Main Text

Gabra, –, bird variation 22439
Gad, –, stem nutation 27165
Gaika, –
blushing 23251
fear expression 23231
Gaimard, Joseph Paul
coral reefs
growth 754–5, 60, 71, 72(42)
uplifted 7109, 112
Lepadidae 11136–7, 309–10
Gait, inherited peculiarities 19393
Galapagos Archipelago, Pacific Ocean 1123–32; 3355–74; 1013, 23, 120–2; 15283–4
Albemarle Island 3358–9
American zoological province 3371
birds 1308; 1013(54), 15, 64; 15278, 286; 1639, 363–4
botany 1307
Charles Island 3357–8
Chatham Island 3356–7
Cocos (Keeling) Island 360–1
colonization 15284
craters 3355
creation centres 1307
Darwin's views 10xiii
endemic species 10120; 15278, 283, 285–7; 16363
evolution evidence 1398(46); 1015, 64, 120–1, 136, 140
fauna 1024(24), 119–20
geology 866, 77–92; 9176(10), 203(5)
Albemarle Island 882–6
Chatham Island 878–82, 83, 84, 91
eruptive fissures 892
James Island 883, 86–9
rock minerology 890–1
tuff craters, conclusions 889–90
uplift 891–2
geomorphology 1024(24), 120
James Island 3359
lizards 1308, 310
map 878
Narborough Island 3358
reptiles 1304
sea temperature 752(2)
species 198
ancestry 15283–5
distribution 1024(24), 64, 120–2, 129–30, 136, 140, 147; 15285–6
diversity 16369–72
thrushes 16372
tortoises 1304, 305, 306–7, 310–11; 3357, 358, 359
zoology 3360–74
Galaxias attenuatus, dispersal 16358–9
Galeandra funkii 17109–10
Galeobdolon luteum, pelorism 2029, 292
Galeopithecus (lemur) 1099(31); 15130; 16146–7
Galium
aparine 18116; 25319
cruciatum 26206
Gall gnats 20236
Gallao seeCallao
Gallegos River, Argentina
geology
elevated plain 914, 17
gravel deposits 924, 25
pg 354mammifer remains 9111(19)
Gallesio, –
carnations, red/white, cross 19372
fruit, selection 20174
maize, foreign pollen 19376(137)
male flowers, doubling 20134
oranges
Bizzaria 19364
crossing 25338(45)
lemon, crossing 19375; 20312
naturalization in Italy 20258
North Italian variation 20211(7)
species 19310–12
spontaneous crossing 2068
peaches
nectarine, distinction 19315
race persistance 19315
plant sterility 20129
seedless fruits, seeding 20131(104)
sugar–cane, sterility 20132(107)
Gallic acid, Drosera action 24168
Gallicrex cristatus, secondary sexual characteristics 22375, 404
Gallictis vittata 4(ii)31
Gallinaceae
captivity, general fertility 20120
colour 22490
juvenile markings 22482
parasitism 16225
plumage variation 22487, 488–9
polygamy 22227, 228
protective colouring 22491
Gallinazo seeCathartes atratus
Gallinula
crassirostris 5204
galeata see Fulica galeata
chloropus 20121
secondary sexual characteristics 22375
nesiotis 19264
Gallionella
distans 994(4)
granulata 9102(11)
sulcata 998(8)
Galloperdix
female spurred 22466
secondary sexual characteristics, spurs 22379
Gallophasis, plumage variation 22486
Galls 20235–8; 2164
Gallus
aeneus, hybrid variety 19215
bankiva 1514; 1614
cervical vetebra 19246 (fig.37)
characters/habits 19216–17; 2076
crossing reversion 2011
domestic fowl ancestor 19214, 216–19, 224
egg numbers 2078
fowl breeds, differences 19238
furculum 19247 (fig.38)
game–fowl 19207
hybrid 19215; 2012
moult 22406
occipital foramen 19239 (fig.33)
plumage development 22237
reversion 2011–12
sonneratii cross 19215
ferrugineus 19207
furcatus 19215
giganteus 15216
sonneratii
characters/habits 19214–15
hybrids 19215; 2017
stanleyii
combat 22377
hybrids 19215
temminckii, hybrid 19216
varius
characters/habits 19215
hybrids 19215
Galton, –, worms, drowning 286
Galton, Francis
African beauty 22603
ancient civilisations 21129, 143, 146
cattle
Benguela 1979
gregarious 21108
geniuses, infertility 21141
habitual behaviour 2324–5(8)
humans
breeding 22643
mental power 22587
inheritance 19394; 2948–9
Lathyrus odoratus 25308, 309
Limnanthes douglasii 25130
natural selection 21138
pangenesis 20303(1)
plants, self–fertilized 25263
savages, animal taming 1917; 20124(68)
United States success 21147(29)
pg 355Zea Mays, measurement tables, report 25213
Galton, S. Tertius, husband of Violetta Darwin 2939
Galvanism, electric current
Dionaea, effects 24236
Drosera, inflection 2428(4)
Gamasi, cirripede metamorphisis 1115(9)
Gambier Islands, Pacific Ocean 7xvi Pl.I(8), 10, 38–9, 40, 126
barrier reef 724, 36, 37, 38
section 741
Gambier, Lord –, pansies, cultivation 19342
Game, population regulation 1550–1
Game–fowls seeFowls, game
Gammarus marinus, pair bonding 22279
Ganoid fish seeFishes, Ganoid
Gapes 20185
Garcilazo de la Vega, Peruvian Incas, annual hunt 20166
Gardens, earliest European 20174
Gardiner, W.
