Arthur Grey, fourteenth Baron Grey of Wilton

Christopher Burlinson and Andrew Zurcher (eds), Edmund Spenser: Selected Letters and Other Papers

Contents
Find Location in text

Main Text

21. Grey to the Privy Council, 12 August 1581TNA: PRO SP63/85/13

Grey probably returned from his journey into Ulster on 11 August, sending this report to the Privy Council on the following day. For evidence of careful political scheming, there are few letters in this collection to beat it: not only did Grey seize an unprecedented opportunity to catch Turlough Luineach on the back foot, by pinching him between Malby's forces (with O'Donnell) on the west, and his own from the south, thus forcing him to subscribe to a set of articles sent over to him by Grey's commissioners, Dowdall and Bryskett; but Grey perfectly orchestrated his own commission from London, timing his journey carefully in order to be able to claim ignorance, on his return, of the instructions he had meanwhile been sent from Westminster. Turlough Luineach's anxiety and distress at having been outfoxed come palpably through in Grey's account, and the measured, backhanded way in which Grey attributes his lenient course to his respect for the Queen's pacific preferences smacks of the Machiavellian adept. Of course Grey did not expect Turlough Luineach to keep the peace to which he had agreed—as he wrote to Walsingham just before leaving for Ulster (No. 19, above, SP 63/84/26), he knew his course was safe because his negotiations, even if temporarily successful, would eventually prove fruitless—but the aim at the Blackwater was not to secure peace, but to create the defensible pretext for the open war with Turlough Luineach that Grey desired. Grey furthers this agenda later in this letter by underscoring the Dublin government's confidence in Sir Hugh O'Donnell (Turlough Luineach's antagonist), and resisting the Privy Council's incipient plans to divert military resources from Leinster and Connaught to Munster. This letter is also interesting because it provides the first report of the escape of the Baron of Lixnaw's sons from Limerick castle; these two pledges were all that kept Lord Fitzmaurice in obedience, and he rebelled almost instantly. The secretaries handling this letter had before them a masterclass in high politics and the chess-like manipulation of men, ambitions, and commissions.

The text of the letter is in a neat and compact secretary (not Spenser's), familiar from many of the letters in this series. Spenser's own secretary hand appears in the address. Grey has penned the subscription and signature pg 110himself, in his characteristically awkward italic. A later hand has added substantial underlining throughout the text of the letter, probably in order to emphasize certain points to members of the Privy Council, to whom the letter would have been circulated upon receipt.

address and endorsements

To the Righte

Honorable the

Lords and otheres of

{h}er Maiesties Privie

{C} ouncell./o

  • 12° Augusti 1581
  • From the Lord Deputy of Irelande
  • to the Lordes of the Counsel.

