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pg 249BOOK V: INTRODUCTION

In v the poet must at last introduce his hero, Odysseus. Traditionally his personality was defined by a variety of epithets: διογενής, δῖος, πολύμητις, πολύτλας, πτολίπορθος, κτλ‎. Most of these are generic, applied to several and perhaps applicable to all heroes, but two are special to Odysseus: πολύτλας‎ (= ταλασίφρονος‎ in gen.), and πολύμητις‎ (= πολυμήχανε‎ in voc., and πολύφρονα, ποικιλομήτην‎ in acc.). They describe a complex character, for the Homeric Odysseus is a figure of folk-tale as well as of heroic saga. Πολύτλας‎, for Homer, refers to the fortitude of Odysseus (see vii 1 n.). He therefore introduces Odysseus at a low ebb in his fortunes (151–9), a virtual prisoner, impotent and despondent. He reduces him even lower, to the condition of a friendless and naked castaway, for his evident intention is that the restoration of Odysseus to family and kingdom should begin from the lowest possible point. Even the hero's name seems to remind the poet of woe (ὀδύρομαι‎, cf. iv 110) and divine anger (ὀδύσσομαι‎, cf. i 62, v 340, xix 407, and see Risch in Eumusia (Festgabe für E. Howald (Zürich 1947), 82 ff.)—the real etymology is obscure cf. Frisk, GEW s.v. In this way the poet emphasizes by contrast the other aspect of Odysseus, the wily cunning, versatility, and opportunism by which he overcomes his difficulties. On this he touches, so as to complete the outline of the hero's personality on his first introduction, in the scene between Odysseus and Calypso (171–223).

Calypso herself is a creature of mystery. She contributes more to the structure than to the substance of Odyssey. The story requires Telemachus to be grown up and Odysseus to be presumed dead by all but his family and closest friends, so that he must be detained, hidden from the sight of men, till the twentieth year from his departure to Troy. Calypso is his 'concealer'—there is little doubt that for Homer this is what the name signified. (The form appears to be that of a hypocoristic, perhaps for *Καλυψάνειρα‎, cf. Heubeck, Kadmos iv (1965), 143.) In this sense Calypso was the invention of the singers of the story of Odysseus. Those who believe that behind the Odyssey as we have it it is possible to discern the outline of a simpler story easily remove her and take Odysseus directly from Thrinakia to Scheria (e.g. Schwartz, Odyssee, 5, fol-pg 250lowing Wilamowitz, Untersuchungen, 134). However, it is the custom of traditional poetry to borrow and adapt, not to create from nothing. Whence comes then such substance as Calypso possesses? Some, notably Güntert, have speculated that she was a figure of popular belief, a goddess of death, the concealer of men; her island a sort of Elysium. From our point of view the connection would be only at the deepest level. However, this view rests on the interpretation of the goddess's name, for Calypso has no myth and no cult. Wilamowitz derived her directly from Circe (Untersuchungen, 115 ff.). The parallel is suggestive, but not exact. Comparison with the Egyptian tale of Sinuhe or Siduri of the Gilgamesh epic supports the view that her conception owed something to folk-tale: she is the enchanting goddess of an enchanted isle. As such she has sometimes, though not in this book, a slightly sinister aspect, cf. the epithet δολόεσσα‎ (vii 245).

The thematic structure of the book is simple. The poet must compose two episodes: the departure of Odysseus from Ogygia, and his shipwreck upon Scheria.

The first is composed from the following themes: a council of the gods (1–42), the departure and journey of Hermes (43–54), his arrival and welcome in Ogygia (55–94), his exchange with Calypso (95–147), Calypso's report to Odysseus (148–227), and the boat-building (228–61). The second is composed from the voyage (262–81), the storm (282–332), the intervention of Leucothea (333–64), the shipwreck (365–87), Odysseus' perils (388–435), and his landing on Scheria (436–93).

(In the most favourable circumstances, when a scene is of a very frequent kind, e.g. a council, or when the device of ring-composition marks off a scene, it is possible to discern the poet's units of composition. Closer analysis, however, is apt to lose its objective character. For the poet a given motif has no fixed status: he may elaborate it into a whole scene—or set of scenes—or make it a detail in another; or he may change the character of a scene as he proceeds. Calypso's report of the gods' commands becomes, for Odysseus, a πεῖρα‎: the landing on Scheria incorporates a supplication. Analysis into themes, therefore, may legitimately vary from one critic to another, and should always be understood to be 'for the sake of argument'.)

The internal structure of the first episode offers no difficulty. The narrative proceeds in straightforward linear fashion, the themes are among the most frequent in Homer, and their sequence (council–journey–report–reaction) is substantially identical with Il. ix 89 ff. pg 251The second episode is in fact equally straightforward, but in order to understand it it is necessary to recognize the methods by which the epic poet seeks to compose a grand and impressive scene. He seeks quality through quantity, and doubles and trebles the hero's woes. (This is one of the poetical 'laws' promulgated by F. Stürmer, Die Rhapsodien der Odyssee (Würzburg, 1921) ). Unfortunately this was not understood by the earlier analytical critics. Schwartz, for example, having commended the first half of the book, sees the narrative begin to falter ('schaukeln') from 291: why does Odysseus have both the keel of his boat and the talisman of Leucothea to preserve him? His conclusion is to dissect out a Calypso-poem, in which Odysseus swam ashore, from a primitive Odyssey in which the storm was that which wrecked his last ship (cf. xii 403 ff.). This analysis was firmly rejected by von der Mühll (RE s.v. Odyssee, 713), and he has been followed by most recent analysts, e.g. Focke, Odyssee, 78–99, and Merkelbach, Untersuchungen, 210.

The fundamental integrity of this book is thus no longer an issue. However it must be connected with what precedes and what follows, and here the critic meets a problem of quite a different order. In each case, between iv and v and between v and vi, the poet must change the scene of his narrative and set in motion a new sequence of themes. Both times the text presents us with a well-tried and efficacious device: it is the gods who move the drama forward. On a strict view, however, the council of the gods which stands at the beginning of v is a superfluous repetition of that which stands at the beginning of 11: in both the question was raised of Odysseus' release from Ogygia. Since Kirchhoff's discussion of the matter (Odyssee, 196), it has been recognized that with a little rewriting it is possible to make the dispatch of Hermes (v 28 ff.) follow Athena's suggestion to that effect (i 84 ff.), and to eliminate all the intervening material. Accordingly all critics who see in the Telemachy the hand of a second poet reject the repetition of the council theme. But even for unitarian critics who discount, as they must, the force of superfluity as an argument, the difficulties are still severe: in style the speech of Athena is uniquely unoriginal (see 7–20 n.), and the presence of a second council scene may conflict with a fundamental habit of epic narration.

The first council of the gods heard proposals for two courses of action: the dispatch of Hermes to Ogygia, and the visit of Athena to Ithaca. Like Alcinous (viii 46), Athena took assent to both projects for granted—as will the reader—and left at once. Two resolutions passed at a single meeting is nothing out of the ordinary. If a parallel is needed, Il. xv 154 ff. is a good example both for the taking of two pg 252decisions at a single time and for the mode of telling their execution. According to a celebrated 'law' given canonical form by Zieliński in 1897, both actions should be related in sequence, as if the second were suspended while the first was in progress. In fact the Odyssey does proceed in this way: Hermes does nothing while Athena is in Ithaca and Telemachus in Pylos and Sparta; Telemachus does nothing until Odysseus has landed on Ithaca, and only then begins his own return. Were the scale of these events as small as that in Il. xv, the second council of the gods would be unexpected and redundant, and Hermes would be properly sent on his way without further preparation. But the scale in fact is very large: nowhere else in archaic literature was such an interaction of parallel plots attempted. We are thus denied the most important of our critical resources, which is to appeal to the poet's normal and regular practices. K. Reinhardt (Von Werken und Formen (Godesberg, 1948), 38) tried to defend Athena's speech as being a deliberate allusion to the preceding books, such as would ease the transition. But the very perfunctory composition is against the assumption of so serious a purpose: it resembles that of other themes (e.g. banquets and sacrifices) whose presence and elaboration owes more to convention than to the strict requirements of context. D. L. Page (Odyssey, 70), a scholar familiar with the liberties of producers and actors in the theatre, suspected in the second council the work of some rhapsode who preferred to take the first four books of the Odyssey as read and begin his recital with Odysseus' departure from Ogygia: such a performance would require a short introduction to set the plot in motion. But in fact it is impossible to conceive of an Odyssey in which the Telemachy is integral and at the same time to merge the first and second divine councils, except at the cost of a signal implausibility: the critic would have to tolerate a council, albeit a council of gods, that remained in session for seven days, or postponed for that period the execution of its decision. Yet Page has pointed to a useful approach: the Odyssey proper calls for some sort of introduction, and an audience (or a poet for that matter, if we think of him as an oral composer) needs it after having been compelled to divert attention for so long to a sub-plot. The second council provides that introduction in an appropriate way, and reminds the audience again that the destiny of everyone in the poem is guided by Olympus.

Brief Bibliography

The characterization of Odysseus is the subject of a brief investigation by Paula Philippson, 'Die vorhomerische und die homerische Gestalt des Odysseus', MH iv (1947), 8–22, and of a study in detail by pg 253G. Hunger, Die Odysseus-Gestalt in Odyssee und Ilias (Diss. Kiel, 1962). Hunger's standpoint is analytical, distinguishing an earlier conception of a daring Odysseus and a later one of the hero as the man of endurance. For the subsequent development of this ambiguous character, whose guile is not easily distinguished from deceit, see W. B. Stanford, The Ulysses Theme (Oxford, 1968).

On Calypso, H. Güntert, Kalypso (Halle, 1921), founded his interpretation on a comparison with Germanic and Scandinavian mythology and on the symbolism of the cave to identify the goddess as a death-daemon. This approach was at once rejected by K. Meuli, Odyssee und Argonautika (Berlin, 1921). However, the search for analogues has continued: F. Dirlmeier, 'Die "schreckliche" Kalypso', Ausgewählte Schriften (Heidelberg, 1970), 79–84, compares her with Siduri in the epic of Gilgamesh, and L. A. Stella, Il Poema di Ulisse (Firenze, 1955), and Germain, Genèse, adduce the influence of Near Eastern literature in more general terms. According to L. Radermacher, SAWW clxxviii (1915), Calypso is an Elbin, according to W. Kranz, Hermes i (1915), 93–112, a Verbergerin, a figure of folk-tale given artistic development. The skilful drawing of the Calypso scenes is emphasized by K. Reinhardt, Tradition und Geist, hg. v. C. Becker (Göttingen, 1960), 77–97, and by R. Harder, 'Odysseus und Kalypso', Kleine Schriften (München, 1960), 148–63. For an original view of Odysseus' detention on Calypso's island see Clay, Wrath.

In addition to Page most recent analysts have rejected the second divine assembly: von der Mühll, Odyssey, coll. 711 ff.; Focke, Odyssee, 74 ff.; Merkelbach, Untersuchungen, 155 ff.; Schadewaldt, HSPh lxiii (1958), 15–32. The best treatments of the function of the scene as it now stands are by Hölscher, Untersuchungen, 30 ff.; A. Heubeck, Der Odyssee-Dichter und die Ilias (Erlangen, 1954), 52 ff.; and T. Krischer, Formale Konventionen der homerischen Epik (Zetemata lvi, Munich, 1971), 95 ff. M. J. Apthorp, CQ xxvii (1977), 1–9, examines the language of the scene, on which Erbse, Beiträge, 127 ff. should also be consulted.

BOOK V: COMMENTARY

1–42. The second council of the gods. For the formal theme cf. i 26 ff., Il. viii 1 ff., xxiv 31 ff. In the human sphere also there are councils of chiefs, Il. ii 404 ff., ix 89 ff., where the theme incorporates the motif of the sacrificial meal, and public assemblies (ἀγοραί‎ or ἀγῶνες‎) attended by the army, Il. i 54 ff., xix 40 ff., or the people, Od. ii 6 ff., viii 4 ff.: there is an ἀγορή‎ of the pg 254gods (only at Il. xx 4 ff.) attended by the Rivers and Nymphs. In the economy of the epic the purpose of these scenes is to introduce an important narrative sequence, as is the case at this point. For the critical problems raised by the calling of a second council, after that in i, see introduction to v. Schol. try to distinguish the point of the first council, which had anticipated the decision to dispatch Hermes to Calypso's island, from that of the present (περὶ τοῦ σώζεσθαι Ὀδυσσέα‎ against περὶ τοῦ πῶς‎), but the second council is merely resumptive after the retardation effected by the relation of Telemachus' journey. Accordingly, though the effect is brisk, the poet's invention is at a low ebb (see 7–20 n.).

1. Ἠώς‎: the new day, as usual, marks a new narrative step. The elaborated diction befits the importance of the following scenes (1–2 = Il. xi 1–2, cf. Il. xix 1–2 without the explicit personification). We are entering upon the Odyssey proper, just as Il. xi marks Agamemnon's supreme effort. Dawn-formulae are often highly ornamented and show many variants, see Kirk, Commentary, on Il. ii 48–9.

ἀγαυοῦ‎: a complimentary epithet of wide application to persons and peoples. The sense of such epithets is likely to have been more precise, at least originally, then the vague equivalents favoured by translators (here 'illustrious', 'noble'), cf. Parry, Blameless Aegisthus. What aroused admiration (ἀγαυός < ἄγαμαι‎) in the Homeric world was especially personal beauty, cf. the formula εἶδος ἀγητός‎, and Tithonus is cited as a type of beauty by Tyrtaeus, fr. 12. 5 West. The -υ‎- is probably an Aeolism, despite the doubts of Wathelet, Traits, 150–1. All 12 instances of the gen. sg. occur in mid-verse, as here: a very ossified use probably fixed when the gen. sg. was still disyllabic (*-όo‎).

Τιθωνοῖο‎: son of Laomedon, see the genealogy at Il. xx 230 ff. His unfortunate immortality (he was ἀθάνατος‎ but not ἀγήραος‎) is first noted at h.Ven. 218–38 and Mimnermus fr. 4 West. Like others of his dynasty he may bear a genuinely Asiatic name, cf. von Kamptz, Personennamen, 363–4, and the Hesychian gloss τιτώ• ἠὼς ἢ αὔριον‎.

2. φόως‎: in the paradosis φάος‎ is the normal spelling when the word is scanned Book 5, φόως‎ (by diectasis) when Book 5.

3. θῶκόνδε‎: cf. θοάζω‎, 'sit'. The sense is 'council', distinguished from the public ἀγορή‎, cf. ii 26. It is convened in Zeus' palace (as at i 26) in private, like Agamemnon's βουλαί‎ in the Iliad.

καθίζανον‎ = κάθιζον‎: one of a series of poetical doublets in -άνω‎, cf. ἀλυσκάνω, ἰσχάνω, ἐρυκάνω, κευθάνω‎. The point of such alternants is to furnish a dactylic form before the bucolic diaeresis.

4. οὗ τε κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον‎: the prototype of this expression is ὅου‎ (i.e. *ὅo‎) κ. ἐ. μ‎., attested at i 70, from which are derived also ὅ τε κ. ἐ. μ‎. (Il. ix 39, xiii 484), καί εὑ κ. ἐ μ‎. (Il. xxiv 293, 311), and τοῦ γὰρ κ. ἐ. μ‎. (Il. ii 118, ix 25), in accordance with the needs of metre and syntax. The τε‎ is that which expresses a permanent fact or relation, see Chantraine, Grammaire, ii 240.