insectivorous plants 24184(4), 192
Dionaea gland cells 24219(9)
Drosera
aggregation 2431(3), 65(2)
dichotoma 245, 29(92)
Gardner, George
Gelasimus 22279
gneiss, Brazil 9165–6
Utricularia nelumbifolia 24328
Gardner Island, Phoenix Islands 7132, 214
Garland, Dr –, infanticide 22616(13)
Garnets
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 9166, 167
Chile, Panuncillo 9246
Tierra del Fuego 9179, 180
Garnett, –, hybrid ducks, migration 2017
Garrod, Alfred Baring, hereditary gout 19394
Garrod, Alfred Henry, anger response 2356(14)
Garrulus
cristatus 16221–2
glandarius, birds, pairing 22422, 424
Gärtner, Carl Friedrich von 1571, 183
bud–variation
Achillaea millefolium 19385
Oenothera biennis 19356(56)
Pelargonium zonale 19352
contabescence, manure effect 20128–9
contabescent anthers 26139, 204
cross–breeds 15185, 194; 16254, 256, 259, 266, 268; 21179
crossing
dominant species 2057
plants 2037, 66, 93, 96, 97
repeated 20220
Geum urbanum, pollen grains 25326
hybrids
plants 20134
sterility 15177–83, 193, 195–6; 16246–8, 270–1; 19176(19)
variation 20219, 223
Lobelia fulgensx 25161(24) 292
maize 15193; 16268
crossing 2071
Malva, fertilization 19379; 20308
orchids
pollen 17202(18)
stigma, viscid matter 17175
peas, crossing, 19374
pimpernel, blue/red flowers, sterility 20150
plants
fertility 20127; 26174, 193
fertilization 25135
pollen 2075(26); 2517, 327
prepotency
Nicotiana 2037
pollen 20148
Primula veris/vulgaris 2642–3
reversion
Cereus 19371
hybrids 208, 21
Tropaeolum majus/minus 19371
self–impotence, plants 20101
sexual elective affinity 20142
sterility
German lilac 20128(84)
hybrids 2068, 146, 156
variation, inheritance 20197
varieties 16269
Verbascum
crossing species 2062, 72
hybrids 2621, 54–7
Verbascum nigrum, sterility 25292
vine grafts 19365(102), 366; 20231
Gasparini, –, pumpkin, stigmatic characters 19334
pg 356Gasteropods, secondary sexual characteristics 22271–2
Gasterosteus
polygamy 22228
secondary sexual characteristics 22358–9
leiurus
colour 22354
combat 22345
male parenting 22359
secondary sexual characteristics 22345, 354
trachurus, combat 22345
Gastric juice, Drosera simile 2497–8, 99–100
Gastridium 9307
cepa 9149, 155, 307 Pl.IV(68–9)
Gastrophora, colour 22327
Gastropods 10163
Gauchos 238, 192–3
cavalry 183, 89–90, 91
character 1181; 2142–4
death 1102–3
fighting 1138
Guasso comparison 1218–9
guide 1153–4
horsemanship 2137–40
hunting 193–4, 97, 223
lack of humanity 21127
meat diet 2106
remedies 2115–16
stealing from Indians 1146–7
Gaudichaud, –
apple–tree, diamorphic fruit types 19371
gneiss, S. America 9168(4)
pear, bud–variation 19350(14)
Gaudry, Albert Jean
mammals, fossils 16315
Miocene monkey form 21159
Gavia Mountain, Brazil 165, 67; 230
Gay, Claude
floating islands 3253(3)
geology, Chile 935–6, 68(3), 70, 74, 76(9), 254
shells, Rio de Janeiro 220
Viola
grandiflora 19343
lutea/tricolor 19343
Gay Lussac, –, limestone experiments 85
Gayal, domestication 1974
Gayot, –
see alsoMoll
cattle 1972(36); 2064(25)
Gazania ringens, stem nutation 27150 (fig.78)
Geach, Fred F.
blushing 23249
expression
facial 23142–3, 175, 193
shoulders 23210
Malays 23230
Geber, Bishop –, rhinoceros, breeding in captivity 20115
Geckotidae 6(ii)46–49
Geckotiens ou ascalabote seeGeckotidae
Geer, de –, spiders 22282
Geese
behaviour 1093(19)
breeds, sub–breeds 19265–7
captive, fertility 20121
character persistence 20209
Chinese 2070
common 1056
cross–breeds 15182; 16250
domestication 19265–7
ancient world 19265
fertility increase 2078
Egyptian
breeding season change 20168
penguin duck hybrids 19259–60; 2038
Falkland Islands 2201
female choice 22431
feral, La Plata 19175
fertility, decreased 20125
migration 21109
Sebastopol variety 19266; 20335
selection 19267; 20162
sterility, Philippine Islands 20125
tufted, perforated skull 19266
upland species 15133; 16150
variation 19265–7
varieties 1629, 31
white, Roman preference 20168
Gegenbaur, Carl
human ancestry 21167(26)
morphology 2141(38), 168(29)
Geikie, Archibald
coral reef theories 712, 14
denudation 16279; 28104(3), 129(2)
Geikie, James
dust beds origin 28106(5)
pg 357glaciated rocks 28109(11)
Gelada baboon seeBaboons, Gelada
Gelasimus, secondary sexual characteristics 22277, 279, 280–1
Gelatine
impure (isinglass), Drosera action 2460–1
pure, Drosera digestion 2483–4, 253–4
solution, Drosera action 2460–1
Gemmation and fission 20304
Gemmules 20321, 323–8, 330
secondary sexual characteristics, birds 22478
sexual characteristic transfer 22237, 239, 241
Geneology
classification 21153
human 21151–71
mammals, descent of man 21163–5
Genera
distribution 15288–9
interbreeding 108, 74–5
origins 1037–9, 156–9; 15 46,214–2, 226, 243
reversion 16134
polymorphic, origins 1636
species ancestry 1647–9
variation 1534–43; 1645–8, 102