Entred

text

It may please your Lordships. I haue of late receaued 2: lettres from yow of the 26. and 30 of the laste, whiche came to my handes after I dispersed my companies in my retorne from my treaty with Turloughe Lennoughe: your Lordships I doubte not do remember what I aduertised in my last letters, touching the occacion of my late Iorneye northward, namely how odonnell had praied aide of hir maiestye, against Turloughe, or els for ever to bee lefte to shifte for him self, and that in our opinions heere, the losses sustained by him, coulde no way be repaired, nor Turloughe staied from the totall overthrowe of him, and his countrey vnlesse I had presently made hedd into those partes. According to whiche determinacion, I did not only sende Sir Nicholas Malbey, withe the forces vnder him in Connoughte, to enter Tierconnell, by the way of Sligo, and prepared victualls, and municion, to be sente by sea into Loughfoill, for suche services, as I purposed about Leefer, but martched in person, withe those few Companies, which I had to the forte vppon the black water, And in my way thether, I sente to Turloughe, to declare that having hearde somewhate of the violente manner of dealing betweene him, and odonnell, I could do no lesse, then deale betweene them, to the stopping of those contrauersies, and to heere and determine the causes, that had moued so greate outrages, and losse of so many hir maiesties pg 111subiecteso on bothe sides, being sorye that men of theire condicion, and so well hable to serve hir highnes, should so farre exceede them selues as without lycense to enter into warre and to disturbe the state, And therefore I appoincted him a place, and a tyme for conferrence and speache to be had in the matter: To this I was aunswered that he woulde repaier to the place, appoincted, at the time I assigned, For the rumour of my coming had caused him, before this, to retorne from the Chace of odonnell, and heering of a preparacion heere for a battry to be sente, into Loughfoill, he gaue order for the rasing of his owne castle of Strabane, vppon that ryuer, and of the castle of Leefer, belonging to Con odonnell, on Tierconnell side: At the day appoincted he came neere vnto the place withe a minde prepared altogether for warre, (so farre, as I could ghesse) notwithstanding he sente vnto me to know my pleasure, wherevppon I addressed the Iustice Dowdall, and Mr Briskett to treate with him vppon certaine articles, whiche I gaue them by way of Instrvccion, subscribed by me, and by Mr. Threasoror, and Mr Marshall, there withe mee, whiche articles with the aunsweres, or conclucions of the peace I send vnto your Lordships heerewithe, to avoyde tediousnes in my letter, only this I will note, that the Comissioners founde soche passions and alteracions in him, as weare straunge, before he Could bee temperede by them to enny conformity, But in the ende he was so handeled, as he sought withe humility, to come to the entervewe, but in soche mistrustfull manner as the riuer devided vs, So likewise when wee had concluded, sometyme he put of his hatte, and ioyed that he had peace, And by, and by an other difficulty grew, when he, and his followers should swere, and subscribe to the condicions, by whiche stormy manner of dealing, I note his vnsteddy nature, and how lytle truste is to bee hadd, ether to his wordes, or wrytinges, and on the Contrary parte do comend the dealing of those gentlemen, in that they so ouercame his obstinacy, withe perswacon, as the dignety of the state was preserved, and he wrought to seeke whatesoeuer I desired, althoughe the most efficient causes indeade were the forces, by whiche he feared Invasion on bothe sides: And whereas sondry speaches, had bene geven forthe by the rebelles, that he was a principall partie in the rebellion, and had promised ayde, to them from tyme, to tyme, after he had subscribed, he protested, that he had neuer made ennye soche othe, or promisse to enny rebell, thoughe pg 112sondry had sente vnto him for that purpose which he offred to advow before enny, that would so charge him. The comissioners had in Charge also to deliuer the proclamacion of generall pardon, whiche for all the prouince of Vlster was proclaimed without enny exception, But when yt was made knowne in his Campe yt moued not enny man there, to take the benefyt of yt, for they saied yt concerned offendoures, and offences, whereof there was none in Vlster of that qualety; Turloughes