collina 26228(6)
elatior 26230
hirta 26228(6), 229
ionodium 26230
lancifolia 26230
lutea 19385
mirabilis 26230
nana 26229–30, 243
odorata 26228–9, 242
palustris 26230
roxburghiana 26230–1
ruppii 26230
sylvatica 26230
tricolor 1554; 1660; 25109–13, 311; 263, 230
corolla removal 25357(7)
crossing 25259, 262, 272
flowering period 25264, 267
reversion 204
seeds 25281, 288
sterility 25311
Violaceae, cross/self–fertilization 25108–13
Viper, secondary sexual characteristics 22365
Viralva aranea 5220–1
Virchow, Rudolf Carl 20315
bones 20246, 327
brains, hair growth 20335
cells 20317
ovarian tumours 20316–17; 20327
Virey, –
human races number 21180
spiders 2148
Virgil
cattle and sheep 20161
seed–corn selection 19294; 20161
Virginia Creeper seeAmpelopsis hederacea
Virginian deer seeDeer, Virginian
Virgularia patagonica 291
Virlet, –, volcanic islands 812, 74
Viscache (Bizcacha) 1102, 167
habits 264, 112–13
Viscaria oculata 25115–16
flowering 25266
height comparisons 25251
pg 534measurements 25117
seeds 25281, 286
self–fertility 25318
Viscid matter, orchids 17176–7
Vision 20179–80
amphibious animals 20179–80
hearing correlation 20278
hereditary 19395–7
human diversity 2137–8
varieties 20251–2
Vitaceae 1887–96, 101, 104, 113, 121
nastic movement 27418
Viti Islands seeFiji
Vitis 1846, 98, 125
climbing 27200
vinifera 1888–91 (figs. 9, 10); 19308–10, 349–50
Viverra, sterility 20116
Vivitao Island seeRaivaivai
Vivoras, Uruguay, geology 9107, 124
Vizcacha 10126–7, 152, 158; 15249; 16332
affinities 15306
classification 16394
distribution 10126
species origin 10127; 15306
Vlacovich, Prof. –, ischiopubic muscle 2145
Vliegen Atoll, Low Archipelago 719
Voandzeia 26235
Vocal organs
apes 2154
evolution 22590
use 2194
Vociferousness
cats 2397
expression
causes 2365
emotions 2363–71
sound associations 2368–9
humans 2365–7
laughter 23159–60, 164
primates, expression 23178
sound types 2368–70
Vogel, –
camphor, plant effects 24157, 158
date palms 20210(5)
Vogt, Carl
affirmation expression 23214
cats 2026
descent of man 214
evolution 213
humans 2140, 2191(56), 21183, 21175(6), 22589(26), 601
beards 22583(15, 16)
skulls 2144(44), 58(80)
vestigial eyelid 2121(35)
Voice
Batrachia 22364
birds 22382–94
fish 22361
humans 22589–96
inheritance 19393
mammals 22547–50
secondary sexual characteristics 22364, 361, 382–94, 547–50, 589–96
Volcan, River, Chile geology 9207–8, 212
Volcanic bombs
Ascension Island 828–31
Chile 9258
Volcanic islands
Ascension Island 827–57
craters of elevation 874–6
denudation 15204
distribution 899–102
Fernando Noronha 818
Galapagos Archipelago 877–92
Mauritius 822–4
St Helena 858–76
St Jago, Cape Verde Islands 81–17
St Paul's Rocks 824–6
Tahiti 820–2
Terceira, Azores 818–20
trachyte/basalt separation 893–9
trachytic rocks lamination 851–7
Volcanic phenomena 3263
Volcanic rocks
see also own headings
barrier reef islands 740
Chile
central mountains 9203–4
Copiapo Valley 9268
Coquimbo Valley 9250–1, 252
Despoblado Valley 9269–71
Iquique 9275
source 9272–3
Cordillera
Portillo Range 9216–17, 219
recent 9205, 283
pg 535Uspallata Pass 9224, 226
Uspallata Range 9234–6, 238
differentiation 893–9
fluidity of lava 882–4
S. America origin theories 9279–80, 283–5, 287–8, 290–1
specific gravity 893–9
Tierra del Fuego 9179–81
Uruguay Tapas Valley 9170
Volcanic structures/textures
Chiloe Island, Chile 9141–5
Chonos Archipelago, Chile 9140
Galapagos Archipelago 882–4
pumaceous mudstones 9138–9
Santa Cruz basalt, Argentina 9134–7
sphaerulites, Ascension Island 846–50
Volcanoes
near Chiloe 3263
Cordillera 9205, 283
distribution 7100–1 Pl.3
elevated areas 3444
uplift relations 7117–19
Voluntary control, expression 23276–8
Voluta
South America 9112, 140, 156
alta 9132, 149, 156, 308 Pl.IV(75)
ancilla 4(i)xxii; 910, 11
angulata 4(i)xvii, xx; 93
brasiliana 996
colocynthis 4(i)xvii, xx; 93
triplicata 9149, 308 Pl.IV(74)
Volutella angulata 996
Volz, –
breeds increase 20200(72)
dogs 1914(2)
fowls, history 19226(33)
Indian cattle 20161
mules 20161
Von Berg see Berg
von Fischer seeFischer
Von Gorup seeGorup
Von Mohl seeMohl, Hugo von
von Nathusius seeNathusius, H. von
Voorhelm, G., hyacinths 19345; 20206
Vries, Hugo de
apogeotropism 27370
climbing plants 18v, 5(5), 10(10–11), 13, 105(7), 129
cotyledons, nastic movement 27326
Cuscata 1847(2)
dicotyledons 27408
Drosera, aggregation 2431(3), 35(5)
hooking mechanism 1811(12), 102, 108, 115
hypocotyl contraction 2780
leaf nutation 27166
nastic movement 27197, 198
nutation 271
nyctinasty 27209
plant tropism 27336
tendrils 1811(12), 102, 108, 115
Vrolik, Prof. –
human reproduction 20291
polydactylism 19399(27)
Vulpes magellanica see Canis magellanicus
Vulpian, –, human/monkey brains 2110
Vultur
atratus see Cathartes atratus
aura see C. aura
Vultures 15141
colouring 22513(54)
female choice 22431
phenotype 16166
Vulturidae 51–7
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