5. λέγε‎: 'related'. The verb is not yet used merely to supplement εἰπεῖν‎.

6. δώμασι‎: actually a cave (57), from a prototype such as δώματα Κίρκης‎ or δώματα πατρός‎.

νύμφης‎: Calypso, mentioned at i 14. This scene pg 255presupposes i–iv also at 18, where παῖδ'‎ would otherwise be unspecific (= Telemachus) and the subject of μεμάασιν‎ (the suitors) vague.

7–20. 7 = viii 306 etc., 8–12 = ii 230–4, 13 = Il. ii 721 (cf. Od. v 395, a curious aural echo of this line with νούσῳ‎ for νήσῳ‎), 14–17 = iv 557–60, 18a = iv 727a, 19–20 = iv 701–2. Page, Odyssey, 70, finds this 'an abnormally artificial patchwork'. The uninventive composition would be less conspicuous in an Iliadic battle book, where the recurrence of blocks of lines is frequent. From contexts less dominated by formulaic diction the best parallel is perhaps the wreck scene, xiv 301–9 = xii 403–6 + 415–19. Other remarkable centos occur at Il. viii 28–72 and Od. xix 570–604, in which every verse is found elsewhere. M. J. Apthorp, 'The Language of Odyssey 5. 7–20', CQ xxvii (1977), 1–9, offers a good account of the formular character or these lines. Athena is again taking advantage of the prolonged absence of Poseidon, still feasting among the Ethiopians.

8. καὶ ἤπιος‎: μήδ'‎, read by the 'wild' papyrus, P. 30, and also conjectured by Nauck, is an unnecessary facilior lectio made to avoid the hiatus: the pleonasm ἀγανὸς καὶ ἤπιος‎ forms a unit of sense.

ἔστω‎: εἴη‎ P. 30, by assimilation to the optatives of 10.

9. σκηπτοῦχος‎ (*σκηπτροῦχος‎): the σκῆπτρον‎ is a significant object, a symbol of authority, especially regal authority, with overtones of divine right or at least favour, cf. Il. i 279, ii 100 ff., 206 ff., ix 96 ff. and Griffin, Homer on Life and Death, 9–12.

εἰδώς‎, expressing a disposition, 34 times in the Odyssey.

11. θείοιο‎: the sense is 'godlike', in respect of appearance, endowments, or exploits, like δῖος‎. The formation is *θεσ-ιος‎ rather than *θεσ‎-yος‎, since 61 of the 75 occurrences imply an original -ε̆ῐ‎-, by locating the first syllable in thesi, and 13 of the remainder are supplied by the one formula θεῖος ἀοιδός‎. Hence the distribution in old formulae: nom. δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς‎, where θε̆ῐος‎ was impossible, but gen. Ὀδυσσῆος θε̆ῐοιο‎, where *διϝ‎yοιο‎ was inelegant. θεῖος‎, when it became available, was used for the ἀοιδός‎, to compliment his genius and skill, because Homeric δῖος‎ is appropriated to heroes.

12. πατὴρ δ' ὥς‎ emphasizes the emotional link between Odysseus and his home, but it was also prudent, in an ideal world, for a king to be just. For the perils of a lawless community—storms and tempests—see Il. xvi 384–92 (simile) and, for more detail, Hes. Op. 225–47. The prototype, both of the postponed ὥς‎ and of the location of the phrase before the bucolic diaeresis, is θεὸς (ϝ)ὥς‎ (Il. xi 58, Od. xiv 205). The poet avails himself of the Ionian vernacular loss of ϝ‎ to introduce the connective particle and use the formula in a new combination. The willingness of the Ionian singers to mingle archaism and neologism, as explained by Hoekstra, Modifications, 131 ff., brought the epic diction to a remarkable degree of suppleness and ease.

13. The scholiasts, with typical over-precision, object to the physical overtones of κρατέρ' ἄλγεα πάσχων‎, when Odysseus' miseries are currently spiritual (82 ff.), and would prefer τετιημένος ἦτορ‎. For ἄλγεα‎ cf. xvii 142 φῆ μιν ὅ γ' ἐν νήσῳ ἰδέειν κρατέρ' ἄλγε' ἔχοντα (κατὰ δάκρυ χέοντα‎ v.l. ap. Eust.).

pg 256

18. The ambush has been described in the three passages iv 660–74, 768–86, and 842–7.

19. νισόμενον‎: the conventional derivation from *ni-ns-omai, a reduplicated present of the root *nes-, is morphologically impeccable but phonologically impossible (the result would be *νίνομαι‎) unless Schwyzer's 'retained or restored -σ‎-' is found credible: bibliography in Frisk, GEW s.v. νέομαι‎. Szemerényi, Colloquium Mycenaeum vi (Geneva, 1979) 338 n. 89, suggests *nes-ti > *nes-ty- > niss- by assimilation. The distinction between a present νίσσ‎- and future νίσ‎-, reported by Eustathius, is a figment.

20. ἠγαθέην‎ = 'very holy': a generic epithet of places (Lesbos, Lemnos, Nysa, Pylos, Pytho), which need not, in a particular case, imply any superior sanctity. ἠμαθίην‎ was read by Rhianus (an expert on Messenia), cf. ἠμαθόεις‎ 9 times of Pylos, but is over-exact.

δῖαν‎ is applied to the three localities, Arisbe, Elis, and Lacedaemon. LSJ do not notice this use, nor does Chantraine, Dictionnaire s.v. The precise (or original) sense of epitheta ornantia is not easily determined, since their use by definition is independent of context, but we may observe (1) an etymological sense 'of the god Zeus' (δῖος < *Διϝ‎yoς‎) found at Il. ix 538 and in Mycenaean (di-u-ja, di-wi-ja), the sole dialect to have the word in vernacular use, (2) a very common poetical use in the sense 'Zeus-like, sc. in appearance or ancestry', commonly rendered 'illustrious' or 'noble', and (3) a sense 'bright' in the formulae αἰθέρα/ἅλα δῖαν‎, preserving, even if indirectly, the force of the root *dei- (see Frisk, GEW s.v. Ζεύς‎). Since Homeric epithets for places generally allude to their physical, climatic, and agricultural amenities (πετρήεις, ἠνεμόεις, πολυστάφυλος‎, etc.) and not to their religious affiliations, sense (3) is here preferable. Lacedaemon in Homer usually denotes the district, but the regular epithet κοίλη‎ is unavailable at the verse-end, being always placed as if trisyllabic.

21. νεφεληγερέτα‎: the nom. masc. sg. in -α‎ of a-stems is confined to formulae (except for Θυέστ‎' at Il. ii 107), especially those for divinities. Metrical necessity or desirability (as here, where -της Ζεύς‎ would be a harsh surallongement) is usually evident. The type is best derived from an original vocative (so Schwyzer, Chantraine, Palmer, Frisk). Masc. nominatives in -α‎ in various dialects, sometimes adduced in this connection, appear to be secondary.

22–7. Zeus makes a brief but significant response to Athena's complaint. In the first council, at i 64–79, his reply to Athena had looked backward at the causes of Poseidon's anger toward Odysseus, now he adumbrates the climax of the Odyssey and, at 27, a major step towards it. Such foreshadowing is normal epic practice, for in relating a traditional story the poet eschews crude suspense, as explained by E. Auerbach, Mimesis (Bern, 1946), 1 ff. Suspense is a device less appropriate to the expansive epic manner than to the tension of the tragic stage.

22. ποῖον … ὀδόντων‎: This whole-line formula is common to both epics (Il. twice, Od. 6 times), but Il. prefers the shorter expression ποῖον τὸν μῦθον ἔειπες‎ (7 times).

ἕρκος ὀδόντων‎ is a sort of 'kenning' or colourful pg 257paraphrase, not however noted as such by Ingrid Waern, ΓΗΣ ὈΣΤΕΑ‎: The Kenning in Pre-Christian Greek Poetry (Diss. Uppsala, 1951). The kenning, by meeting the need for alliteration, has a technical role in Germanic narrative poetry (see W. Whallon, Formula, Character and Context (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), 71–116); in Greek verse it is rare and is employed as an ornament of style. See also 43 and i 38 nn.

27. ἀπονέωνται‎: the lengthening of the initial syllable of this verb is habitual (20 times), but its origin is difficult to divine, except as an arbitrary licence, see A. Hoekstra, 'Metrical Lengthening and Epic Diction', Mnemosyne xxxi (1978) 1–26, and xv 308 n.

28–54. Departure of Hermes: see Arend, Scenen, 54. The most exact parallel is Il. xxiv 331 ff., cf. v 711 ff., with greater elaboration.

28. Ἑρμείας‎, cf. Mycenaean e-ma-a2 PY Tn 316 etc. The Homeric spelling, according to C. J. Ruijgh, Études du grec mycénien (Amsterdam, 1967), 266, is a compromise between Ionic 'Ερμέης (< -ήης < -άας)‎, and original -άας‎. Hermes is dispatched (rather than Iris, as usually in the Iliad) ὡς συγγενῆ ὄντα τῆς Ἀτλαντίδος Καλυψοῦς‎ (schol.), or rather because he is persuasive (cf. h.Cer. 336, h.Merc. 317 ff.). Hermes as θεῶν κῆρυξ‎ (Hesiod Op. 80, Th. 939, fr. 170) is not an explicit concept in Homer.

υἱὸν φίλον‎: a few MSS read the unmetrical φίλον υἱόν‎, the most frequent realization of this formula, whence Nauck's φίλον υἱέα‎: an unnecessary conjecture, since the inversion of words in a formula is a well-established technique: see Hainsworth, Flexibility, 68.

φίλον‎: the primary sense of φίλος‎ has been much debated, most recently and effectively by A. W. H. Adkins, ' "Friendship" and "Self-sufficiency" in Homer and Aristotle', CQ xiii (1963), 30–45, M. Landfester, Das griechische Nomen φίλος‎ und seine Ableitungen (Hildesheim, 1966), and E. Benveniste, Le Vocabulaire des institutions indo-européennes, i (Paris, 1969), 335–53. The terminology which the modern reader naturally takes to be descriptive of inward states of mind in Homer describes the relations of the individual and the members of his group. φίλος‎ thus opposes the 'insiders' of a community to the 'outsiders' (ξεῖνοι)‎, cf. 135.

33. Classically σχεδία‎ means 'raft', see Th. vi 2, X. An. ii 4, 28, though this is not what Odysseus constructs at 243–61 below. Germain's derivation from Egypt, sḳdἰ‎ 'travel by water' (Genèse, 410) would be more convincing if there were more evidence of Egyptian loan-words in Greek, but finds favour with Szemerényi, Festschrift für E. Risch, Berlin 1986, 444–50. Ugaritic t̬kt may represent the term on passage to the Aegean. (On the meagre Egyptian contribution to the Greek lexicon see the sceptical paper of R. H. Pierce, 'Egyptian Loanwords in Ancient Greek?', Symbolae Osloenses xlvi (1971), 96–107.) A derivation from σχεδόν‎ has only the difficulty that the sense 'improvised' is not actually attested in the root before ἐζ αὐτοσχεδίης‎ h. Merc. 55.

πολυδέσμου‎: 'πολλους σχοίνους ἐχούσης'‎ (schol. B) is certainly right: to equate with πολύγομφος‎, 'having many nails or pegs', epithet of the ship at Hes. Op. 660, as do scholl. EQ, is to relate the epithet to a peripheral (if not imaginary, see 243 n.) feature of pg 258rafts and, since the two epithets are metrically identical, violates the principle of a formular economy.

34. Von der Mühll's ἤματ' ἐικοστῷ (ἐεικοστῷ‎ in the normal orthography, cf. ii 175 etc.) is correct as the original form of this expression, if formulaic, cf. ἐεικοστῷ … ἤματι‎ vi 170. Since, however, the κε‎ is Homeric, cf. ἤματί κε τριτάτῳ‎ Il. ix 363, with optative, the transmitted form could be accepted as a Homeric modification of the prototype, were it not for the fact that the tradition is in some disorder. The insertion of κ‎' by which the construction is made to correspond to classical Attic, is clearly the ultimate result of corruption, see van der Valk, Textual Criticism, 161. Mere ejection of the κ‎' or γ‎', with Bentley, is insufficient, since the ordinal is ἐ(ϝ)ικοστός‎ with prothetic ἐ‎-.

Σχερίην‎: see vi 4 n.

35. ἀγχίθεοι‎ refers to the Phaeacians' special relationship with the gods, rather than to their kinship. (The mythographers invented Phaeax, son of Poseidon and the nymph Asopis.) See vi 201–6.

36. περὶ κῆρι‎: formulaic (Il. 8 times, Od. 6 times), though that in itself proves nothing about the syntactical relation of the two words. Chantraine, Grammaire, ii 126, takes περί‎ as adverbial and κῆρι‎ as locative (as it must be at Il. ix 177, the only place where κῆρι‎ is without περί‎). This suits the present line; sense, however, at vi 158 favours a prepositional περί‎. Formulaic usage allows variable syntax, see 162 n.

τιμήσουσι‎, according to the orthography of the vulgate, is fut. indic., not aor. subj. The construction is Homeric (Chantraine, Grammaire, ii 225), but here at least probably archaistic: the line is adapted from the prototype seen at xix 280 = xxiii 339, οἳ δή μιν περὶ κῆρι θεὸν ὣς τιμήσαντο‎.

38–40. The gifts are specified at viii 387 ff. and xiii 10 ff., thirteen changes of raiment and as many talents of gold. Yet this vast treasure (as the poet conceives it) could be stowed in a single chest, viii 438.

43–8. The epic invariably notes that on setting out a personage puts on appropriate gear, cf. i 96 ff., ii 1 ff., etc. The use of the long formula (44–8 = Il. xxiv 340–5; 44–6 = Od. i 96–8) suits the slow pace of the narrative.

43. διάκτορος ἀργειφόντης‎: a substantivized description or title, cf. περικλυτὸς ἀμφιγυήεις, γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος‎, such as is commonly used for gods whose names are metrically difficult. The device is literary, since there is no correlation with the titles used in cult.

διάκτορος‎, conventionally rendered 'guide', whether of wayfarers generally or of the soul on its journey to Hades, cf. xxiv 1 ff. The attribute is suitable for the god, see E. T. Vermeule, Archaeologia V, 79, 90, with bibliography, but the word is not a normally formed agent noun of διάγω‎. For various speculations see Frisk, GEW s.v.

ἀργεϊφόντης‎ 'Slayer of Argus': the story of Io and her guardian does not come within the purview of the Homeric poems, but is said to have been found in the Hesiodic corpus (schol. Il. xxiv 24). The sense 'Slayer of Argus' is implied by the form ἀνδρεϊφόντης‎, Il. ii 651 etc., whenever that epithet came into existence. But the formation Ἀργεï‎- is philologically impossible, unless -εï‎- (for -ο‎-) is accepted as a metrical adaptation (so Kretschmer, Glotta x (1919), 45 and subsequent papers), cf. pg 259χαλκεο-, πηγεσι‎- for χαλκο-, πηγο‎-—but there is no real parallel. See also i 38 n. and M. L. West's excursus, Hesiod: Works and Days (Oxford, 1978), 368–9.