wief seemed ernestly to further this pacificacion, being fearefull of the double force, whiche bothe she saw with me, and hearde to be Coming with odonnell vnder Sir Nicholas Malbey, by whiche I must confesse to your Lordships I might haue taken soche an occacion to haue dishabled Turloughe for euer doing hurte to the pale, as hardely Can be founde soche an oportunitye, but that I know hir maiesties inclinacion so bente, vppon temporising withe a calme, and a peceable cours, as I would not enter into a matter of warre, that afterwarde might lacke dew prosecution, And therefore having sente the Iustice Dowdall, and other comissioners of Turloughes into Tierconnell to attende Sir Nicholas Malbey, for composition to be taken betweene him and odonnell, I accepted the peace before mencioned nothing pleasing to me, thoughe I assure my self, yt will be better thought of at home, then a warre that might haue brought forthe, bothe an honourable and a perpetuall assuraunce against the Northe: After this pacifaccion, and my retorne from the place, I receaued (as I haue formerly sayed) your Lordships letters, withe whiche I finde the articles aggreed vppon by hir maiesty, to Turloughes peticions, and for sondrye respectes am glad, that they came not sooner to my handes, For althoughe the grauntes are very honourable, and more liberall in some thinges, then I Coulde haue perswaded, if I had bene there, yet the condicions, wherevnto he should be tied be such as are verye beneficiall to the state, and suche, as he will neuer accept, For that whiche tendethe to the banishmente of the Scottes, will neuer be yelded vnto by his wief, and hir frendes, neither would he haue consented to yeld anny pledges, And then if he had faine from the condicions, and hir maiesty, not bente to haue maintayned hir purpose by force, yt would presently haue geven an end of all his expectacion from Englande, and made him perhappes desperate in the rest, as by all likelihoode he may be, Neuertheles if Capten Peirs, his messenger (of whome your Lordships wryte) be not verye circumspect how to reveale thes thinges, or to vse warely his message, and soche matter as his master fantasiethe in his platte of Vlster, And in troathe I finde yt very straunge, that enny soche pg 113messenger should be sente, without first being directed hether, to acquainte me withe the Cours he purposethe to take, and to enfourme him self by the state heere, what hathe passed, and how farre he may goe in reason, in thes Treaties withe Turloughe For how muche Capten Peers misconceauethe in thes matters, and is abused in his opinion may appeare to your Lordships by the aunswere of euery article of his platte, Whereunto wee haue postilde, whiche I speake not in disgrace of the man, whome indeade I loue, and wishe to be holpen in his particuler, and that he may be vsed in trust in those seruices, wherewithe he is acquainted, ether in the ardes, or Clandeboy, But that he hathe enny Creddyt at all with Turloughe, (but in the way of good fellowship, whiche lastethe no longer then that humour Continuethe) I haue suff{ic}yent proof, and very good cause to iudge, And what golden mountaines soeuer are promised, ether by his messages, or my peace now Concluded, I assure your Lordships I accept yt none otherwise thankeworthye; then as patched stuffe that Cannot longe houlde. For the intollerable pride and insolencye of Turloughe is soche, as Cannot be contynued within the bondes of duetye to hir maiestye, or good neighbourid to hir highnes subiectes This only benifitt I take of the peace now Concluded, and of the time now wonne, that I may, as soone as I Canne fornishe me of a conuenyent proportion of victuall, martche to the mountaines, and breake ether that broode, or retorne withe losse, for vppon tryall of goddes will ether in the one, or the other, I am constauntlye determined. Your Lordships in your letter wisshed my staye from the borders, in respecte of the trobles of other partes, But I thought yt most convenyent to take this oportunitye, by whiche I suppose the hope, whiche they conceaued in Turloug{he} is cutt of from the confederates in all partes, so as now the occonnours, beginne to make meane vnto mee to bee receaued, and so do some of the obirnes, and the base brother of the Baron of Delvin, all whiche bothe before and in the time of the treaty withe Turloughe, and till the peace was published, had no regard at all to the proclamacion of pardon