Generation
alternate 20306
sexual 20304–9
Genet, captive, fertility 20116
Genetics, Mendelian evidence 2969
Genius, inheritance 19394
Genlisea
prey capture 24334–5
internal structure 24333–4
africana 24335
filiformis 24335–6
ornata, structure 24331–5
Gentiana 109(33), 81(45)
amarella 20131
Gentianeae, floral polymorphism 2682–3
Gentry, –, corolla perforation
Geoffroy Saint–Hilaire, Étienne
developmental control 15106
homologous organs 15309
Geoffroy Saint–Hilaire, Isidore
anomalies, co–existence 20281
apes 2112(12)
arni, domestication 1974(47)
birds, male characters 2022(56)
breeding, captive animals 20113
carp 20193(48)
cats, crossing 1940(91)
cattle origins 1974(47)
chickens, monstrous 20241
correlation 15104
dogs
jackal resemblance 1921(21)
Newfoundland, webbed feet 1935
odour 1927
origin 1914(2)
rudimentary limbs 20264(81)
teeth 1931
embryo injury, monstrosities 20222
fowls
ancient history 19226(33)
Polish, skull 19240(68)
geese
feral 19175(18)
liver 19267(32)
goat, origin 1991(97)
growth compensation 20289
guinea–pig 20116(20)
hairiness 2161(88)
hand morphology 2141(38)
Helix lactea 20233
horns 22525(9)
horses
coats alteration 20232(35)
teeth 20335(64)
human ancestry 2144, 152(1)
hybrids 2062–3
intestinal length, animals 20253
jackals 1921(21), 24, 26(42)
Loi de l'affinité de soi pour soi 20288
man, supernumerary digits 20272
monkeys 21157(9)
monstrosities 20208(3), 270
morphology 16398
mutation 15112; 169, 121–2, 129
organs, homologous 16398
ovarian tumours 20316–17
polydactylism 19399(27)
Semnopithecus hair 21156
sheep interdigital pits 1985
silkworms, cocoons 20158
species abnormalities 2134, 47, 64
tails 2162(90)
variation 15107; 1632, 121, 125, 129
pg 358Geognosy of St Helena 860(2), 67(10)
Geographical barriers 10116; 16331–2, 358
aquatic species 15273–4
creation theory 16335
descent theory 15290
island species 15280–2
Geography
classification 15298–9
evolutionary importance 10114–46
fauna differences 198
geology connections 1024(24), 131–4
isolation 1025, 26(31), 50(13), 73, 137, 142; 1576–8
selection 1576
regional fossils 10132–3
speciation importance 15291–2
Geological records
incompleteness 9162–3
Geological Society, Darwin's association 29117, 127, 139
Geology
see alsoFossils
Andes 1275–6, 287
biographical reference 29127–130
Cambrian period 16299–302
Cape Verde Islands 125–6
Chili 1264
classification 15214–16
Cordillera 3306–7
descent theory 15337–8
environmental conditions 104, 65
erosion 15202–6; 16278–82, 294
evolution evidence 15231–2
extinctions 10110, 111; 15241
formations 1017–23, 102; 15230; 16311–15
accumulation 16290, 320
descent theory 15216, 234–5; 16294–5
evolution 15230–1, 330
fossil links 15239–40; 16298–302, 305
speciation 15224; 16287–95, 302
species origins 16295–8, 304
time lapse 16278–82
granite formation 1238
La Plata 241
organisms succession 199
oscillations 1026, 141–2, 146; 15209, 215, 264; 16284–6
Patagonia 2157–8
periods
fossils 16298–302
intermediate species 15238–9
speciation 1024, 26–7(31), 138–42; 15223–46; 16295–302
species origins, conclusions 16425–7
succession 16303–29, 394, 425
time lapse 15202–7, 216–22
Geometrae, colour 22327
Geomorphology
erosion 15203–6
extinction evidence 1020, 105
fossil preservation 15234
rising land 10146–7
species
descent 15244–6
dispersal 15254
strata, Britain 15114
transitional 1018, 27, 103–4, 107–8, 145
Geophagus
mouth brooding 22359
secondary sexual characteristics 22353
Georgian Archipelago 3440
Georgians, beauty 22610
Geospiza 5146–56
dentirostris 5153–4
dubia 5154–6
fortis 5151–2 Pl.XXXVIII
fuliginosa 5153
magnirostris 5148–9 Pl.XXXVI
nebulosa 5151–3
parvula 5154–5 Pl.XXXIX
strenua 5148, 150 Pl.XXXVII
Geotropism 27415, 416
see alsoPlants
beans 27385–93
cabbages 27377
carnations 27199
climbing plants 27195
nastic movement 27378
nutation modification 27363
plant organs 27377–84
radicles 27385–400, 404, 416
sensitivity 27397–400
seedlings 2753, 55, 63–4
site of sensitivity 27397, 399
theory 27400
pg 359Geotrupes stercorarius, stridulation 22315(26), 316
Gerach, –, grief expression 23142–3
Geraniaceae
cross/self–fertilization 25126–30
floral polymorphism 26122–31
nutation 27147, 170
nyctinasty 27224
Geranium 1078; 2029
cotyledon nutation 2783
nyctinasty 27232
ibericum
cotyledons 27220
nyctinasty 27225
phaeum 20213
pratense, bud–variation 19353
pyrenaicum 20213
rotundifolium
cotyledons 27231
nyctinasty 27224–5, 230
sylvaticum 26222
Gerard, –, Burgundian bees, climatal change 19275
Gerarde, –, hyacinth varieties 19344
Gerardia pedicularia 25362, 367
Gerland,Dr –
infanticide 21121(32); 22601(54)
primitive races 21188(31), 189(32, 34)
Germination
flowers, seed weights 25307–9
saltwater effects 16339–40
seedlings 277–95, 402–10
radicles 2796–145