It is remarkable that so many epithets of Hermes (cf. also ἀκάκητα, ἐριούνιος)‎ should be of obscure meaning. The god seems to antedate the coming of the Greeks (cf. J. Chittenden, 'The Master of Animals', Hesperia xvi (1947), 89–114) and in all likelihood his name also, since the derivation from ἕρμα‎ (in the sense 'cairn'), cf. Burkert, Religion, 156, is not free from philological difficulty.

45. ἀμβρόσιος‎, strictly 'undying' (< *ἀ-μρότ-ιος‎) is epithet of anything connected with the gods.

χρύσεια‎ because divine, and therefore magnificent: the winged sandals of iconography are a post-Homeric improvement.

47. The ῥάβδος‎ (described at h.Merc. 528–32), like Athena's spear (i 99–101) and Poseidon's trident, is a permanent piece of the god's equipment. He will not use it on this expedition.

48. ἐθέλει‎: the subjunctive (ἐθέλῃ‎) is the better mood to express the sense 'of all those he wishes', see Chantraine, Grammaire, ii 245 and Ruijgh, τε‎ épique, 378.

ὑπνώοντας‎, a difficult form following, according to Meister, Kunstsprache, 91, the analogy of ἱδρώω‎. Schulze's idea, Quaestiones, 370–3, that the form conceals some sort of desiderative depends upon his over-precise assumption that the context requires the sense 'those who are weary'.

50. Πιερίην‎: the mountain range north of Olympus, the first point also at which Hera alighted on her way to Ida, Il. xiv 226. The goddess proceeded by Athos and Lemnos, but it is impossible to follow Hermes' journey or to identify the πόντος‎. The explicit association of Pieria with the Muses first appears in Hesiod, Op. 1 and Th. 53. Bérard's Πηρείην‎, a township in Thessaly according to the ancient lexica, is inspired by the confused MS tradition at Il. ii 766 (Πιερίη, Πηρείη, Πηερίη, Φηρίη)‎.

51. λάρῳ‎: according to Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford, 1895), s.v., a gull or tern. It is distinguished from the αἴθυια‎, a diving bird, by Aristotle, HA v 9, 542 b. Hermes swoops down to the sea (ἔμπεσε πόντῳ)‎ and skims across the surface. The comparison of a god to a bird is frequent (Il. v 778, vii 58, xiv 289, xv 237, xix 350, Od. i 320, iii 371, v 337, xxii 239) and natural, though, as Nilsson thought (Minoan-Mycenaean Religion2, (Lund, 1950), 491), it may ultimately derive from the cults of the second millennium bc to which the numerous bird figurines and bird motifs of the period are witness. The arrival or departure of a god is typically ornamented by a simile, see Moulton, Similes 138. It is unclear whether Hermes (and Leucothea at 337 and 353) acts in the manner of or in the form of a bird, on which see F. Dirlmeier, Die Vogelgestalt homerischer Götter (Heidelberg, 1967), and i 320 n.

52. δεινοὺς‎ is metrically δϝεινούς‎, as in the formula μέγα τε δεινόν τε‎, iii 322, and often in the Iliad. Most Odyssean examples of the word occur initially.

54. The ancient critics desired concision and exactitude; hence the athetesis (προσέθηκέ τις οὐ δεόντως τὸν στίχον. καὶ μέντοι καὶ βραδύτερον πορεύεται μὴ χρώμενος τῷ ἰδίῳ τάχει)‎. But the use of a resumptive line is normal epic pg 260practice, called ring-composition. Ἑρμῆς‎, contracted, the usual form in h.Merc., but 4 times only in Od., has also directed suspicion on the line.

55–147. Hermes and Calypso. The arrival and reception of a guest is one of the most formalized contexts in the epic, see Arend, Scenen, 28–63, esp. 48–50. The following elements are usually present: (1) the scene is described, (2) the stranger presents himself, (3) he is welcomed and offered food, (4) lastly, he is invited to state his identity and business. See i 102 ff. (a close parallel to the present scene), xiv 5 ff. Features of the supplication scene are combined at vii 81 ff. Content and order may be disturbed if the guest is well known to the host, as at Il. ix 182 ff. and xxiv 468 ff., or unwelcome, as at Od. xvii 182 ff.

55. νῆσον‎: called Ὠγυγίη‎ at i 85 and elsewhere: see vi 172 n.

τηλόθ' ἐοῦσαν‎: the consistent feature in the geography of Odysseus' wanderings is extreme distance, as the poet conceived distance, cf. ἔσχατοι‎ of the Phaeacians, vi 205. Some Hellenistic scholars therefore, notably Eratosthenes, supposed that the poet actually represented the wanderings as taking place in the outer ocean. For the ancient controversies see Strabo i 2, 9–15. Localizations of Calypso's isle in the real world are as numerous as its investigators: (1) near Crete (Antimachus fr. 142 Wyss, reading Ὠγυλίη‎ for the name); (2) in or near Italy, (a) Gozo (Callimachus fr. 470 Pfeiffer—see Pfeiffer's n.), (b) Lacinium (Scylax 13), (c) Nymphaea (παρὰ τῷ Ἀδρίᾳ‎, AR iv 574), (d) near Puteoli (DC xlviii 50), but when Propertius (iii 12, 31) and Mela (ii 7, 18) call it Aeaea (Circe's island x 135 etc.) they reveal nothing but their own confusion; (3) various places, ranging from Malta and Gibraltar to Madeira and even the British Isles, according to the reconstruction of the wanderings by modern scholars. (For the history of modern speculation on this question see A. and H.-H. Wolf, Die wirkliche Reise des Odysseus (Vienna, 1983) 143–206.) Even in antiquity the radical view was not unknown, namely that the poet described fictional places in fictional locations—whatever may have suggested particular features of scenery and whatever may be the source of the idea that distant lands existed beyond Cape Malea. Eratosthenes was its best known protagonist. Such moral courage was rare and most saw the issue as 'utrum ἐν τῇ ἔσω θαλάσσῃ‎ Ulixes erraverit κατ' Ἀρίσταρχον‎ an ἐν τῇ ἔξω κατὰ Κράτητα'‎ (Gellius xiv 6. 3). A technical term, ἐξωκεανισμός‎, described the latter view. For an excellent discussion of the controversy see F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, iii (Oxford, 1979), 577–87.

56. ἤπειρον‎: simply 'land', as at iii 90, x 56, etc.

57. νύμφη‎: in the Homeric version of Odysseus' return Calypso's role is simply to detain the hero until Telemachus' maturity. It is likely therefore that she is a poetical fiction created for that purpose, see Woodhouse, Composition, 46–53, 215–16. She has no place in myth independent of the Odyssey, unless we so count the appearance of a 'lovely Calypso' among the daughters of Ocean at Hes. Th. 359. The poet of Hes. fr. 150 M–W 30–1, who derived the Cephallenians from the union of Hermes and Calypso, pg 261clearly used the present passage. There are parallels between Calypso and Circe, a figure of folk-tale, but they arise from the poet's conception of a pleasant isle inhabited by an amorous goddess. Wilamowitz's view, Untersuchungen, 115, that Calypso is actually modelled on Circe with some subsequent reaction of the conception of Calypso on that of Circe, is too narrowly that of an analytical critic. It is rejected e.g. by Lamer in RE s.v. Kalypso. Calypso is no witch, but a minor divinity of the Olympian religion. She appears not to exist strongly in the poet's mind, and consequently not in the reader's, so that Odysseus' departure does not arouse the ambiguous emotions excited, for example, by Aeneas' desertion of Dido. Nonetheless, for a thumbnail sketch her characterization is excellently done, cf. Austin, Archery, 149–52.

58. ἐϋπλόκαμος‎: πλόκαμος (< πλέκω)‎ is properly a braided or plaited lock of hair, as explained at Il. xiv 175–7. The fashion is strikingly exemplified in Minoan-Mycenaean art, but is hardly ever unknown, cf. Marinatos, Archaeologia B, 1 ff. The poet uses a general word applicable to all females. The older goddesses wear a different style, denoted by ἐϋστέφανος‎ (Artemis, Il. xxi 511; Aphrodite, Od. viii 267, h.Ven. 6 etc.; Demeter, h.Cer. 224 etc.).

59. ἐσχαρόφιν‎ (< ἐσχαρη‎): a poetical form, like κοτυληδονόφιν‎ (433), employing an ending -όφι‎ extracted from o-stem nouns, where the -φι‎ ending is probably itself a secondary development. In the Mycenaean dialect -φι‎ is principally used to express the instrumental plural in consonantal and a-stems. The Homeric usage is very imprecise both as to number and case, since the disappearance of -φι‎ from the vernaculars exempted the poets from the control of contemporary speech. See Chantraine, Grammaire, i 234–42, and Shipp, Studies, 1–16, Essays in Mycenaean and Homeric Greek (Melbourne 1961), 29–41. ἐσχαρόφι‎ is certainly sg., but the case is doubtful: gen. and dat. are both possible.

60. κέδρου‎: not the cedar of Lebanon but the prickly cedar, Juniperus oxycedrus.

θύου‎: probably the citronwood, Callitris quadrivialis. The classical θυία‎, Juniperus foetidissima, is certainly pungent but, at least according to Theophrastus, HP v 3. 7, principally a north African species.

61. ἀοιδιάουσ'‎: a poetical formation, cf. ἀκροκελαινιόων, θαλπιόων, κελευτιόων, φαληριόωντα, φυσιόωντας‎, etc. It provides a nom. to ἀειδούσης ὀπὶ καλῇ‎ (x 221) and a sg. to ἀμειβόμεναι ὀπὶ καλῇ‎ (Il. i 604). Knight's ἀείδουσᾱ (ϝ)οπί‎ is metrically dubious: not only is the lengthening proper solely to words in *σϝ‎- (Chantraine, Grammaire, i, 146) but ϝ‎ fell early before o‎-.

62. ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένη‎: the normal occupation of the Homeric woman, regardless of rank, cf. Il. xxii 440 (Andromache), Od. ii 94, xvii 97 (Penelope), iv 130 (Helen), vi 306 (Arete), x 222 (Circe). The loom is an upright structure from which the web hangs vertically, as represented in the Lin. B ideogram 159 Book 5. The worker passes from one side to the other (ἐποίχεσθαι‎), as she threads the shuttle. The process is most fully described at Il. xxiii 760–3. It is natural that Calypso, like Circe (x 227), should sing while performing this repetitive task: it must be by chance that mortal women are not explicitly said to do so.

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63–74. Calypso's island. The poet describes the Greek notion of an idyllic spot, cf. Pl. Phdr. 230 b–c –shade, water, and an exotic medley of luxuriant vegetation; only the view is missing, cf. the περίσκεπτος χῶρος‎ of Circe's dwelling (x 211) and the sound of the cicadas (Phdr. 230 c). But the sociable Greek might discern a sinister overtone: there are no people in this paradise; Odysseus is both marooned and utterly alone. On the scenery see generally A. Parry, 'Landscape in Greek Poetry', YClS xv (1957), 3–29. It is doubtful if the poet wished to do more than describe an island fit for the habitation of a goddess: if it has something in common with Elysium (iv 565–8 q.v.) and the νῆσοι μακάρων‎ (Hes. Op. 167–72: see West's n. ad loc.), that is because each is a paradise at the ends of the earth. The Garden of the Gods, where Zeus married Hera (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 16, Eur. Hipp. 742–51), has the same features. All lie in the far west, so as to be beyond the reach of human travel.

63–4. ὕλη‎: for Greek trees see R. Meiggs, Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Oxford, 1982). The κλήθρη‎, 'alder', Alnus glutinosa, and αἴγειρος‎, 'black poplar', Populus nigra, are trees of wet ground, but the κυπάρισσος‎, Cupressus sempervirens, according to Theophrastus, HP ii 7. 1, prefers dry. The poet is above such botanical niceties, cf. 72.

65. τανυσίπτεροι‎: strictly 'with extended wings', the first element being derived from the verb τανύω‎, but the poets do not distinguish the form from τανύπτερος‎, 'with long wings'.

66. Calypso's birds: see D'Arcy Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford, 1936), s.vv.

σκῶπες‎ are Little Horned Owls, Otus scops, if the word is used precisely, but these are shy, nocturnal birds resident in Greece only during the summer months: the Little Owl (γλαῦξ‎) is a much more visible bird. For the orthographic variants of the name (ἀείσκωψ, κῶπας, γῶπας, σκόπες)‎ see Athen, ix 391 a–d.

ἴρηκες‎: a generic term for the smaller hawks and falcons. Vergil's sacer ales, A. xi 721, implies a false etymology, for βείρακες• ἱέρακες‎ Hesych. points to ϝ‎-, not present in ἱερός‎.

κορῶναι | εἰνάλιαι‎: unhelpfully glossed by scholl. as αἴθυιαι‎, a term of even more uncertain meaning; presumably a cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, or shag, Ph. aristotelis, unless we have a poetical term for the ubiquitous gulls, Larus spp.

67. εἰνάλιαι‎: the lengthened first syllable is hardly etymological (as if from *ἐνσάλιος‎, or rather *ἐν‎hάλιος‎ as Ruijgh argues, Études du grec mycénien (Amsterdam, 1967), 53, now that the loss of -σ‎- is shown to antedate the Mycenaean texts), for the provenance would be too remote, but rather from εἰν ἁλί‎ where εἰν‎ for ἐν‎ arises from the analogy of εἰς/ἐς‎, see Wyatt, Lengthening, 90–2.

68. σπείους‎: The simplest explanation of this difficult form (6 times, cf. δείους‎ twice < δέος‎) is that supported by Chantraine, Grammaire, i 7, according to which the original *σπέεος‎ was in the archaic period spelled ΣΠΕΟΣ‎, a spelling subsequently interpreted as σπείους‎. But this is to ignore the tradition of the reciters. Moreover the acc. σπεῖος‎ at 194 implies that the lengthened root syllable was already Homeric. Wyatt, Lengthening, pg 263237, reasonably takes the lengthening to have arisen, in order to maintain the metrical shape of the word, by analogy with the many cases where epic -ειο‎- corresponded to vernacular -εο‎-. For the other case-forms see i 15 n.

70. πίσυρες‎: a curious epic form (6 times in nom. and acc.), much imitated by later epicists. The closest vernacular form is Lesbian πέσσυρες‎ (and πέσυρα‎ in Balbilla), with the characteristic Aeolic *kwe > πε-. πίσυρες‎ might reflect *kwotur-, with reduced vowels in both root syllables, cf. M. Lejeune, Phonétique historique du mycénien et du grec ancien (Paris, 1972), 50, but the dialects, behind much analogical levelling, point to a normal IE declension: nom. *kwetwor-es, acc. *kwetur-ns, with gradation in the second syllable only, see O. Szemerényi, Einführung in die vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft (Darmstadt, 1970), 205: moreover the reflex of kw before ι‎ is regularly τ‎ in all dialects. A development within the Kunstsprache must be assumed for πι‎-, perhaps by assimilation to the fronted υ‎ of Ionic.

The four springs presumably water every quarter of the island. Apollonius' baroque taste ran to different products, the four springs by Aeetes' palace (iii 222 ff.) supplying water (hot or cold according to season), wine, milk, and unguent.