And thus muche I thought meete to say aswell in declaracion of my late Iorney northward, as in aunswere of your Lordships lettre of the 30 of Iuly: Your Lordships other letter of the xxvj. of Iuly. concernethe the good acceptacion of Iohn Zouches service, the opinion of the reuolte of Odonnelles sonne, and the placing of Sir Warham Sentleger colonell of the forces in Mounster.

pg 114To the first I am very glad in the behalf of the gentleman, that hir maiesty and your Lordships do so well conceaue of Mr Zouche, which opinion may be bettered, by a secound service, done since, wherein he hathe had very good Successe, and hathe slaine, & taken of the erle of Desmoundes followers of good accoumpt, and redused Kerrye in manner to depende wholy vppon him, Neuertheles, I feare that an accidente lately happened, will put his service there in some Daunger, for I am enfourmed, that by the negligence of one Sherif viceconstable in the Castle of Limerick, and by the practise (as yt is thought) of some of the Citizens, the Lord Fitzmorice two sonnes, and two other pledges are escaped, whereby yt is likely that all Fitzmorice his countrey, willbe distempered, I can geue no remedy to this misadventure, but by seueare punishment of the partie to preuente the like negligence, or abuse in men of his sorte heereafter.

Secoundly for Odonnells sonne, supposed by Capten Peirs to haue revolted, and to be supported by his fosterfatheres, there hathe bene no cause of eny soche Conceipt, for nether hathe his sonnes, (who are of age but Childeren) so fallen from theire father, nether hathe eny of the countrey left him, but mainteyned his quarrells with expence of theire bloode, sauing a few followers of Con odonnells, his nephew Whose ambicion, & desire to haue the captency, hathe moued this sturre, and diuers other heeretofore depending euer since the deathe of his father Culloughe odonnell, vppon the Captens of Tirone in the time of Shane oneyll, and euer since vppon Turloughe Lennoughe.

Thirdely for Sir Warham Seintleger, to be Cheif Collonell in Mounster, I like well of your Lordships Choice of the gentleman, to supply the place for a tyme, till hir maiesty shall resolue farther, for as his profession in the beginning of his lief was to follow the warres, and at his entry into service heere was the firste presidente of that prouince, so hathe his behauiour since this rebellion, deserved well of hir maiesty, And therefore I haue good cause to allow of his nominacion, neuertheles I do not wisshe, that yt should haue long Continuance, because his aucthoritye there must needes be accompanied withe the disliking of therle of ormond, betweene whome there hathe bene some Contrauersies in my tyme And therefore I wishe, that hir maiesty woulde shortely thinke vppon some apt choice of some of hir highnes servauntes in England, and to vse that gentlemans service in some other kinde, And for the present Sir Warham Seintleger, shall haue a comission asosiated withe other of the Colonelles, and Captens, as your Lordships haue well deuised, and his entertainement, pg 115assigned with as lytle charg to hir maiesty, as may be, and some smale addicon of horsemen, to his owne retinew already in pay, But thato they should be defalked from other bandes, I do not think convenyent, because yt wilbe hinderaunceo to the service, and very offensive to the captens, who if they wante in theire companies had rather aunswere the checques to hir maiesty, then to be abridged in theire numbers for eny private respecte:/

I am aduertised out of the annalye, that while the Cheife baron, and the attorneye, Were holding a sessions there, Orwark was entered the county of Longford with the number of 1000 of all sortes whereof the most parte Scottes, and begann to burne, and spoile the countrey, to the rescew whereof the Cheif baron, assembled suche as Could be gotten vppon the soddaine, and Chardged the Scottes, in whiche there was slaine viij. of them, and xx. or thereaboutes hurte, notwithstanding they weare not hable to rescue the pray, but there was taken from them 1000 Cattell, and vij. or viij. villages burnte: It seemethe by the letter, and informacion whiche I haue receaued, that there is no grea{t} valueo in the offarrolles. or that they did any more then they weare enforced vnto by the Cheif Baron, and the attorneye, who bothe weare in daunger, and more forward, then the rest in the Charge geuen, This your Lordships may see, notwithstanding enny peaces, & compotitions, that may be made, how this state is disturbed, withe that nacion of the Scottes, whiche swarme euery where to the annoyance of the Subiectes:/

Lastely I haue humbly to thanke your Lordships for your determinacion to sende hether threasure, municion, and victualls, of which kindes, there is not enny of late aryued, but the threasure is staied at Chester, by a post dispatched yesterday, because I heere that 2. pirates, well appoincted with 140 shott, do remaine in the hauen of Beamorice, redye to make a pray of yt, or of some honest merchauntes: If the handmaide do retorne from Loughfoill she shall scowre the coast, and fetche the threasure, But in the meane tyme We liue in want and therefore wishe that yt weare well wafted from Chester.o So hauing not farther, whereof to enfourme your Lordships but that Sir William Standley within thes iij. daies, hathe executed pg 116some of the rebelles neere Artlow whose heddes he sendethe me by water, not yet aryued, & that capten Deeringes company, haue likewise slaine xiiij. in a glan neere Powerscourte, I comytt your Lordships to god. At Dublyn the xijth of August 1581.