Zea mays 27130
Gernanium phaeum 25358
Gerres
gula 6(i)84–5
oyena 6(i)85–7
Gerrhosaurus 6(ii)50–2
sepiformis 6(ii)50–2 Pl.XV(2)
Gerstäcker, –, hive–bees 19276
Gervain, P., Lithobius 22284(26)
Gervais, François Louis Paul
Batrachia, doubled limbs 20334
dogs 1914(2), 21(21), 31, 32
gorillas 2161(88)
horses 1946(15), 49
jackal, taming 1923
mandrill 22559(31)
Ovis species 1984
rabbits
Algeria 1995(6)
earless 1998
Mount Sinai 1995(6)
wild/domestic 1993
Gervais, M. P. 1993(1)
Gesneria
pendulina 26189
measurements 2578–9
seeds 25286
Gesneriaceae 2578–9
Gestation period
Canidae 1926
cattle 1977; 20271
pigs 1967
Gestures
blushing 23252–3
expression 23273–4, 277
inheritance 23275
Geum urbanum, pollen, ferilization requirements 25326
Ghost moths seeMoths, ghost
Giard, –
Ascidian larva 21165(25)
coloured sponges 22270
Gibb, Duncan, human voice 22589
Gibbons
communication 2191
hoolock 21156
voice 22548, 549, 590–1, 596
Gilbert Islands, Pacific Ocean 777, 91, 139
Giles, –, pigs, cross–breeding 19381
Gilia
aggregata 2684–5
coronopifolia 2685
micrantha 2685
nudicaulis 2685
pulchella 2684–5
Gill, –
civil engineer 1276–7; 959
Indian ruins 3323
Gill, Theodore Nicholas
monogamy, sexual selection 22227
seals 22537
whales 22537(36)
Gilles, Dr –, west wind 3310
Gillibert, –, Menyanthes 26224(2)
Gillies, Dr –, Cordillera 9206, 213, 218, 229, 281
Gills
see alsoBranchiae
pg 360human progenitor 21166
Gilolo, East Indies 7152
Giraffes
defence 16187
natural selection 16185–6
secondary sexual characteristics 22530, 547
structure co–ordination 20177
tail 1096(24); 15140
Girard, M., Orchis maculata, longicorn beetle 1712(4)
Girard, Maurice Jean Auguste
dogs, teeth 1931
Lepidoptera, temperature variation 22233
moth odour 22320
Girard–Teulon, Alexis, short–sightedness 19396(17); 2138(31)
Girou de Buzareingues, –
cattle, age reversion 2011
character transmission, sheep/cattle 2035–6
gourds, crossing 2074
Gisburne cattle seeCattle, Gisburne
Githago
cotyledons, movement 2785
nyctinasty 27231, 232
segetum
cotyledons 2791, 223
nutation 2715–16 (fig.11), 79–80
nyctinasty 2794, 238–9
Gjor–Khur 2017
Glacial periods 15260–72; 16344–9
see alsoGlaciation
fossils 16289
north/south 16349–57
relics species 16346–7
species dispersal 16343–57
Glaciation 15261
Australia 15266
Cordillera 15266–7
Europe 15265–6
migration 16353–4
mountain flora 10124–6
species
distribution 15260–72, 290, 328; 16344–57, 375
marine 15210–11
struggle for survival 16354–5
Glaciers 2219, 221–4, 239
effects 2219–220
evidence for climatic change 3481–2
latitude 2222–3
structure 855–6
Gladiolus 19339
cross–breed 108(31)
hybrids self–impotence 20104
colvillii bud–variation 19356
Glands
compensatory development 20251
Drosera aggregation 2442–3
Glandular hairs, summary 24257, 263–4
Glastonbury thorn seeThorns, Glastonbury
Glauber salt seeSodium sulphate
Glaucium
leaf nutation 27193
luteum 25317
leaf nutation 27166–7 (fig.94)
Glauer, –, Drosera ammonia–aggregation 2435(5)
Gleditschia, nyctinasty, leaflets 27274
Glen Roy, Scotland, parallel roads 945 51, 75(7); 28116
Glenie, Samuel Owen, facial expression, sneering 23193
Glenny, –, Cineraria 20159
Gliddon, –
American adornment 22606(70)
dogs 1914(2), 15(4), 16(2), 19
human races 21174(5), 175(6)
negroes and yellow fever 21200(57)
Globulin, Drosera digestion 2489–90
Gloede, F., strawberries 19328(112)
Gloger, Constantin Wilhelm Lambert 109(33)
duck's wings 20249–50
Glomeris limbata, colour 22283
Gloriosa 1854, 123
plantii (lily) 1831, 51–2, 53, 54; 26105
Glossodia 17167
Glossopteris brownii 8104
Glossotherium, cranium fragment 4(i)65–74 Pl.XVI
Gloucester Island, Low Archipelago 781–2
Glouglou pigeons seePigeons, trumpeter
pg 361Glow–worms 228
secondary sexual characteristics 22216, 288
Gloxinia
peloric 19340; 20130
speciosa, peloric races 19340
Gluten, Drosera digestion 2487–9
Glycerine, Drosera action 2440, 159
Glycine hispida, nyctinasty 27272
Glyphisodon luridus see Stegastes imbricatus
Glyptodon
Pampas, S. America 990–1, 105, 117, 123–4
clavipes 9123
ornatus 9123
reticulatus 9123
Gmelin, –
Balanus perforatus 12203, 291(103)
red cats, Tobolsk 1942
species distribution 15260; 16345
Gnathodon, fossil 15262
Gnats, musical appreciation 22291, 592
Gneiss
Argentina, La Plata 9172, 173
Brazil 9113, 116
Bahia 8105; 9164–5
Rio de Janeiro 9166–8
Cape of Good Hope 8118–19
Chile
central mountains 9198
central/northern 9190
Coquimbo to Guasco 9254
Panuncillo 9247
Valdivia 9188
Tierra del Fuego 9180, 181
Uruguay
Banda Oriental 9107
Maldonado area 9169, 170
Montevideo 9170, 171, 172
Gneiss–granite
Australia 8113
Brazil 9167, 168
Goats 10129; 1991–2; 205
Angora 20275
Ascencion Island 3460
Berbura, secondary sexual characteristics 22554
domestication 1991–2
fleece, heat effect 20232
hair 22552–3