72. σελίνου‎: 'celery', Apium graveolens, a plant of marshy places. Ptolemy Euergetes, in this an apt pupil of his grammarians, proposed σίου‎ for ἴου. (σίον‎, a term for various umbelliferous marsh plants, perhaps the water parsnip, Sium angustifolium.) σία γὰρ μετὰ σελίνου φύεται, ἀλλὰ μὴ ἴα‎, Athen, ii 62 c.

74–6. The thrice repeated θηήσαιτο–θηεῖτο–θηήσατο‎ is inelegant, an instance of Kirk's 'tired style' (Songs, 166–8).

79. It was difficult for mortals to recognize gods, cf. Il. v 127, and Odysseus' simulated uncertainty at Od. vi 149.

83–4. = 157–8. 157 is omitted by many MSS, and the scholl. to the present passage condemn 84 as superfluous (περιττός‎). The asyndeton is certainly harsh, but the Alexandrians were commonly offended at repeated groups of lines and dealt with them by omitting from one passage the lines they retained in the other: see van der Valk, Textual Criticism, 221.

85–96. The reception of Hermes. The literal interpretation of the text requires Hermes to be seated at 86 and at once made to stand up again at 91. Many codd. omit 91, the original text according to Apthorp, Evidence, 198–9, the intrusion of 91 being an example of 'concordance interpolation'. The natural sequence of events is illustrated at Il. xviii 381 ff.: Thetis comes to the house of Hephaestus. Charis welcomes her (385–6 = Od. v 87–8, with Thetis for Hermes) and leads her indoors (387 = 91), then seats her and calls her husband, whose privilege it is to enquire the visitor's business. Thus in the present scene 86 is the objectionable line: Hermes is seated too soon. D. M. Gunn, 'Narrative Inconsistency and the Oral Dictated Text in the Homeric Epic', AJP xci (1970) 192–203, esp. 198–9, defends the passage as if it were the verbatim record of an oral performance, 91 marking the point where the bard realized his error. Rather we have an unimportant passage constructed of conventional lines; it should pg 264not be scrutinized with more care than the poet used in its composition. M. W. Edwards, 'Type-scenes and Homeric Hospitality', TAPhA cv (1975), 61–7, diagnoses an overlap between 'messenger' and 'visit' scenes, together with a restarting of the scene at 85 after the notice of Odysseus' absence. The delay that intervenes between Calypso's question and Hermes' reply is not unusual: see Fenik, Studies, 80–2.

90. τετελεσμένον‎: a nuance of meaning must be added to the pf. ptcp. similar to that conveyed by the adjectival formant -τός‎: 'something that must come to pass'.

93. Ambrosia and nectar provide the sustenance of the gods. Beyond this it is uncertain that the epic had any clear conception of the nature of these substances. Ambrosia, for example, is a fluid at Il. xix 347, Od. ix 359; it is used as an unguent or embalming agent at Il. xvi 670, 680, xix 38, and xxiii 186, and as a cosmetic at Il. xiv 170 and Od. xviii 192. R. B. Onians, Origins, 292–5, divines that these substances are the Olympian equivalents of the ἄλειφαρ‎ and wine offered by mortals to the gods.

κέρασσε … ἐρυθρόν‎: νέκταρ‎ borrows the vocabulary appropriate to οἶνος. νέκταρ‎ has no satisfactory Indo-European etymology (see Frisk, GEW, s.v.); it may conceivably be Semitic (< nqṭr niphʽal of qṭr, 'to burn incense'), as argued by S. Levin, 'The Etymology of νέκταρ'‎, SMEA xiii (1971), 31–50.

95. ἤραρε‎: 'suited, gratified'.

97–113. The decorated archaistic manner of the epic Kunstsprache has for the modern reader a certain uniformity. Sometimes the introductory line of a speech defines the tone: τὸν δ' ἐπικέρτομέων (μέγ' ὀχθήσας, ὑπόδρα ἰδών, χολωσάμενος) προσέφη‎ … At other times emotion is concealed by a screen of formulaic diction. Scholl. discover a model of tact in Hermes' speech, because he stresses the distastefulness of his mission and makes no mention of Calypso's embarrassing love. It is hard to believe that this is correct. Hermes' distaste (101–2) is for the lack of the amenities to which he is accustomed. He is not to be blamed for the threatening manner he attributes, here and at 146–7, to Zeus, for that is traditional, cf. Il. xv 157–217, but the allusion to Odysseus, whom he cannot bring himself to name outright, is a contemptuous sneer. Calypso quite rightly replies, initially, with a tantrum.

97. θεὰ θεόν‎: polyptoton. The epic has no predilection for the rhetorical figures, but cf. 155 and the striking line ἀσπὶς ἄρ' ἀσπίδ' ἔρειδε, κόρυς κόρυν, ἀνέρα δ' ἀνήρ‎ (Il. xiii 131 = xvi 215). The o-stem θεός‎ is the normal feminine in Attic-Ionic, Arcado-Cypriot, and apparently also in Mycenaean; θεά‎ must be an Aeolism in spite of the doubts of Wathelet (Traits, 354–5); it is strongly entrenched in certain formulae and fixed usages. In the Odyssey the frequency of the o-stem as feminine and a-stem forms is as follows (a-stem figures in parentheses): sg. nom. 15 (17 + 32 θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη)‎, voc. o (12), acc. 3 (o), gen. -οῖο‎ 6, -οῦ‎ 3 (3), dat. 2 (o); pl. nom. o (2), gen. o (2 + 26 δῖα θεάων)‎, dat. o (-ῇσι‎ 1, -αῖς‎ 1). In the nom. sg., where alone the two types are in serious competition, θεά‎ may be (as here) a distinctive fem., but the decisive factor seems to be euphonic: see 194 and vii 41 nn.

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101. ἄσπετον‎: the punctuation (;) is too heavy, for the co-ordinated clause οὐδέ τις ἄγχι‎ … is not functionally distinct, as an instance of cumulative sentence construction, from the relative clause that often follows the run-over epithet. (On the cumulative technique see now Kirk, Commentary, 30–5.) S. E. Bassett, 'The So-called Emphatic Position of the Run-over Word in the Homeric Hexameter', TAPhA lvii (1926), 116–48, denied that the run-over word had any especial stress, because it was a habitual feature of Homeric sentence structure. Few will be convinced.

105–11. Schol. dislike the repetition of 110–11 = 133–4, and find the lines 'superfluous' and 'at variance with the story'. Their content is indeed gratuitous, but only to Calypso not to us; and Hermes has to describe Odysseus somehow. They contradict the story because the lines seem to make the fate of Odysseus part of the same nexus of events, thematically and chronologically, as the νόστος Ἀχαιῶν‎ of which Phemius sang (i 326)—and which could not, on that occasion, have included the sufferings of Odysseus.

105. ὀϊζυρώτατον ἄλλων‎: a frequent and convenient Homeric idiom, cf. Il. i 505, vi 295, x 434, Od. xv 108, and the common ἔξοχος ἄλλων‎ 10 times. πάντων‎ would be logical, but would not enter into this formular system.

106. τῶν ἀνδρῶν‎: for the structure of this sentence cf. Il. xix 103–5; the gen. is partitive and construes with ἄνδρα‎ in 105.

108. Ἀθηναίην ἀλίτοντο‎: by the sacrilege of Ajax; for its consequences see iii 134 ff. Hermes speaks generally, not to say loosely: Poseidon wrecked Ajax, iv 500, and Zeus Odysseus, xii 405 and 132 below, on the complaint of Helios. Nor were Odysseus' travails, in our Odyssey, the result of Athena's displeasure, as the juxtaposition of 110–11 with 108–9 implies. (That Odysseus was in fact a victim of Athena's anger is, however, the thesis of Clay, Wrath.)

111. See the narrative, xii 420 ff.

113–14. In Homer αἶσα‎ and μοῖρα‎ form a synonymous pair beginning respectively with vowel and consonant, like ἄλγεα/κήδεα, ἐσθλός/δῖος, ἄλκιμος/φαίδιμος‎, etc. αἶσα‎ is an 'Achaean' word regular outside the epic only in the Arcadian dialect (in the concrete sense 'part') with some attestation in Cypriot and Argolic: see Ruijgh, Élément, 118. For the Homeric idea of Fate see vii 196–8 n.

166. δῖα θεάων‎: a very common formula (33 times), mostly applied to minor goddesses (Calypso, Circe, Dione, Eidothea, Thetis) but also to Athena (5 times) and Hera (once). It is probably derivative from δῖα γυναικῶν‎, since (despite δῖ' Ἀφροδίτη‎ and δῖα Καλυψώ) δῖος‎, 'god-like' vel sim., is not appositely applied to divine persons.

118. An aural echo of Il. xxiv 33, with ζηλήμονες‎ for δηλήμονες‎.

σχέτλιος‎: a term of vague meaning, but applied especially to those who cannot be deterred from what the speaker regards as unreasonable behaviour.

119. θεαῖς‎: this dative, which is attested also at xxii 471 and twice in the Iliad, is of unexplained provenance: see Shipp, Studies, 57. Most dialects pg 266possessed the form from their earliest attestation, except Lesbian (-αισι‎ in nouns), East Ionic (-ῃσι‎), Attic to mid-fifth century (-ασι/ησι‎), some forms of Cretan (-ασι‎), and early Argolic (-ασσι‎). It is found also in Hesiod and the Hymns, and to a greater extent than in Homer, -αισι‎ (and therefore -αισ'‎) is unhomeric. Explanations of -αις‎ as the consequence of interpolation or accident of transmission fail to account for the uniformity of the textual tradition, where -αις‎ is attested, in face of the normal -ῃς/-ῃσι‎. For detailed discussion see G. M. Bolling, 'Dative Plural of the O- and A- Stems in Homer', Language xxii (1945), 261–4.

120. Some commentators have thought that this line implies a difference in attitude towards a mere amour and a more permanent liaison: but Olympus scarcely had a policy in the matter. Odysseus, who according to Calypso's logic would have been the victim of the gods' indignation, certainly felt no apprehension, whether with Circe or with Calypso: nor should he, for the crucial distinction, according to h.Ven. 281–8, was between a nymph, of whose favours a hero might boast with impunity, and a goddess whose μέγ' ὄνειδος‎ Zeus would infallibly avenge. See M. M. Willcock, 'Mythological Paradeigma in the Iliad', CQ xiv (1964), 141–54, for other instances of the free use of mythology to make a point in a special context.

121. Cursed, it was said, by Aphrodite in vengeance for an amour with Ares, Eos was especially susceptible to the charms of young mortals. The mighty hunter Orion was succeeded by Cephalus, Cleitus, Ganymede, and Tithonus (Athen, xiii 566 d). The erotic aspects of the Dawn-goddess seem to be part of IE mythology, see D. D. Boedeker, Aphrodite's Entry into Greek Epic (Leiden, 1974). The stories of Orion's death are various (see Roscher, Lexicon s.v.) but none attribute it directly to the consequences of his liaison with Eos.

Ὠρίων'‎: for the vocalism see 274 n.

122. ἠγᾱ́ασθε‎ follows the pattern of verbs in -ᾱω‎ (Meister, Kunstsprache, 87: the normal diectasis is seen in ἀγάασθε‎ (119).

ῥεῖα ζώοντες‎: a happy use of the formulaic epithet phrase (3 times). The latent contrast, of course, is normally between the μοῖραι‎ of gods and men, not between the Olympians and the minor divinities.

123. ἕως‎ < *ἧος‎. A trochaic form, ἧος‎ or εἷος‎ is restored by eds. in many formulae. There is slight evidence for εἷος‎ but none at all for *ἧος‎ (and none for *τῆος‎ or *τεῖος‎) in the MS-tradition, which regularly has a monosyllabic ἕως‎ or a disyllabic εἵως‎. The facts are well set out by M. L. West, 'Epica', Glotta xliv (1967), 135–9. The problem is to conjecture at what stage in the evolution of the epic dialect (a continuous process, advanced not only by the ἀοιδοί‎ but equally by rhapsodes and grammarians) *ἧος‎ became ἕως‎ + particle or pronoun. Hoekstra, Modifications, 35, infers that the process began in the aedic period, since the quantitative metathesis (ηο > εω‎) is already Homeric.

Ὀρτυγίη‎: 'Isle of Quails' (ὄρτυξ)‎, mentioned also at xv 404 and h.Ap. 16 in the early literature: very variously identified, especially by the commentators on xv 404, but commonly supposed to be Delos (Strabo, x 5. 8, AR i 419, 537 with schol., Callimachus, Ap. 59) or an adjacent island (h.Ap. 16).

χρυσόθρονος‎: pg 267of Artemis also at Il. ix 533, but 3 times of Hera and 10 times of Eos, expands the verse-end formula Ἀ. ἁγνή‎ 3 times. It is easy to see why Eos is golden, but the other goddesses are so called as part of the golden haze through which the poet contemplates all things divine. The Ionian ἀοιδοί‎ doubtless connected the word with θρόνος‎, 'seat', as did the Hellenistic commentators, but there is a word θρόνον‎, 'sequin' or 'flower' (Il. xxii 441), with which the -θρονος‎ may be ultimately associated: see G. M. Bolling, 'Ποικίλος‎ and θρόνα'‎, AJP lxxix (1958), 275–85. The Mycenaean apparently had θόρνος‎ (to-no), 'seat', not θρόνος‎. For full discussion see E. Risch, 'θρόνος/θρόνα‎ und die Komposita vom Typus χρυσόθρονος'‎, Studii Clasice xiv (1972), 17–25. A papyrus of the first century bc from Qaṣr Ibrîm (JEA lxii (1976), 118–19) reads χρυσόρροος‎, a simple mistake in an otherwise standard text. χρυσόρροος‎ is not listed in LSJ and may be a reminiscence of χρυσάορος‎, an epithet of Apollo (2 times in Il., 4 times in Hymns), but not attributed to Artemis before an oracle cited at Hdt. viii 77.

124. A formulaic line (Il. xxiv 759, and 5 times in Od.) used to attribute a quick and painless death to the action of Artemis or (with masc. ἐποιχόμενος‎) to Apollo, according to the sex of the victim. Its use here is therefore eccentric. The usual contrast is with a lingering death by illness (xi 172, xv 407–11), but see xi 324 for another instance of vindictive behaviour by Artemis. The vulgate reading, here and elsewhere, combines the short dative -οις‎ with the long -έεσσι‎. A v. l. -οισι … -εσσι‎ is invariably found, but should not be preferred, since the Kunstsprache has an aversion for words of the rhythm Book 5εσσι‎ and a liking for those Book 5εσσι‎.

125–7. Ἰασίων‎: a by-form Ἰάσιος‎ also exists. The fruit of this union, said to have been consummated in Crete, was Plutus, hence the cynical popular etymology of Ἰασίων, πάντα γὰρ ἰᾶται ὁ Πλοῦτος‎. At Hes. fr. 177 (M–W) Eetion is named as the lover. Both are reported to be sons of Zeus.

127. νειῷ ἔνι τριπόλῳ‎: the allusion is to some primitive rite designed by sympathetic magic to improve the natural fertility of the ground: see Fraser, Golden Bough, ii, 97–104. Fallow was turned several times, but the idea that it was turned precisely three times arises from a misunderstanding of Hes. Op. 461–4: τρίπολος‎ refers rather to the ploughing of three furrows as part of the ritual.