  • Your Lordships most assured
  • to Commaund,
  • Arthur Grey

pg 117pg 118pg 119

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
I haue … from yow] no record of these letters survives. As Grey mentions further on in the present letter, they concerned the Queen's instructions for dealing with Turlough Luineach O'Neill.
Editor’s Note
after … Turloughe Lennoughe] Grey had marched to the Blackwater to confront and parley with Turlough Luineach, leaving Dublin just after 19 July. He had returned by 10 August.
Editor’s Note
my last letters] see Grey to the Privy Council, No. 17, above (SP 63/84/13), and Grey to Walsingham, No. 18, above (SP 63/84/14).
Editor’s Note
praied aide] requested assistance; the first of several legalisms in the letter.
Editor’s Note
shifte for him self] enter into conflicts and negotiations on his own authority; there is an implied threat here, as well as an appeal, for O'Donnell well understood that the Queen and her Deputy had an interest in his allegiance as a counterweight to the O'Neill.
Editor’s Note
made hedd into those partes] journeyed (with force) into Ulster.
Editor’s Note
Sir Nicholas Malbey] Malby, governor of Connaught. Grey had dispatched him to gather his forces and meet the Lord Deputy at Lifford; he had marched from Athlone at about the same time that Grey had left Dublin.
Editor’s Note
Tierconnell … Sligo] see maps. Turlough Luineach was known to have crossed the river Mourne at Strabane, and was, as Grey reported in a letter of the previous month, killing and spoiling at pleasure in O'Donnell's country west of the river. Grey's plan was for Malby, having marched north-west from Athlone, to gather up O'Donnell and his men in Sligo, and to press on with their united force towards Lifford, where O'Donnell had a castle on his bank—now burned—athwart O'Neill's fortifications at Strabane—also by this point razed. Grey then planned to meet Malby and O'Donnell at the ford at Lifford, effectively pinching O'Neill and forcing him back into Ulster. In the end, Grey only got as far as the English fort on the Blackwater (near Lough Neagh) before Turlough Luineach intercepted him.
Editor’s Note
Loughfoill] entering by Lough Foyle in the north (see maps), Grey's ships could get the victual and munitions up the river as far as Lifford.
Editor’s Note
Leefer] Lifford; see maps.
Editor’s Note
the forte vppon the black water] the Blackwater runs north-east from Monaghan into Lough Neagh; the 'new' fort on the Blackwater, completed by the Earl of Essex in 1575 and destroyed during the war with Hugh O'Neill in 1595, was situated a few kilometres north-east of Benburb.
Editor’s Note
to heere and determine] oyer et terminer is an ancient (Law French) legal expression in common law use, and in the sixteenth century part of the common parlance of the gentry and aristocratic classes.
Editor’s Note
causes] matters or issues in contention.
Editor’s Note
without lycense] Grey's rhetoric emphasized the nominal authority of the Queen in the affairs between O'Neill and O'Donnell.
Editor’s Note
the rasing … Tierconnell side] it was a usual tactic of Irish lords to raze their own castles upon the approach of an English force; the Irish kern with their Scots galloglass were better suited than the English to mobile warfare, and pressed this advantage by destroying the forts and castles which the English might garrison.
Editor’s Note
Iustice Dowdall, and Mr Briskett] James Dowdall, Justice of the King's Bench since 1565; and Lodowick Bryskett, clerk to the Irish Council and a friend of Spenser's; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
Mr. Threasoror] Sir Henry Wallopp; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
Mr Marshall] Sir Nicholas Bagenal; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
the riuer devided vs] Turlough Luineach was skittish enough about his safety that he parleyed with Grey across the river.
Editor’s Note
subscribe to the condicions] when Turlough Luineach and his followers were required formally to give their consent to limitations on their activity or power, they balked.