horns 1991–2; 2043, 265; 22526, 529
inheritance 22238–9
interdigitial pits 1992
intestine measurements 1992
Markhor, parent probability 1991(97)
milk amount/udder development 20251
odour 22550, 551
polydactylism 19401
St Helena 3456–7
secondary sexual characteristics 22526, 529, 550–3, 557–8
colour 22557–8
Tibet 20232
Gobidae 6(i)vii, xv, 140–5
Gobies, secondary sexual characteristics 22358
Gobiesox 6(i)ix
marmoratus 6(i)209–11 Pl.XXVII(1)
poecilophthalmos 6(i)211–12 Pl.XXVII(2)
Gobius 6(i)ix
lineatus 6(i)138 Pl.XIX(2), 140–2
ophicephalus 6(i)138 Pl.XIX(3), 142–4
Godine, –, character transmission prepotency 2035
Godron, Dominique Alexandre
Aegilops triticoides 19289(21)
almonds, mice rejection 20189
ash, leaves 19337(156)
bees, North/South France 19275
beet, sugar increase 20160
cabbages 19299(66), 300–1; 20231
carrots 206; 25154(18)
celery, wild 206
cherries, origin 19322(78)
Corydalis
flower 20291
solida, peloric flowers 20130
Cucurbitae variability 19333–4
dogs
hairless Turkish 1927
skull differences 1930(55)
fowls skin colour 19236
Fragaria colina 19328(110)
goats 1991
grasses, barb variation 19290
horses, breeds increase 1945
humans 22580(6)
maize, seed colours 19297(56)
pg 362mutilations 19407
nectarines, peach production 19317(51)
peaches 19315(32, 36)
peas 19303
peloria 2029
pigs' ears, Ancient Egypt 20252
plants
bud–propagated 20132(109)
selection 20174
soil change benefits 20111(1)
plums, origin/variations 19321
Primula
grandiflora/officinalis pollen 25327
hybrids 2640
Robinia varieties 19336(150)
seeds, fruit 20132(109)
sheep fleece, marshy pasture influence 20232(34)
silkworm 19278(66), 281(82)
species 20357(1); 2134, 35(18)
strawberries, reversion 19328
swine
solid–hoofed 20369
wild/domestic cross 1960(3)
tulips 25338(45)
turnips, wild 206
vines, Spain 19308(3)
wheat 19289(21), 290
Godwin–Austen, Robert Alfred Cloyne, Malay Archipelago 15214; 16293
Goebel, –, Knight–Darwin Law 1055(19)
Goeree Roads 2183, 185
Goeree Sound 1118, 126
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
growth 15106; 16123; 20289
species modification 2773
Gold
Chile 3254–5; 9245, 276–7, 278
Cordillera 9237(22), 238, 239
Gold chloride, Drosera action 24173
Golden eagles seeEagles, golden
Goldfinches
secondary sexual characteristics 22414, 415
sex ratio 22257
Goldfish 19273–5; 20192
Chinese breeding 22356(29)
domestication 19273–5
secondary sexual characteristics 22356
Gomara, –, cats, South American 1941
Gomez, –, governor of Lemuy 1230–1
Gomez Island, Pacific Ocean 7125
Gomperz, Theodor, expression 23225(16), 242(43)
Gomphia oleaeformis 16183
Gomphus, secondary sexual characteristics 22301
Gond, –, merchant 139
Gonepteryx
colour 22334
secondary sexual characteristics, colour 22324
Gongora 17187, 189, 194
seed number 20324(48)
atro–purpurea 17119
maculata 17118
truncata 17119
Gonzales, Don Francisco, Maldonado expedition 1134–9
Gonzales, Mariano, Chilian expedition 1279–96; 3301, 346
Good Hope Island seeOnouafu
Good Success Bay 1108, 113 126; 2178
Goodman, –, three–toed cows 19401(33)
Goodsir, John
Balanus, male 12238
Cirripedia 118, 9, 45(15)
larvae 1291, 95(52)
lancelet 21164
Goodyera
caudicle 17183
pollinia 17183
vessels 17168(12)
clinandrum 17170
discolor 1774(6)
pubescens 1773
repens 1772–3
Gooseberries 19329–31
bud–variation 19350
grafts 15188; 16256
morphology 19330
night radiation 27210
Whitesmith's 20187
Göppert, Heinrich Robert, poppies 20129
Gordon, George, Goodyera repens donations 1774(4)
pg 363Gore, –, English Chargé d'affaires 1103, 104
Gorgonia, distribution 773(42)
Gorillas
canine teeth 2145
ears 2119
expressions 23107, 178
gait 2156
hair 2161(88), 156
polygamy 22225, 614, 615
secondary sexual characteristics 22548, 581, 582, 584
skull 2157
Gorodona, Argentina, geology 9101–2
Gorup, – von, Drosera digestive action 2466(3), 73(6)
Gorup–Besanez, –, vetch seeds 24269(12)
Gosling, –, friend of Mr Laurie 147
Gossamer spiders seeSpiders, gossamer
Gosse, Philip Henry
Asplanchna 11241
birds 22374
Columba leucocephala 19168(8)
coral gemmation 19348
dogs, Jamaica 1924(38)
Epidendraea 17104
guinea fowl, Jamaica 19175(18)
inheritance 22628
mules, striped legs 2014
orchids, bibliography 17vi
pigs, Jamaica 1970(28, 29)
rabbits, Jamaica 19101(21)
Gossypium
cotyledons 27231, 329
nutation 2716–17 (fig.12)
nyctinasty 27230, 232, 240, 329
arboreum, cotyledons 27223–4
brazilense, nyctinasty 27241
herbaceum
cotyledons 27224
geotropism 27395, 398
radicles, sensitivity 27123–4, 139
maritimum, nyctinasty 27241
Gouap, Caroline Archipelago 7147
Gould, John 3277(9); 5ix–x
Gould, Augustus Addison
acknowledgements 11157(45)
birds, phenotypes 16113
Conchoderma aurita 11117
cuckoos 16223
hereditary haemorrhage 19394(11)
land–shells 15282; 16368
Gould, Dr B. A.