ούδε̄ δήν‎, because < *δϝήν‎.

128. ἀργῆτι‎, 'flashing'. The complementary formula with a consonantal initial sound has ψολόεντι‎ 'murky', a curiously opposite meaning. There is, of course, no correlation between the epithets and their contexts. See 74–6 n. for the immediate re-use of the formula at 131.

132. (= vii 250); ἐλάσας‎ is the paradosis. Aristarchus distinguished βάλλειν‎ (of missiles) and ἐλαύνειν‎ (of hand-held weapons), and so read ἔλσας‎ in this line: see van der Valk, Textual Criticism, 100. But the distinction is not absolute, and the sense of εἰλειν‎ in Homer is 'hold back', or 'confine', rather than the 'drive up and down' (as in Hippocrates Morb. iv 51) which is required.

οἴνοπι‎: see i 183 n.

135. φίλεον‎ 'welcome (as one of the household)': see 28 n.

136. θήσειν ἀθάνατον‎: either by feeding him nectar and ambrosia, Pi. P. ix pg 26863 (Aristaeus), h.Ven. 232 (Tithonus), or by anointing him, Hes. fr. 23 (a) (M–W) 21 ff. (Iphigenia).

ἀγήρων‎: the vulgate here and elsewhere in early epic (vii 257, xxiii 336, Il. ii 447, etc., Hes. Th. 305, 955, fr. 23 (a) 24, h.Cer. 260) has the uncontracted ἀγήραος(-ον)‎, which provides the expected dactylic rhythm. The contracted forms, however, occur both at the verse-end and medially (e.g. 218 below and vii 94) in variants of the formula ἀθάνατος καὶ ἀγήραος‎ and were written everywhere by Aristarchus.

139. ἐρρέτω‎: with the usual imprecatory meaning, abire in malam rem, cf. Il. xx 349. Calypso maintains her petulant attitude here and in 140.

140. πέμψω‎ implies the provision of means as well as permission for departure, cf. viii 30 ff.

141–2. Calypso uses a pair of formulaic lines (= iv 559–60, v 16–17). It would have been incongruous to suggest that she might have had ἑταῖροι‎ on her island.

146. Διὸς δ' ἐποπίξεο μῆνιν‎: the compound verb occurs only in the imperative and in this formula, cf. h.Ven. 290 and Thgn. 1297 (both with θεῶν‎ for Διος‎): its modification, xiv 283, reverts to the normal simplex. Zeus' μῆνις‎ would be specifically directed at Calypso's contumacy not at her original offence, which he had countenanced for seven years, just as in h.Ven. Anchises was threatened, not for sleeping with Aphrodite, but for boasting of it.

148–227. Odysseus and Calypso. We have waited almost 2,400 lines for this moment, our first meeting with Odysseus in person—and his introduction is singularly without fanfare. A modern writer, it may be supposed, would have sought at this point to impress upon us the morally important traits of the hero's character, his tenacity of purpose, ingenuity of mind, and fortitude in adversity, in short the moral courage that pervades the Odyssey as much as physical prowess does the Iliad. But for Homer this has already been done for him by the epic tradition that is shared by both poet and audience (cf. the muted introduction of man-slaying Hector at Il. iii 38). He therefore continues the κωμῳδία ἠθολογουμένη‎ (Longinus de Sublimitate ix 4). The man for whom Calypso would have done so much has put the length of her island between them. In her motives he has no confidence. She herself, obliged to surrender her paramour, and that in favour of a mortal woman, is in a ridiculous position. Odysseus is made to handle her with superb discretion. The poet's ironical and playful mood in the description of personal relationships is a most successful part of his genius, and much in evidence from this point to the end of viii.

150. Ζηνὸς‎: the usage and distribution of the analogical oblique cases of Ζεύς‎ is examined by P. Wathelet, 'Le Nom de Zeus', Minos xv (1974), 195–225. They occur sporadically in the Ionic dialects and elsewhere, but though rare in comparison with the regular forms are formulaic in Homer, e.g. Ζηνὸς Ὀλυμπίου‎ 4 times. The notable archaism Ζῆν‎ (acc. sg., Il. 3 times, Hes. Th. 885) is absent from the Odyssey.

152. δακρυόφιν‎: gen. pl., formed with -όφι‎ from the regular nom. δάκρυ‎: for -όφι‎ see 59 n.

pg 269The tears are not unheroic in themselves (cf. iv 113, viii 84 ff., 521–2), but Odysseus has, we may think, reason to weep: all that life means to a hero, activity, struggle, achievement, has been taken from him in exchange for eternal indolence and pleasure. We seem for a moment to confront the fallacy of Utopia, but neither here nor elsewhere does the poet ruminate on the profounder aspects of his story. Nor would he necessarily have seen Odysseus' predicament in this philosophical light: for those who toil the toil-free paradise of Ogygia (or Scheria, or Elysium, or Olympus) seems infinitely desirable.

155. σπέσσι‎: see i 15 n.

156–8. Odysseus is not 'looking out for a ship' (Stanford), an improbable sight in Ogygian waters, but expressing his despair and frustration, like Achilles at Il. xxiii 59.

157. Omitted by some MSS, see on 83–4 above. The text certainly reads better without the line at this point.

160. The fifth successive line ending in -ων‎: but all Greek poets are indifferent to such assonance.

When a character in the epic is ordered in plain language by a god to do something (as opposed to being prompted by a dream or omen), he makes no allusion to the visitation, cf. Achilles at Il. i 193 ff., Hector at Il. xi 195 ff., xv 236 ff. It is as if the theological explanation of behaviour were a poetical gloss upon action that could from another standpoint be described in more prosaic terms, see M. M. Willcock, 'Some Aspects of the Gods in the Iliad', BICS xvii (1970), 1–10. So here, as at 182 ff. and 203 ff., Calypso ignores the commands of Hermes and speaks as if she had finally acceded to Odysseus' implied entreaties (and takes credit for doing so at 190–1): 206 ff. amount to an invitation to remain, in defiance of Olympus. As they stand Calypso's three speeches provide excellent characterization: 'Very well, I shall let you go. I am not as heartless as you think. But you would stay if you knew what is in store for you. Besides I can offer you more than Penelope can': all the better for lacking the rhetoric in which Ovid's heroines clothe their analogous arguments.

161. πρόφρασσ(α)‎: fem. of πρόφρων‎, < *προ-φρ‎-τια‎, after the analogy of -ντ‎- stems, type χαρίεντ‎- fem. χαρίεσσα‎ (with -ε‎- after the masc. for the expected α‎ < ).

162. δούρατα μακρά‎: 'timbers' here and 370, 'spears' at xxii 251 and Il. v 656: for the persistence of the formulaic word-group despite the change of sense cf. περικαλλέα δίφρον‎, 'chariot' (Il. iii 262 etc.), 'chair' (Od. xx 387); μάρμαρον ὀκριόεντα‎, 'piece of rock' (Il. xii 380), 'sparkling' (adj.) (Il. xvi 735); μενοεικέα πολλά‎, 'good things' (Il. ix 227), 'pleasing' (adj.) (Od. v 267).

163. ἴκρια‎: Herodotus (v 16), describing the lake-dwellings of the Paeonians, speaks of ἴκρια ἐπὶ σταυρῶν ὑψηλῶν ἐζευγμένα‎ in a passage where ἴκρια‎ clearly denotes a horizontal platform supported by vertical piles. None of the Homeric uses of ἴκρια‎ is incompatible with this sense, 'deck' in a nautical context. ὑψοῦ‎ (164), may imply something more than a flat pg 270surface built over the timbers of the raft, but the language here is too abbreviated to make plain the picture in the poet's mind. See further on 243–61.

Hermes, of course, did not mention the raft, but the epic convention permits the characters to know what the audience knows, if the narrative is thereby simplified.

165. ὕδωρ‎, because the Greek practice was to dilute the wine.

166. μενοεικέ(α)‎: neut. pl., usually of food but here qualifying the three items mentioned in 165.

171. ῥίγησεν‎: the formula is used of a character's response to words or circumstances he sees as menacing, cf. 116, Il. iii 259, xv 34. Scholl., who are always on the look-out for climatic indications, comically refer the word to the winter season. (For the season, see 272 n.)

πολύτλας δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς‎: the adjective δῖος‎ (whose primary sense is 'like Zeus in appearance or attributes', cf. 20 n.) is the most frequent of generic epithets, being used of 32 different heroes, and therefore says little about any of them. Doubtless something less imprecise would be preferable for Odysseus, but metrics, i.e. the short space to be filled, rule out distinctive epithets at this point even for the foremost heroes (hence even δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς‎).

πολύτλας‎: 'much enduring', cf. πολυτλήμων‎ (xviii 319), is the distinctive epithet of Odysseus in the Iliad as well as in the Odyssey. It expresses in lapidary form the Homeric conception of his leading character, but in general terms: the same formula combines with opposed states of mind, with ῥίγησεν‎ here but with γήθησεν‎ at viii 199. What is uppermost at this point in the poet's mind, it soon appears, is not the hero's sufferings but the alertness of mind with which Odysseus deals with the resentful Calypso.

173–9. Calypso's reaction to this speech (182 ff.), like that of Athena in similar circumstances (xiii 287 ff.), is one of pleasure not resentment. Odysseus therefore displays, to excess, watchfulness and caution, but we should not, with the goddesses to guide us, stigmatize his attitude as mistrust or suspicion. κερδοσύνη‎ is typical of Odysseus in all his encounters outside the earlier wanderings (with Calypso, Nausicaa, Athena on Ithaca, Eumaeus, the suitors, even Laertes) and forms part of the Odyssean concept of the heroic (crafty success rather than the Iliadic tragic honour).

174. λαῖτμα‎: possibly from the root otherwise attested only in λαι-μός‎, 'throat', but the Homeric usage, being mostly in complex formulae with parts of περάω‎, stresses the idea of extent.

176. ὠκύποροι‎: a formulaic epithet (gen. pl. 4 times, dat. pl. 5 times) shifted to the run-over position. It is doubtful if any contrast is intended with the sluggish σχεδίη‎.

177. ~ x 342, 178–9 = x 343–4, and so cut out by Hermann and others together with 184–7 (= Il. xv 36–8 + Od. x 300). Such treatment of repetitions no longer commends itself, cf. G. M. Calhoun, 'Homeric Repetitions', Univ. Cal. Pub. in Class. Phil, xii (1933), 1–25.

pg 271

179. κακὸν … ἄλλο‎: cf. 171, but Odysseus can be understood to mean a κακόν‎ to crown all the κακά‎ recounted in ix–xii.

181. ὀνόμαζεν‎: 'address' originally, doubtless, by name, but the weak sense is well established (6 times without voc., as here; 22 times with descriptive voc. only; 15 times with name), though not without dispute as to the exact nuance: see R. d'Avino, 'La funzionalità di ὀνομάζω'‎, Studia classica A. Pagliaro Oblata, ii (Rome, 1969), 7–33.

182. ἀλιτρός‎: 'rogue', cf. ἀλιταίνω‎, used literally at Il. viii 361 but here in an ironical sense.

ἀποφώλια‎: an Odyssean word (here and viii 177, xi 249, xiv 212) of uncertain sense, glossed by ἀπαίδευτος‎ in scholl., and by ἀνεμώλιος, μάταιος‎ in the Lexica. The etymologists fall back on the Hesychian gloss ἀποφεῖν‎ [sic]• ἀπατᾶν‎, taking the -ο‎- as an Aeolism.

184. ἴστω‎: 'be witness', a common formula in oaths (Il. x 329 etc., 8 times). Mortals, of course, call gods to witness except on the most solemn occasions (as at Il. iii 276–9) when, like the gods themselves, they appeal to more fundamental cosmic principles. K. Reinhardt, Von Werken und Formen (Godesberg, 1948), 501, rightly points out that the majesty of Calypso's oath (contrast that of Circe, x 345) is commensurate with the moment: the wanderings are over, the return has begun.

γαῖα‎ etc. the oath appears to reflect the division of the cosmos into heavenly, terrestrial, and infernal regions, cf. Il. xv 187–9, h.Ap. 85–6. Yet in the epic imagination Styx is a river of that part of the underworld assigned to the human dead. Hesiod elaborates further: Styx is a goddess, daughter of Ocean, Th. 389. Schulze, however, pointed out (Quaestiones, 440) that Styx occurs in Homer only in the formula Στυγὸς ὕδωρ/ὕδατος‎, a unitary idea, whose original denotation remains unclear. See further J. Bollack, 'Styx et serments', REG lxxi (1958), 1–35, esp. 17–25, and cf. Exod. 20: 4 'in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth'.

185–6. μέγιστος | ὅρκος‎: The penalties of perjury are dwelt on by Hes. Th. 793–806, a year's deprivation of nectar and ambrosia followed by nine years of banishment from the society of the gods. For ordinary occasions the oath by Styx alone was sufficient, e.g. Hes. Th. 400 (where see West's n.) and h.Cer. 259.

188. φράσσομαι‎: 'will consider', not 'tell', a meaning that, according to Aristarchus, φράζειν‎ never bears in Homer.

194. ἷξον‎: a 'mixed aorist', i.e. a first aor. with thematic conjugation. There is no normally conjugated first aor. ἷξα‎, indeed the only other active form known to the epic is the second aor. ἷκε‎ restricted to the formula οὐρανὸν ἷκε‎ and perhaps felt as an impf. C. Prince Roth, 'Thematic S-Aorists in Homer', HSPh lxxvii (1973), 181–6, plausibly suggests an analogy: ὦρτο: ὦρσε ~ ἷκτο‎ (Hes. Th. 481): ἷξε‎.

σπεῖος‎: see 68 n.

θεὸς‎: the poet would have preferred the distinctive gender of θεά‎, cf. xx 393 θεὰ καὶ καρτερὸς ἀνηρ‎, but θεά‎ is never scanned Book 5 by correption: see also 97 n.

197. ἔσθειν‎: a poetical form, derived like the normal ἐσθίειν‎ from the imperative ἔoθι (< *ἔδ-θι‎), perhaps attested at xvii 478, cf. Schwyzer, Grammatik, i 713.

pg 272

201. Cf. Il. xi 780 (with τάρπημεν‎). Both halves of the line are formulaic, put together as an ad hoc replacement for the usual αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ πόσιος καὶ ἐδητύος ἐξ ἔρον ἕντο‎ (21 times).

202. The dat. pronoun in speech formulae supplies the indirect obj., so that τοῖς‎ is anomalous where there is a single addressee: an inconsequence brought about by the use of a set formula.

203. W. B. Stanford, 'Homer's use of personal πολυ‎-compounds', CPh xlv (1950), 108–10, notes the clustering of such epithets about the name of Odysseus: πολύαινος, πολύμητις, πολυμήχανος, πολύτλας, πολύτροπος, πολύφρων‎. As in other cases, the formulaic system is extended from a traditional core, in this case by proliferating synonyms of the key epithet.

204. εἰ γοῦν τὸν σύνδεσμον‎ [δή‎ in this line] ἐξέλοις, συνεξαιρήσεις καὶ τὸ πάθος‎ (Demetrius de Elocutione 57).