Editor’s Note
dignety of the state] Grey's chief objective in confronting Turlough Luineach on the Blackwater, and in succouring O'Donnell, was this attempt to uphold the crown's dignity—both by honouring its obligation to O'Donnell, and asserting its authority over Turlough Luineach.
Editor’s Note
on bothe sides] i.e. from the west (Malby and O'Donnell) and from the south (Grey).
Editor’s Note
the proclamacion of generall pardon] for the Queen's extension of a general pardon throughout Ireland, see the promulgation in two drafts, one edited in Burghley's hand: SP 63/82/42 and 63/82/43. The order to proclaim the pardon reached Grey on 26 May (see No. 14, above, SP 63/83/43), but this was his first chance to proclaim it himself among O'Neill's men.
Editor’s Note
Turloughes wief] Agnes Campbell, daughter of Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of Argyle; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
hir maiesties inclinacion] Grey was well aware that Elizabeth's preferred policy in Ireland was a parsimonious conciliation.
Editor’s Note
the articles … Turloughes peticions] it is not clear exactly when Turlough Luineach submitted his petition to the Queen, though Captain Piers wrote in January 1581 of his 'requests' (SP 63/80/13); the Queen's answer, contained in letters of 26 and 30 July that do not survive, was overtaken by Grey's journey to the Blackwater. Grey may well, of course, have received the letters from the Queen before he left, and have chosen to march against Turlough Luineach as if he had not, knowing as he did that the Westminster view would never have been viable.
Editor’s Note
more liberall … perswaded] more generous to Turlough Luineach than Greywould have condoned.
Editor’s Note
to yeld anny pledges] give any hostages for his good behaviour; Turlough Luineach would have considered this a slight to his honour.
Editor’s Note
falne from the condicions] broken the provisions of the Queen's offer of peace.
Editor’s Note
an end … from Englande] given him the impression that he could do what he liked, without repercussion or hope of reward from England.
Editor’s Note
Capten Peirs] William Piers, a long-serving soldier in the north of Ireland; see biographies. He mentioned his plot in a letter to Walsingham in 1580 (SP 63/75/58), and Grey had been considering it for some time (see SP 63/80/10 and 63/80/32).
Editor’s Note
vse warely his message] be cunning and politic in the revealing of his embassy.
Editor’s Note
his master] unclear.
Editor’s Note
the aunswere … postilde] our detailed response to his plan for Ulster, which we have set down point by point.
Editor’s Note
holpen in his particuler] furthered in his private affairs.
Editor’s Note
Creddyt] access or influence. suff{ic}yent proof] Grey seems to be alluding to some information gathered on his recent journey, perhaps from Turlough Luineach himself.
Editor’s Note
thankeworthye] meritorious, and deserving of commendation from the Privy Council.
Editor’s Note
patched stuffe] temporary dealing, which will not last.
Editor’s Note
vppon tryall of goddes will] Grey alludes to the ancient legal custom of the ordeal, or trial by battle, where God's will was determined by a sweepstakes hazard of one life against another, in a matter of right.
Editor’s Note
occonnours] a prominent Irish sept of the south-east.
Editor’s Note
obirnes] with the Tooles, one of the chief septs of Wicklow.
Editor’s Note
base brother of … of Delvin] Edmund Nugent, base brother to Sir Christopher Nugent, ninth Baron Delvin.
Editor’s Note
Iohn Zouches] Zouche was the Colonel left as effective governor in Munster after the siege at Smerwick.
Editor’s Note
Odonnelles sonne] see below.
Editor’s Note
one Sherif … of Limerick] Grey pardoned John Shereff for his fault during his Munster journey in October-November 1581; see No. 23, below (SP 63/86/51).
Editor’s Note
Lord Fitzmorice two sonnes] Patrick and Edmund Fitzmaurice, sons to Thomas Fitzmaurice, sixteenth Lord of Kerry and Baron of Lixnaw.