humans 2130(1), 35, 36(22)
anatomy 21173(2)
hairiness 22626(23)
sailors, short sight 2137(29)
Gould, John 1596
birds 1596; 16113; 22373(2), 374, 408, 411
courtship 22421
distribution 15288; 16373
Galapagos 15283
migration 21112(22); 22220
sex ratio 22256
variation 22438
hummingbirds 22402, 428
Impatiens, humming–birds 25321(2)
instincts, cuckoo 16223
marsupials 22555
ocellus markings 22457
plumage classification 22483–509
secondary sexual characteristics, birds 22473
sexual selection 22459
turkey origin 19269
Goulou, Caroline Archipelago 7147
Goura
coronata, hybrids 19178; 20120
victoriae, hybrids 20120
Gourds 19332–3
ancient Peruvian variety 20369
varieties crossed 2074
Gout
inheritance 19394; 2046
sexual characteristic transfer 22246
Government, New Zealand 3392–3
Govett's Leap, Australia 1346; 3410
Graba, –, Faroe Islands pigeon 19169
Gradation, plumage markings 22445–57
Grafting 16255–6; 20111(5), 231
effects
bud–variation 19361, 363
stock 19361–9
trees, variability 20213
Grallatores 5192–206
adaptations 16150
polygamy 22228
Grallinae, nests domed 22471
Graminaceae
cross– and self–fertilization 25213–16
pg 364fertilization 25373(6)
Gramineae
cotyledons 2765, 361, 407
hypocotyls 27401
light sensitivity 27333, 361
nutation 2744, 47–9, 192
nyctinasty 27291, 307, 412
photonasty 27357
pulvination 27370
radicle sensitivity 27399
Grampus Island, Pacific Ocean 7150
Grande mouette seeLanus dominicanus
Grange, –, Tierra del Fuego 9178
Granite
Africa, Cape of Good Hope 8117–19
Argentina, Sierra Tapalguen 9172
Australia, King George Sound 8112–13
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 9166–8
Chile
central/northern 9190, 198
Chiloe Island 9140
coastal plains 936
Copiapo Valley 9255, 256, 260
Coquimbo to Guasco 9254
Coquimbo Valley 9248, 251
Illapel 9244
Navidad 9149
Panuncillo 9246, 247
Tres Montes 9186–7
Cordillera 9196
Portillo Pass 971, 207
Portillo Range 9213, 214–16, 218–19
Uspallata Pass 9228
Uspallata Range 9232, 239–40
ejecta, Ascension Island 832–3
erratics, Cachapaul, Chile 974
pebbles, Lima, Peru 957
Tierra del Fuego 9177, 180, 181
trappean dikes association 897–9
Tres Montes 3270–1
Uruguay 9170, 171
Grant, Robert Edmond
bees 25360
friendship, Darwin, C. R. 2994
Grapefruit seeCitrus ecumana
Grapes
bud–variation 19349
foreign pollen effect 19375
green disease liability 20285
muscat 1889
white/purple cross 19366
Graspus 29
Grasses
abortive flowers 10174
decoction, Drosera action 2463
seeds, food use 19284–5
varieties 1582; 1692
Grasshoppers
Ascencion Island 3460
stridulation 22297–9
Gratiolet, Louis Pierre 2110(1)
affection, dogs 2389
ape classification 21159, 183
blushing 23252(23)
breathing 23221
expression 234–5, 8, 24, 222(8), 240
contempt 23196, 199(5)
pride 23207(29)
rage 23183(4), 184, 185(10)
vision 23173
eyes, expressions 23125, 175(7)
heart action 23266
humans
brain 21207, 209–12
combat 23180
emotions 23135
neural control, laughter 23153–4
physiology, crying 23119
Grauwacke seeGreywacke
Gravel
formation, Argentina 922–8
terraces
Cordillera, valleys 972–7
transportation 2158–62
Graves, Lord 111
Graves, P. W., Peel Island 7112(23)
Gravity
beans, plant sensitivity 27385–400
nutation effects 27363–84
Gravity separation, basalt/trachyte 893–9
Gray, –, tertiary fossils 9307
Gray, Asa 1573, 117; 16182
alpine flora 15260; 16344–5
American trees, sexual relations 25351(70)
blushing 23249
pg 365cleistogamic flowers 26225(3), 246(31)
climbing plants 181(1), 14(14), 56(2)