208. εὔχομαι‎: 'declare', 'claim', a very old use now attested in Mycenaean, on the Pylos tablets PY Eb 297 and Ep 704. For the semantic development see A. W. H. Adkins, Ἑὔχομαι, εὐχωλή‎ and εὖχος‎ in Homer', CQ xix (1969), 20–33, and J.-L. Perpillou, 'La Signification du verbe εὔχομαι‎ dans l'épopée', Mélanges Chantraine, (Paris, 1972), 170–82.

212. οὐ δέμας οὐδὲ φυήν‎: Leaf (on Il. i 115) refers δέμας‎ to outward appearance, φυήν‎ to growth or stature: more precisely, as scholl, put it here, φυή‎ is ἡ ἐκ πάντων μελῶν ἀναλογία‎: see also 217.

215–24. Odysseus takes up Calypso's points (her beauty, his longing for home, his future sufferings) in reverse order, according to the Homeric habit. The structure of Homeric discourse has been examined by D. Lohmann, Die Komposition der Reden in der Ilias (Berlin, 1970).

215. πότνα‎ occurs in Homer only in this formula (3 times) and in the vocative case (cf. πότνα θεάων‎ (h.Cer. 118), nom.): hence, according to Schulze, Kleine Schriften2 (Göttingen, 1966), 325, < *πότνι‎ cf. Sanskrit patni. Chantraine, Grammaire, i 170, takes the form as a spelling for πότνια‎ with consonantalized iota, an orthography otherwise found only in δῆμον‎ (δήμιον‎) at Il. xii 213. But the form is evidently artificial, after the many doublets in -ιος/-ος‎ developed within the Kunstsprache.

217. ἀκιδνοτέρη‎: a pure gloss. Scholl, report two guesses, ἀσθενεστέρα‎ and εύτελεστέρα‎, neither evidently far from the mark.

εἰσάντα‎: scholl, report Ἀρίσταρχος, εἰς ἄντα, αἱ κοινότεροι, εἰς σῶμα‎ (εἰς ὦπα‎ Porson). σῶμα‎ is certainly wrong, but εἰς ὦπα‎, read here by Eustathius, could well be right, cf. xxii 405, xxiii 107 for the formula. Aristarchus would have been motivated by over-exactitude—ὦπα‎ is strictly 'face', but Odysseus is speaking of μέγεθος‎ 'height'; cf., however, ἐσάντα ἰδεῖν‎ (Il. xvii 334, Od. xi 143).

μέγεθος‎: regularly grouped with εἶδος‎, cf. vi 152, xi 337, xviii 249, xxiv 253. Height was an essential part of Greek beauty, cf. the superiority of Artemis to the nymphs, vi 107–8; in the classical period Aristotle, EN 1123 b 7, denied a short person could be handsome.

218. ἀγήρως‎: the medial formula is attested with the uncontracted -αος‎ in the fourth foot, see 136 n., although Aristarchus preferred the contracted pg 273-ως‎ there also. The poet exploits the versatility provided by contraction to move the formula to the verse-end.

219–20. Dante, Inferno xxvi 90–142, imagines a heroic Odysseus who relentlessly seeks out danger and experience. There is some evidence of this concept of the heroic in the early episodes of the wanderings, e.g. ix 39 ff. (the Cicones) or ix 172 ff. (the Cyclopes), but generally the Odyssey shows a sense of moral achievement quite as important as physical courage. The marooned Odysseus is doing nothing, he is not even, like the defeated Satan in Paradise Lost, meditating escape and vengeance, but he is being supremely loyal to the things he values.

220. = iii 233 = viii 466, an unusual formula in that it presupposes the loss of digamma in (ϝ) ἰδέσθαι‎.

221–4. A fine expression of Odyssean heroism (which would have been out of place if Odysseus had known of the gods' decision to effect his return). The words are spoken with grim resolution, not swagger, although they have an ironic colour and anticipate the storm of 282 ff.

225. Ὣς ἔφατ'‎: this speech is effectively Odysseus's farewell to Calypso, for the poet gives them no more direct speech. He does not in fact leave until four days later. The poet handles one topic only at a time, in accordance with the principle of archaic composition laid down by B. E. Perry, 'The Early Greek Capacity for Seeing Things Separately', TAPhA lxviii (1937), 403–27, and is now about to pass on to the boat-building.

225–7. For the casual attitude towards sexual relations cf. xx 6, Il. ix 663, and the revealing comment ἀγαθὸν δὲ γυναικί περ ἐν φιλότητι μίσγεσθαι‎ (Il. xxiv 130).

227. τερπέσθην‎: dual, with plural participles. The hesitation is frequent, see Chantraine, Grammaire, ii 22 ff.

228–61. The boat-building. A good instance of 'ornamentation' (expansive and decorative treatment, see Lord, Singer, 86 ff.). In a technical matter such as this the poetical imagination, controlled as it is by the limits of the audience's credulity, is usually tempered by realism, see C. M. Bowra, Heroic Poetry (London, 1952), 147 ff. So here Odysseus' boat is a genuine vessel. Bérard, because he takes the boat for a mere raft, alleges 'un auditoire hellénique aurait souri d'un conte où un homme seul, fût-il l'ingénieux Ulysse, aurait sur une plage deserte fabriqué la coque, la membrure et toutes les parties d'un vaisseau creux'. But Gilgamesh, for example, was equally adroit (Gilgamesh x. iii 44–8). The point of the description is not the importance of the artefact (the boat is at once wrecked, nor does the shield of Achilles play a role commensurate with its divine workmanship), but to shed lustre on the hero by its magnificence or virtuosity.

230–2. = x 543–5. In the present passage Aristarchus altered ἐπέθηκε‎ to ἐφύπερθε‎ (the dative κεφαλῇ‎ would then be construed with περὶ βάλετο‎), presumably because the veil is not put on top of the head, as if it were a helmet. But ἐπέθηκε‎ in fact comes from the arming scene, e.g. Il. iii 334 ff., from which these lines are adapted.

pg 274

234. ἄρμενον‎: athematic aor. med. ptcp.: Chantraine, Grammaire, i 383.

235. ἀμφοτέρωθεν ἀκαχμένον‎: used of the blade of a sword, xxii 80, where the natural interpretation is 'two-edged'. But a double axe, a votive rather than a practical implement, can hardly be meant here.

237. ἐΰξοον‎ makes the same point as ἄρμενον ἐν παλάμῃσι‎ (234): it is used of the job, i.e. in a passive sense 'smoothed', not of the action of the tool.

239. = 64 with the substitution of fir for cypress. Theophrastus HP v 7. 1 mentions ἐλάτη, πεύκη‎ and κέδρος‎ as ναυπηγήσιμα‎. But the ancient shipwright used what was available. Wrecks have revealed a great variety of woods, see L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton, 1971), 212–13, but not apparently alder or poplar, though the former is very frequently mentioned in the Latin poets.

240. αὖα πάλαι, περίκηλα‎: The phrase recurs at xviii 309 of firewood. The poet appears still to be thinking of a raft, for ship timber was not permitted to dry out, cf. Theophrastus HP v 7. 3 ναυπηγικῇ δὲ διὰ τὴν κάμψιν ἐνικμοτέρᾳ ἀναγκαῖον‎ (ἐπεὶ πρός γε τὴν κόλλησιν ἡ ξηροτέρα συμφέρει‎), ἵσταται γὰρ καινὰ τὰ ναυπηγούμενα καὶ ὅταν συμπαγῇ καθελκυσθέντα συμμύει καὶ στέγει, πλὴν ἐὰν μὴ παντάπασι ἐξικμασθῇ‎, nor any timber destined for planing, sawing, or drilling, cf. id. HP v 6. 3. It would be wrong therefore to suppose that the timber was standing because it had been killed by girdling the bark, as described by Vitruvius (ii 9. 3) in order to season in the ground. No technical process is yet in question.

243–61. Odysseus' vessel. The literature on this passage is very extensive, see D. H. F. Gray, Archaeologia G, which has a full list to 1971. Casson, Ships and Seamanship, op. cit. (v 239 n.), 217–19, has the most recent discussion in detail. There is no doubt that whatever his primary intention what the poet describes is a boat not a raft: not only were the timbers shaped (245), but they were drilled (247), jointed, and pinned with treenails (248). The timbers of a raft are not treated in this way, but are lashed together with cables so as to permit the timbers some degree of movement in response to the waves. (The problems of building and sailing large sea-going rafts may be agreeably studied in Thor Heyerdahl, The Kon-Tiki Expedition (London, 1950), ch. v.) Depictions of the vessel on sixth-century and later vases (for which see Touchefeu-Meynier, Thèmes, nos. 343–51) have no independent value, and the remaining technical terms are unhelpful, τορνώσεται‎, 'strike a curve', is indecisive, since it occurs in a simile. The meaning of στάμινες‎ and ἐπηνεγκίδες‎ (252–3) is disputed: if 'ribs' and 'gunwales', the reference is again to the hull of a boat. The wicker bulwark (256) and dunnage (257) are of uncertain implication. Early representations of ships in art are published by Gray, op. cit., S. Marinatos, 'La Marine créto-mycénienne', BCH lvii (1933), 170–235, and G. S. Kirk, 'Ships on Geometric Vases', ABSA xliv (1949) 93–153: to these must be added the evidence of the Thera wall-paintings, see e.g. Casson, 'Bronze Age Ships', IJNA iv (1975), 3–10. Of known wrecks that at Cape Gelidonya, Lycia, has been published in detail by G. Bass and others, Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck (Philadelphia, 1967). The ancient shipwright laid a keel (τρόπις‎), to which pg 275stem (στείρη‎) and sternpost (ἄφλαστον‎) were attached. He then built up the shell with edge-joined planks, each one mortised at close intervals. When the joints were forced home (ἀράσσειν‎), the tenons were secured with treenails (γόμφοι‎). He then inserted ribs and deck-beams (ζυγά‎), see C. H. Ericsson, Navis Oneraria (Abo, 1984), 41–61. (The modern practice is to construct the skeleton of ribs first, and then to fit the planking of the hull.) Homer, it is clear, has omitted various parts and operations. The reason for his doing so is possibly the fact that, having no traditional formulae for the construction of a raft, he borrows from a description of shipbuilding such as would be required for the story of the Argo, cf. xii 70. Both the Iliad and the Odyssey seem able to draw on a greater body of diction concerning seafaring than they actually use, as noted by Kirk, Commentary, on Il. i 434 and 485–6.

The whole passage is a good instance of Homer's succinct descriptive style.

247. In practice the drilling of massive ship-timber called for a team of men, see ix 384–6.

ἥρμοσεν‎: 'matched the joints' (Aristarchus).

252–3. σταμίνεσσι … μακρῇσιν ἐπηγκενίδεσσι‎: I follow Casson, Ships and Seamanship, op. cit. (v 239 n.), 217–19 in taking these rare terms to refer to important members of the hull, i.e. the ribs and wales; but there can be no certainty. J. S. Morrison and R. T. Williams, Greek Oared Ships (Cambridge, 1968), 48, and S. Marinatos, Excavations at Thera VI (Paris 1974), refer to the superstructure of uprights and horizontal rails seen at the stern in early representations of ships, as if Odysseus were erecting a cabin.

ποίει‎: probably intransitive, 'he worked away'.

257. ὕλην‎: as ballast according to scholl., as if there were no stones on Ogygia: the reference is rather to dunnage, on which to stow cargo clear of the bilge.

258. φάρε'‎: φᾶρος‎ is a sheet of material, more or less as it comes from the loom. It may serve, for example, as a winding-sheet (Il. xviii 353): for the shape cf. ideogram 159 of the Linear B script,Book 5.

261. Odysseus is in a hurry. Sound practice permitted the joints to settle for a while before launching, cf. Theophrastus HP v 7. 4, Plut. Moralia 321 d.

262–81. Odysseus' departure. The narrative is succinct and, though in the epic manner the poet omits no significant detail, it is clear he is interested in the wreck (282 ff.) and not in the voyage itself.

262–83. τέτρατον … τετέλεστο … πέμπτῳ πέμπ‎': a curious, but by no means unique assonance: see A. Shewan, 'Alliteration and Assonance in Homer', CPh xx (1929), 193–209, and cf. πῆλαι … Πηλιάδα‎ (Il. xvi 142–3), Δάμασον … δάμασσε‎ (Il. xii 183–6).

264. λούσασα‎: a good prothysteron. Like Circe (x 450), Calypso performs herself the chores usually left to menials (iv 49, vi 210, viii 449, xix 317) or to junior members of the household (iii 464), as if she were alone on her island with Odysseus. The δμῳαί‎ of 199 are perhaps a mere slip.

266. τὸν ἕτερον‎: According to Wyatt, Lengthening, 217–18, this is one of the few genuinely acephalic lines. The rhythm arose easily in this case by the pg 276modification of a prototype in which the article (a frequent reinforcement of antithetical words) was naturally long or lengthened by connective δ'‎.

267: μενοεικέα πολλά‎: formulaic, cf. Il. ix 227, with a curious echo at Od. xiv 232 τῶν ἐξαιρεύμην μενοεικέα, πολλὰ δʼ ὀπίσσω‎.

272–7: Il. xviii 486–9 read Πληιάδας θʼ Ὑάδας τε τό τε σθένος Ὠρίωνος‎ and repeat 273–5. The two passages have an extensive literary progeny, cf. AR iii 745; Verg. G. i 138, 246; Propertius iii, v 35; Ovid Met. viii 206, xiii 725; Ars Amat. ii 53; Musaeus Hero 213. But neither the poets nor their commentators shed much light on the present passage.

For the Astronomy of Homer see D. R. Dicks, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle (London, 1970), 27–38. Beside the constellations named here and in Il. xviii Homer knew an 'autumn star' (Il. v 5 etc.), doubtless Sirius alias the 'Dog of Orion' (Il. xxii 29), and the 'morning' (Od. xiii 93, Il. xxiii 226) and 'evening' (Il. xxii 317) stars—the planet Venus, the identity of the 'stars' being unrecognized, or at least unstated. Hesiod adds some useful data together with the names Sirius and Arcturus. The configuration of the stars was not visibly different in antiquity from the present day, but their behaviour was altered by the changing position of the celestial pole about which the stars appear to turn. The Earth's axis performs a slow movement comparable to that of a slow-running top or gyroscope. Projected onto the celestial sphere this movement (called, from the effect noted below, precession) causes the poles to describe circles of c. 47° angular diameter about the poles of the ecliptic, i.e. the axis of the Earth's orbit about the Sun projected onto the celestial sphere. The movement of the poles affects year by year the coordinates (Declination and Right Ascension) by which stars are located on the celestial sphere, and causes a displacement of the points (equinoxes) where the circles of the celestial equator and the ecliptic intersect. The equinoxes thus move westward at a rate of c.1° every 72 years. As a result the solar calendar dates of astral phenomena are up to 40 days earlier in antiquity than at the present day. From this it is possible to infer that the astronomical data in Hesiod (e.g. Op. 564–7), crude as they are, were formulated in or about the eighth century bc.