Editor’s Note
fosterfatheres] 'fostering' children in other households was a common practice in sixteenth-century Ireland (and not unknown in England); the foster-relations to which this practice gave rise could prove more important and durable than natural kinship.
Editor’s Note
Conceipt] idea.
Editor’s Note
the countrey] Tirconnell.
Editor’s Note
the captency] the leadership of the country; 'captain' was the usual English translation of taoiseach.
Editor’s Note
his father Culloughe odonnell] Con's father, the Calough, who was Sir Hugh O'Donnell's brother.
Editor’s Note
in the time of Shane oneyll] Turlough Luineach's predecessor as the O'Neill, who was executed by the MacDonnells (a Scottish clan very active in Ireland) in 1567.
Editor’s Note
for Sir Warham Seintleger … Chief Collonell] the replacement of Zouche by Sentleger was a point of rank; as Grey points out, rank also has its inconveniences—here, the Earl of Ormond's dislike of Sentleger.
Editor’s Note
the disliking … ormond] the fact that the Earl of Ormond disliked him; on Ormond, see biographies.
Editor’s Note
a comission … Captens] the Privy Council had instructed Grey to appoint Sentleger by means of a commission—a licence within his power—rather than sending out letters of instruction, with a royal warrant, under the Lord Chancellor's seal. This gave Westminster more flexibility in removing Sentleger from office when the time was right.
Editor’s Note
some smale addicon of horsemen] a few extra mounted soldiers.
Editor’s Note
defalked from other bandes] deducted (transferred) from other bands of cavalry.
Editor’s Note
aunswere … hir maiesty] to answer the check was to comply with instructions on the employment or discharging of servants in the Queen's pay—including soldiers. Grey's point is that it was a matter of honour for the English captains not to have their bands reduced in favour of another captain.
Editor’s Note
annalye] the county of Longford in Leinster; see maps.
Editor’s Note
Cheife baron, and the attorneye] Sir Lucas Dillon (see biographies) and Christopher Fleminge, respectively.
Editor’s Note
Orwark] Brian O'Rourke, the O'Rourke; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
no great{t} … offarrolles] Grey's judgement was prescient; though called very dutiful by Sidney in a 1576 account of the Irish septs (SP 63/55/34), the family would come out in rebellion under the Nugents (see SP 63/104/12).
Editor’s Note
2. pirates … 140 shott] unidentified.
Editor’s Note
the hauen of Beamorice] i.e. Beaumaris; see maps.
Editor’s Note
the handmaide] the Queen's only regular ship of war in the Irish Sea, under the command of George Thornton.
Editor’s Note
Sir William Standley] an English captain, then based in Wexford; see biographies.
Editor’s Note
Artlow] i.e. Arklow, in south-east Wicklow; see maps.
Editor’s Note
capten Deeringes company] Anthony Deering was stationed with a band of horsemen in Connaught, but had perhaps returned east after the confrontation with Turlough Luineach, at which he had certainly assisted.
Editor’s Note
Powerscourte] the seat of the Tooles or O'Tooles, near Dublin; see maps.
Critical Apparatus
Address] the removal of the sealed bands has obscured some parts of the address, which was originally written over them.
Critical Apparatus
subiectes] as often, this secretary has here joined a terminal 'es' brevigraph to a word already ending in 'e', in effect writing 'subiectees'. As the intention is clear enough, we have chosen to represent this ambiguous usage in the normal way.
Critical Apparatus
that] inserted above the line.
Critical Apparatus
But that … hinderaunce ] this underscored passage has been flagged in the left margin with a hash mark.
Critical Apparatus
value] a single-character deletion appears at the end of this word.
Critical Apparatus
and therefore … Chester ] this underscored passage has been flagged in the left margin with a hash mark.
logo-footer Copyright © 2019. All rights reserved. Access is brought to you by Log out