Coprosma 26206
correspondence Darwin, C. R. 29172
Cucurbitae, cross–breeds 19375(134)
Cypripedium 17161, 162, 165(8)
divergence theory 10xx
Drosera 242(1)
flower fertilization 25335(41)
Echinocystis lobata 1882
Epigaea repens 26214
Euonymus 26207
flowers, nutation 27383
Forsythia suspensa 2683–4
Fragaria grandiflora 19326(100)
fruit–trees, wild varieties 19286
germination 2760, 61, 63
Gilia 2684–5
Goodyera repens 1773
Gymnadenia tridentata 1747, 205
Helianthemum 26237
heterostyled flora 262, 177
husked maize 19296
hybrids, horses 16136
Ilex opaca 26215
Impatiens fulva 26236
intermediate Compositae 21181(19)
Ipomoea jalappa 27408
leaf nutation 27190(14)
Leersia 26240(24)
Leucosmia 2681
Linum 2672
Manual of the Flora of the Northern United States 1693
Mimulus 16182
Mitchella repens 2689
mountain species 16345
native plants, North America 19286, 332
natural variation 1665
oak varieties 1641–2
orchids, bibliography 17vi
Passiflora acerifolia 1899(6)
Phlox subulata 2685
plant movements, biographical reference 29152
Plantago media 26221
Platanthera 1752–3, 205
polygamy 1678
Polypodium incanum 1866
Rhamnus lanceolatus 26213
Rosa setigera 18117(2)
sexual reproduction 25371
Sicyos 18109
species rarity 16143
Spiranthes
cernus 1777–8(8)
gracilis 1777–8(8)
strawberries 19327
Thuja occidentalis 186(6)
United States, introductions 1584; 1682
variation 1665, 143
oaks 1642
pre–ordination 20371–2
weeds variation 19293
Gray, George Robert 5ix–x
Columba gymnacyclus 19169
Gray, John Edward
acknowledgement 12vii; 14(i)v
animal breeding 20114
antelope, hair 22552(13)
ass/zebra hybrid 2014, 15(38)
birds, captive breeding 20121(55)
Cirripedia 125(2), 31(16)
Balanus 118(3); 12162
Chthamalus structure 12397
Conchoderma 11124
Coronulinae 12134
Dichelaspis 1194–5(30)
Dosima/Lepas 1159, 81
Poecilasma 1182, 84
Pollicipes 11262
Scalpellum 11178–9, 230
unknown variety 11310–11
goat 22554(18)
goldfish variety 19274(57)
horns 22525(10)
mules 15119; 16135
sloths 22226(13), 556
squirrels colour 22555
Sus pliciceps 1962, 63
tails 2162(90)
Great Barrier Reef, Australia 3435–441
atolls/encircled islands 7103, 143
dimensions 736, 40–1
Fly, H. M. S., survey 711, vii
formation theories 776, 86
inner slope 722
subsidence evidence 7217
Great Britain, colonization 16323
Great bustard seeBustard, great
pg 366Great Chagos Bank, Indian Ocean 7xvii Pl.II(1–2), 34–5, 205, 207
coral knolls 757–8, 59
formation theories 793–5
rim features 725
Grebes 15133; 16150
Greeks, ancient civilisation 21146
Green, A. H., beavers 22521(1), 549(5)
Green Hill, Ascension Island 3459
Green Mount, Banda Oriental 2131
Greene, Joseph Reay, Echinodermata development 20314(30)
Greenhow, –, Canadian web–footed dog 1936(79)
Greenland whales seeWhales, Greenland
Greenough, George Bellas
acknowledgement 14(ii)v
quartz in mica–slate 917(8)
Greenstone
Brazil 9164–5, 166
Chile
central and north 9190, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203
Chiloe Island 9140
Chonos Archipelago 9187
Copiapo Valley 9255, 256
Coquimbo to Guasco 9254
Coquimbo Valley 9251
Despoblado Valley 9272
Illapel to Los Hornos 9245
Panuncillo 9246
Quiriquina Island 9189
Cordillera 9207, 223
fragments 3245
Tasmania 8109
Tierra del Fuego 9179, 181
Uruguay 9171
Greg, William Rathbone, ancient civilisation 21143, 146(27)
Gregory, –, aborigines, fertility 21191
Gregory Bay 1207; 2206
Gregson, –, Abraxas grossulariata experiments 20234(44)
Grenville, – 1100
Gressner, H.