Homeric navigation, as befitted the inhabitants of the Aegean archipelago, normally relied on landfalls, cf. iii 159–83 and ix 39–81. The present passage contains the sole reference to stellar navigation. The technique depends on the observation that the rotation of the heavens pivots at a fixed point, the pole, by reference to which the ship was kept steady in a given direction. The mariner had to know, for he could not calculate, the relative positions of his starting point and destination. By an irony of fate, at the present day, when such aid is superfluous, the pole is marked within 1° by Polaris. Owing to precession, for Odysseus the situation was substantially as described by Aratus, δύω δέ μιν‎ (the πόλος‎) ἀμφὶς ἔχουσαι Ἄρκτοι ἅμα τροχόωσι‎ (Phaen. 26–7) or by Ovid, 'quaeque polo posita est glaciali proxima Serpens' (= the constellation Draco), (Met. ii 173). If he used the northerly stars of Ursa Major as a fixed beacon, a navigator pg 277would be off course to the maximum extent of c. 13º, hardly a serious matter for a single night's voyage amid the vagaries of wind and current. Ursa Major therefore continued to be the Greek guide, cf. Aratus Phaen. 37. The Phoenicians had a less conspicuous but more accurate mark in Ursa Minor, then about 4º off the pole, cf. Aratus Phaen. 42, Strabo i 1. 6. The determination of the true pole awaited the science of Hipparchus.

The Pleiades (Right Ascension 3 hr. 45 min. at the present day) and Bootes (RA 14 hr 30 min.) lie at opposite sides of the celestial sphere. Both are unmistakable objects, the Pleiades being the closest and finest star cluster visible to the naked eye, and Arcturus (α‎ Boötis) being at Magnitude 0.2 the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere. Yet both are usually adduced as indications of season, the heliacal rising of the Pleiades before sunrise (about mid-May in antiquity) marking the beginning of summer, that of Arcturus (mid-September) that of winter. The technique of their use in navigation can only be conjectured. For Homer both would rise and set in approximately ENE and WNW directions, and would culminate 70°–80° above the horizon, a track similar to that of the sun at midsummer. During the sailing season (50 days after the solstice according to Hesiod, Op. 663) one or both would be conveniently visible throughout the night. Errors would be large, but Homer divided the night into three watches (Il. x 253) and the navigator could use his sense of time to correct his course, just as he would in using the sun by day. However, the partial coincidence of these lines with Il. xviii 483 ff. raises the suspicion that they supply general astronomical, not specifically navigational or seasonal, data.

The course recommended to Odysseus was generally easterly, but the specification ('on his left') is vague and could mean SE or NE or any course in that quadrant.

J. A. Scott, Unity of Homer (Berkeley, 1921), 107–9, Austin, Archery, 240–4, claim that the lines provide an indication of the season of the Odyssey's action, namely between 1 September and 21 October. But they are obliged to make two assumptions, that Odysseus watched the Pleiades all night, and that ὀψὲ δύοντα‎ is a significant epithet. Neither assumption is certainly required by the text. Astronomically this season was dominated by the heliacal rising of Arcturus, a traditional harbinger of stormy weather. Hesiod rightly advised the sailor μηδὲ μένειν οἶνόν τε νέον καὶ ὀπωρινὸν ὄμβρον‎ (Op. 674).

272. ὀψὲ δύοντα‎: δύειν‎ is used both of the annual and daily motion of stars, hence (1) 'setting late in the year', Dicks, op. cit. (272–7 n.), 30, because the heliacal setting occurred in early November—but we do not know at what point the Homeric year ended; (2) 'slow-setting', scholl., because the constellation sets along its long axis, cf. 'tardum occasum', Catullus lxvi 67—an unnatural sense ὀψὲ‎; (3) 'late sinking', Stanford, ad loc., because the bright Arcturus is slow to fade in the dawn—an improbable sense of δύειν‎; (4) 'setting in the late evening': this is confirmed by δείελος ὀψὲ δύων‎ pg 278(Il. xxi 232), cf. serus in Latin (e.g. Propertius iii 5. 35). The epithet is decorative, as usual in such a list, and would be factually true only of late summer and early autumn, cf. Aratus, Phaen. 585.

273. ἄμαξαν‎: 'the Wagon' is the usual and sensible designation of the constellation except where the learned have imposed derivatives of Ἄρκτος‎, see A. Scherer, Gestirnnamen bei den indogermanischen Völkern (Heidelberg, 1953), 134. It is neatly argued by O. Szemerényi, Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft xv (1962), 190–1, that Ἄρκτος‎ itself is a popular etymology of a loanword derived from the Semitic root seen in Akkadian ereqqu 'wagon'.

274 Ὠρίωνα‎: an uncontracted form Ὠαρῐ́ων‎ is attested in the lyric poets (Pi. N. ii 12 etc.) and in pretentious Hellenistic writers (Callimachus, Dian. 265, fr. 110, Nicander, Ther. 15). The epic tradition, however, confirmed by the practice of Aratus, has Ὠρίων‎ everywhere. West, on Hes. Op. 657, compares epic ὠτώεις‎ in contrast with Callimachus' οὐατόεις‎ (Aet. fr. 1. 31): see also General Introduction, pp. 25–6. Orion is an important constellation in Hesiod (Op. 598–9, 615–16) where, however, it marks the turning-points of the farmer's year.

δοκεύει‎: 'keep a good lookout for', usually of an aggressor (Il. viii 340, xiii 545), but also (as here) of an intended victim (so Il. xvi 313). The mortal Orion was the Greek Nimrod, the mighty hunter of myth, cf. xi 572 ff.

275. οἴη‎: true of the stars mentioned in Homer and Hesiod, as was noted by the ancient commentary preserved in P.Oxy. 2888. Draco, Ursa Minor (allegedly introduced into Greece by Thales c.600 bc), and most of Cepheus were also circumpolar in antiquity to the puzzlement of the commentators. Aristotle (Poet. 1461 a 21) took the word κατὰ μεταφοράν‎, the best known being called the only one. Strabo (i 1. 6) supposed that the poet intended Ἄρκτος‎ to signify ὁ ἀρκτικός‎ (sc. κύκλος‎) which defined in Hellenistic astronomy the circumpolar zone on the celestial sphere. Crates, holding the same view, went on to change the gender of Ἄρκτος‎ in accordance with it, and read οἶος‎. Owing to precession at the present day the courses of the most southerly stars of Ursa Major pass below the horizon for an observer stationed in Greek latitudes (35°–40° N.).

λοετρῶν Ὠκεανοῖο‎: the Homeric cosmology is far from explicit, but we shall not greatly err if we think of a flat disk-like earth surrounded by the river of Ocean. The firmament of heaven covers the whole like a dome, so that the stars, having traversed the sky, necessarily plunge into Ocean. Whether they then passed eastward under the earth or round the edge was a matter for speculation: see the discussion in Athen. 469 d ff.

277. ἐπ' ἀριστερὰ χειρός‎: an odd expression (3 times in h.Merc.). The gen. is partitive, construed with the substantivized epithet.

278–81. Homer relates what men said and did. If for a time they perform no deed worthy of record, there is nothing to tell: if it were not for his visitors we should be told nothing of Achilles' feelings between Il. i and xvi. Even so, eighteen days is a long time to be dismissed in a single line. Did pg 279Odysseus not feel boredom or despair? Something seems to be lost if the promised landfall does not appear, as it were, as the light at the end of the tunnel. The poet has a simile for that circumstance, recovery after a long illness, but will use it at 394–7 below.

279. Periods of nine days are frequent in the Wanderings (ix 82, x 28, xii 447, xiv 314), cf. G. Germain, Homère et la mystique des nombres (Paris, 1954). If Odysseus went sleepless throughout this period (cf. 271), the feat is not, for an epic hero, incredible nor even without parallel, cf. J. Conrad, The Shadow Line ch. vi.

281. ὡς ὅτε ῥινόν‎: the initial consonant (< ϝρ‎-) would be expected to make position, hence the variant readings. The sense is evidently 'shield', not 'hide' (which gives an image no more intelligible than Aristarchus' ἐρινόν‎ 'fig-tree'). The shield familiar to the poet was round and bossed (ὀμφαλόεσσα‎), cf. Lorimer, Monuments, 153 ff., and lying on its inner side would make a satisfactory comparison with a mountain rising from the plain. But a shield could somehow also suggest a headland, cf. ἀκρωτήριον ὑψηλòν καὶ περιφανές, οἷον ἀσπίς (Περίπλους τῆς μεγάλης θαλάσσης‎, 117 Müller).

282–493. Wreck of Odysseus and his landing on Scheria. The whole passage should be compared with the wreck of Odysseus' last ship (xii 403–50). The present episode has no greater number of essential elements, but the extensive elaboration, principally achieved by the introduction of divinities and the use of direct speech, makes it one of the most memorable in the Odyssey. Even so the colour was too rich for some: scholl, to 401 report that Homer was censured for ostentation (φιλοτιμία‎) in multiplying the woes of Odysseus. Modern critics have been especially suspicious of the Leucothea episode (333–67, with 459–63) and of the prompting of Athena (382–7), but it is in the nature of epic ornamentation that it is inorganic in character.

282. ἐξ Αἰθιόπων‎: Poseidon had gone there before the opening of the action of the Odyssey: see i 22–5 n.

283. τηλόθεν ἐκ Σολύμων‎: to be far-seeing is the especial faculty of Zeus (hence the epithet εὐρυόπα‎) and Helios (cf. viii 302), but it is credited to some extent to all the Olympians. Poseidon watched the battlefield at Troy from Samothrace (ll. xiii 11) as Zeus did from Ida. However, more than good sight is here in question. The Solymi (mentioned also at Il. vi 184, 204) are part of the pre-classical ethnography of Lycia-Pisidia, see Hdt. i 173. The name appears to have survived in Mt. Solyma, the eastern peaks of the Lycian massif and an excellent point from which to observe the nearby sea-routes; but the poet has hit on an odd location, even for a god, if Odysseus is sailing in western seas, so odd that Strabo (i 2. 10, i 2. 28) had recourse to an involved geometry to argue that the poet intended to refer to Ethiopia. (For traces of an alternative nostos of Odysseus see i 93 n.)

284. ἐχώσατο‎: in fulfilment of the Cyclops' curse (ix 526–35), cf. i 68–71. The trivial motivation is not untypical of primitive thought, but has been taken by some to represent a secondary feature in the growth of the pg 280Odyssey story: see Marzullo, Problema, 103–8, and more generally J. Irmscher, Götterzorn bei Homer (Leipzig, 1950).

285. The monologue is a device used six times in the elaboration of this episode, though occurring only four times in the rest of the Odyssey. The distribution in the Iliad is similarly unbalanced (once in xi, three times in xvii, once in xviii, twice each in xx, xxi, and xxii).

288. αἶσα‎: see vii 197 n.

289. πεῖραρ ὀϊζύος‎: 'bondage of exile' (Fitzgerald), or 'trial of misery' (Lattimore)? πεῖραρ‎ is a traditional metaphor that has been so widely extended in epic usage that the developments are not easily traced. Some have supposed an interaction of distinct but homonymous words, see Frisk, GEW s.v. The exhaustive discussion by Ann L. T. Bergren, The Etymology and Usage of ΠΕΙΡΑΡ‎ in Early Greek Poetry (American Classical Studies 2, New York, 1975), distinguishes a literal sense 'bounds' (πείρατα γαίης‎) with abstract application (ὀλέθρου πείραθ' ἱκέθαι‎), a development of this sense to 'that which binds' (literally at xii 51 of Odysseus' bonds), with metaphors such as ὀλέθου πείρατ' ἐφάπτεθαι‎. She regards the present usage as one that 'activates all meanings and associations of πεῖραρ‎: with his step upon Phaeacia, Odysseus will escape the great "bond" and "boundary line" of his misery'. We should add the influence of the semantically related τέλος‎, e.g. τέλος θανάτου ἀλεείνων‎ (326 below).

290. μιν‎ … ἅδην ἐλάαν κακότητος‎: for the construction cf. Τρῶας ἅδην ἐλάσαι πολέμοιο‎ (Il. xix 423) and μιν ἅδην ἐλόωσι … πολέμοιο‎ (Il. xiii 315 with Leaf's n. ad loc.). The gen. construes loosely with the adv. to give the sense 'his fill of woe'.

291–6. The struggle of the winds. This fine image has inspired many poetical storms, e.g. Verg. A. i 81–123; Ovid Tristia i 2, 27–32; Seneca Agam. 465–97; Lucan v 597–677. Note the enjambment and rapid movement of the passage. The storms of the Mediterranean are often abrupt and confused, especially near land (see R. Hampe, Die Gleichnisse Homers und die Bildkunst seiner Zeit (Tübingen, 1952), 7–8 for a description), but it is doubtful if any natural phenomenon is described: the lines (which greatly elaborate the account of the wreck of Odysseus' last ship, xii 403 ff.) combine the images of two winds in conflict which occur in Iliadic similes, Il. ix 4–7 (Boreas and Zephyrus) and xvi 765–69 (Eurus and Notus).

The wreck was naturally a popular subject with the vase-painters: the principal references are collected by Touchefeu-Meynier, Thèmes, nos. 355–60. There is a succinct account of the storm in literature in M. P. O. Morford, The Poet Lucan (Oxford, 1967), 20–36.

296. αἰθρηγενέτης‎: a metrical variant of αἰθηγενής‎ (Il. xv 171, xix 358), and so passive in sense, 'born of the aether'.

μέγα κῦμα κυλίνδων‎: echoed at xiv 315, μέγα κῦμα κύλινδον‎, where κῦμα‎ is subj. of the ptcp.

297–387. The wrecking of Odysseus' raft is told through two parallel scenes, 297–353 and 354–87: see introduction to v. In each Odysseus delivers a monologue, his raft (or its remnants) is shattered, he clings to the pg 281timbers, and finally he is saved for the moment by divine intervention. The cumulative technique, once thought redolent of a redactor's methods, is characteristic of the epic. Fenik, Studies, 143–4, notes that the simple juxtaposition of the scenes is untypical, an Iliadic rather than an Odyssean practice.

297. γούνατα‎: 'limbs', used synonymously with γυῖα‎. Both words make many formulaic combinations with parts of λύειν‎.

φίλον‎: the so-called 'possessive' use of φίλος‎ with parts of the body (ἦτορ, κῆρ, λαιμός, χεῖρες, γούνατα, γυῖα‎) is peculiar to epic diction. It is extended from the use of the word to express the relation between the community and its members: see 28 n.

304. Zeus and Poseidon are named as the bringers of storms at Hes. Op. 667–78. When ignorant of the truth, the mortals of Homer blame Zeus for their afflictions (cf. Il. xix 87), or whatever god seems specially appropriate (e.g. Paris blames Athena at Il. iii 439). Zeus in fact had brought about the wreck in xii. Odysseus' ignorance is a touch of verisimilitude, and sharpens the interest of the audience with the knowledge that they, through the poet, possess of the true nature of events.

305. σῶς‎: 'certain'. Uncontracted σάος‎ could be substituted for the vulgate σῶς‎ everywhere except Il. xxii 332, but the forms with diectasis (e.g. σόοι‎ Il. i 344 etc.) imply σῶς‎: see M. Leumann, 'Griechisch σάος‎ und σῶς', Μνήμης χάριν‎ (Gedenkschrift Kretschmer), ii (Wiesbaden, 1957), 8–14.

309–10. The exploit is described in xxiv 36–42 in brief, and doubtless at greater length in the Aethiopis. The details would not have differed much from those of the fight over the body of Patroclus in Il. xvii: see B. Fenik, Typical Battle Scenes (Wiesbaden, 1968), 232–3.