cotyledons 2734, 58(6)
seedling germination 2771(15)
Gret, W. R., natural selection 21138
Grey, Capt. –, sand bars, Australia 746
Grey, Earl 169
Grey, George
incest, Australia 2089–90
infanticide 22616
Lepas anatifera 1163
seed bearing plants 19287
Greyhounds 1057
breeds 1937; 2086
bulldog cross 2063
Italian 20183, 1057
pedigrees 19392
sculpted, ancient world 1915
selection 20178
Greyness, inheritance 2046
Greywacke
Chile 9198
Cordillera 9190–1, 230, 232–3
Tasmania 8109
Tierra del Fuego 9178, 179
Grief
see alsoExpression
expression 23142, 282
Grieve, Symington, dahlias, early–flowering 19344
Grigor, –, Scotch fir acclimatization 20260
Grimm, –, asexual reproduction 16403
Gritstone
Chile, Copiapo Valley 9268
Cordillera, Uspallata Range 9234, 236, 237
Grive
blanche et noirâtre seeTurdus rufiventer
rousse et noirâtre seeT. rufiventer
Groenland, –
Drosera 244(4)
leaf structure 241(1)
Groenland, Johannes, Aegilops/wheat hybrids 2076
Groom–Napier, Charles Ottley, otter–hounds 1936(80)
Gros, Dr –, pangenesis 20303(1)
Grosses gorges seePigeons, pouter
Grote, George, historian 29137
Group selection seeSelection
Grouse 1536, 62; 1639, 69
courtship 22420
fertility, captivity 20120
hybrid 1074, 78
plumage 22408
polygamy 22227–8
population regulation 1562; 1669
Growth
compensation 15106; 20289–91
pg 367correlation 15103–8, 142
domestic races 159
flora 16181–2
natural selection 16123–5
Gruber, Dr –
crickets 22295
Ephippiger vitium 22299
humerus foramen 2125(49)
locusts 22297
malar bone 2143(40)
Grus
antigone 20121
cinerea 20121
montigresia 20121
virgo, secondary sexual characteristics 22389
Gryllus
campestris
combat 22300
secondary sexual characteristics 22294 (fig.11), 295
domesticus, nervure 22295 (fig.12)
migratorius 3316(10)
Gryphaea
Chile 9249, 267, 269
Cordillera 9212, 226
darwinii 9262, 263, 264, 313 Pl.V(7)
nov.sp? 9262, 313 Pl.V(8–9)
orientalis 9263
Grypus, secondary sexual characteristics 22374
Guachen River, Chile, raised terrace features 941
Guahan, Mariana Islands 7149
Guam, Mariana Islands, geology 7112
Guanaco 198, 113, 184, 186, 189, 204, 205; 263; 3344; 10131
bones 2154
habits 2152–4
methodical selection 20166
secondary sexual characteristics 22521, 535
Guanas
combat 22584(22), 585
polyandry 22617
Guano deposits 29
Phoenix Islands 7214
St Paul's Rocks 825
Guans
fertility in captivity 20120
Guantajaya, mines 3347–9
Guaranys 22580, 583
Guardia del Monte 2107
Guasco, Chile 1287, 288, 289; 3332, 335, 337
geology 9191, 263, 276
Guasco Valley, Chile, geology 952–3, 255
Guasos, Chile 3246–7
Guava 3376
Guede Island, Ceram 7152
Guelder–rose 20146
Guelderland fowls seeFowls, Guelderland
Guenée, –
Hyperythra, sex ratio 22259
moths 22327
Guenons, anger 23103
Guiana (Guyana) 1023(21)
dogs, Indian selection 20165
geology, gneiss foliation 9166
Guilding, Lansdown
Alepas cornuta 11137
Balanus stultus 12189
Guillemot, variation 22439
Guilt, blushing 23260–1
Guinea fowls 131; 1061; 19272
climatic change, response 20125
domestication 19272
feral 19175; 206
monogamy 22227, 228
Guinea pigs 1054; 16115; 19408; 20116
Guirayetupa seeAlecturus guirayetupa
Guitron Plain, Chile 3250
Guitru–gueyu, Argentina seeSierra Guitru–gueyu
Güldenstädt, –, jackals 1922
Gulls 3271
carrion feeding 55
Galapagos Archipelago 3361
herring, captive breeding 20121
sterility, captivity 20121
Gulo
sterility, captivity 20116
vittatus see Gallictis vittata
Gum arabic, Drosera action 2458
Gun Carriage Island, Tasmania 3418
Gun–cotton, Drosera non–digestion 2493
Gunnera scabra 3267
Gunning, Dr –, eye injury 23122–3
Günther, Albert Charles Louis Gotthilf Batrachia 20310(21); 22363
pg 368extra digits 2141(38)
fish 16196, 331, 358–9; 22344, 345, 349, 351, 353, 360
hermaphrodite 21167(28)
parental care 21168(30)
freshwater species 16358–9
Lepidosiren 16414–15
lizards 22368, 369(67), 370, 2376
pipe–fish 22358
prehensile tails 16197
snakes 22365 366(61); 2381(34)
toads 2379
trout, sex ratio 22257
tufted ducks and geese 19252
Guppy,Dr H. B.
coral reefs 773[4]
atoll theory 778[3]
exposure by tide 77(1)
Holothuria 715(3)
sediments 724(18)
Solomon Islands 7198–205, 209
Gurney, John Henry
'black–shouldered' peacock 19268
owls, captive, breeding 20118
Gyananis isis, ocellus 22443
Gymnadenia 17177
albida 1730, 45, 47
conopsea
disc 17191 (fig.38)
flower structure 1745–6 (fig.10)
nectar secretion 1727, 30
pollinia movements 17191
rostellum 17180
transplanted 1722
vessels 17168–9(12)
odoratissima 1747
tridentata 1747, 204–5
Gymnodactylus 6(ii)46–8
gaudichaudii 6(ii)46–8 Pl.XIV(1)
Gymnolepas
cranchii see Conchoderma virgata
cuvierii see C. aurita
Gymnosperms, nyctinasty 27290
Gymnothorax ocellatus see Muraena ocellata
Gyno–dioecious plants seePlants, gyno–dioecious
Gypogeranus, snake predator 2382
Gypseous formations
see alsoEvaporites
Chile
Copiapo Valley 9256–9, 260–2, 264–6, 267, 268
Coquimbo Valley 9249, 252
Despoblado Valley 9269
Guasco Valley 9255
Illapel to Los Hornos 9244–6
Iquique 9274–5
Cordillera
Portillo Pass 9208–11 Pl.I(1)
Portillo Range 9213–14, 218
Uspallata Pass 9220, 221–7
origin theories 9279–82
Gypsum 260
Argentina
Colorado River 922
El Carmen 985
Port S. Julian 9131
Rio Negro 9126, 127
Salado, River 991
Santa Cruz 9132
Santa Fé Bajada 9103
Chile
Chiloe Island 9144
Copiapo Valley 9152, 256, 258, 261, 267
Coquimbo Valley 9250
Illapel 9244–5
Iquique 9275
saline deposits 981, 82
Volcan, River 9212
Cordillera
Portillo Pass 9208–9, 210, 211
Uspallata Pass 9224–5, 226
great beds 3305
Uruguay, metamorphic rocks 9170
volcanic islands 841–2, 60, 69(12)
Gyratones 5177–85
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