311. To be unburied not only had disagreeable consequences in the afterlife (see Il. xxiii 69–74 and Od. xi 51–78), but was a humiliating disgrace fit to be inflicted on a hated foe, cf. Il. xxii 335–6 (Achilles to Hector). His funeral was a hero's crowning glory, and his tomb preserved his κλέος‎—καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι‎, Od. xi 76, cf. xxiv 83–4.

312. Cf. Il. xxi 281, where Achilles fears that Scamander will overwhelm him. Scholl, accordingly decided that λευγάλεος‎ was especially appropriate to drowning; the sense, however, must be general, as in the cognate form λυγρός‎.

313. κατ' ἄκρης‎: 'down from above'. The formulaic Iliadic usage (xiii 772 etc.) is restricted to the destruction of Troy, so that the feminine gender reflects an implied πόλιος‎, but the sense was first generalized, as here, and the phrase given the adverbial suffix -θεν‎. The result, κατ' ἄκρηθεν‎, is preserved as a variant at most points, but was early misunderstood as κατὰ κρῆθεν‎, as the derivative ἀπὸ κρῆθεν‎, [Hes.] Sc. 7, shows, and brought into association with κάρη‎ (so Leumann, Wörter, 56–8). Hence the scholium here κατὰ παράλειψιν τῆς κεφάλής‎. 'Down on his head' would in fact be excluded only in the Iliadic passages.

314. ἐπεσσύμενον‎: Aristarchus took the form strictly as a pf. and emended, but his ἐπισσύμενον‎ would be a hapax legomenon. The accentuation is pg 282supposed to be Aeolic but suggests that the perfective force of the form was not strongly felt by Ionian ἀοιδοί‎.

319. ὑπόβρυχα‎: the formation, whether an adv. or an acc. case, is the same as that of δίπτυχα‎ beside adj. δίπτυχος‎.

328–9. The reference is apparently to the dried thistle plants themselves, not to the thistle-down (πάππος‎), cf. the parallel simile 368–70 (wind and chaff). Paired similes, such as 328–30 and 368–70, are discussed by Moulton, Similes, 19–27: the effect, of course, is to intensify the force of the image.

333–65. The intervention of Leucothea has been condemned, e.g. by Marzullo, Problema, on the grounds that it is ignored in the sequel and that the deification of a mortal is contrary to the doctrines of Homeric theology (unless we admit Heracles at xi 601–2). Moreover, Athena's intervention at 382–7 renders that of Leucothea superfluous. For the structure of the whole episode, however, see 297–387 n.: Leucothea corresponds to Athena in the first of two parallel scenes. Her function, like that of Calypso at 276, Nausicaa at vi 255, Athena at vii 28 and xiii 330, is to tell the hero what to do—or to foreshadow the course of the narrative: in both respects the closest parallel is the intervention of Eidothea to dispel Menelaus' perplexity at iv 363 ff.

333. τὸν δὲ ἴδεν‎: the transition is like the frequent τὸν δ' ὡς οὖν ἐνόησε‎ of the Iliad, and is equally without motivation in the immediate context. Later the Dioskouroi were believed to aid those in peril at sea, e.g. Alcaeus fr. 34 Page, Euripides, El. 1241.

333–4. ʼΙνώ, Λευκοθέη‎: Ino, we learn from later sources (see Roscher, Lexikon s.v. Leukothea) leaped into the sea at Corinth with her son Melicertes (or Palaemon) to escape from her lunatic husband Athamas: see Burkert, Homo Necans (English transl., 1983) 178–9. She enjoyed cult in many places, sometimes in association with Leucothea, cf. Pausanias, i 42. 7 (Megara); iii 26. 1 (Thebes); iv 34. 4 (Corone). Blind to the obvious, scholl, derive the name Leucothea from the Λευκὸν Πεδίον‎ of the Megarid; but the name was a generic appellation of sea-goddesses—Λευκοθέαι πᾶσαι αἱ πόντιοι‎ (Hesychius). Although the wearing of talismans to protect from drowning is a well-known superstition (the initiates of the mysteries of Samothrace wore a band about the body, it is reported by schol. AR i 917), the introduction of Leucothea in this connection appears to be another example of the poet's free use of mythology: see 120 n. Her role, however, is a familiar one in folk literature. She is a 'donor' or 'divine helper' who encounters the hero at a moment of crisis to present him with a magic gift: see V. Y. Propp, Morphology of the Folktale2 (Austin, 1970), 39–50, and Thompson, Motif Index, F 340–8 and N 810.

καλλίσφυρος‎, i.e. slim-ankled, cf. Archil, fr. 206 West περὶ σφύρον παχεῖα, μισητὴ γυνὴ‎.

334. αὐδήεσσα‎: both here and in vi 125 the epithet seems to imply some distinctive quality of mortals as opposed to gods, yet the word is applied also to Circe and Calypso. J. Clay, 'Demas and Aude', Hermes cii (1974), 129–36, suggests that the Olympians had a special intonation, denoted by ὀμφή‎.

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337. The line has been generally condemned. It may represent an early accretion to the text, inspired by 353, but the evidence against it was insufficient to satisfy Aristarchus: see G. M. Bolling, External Evidence for Interpolation in Homer (Oxford, 1925), 234, and van der Valk, Textual Criticism, 184. Some note, however, of Leucothea's point of departure is desirable, as in the epiphanies of Athena (Il. i 194) and Thetis (Il. i 357). The 'scientific' MSS that omitted the line conceivably misunderstood the comparison and took offence at a theriomorphic goddess.

αἰθυίῃ‎: a generic and mostly poetical term for a sea-bird, a gull, Larus spp., according to Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds, op. cit. (v 51 n.) s.v., but a diving bird seems here to be in question.

ἐϊκυῖα‎: of manner, not appearance.

λίμνης‎: 'sea', but not an obvious choice of word for stormy waters, λίμνη‎ is equated with πόντος‎ at Il. xxiv 79.

340. ὠδύσατ'‎: Leucothea refers to Odysseus' present troubles, but uses a word in which, in the sigmatic aor., the poet seems to see a significant echo of his hero's name; see i 62 n., and for further discussion W. B. Stanford, CP xlvii (1952), 108–10; G. Dimock, Hudson Review ix (1956), 52–70 (= G. Steiner and R. Fagles (eds.), Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1962), 106–9); and Clay, Wrath, 54–68. For the sense which this etymology may attribute to 'Odysseus' observe the apparent association of the name with ὀϊζύω‎ at xxiii 307.

ἐκπάγλως‎ >*ἐκ‎-πλαγ‎-λως‎, by dissimilation of λ‎–λ‎, used to protest at seemingly outrageous speech or behaviour.

342. ἀπινύσσειν‎: see vi 258 n.

344. νόστου‎: normally 'return home', but a generalized sense 'arrival at' is required here. This has seemed redolent of later usage, e.g. Euripides IA 966, 1261, to avoid which some critics expel 345.

346. τῆ‎: a demonstrative word (root *to-) used imperativally, like δεῦρο‎. A pluralized form τῆτε‎ is also found.

350. ἀπονόσφι τραπέσθαι‎: the injunction usually applies to dealings with chthonic or malevolent powers, cf. x 528, A. Ch. 98, Theoc. xxiv 96 with Gow's n. ad loc., etc., and for folkloric parallels Thompson, Motif Index, C 331–3.

354–64. A typical scene ('The hero ponders his course of action') of a class well represented in the Iliad: see Fenik, Typical Battle Scenes (Wiesbaden, 1968), 96–8. The hero exclaims in alarm (ὤμοι ἐγώ‎), considers one course of action, rejects it, and outlines the alternative.

357. ὅ τε‎ or ὅτε‎? The nuance is in any case causal.

361. ὄφρʼ ἂν μέν κεν‎: the formulaic use (cf. Il. xi 187, 202, Od. vi 259) as well as the occurrence of ἄν‎ with κε‎ elsewhere forbids correction.

365. The prototype of the initial formula is clearly *ἧος ὁ‎. See 123 n. The MSS have ἕως‎ or εἵως‎. 'Here, as elsewhere, the seeming vagaries of the manuscript tradition accord with the processes of oral poetry and thus bear witness to their faithfulness' (M. Parry, 'The Homeric Language as the Language of Oral Poetry', HSPh xliii (1932), 36–7, Homeric Verse, 353). pg 284The process referred to is the continuous adjustment of the tradition to the vernacular dialect and the acceptance as 'correct' of whatever metrical rhythm results.

368. ἠΐων‎: 'chaff', hardly the same word as ᾖα‎ (266 etc., = 'provisions'). For the function of the simile see 328–9 n.

371. κέληθ'‎: οἶδε μὲν ὁ ποιητὴς τόν κέλητα, οὐκ εἰσάγει δὲ τοὺς ἥπωας αὐτῷ χρωμένους‎, scholl. Full discussion by J. Wiesner, Archaeologia F, 110–35.

377. ἀλόω‎: i.e. *ἀλάεο‎, 2nd sg. imperat. from ἀλάομαι‎. The transmitted form arises by diectasis of the Attic ἀλῶ‎ (< ἀλάου‎), but is without precise parallel: see Cauer, Homerkritik, 93. The normal Ionic would be ἀλάευ‎.

378. διοτρεφέεσσι‎: a generic epithet (of kings and heroes); the special epithet is φιληρέτμοισι‎ (386 etc.).

379. ὀνόσσεσθαι‎: 'find fault with', i.e. 'think it insufficient', cf. 290.

381. Αἰγάς‎: Various places were so called. At Il. viii 203 Aegae is joined with Helice, a town in Achaea (Il. ii 575), as places were Poseidon was especially worshipped: but at Il. xiii 20–1 Aegae is four Olympian paces from Samothrace, in a passage reminiscent of the present. Poseidon was last located (283) on the mountains of the Solymi.

382–7. Athena's tutelage of the house of Odysseus has been much in evidence from the beginning of the poem. It is thus not at once apparent that the present intervention on behalf of Odysseus is the first that she has made since the hero departed from Troy. She was reluctant, she explains at xiii 341 (cf. vi 329) to offend Poseidon, whose wrath had been kindled by the blinding of Polyphemus. (A weak excuse, see vi 329 n.) It is reasonable, of course, that having set the return of Odysseus in motion she should help it along. Nevertheless many analysts have rejected the lines (details in Rüter, Odysseeinterpretationen, 230) as inessential.

386. ἧος ὁ‎: see 123 n. L. R. Palmer in Companion, 172, notes the final force of the conjunction, here and at iv 800, vi 80, ix 376, and xix 367.

391. = 168. Aristarchus read ἡ δὲ γαλήνη‎, but the contrast is rather between the weather and the sailor(s).

393. ἀρθείς‎: probably an Attic form (Shipp, Studies, 50), though found also in the Iliad (xiii 63). For other linguistic and stylistic anomalies in 382–423 see Shipp, Studies, 326.

ὑπὸ κύατος‎: Rhianus appears to have objected to the agent construction (ὑπό‎) for something as impersonal as a wave, and changed the preposition to ἐπί‎. κῦμα‎ does not mean a breaker (the weather is now calm) but a broad heaving swell.

394–7. A remarkable and moving simile. Yet the association of rescue at sea with family reunion is probably traditional, for the two recur at xxiii 233–8, where, however, it is the rescue that illustrates the reunion.

395. κεῖται‎: probably a short vowel subj. (< *κεγεται‎).

396. δαίμων‎: ('he who deals out', cf. δαίω‎), an unspecific supernatural agency invoked as the cause of the inexplicable: cf. M. Untersteiner, 'Il concetto di δαίμων‎ in Omero', Atene e Roma xii (1939), 95–134.

400. ὅσσον τε γέγωνε βοήσας‎: an Odyssean formula, cf. vi 294, ix 473, xii 181, but implied by Il. xii 337 βώσαντι γεγώνειν‎. The sense, concisely pg 285expressed, is obviously 'as far as he could make himself heard'. A straightforward use of ἐγέγωνε βοήσας‎ occurs at Hes. fr. 75. 12.

402. The orator Demosthenes, it is said (Zosimus, Vita Demosth.), recited this onomatopoeic line to practise his elocution.

ξερόν‎: only here in Homer; perhaps related to σχερός‎ by metathesis: imitated by Homericizing poets, Nicander Ther. 704, AR iii 322, both with ποτί‎.

403. There are two verbs ἐρεύγομαι‎, (1) 'spew', of subjects with literal or metaphorical throats, and (2) 'roar'. The latter is preferable here, for what impressed Homer about the sea, after its colour, was its noise (cf. πολύφλοισβος‎).

405. σπιλάδες‎ are half-submerged rocks, such as may wreck a ship (iii 298): the πάγοι‎, usually inland features, are part of the shoreline (cf. 411), running out seaward.

410. θύραζε‎: 'out', as at Il. xvi 408.

418. What Odysseus is looking for is a shelving beach, but this can hardly be expressed by παραπλῆγας‎ ('struck aslant', with reference perhaps to the action of waves at the sides of a bay).

421. κῆτος‎: any sort of sea-monster, including, according to Aelian (NA ix 45) ζύγαιρα, κριός, λέων, μάλθη, πρῆστις, ὕαινα, φύσαλος‎. This is the sole allusion in the Odyssey to such a danger, but impressively large sharks and whales are said to have entered the Mediterranean, at any rate until recently, in sufficient numbers to stimulate the imagination, if not to create a hazard.

422. 'Αμφιτρίτη‎: see iii 91 n.

κλυτὸς‎: the use of the masc. form for the fem. occurs also at Il. ii 742 (κλυτὸς Ἱπποδάμεια‎), presumably for the sake of more elegant metre, cf. ἄγριον ἄτην‎ (Il. xix 88), ἁλὸς πολιοῖο‎ (Il. xx 229 etc.), πικρὸν‎ … ὀδμήν‎ (Od. iv 406 (see n.)), ὀλοώτατος ὀδμή‎ (iv 442). The practice is well established, under stronger metrical pressure, in the case of the -υς‎ adjectives, e.g. θῆλυς ἐέρση‎ (467 below).

The repetition of κλυτὸς‎ in the next line, where κρείων Ἐνοσίχθων‎ could have stood, is indicative of the general indifference of poet and audience to the decorative epithet, cf. vii 114–15.

426. ὀστέ'‎: acc., like ῥινούς‎.

427. ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε‎: here absolutely, 'made a suggestion'; the formula is usually construed with the infin., e.g. xviii 158.

γλαυκῶπις‎: it is uncertain how the poet understood this famous description, see i 44 n. and the long discussion in Leumann, Wörter, 148–54. Nothing in the Homeric text requires the first element to be associated with γλαῦξ‎, 'owl', rather than γλαυκός‎, 'grey': the second element denotes either the eyes or the face. Hesiod seems to have taken the reference to be to the eyes, cf. κυανῶπις‎ (fr. 23 (a) 27 etc.), and βοῶπις‎ (fr. 23 (a) 5), both of mortal women.

432–5. Another striking simile. The point, however, is not that the octopus 'clings with its suckers as stubbornly as Odysseus clings to the rocks' (Stanford), but that the skin of his hands is left clinging to the rocks as the pebbles cling to the suckers of the octopus. The imagery in fact is slightly confused, since the octopus suffers no injury. The octopus, to take into pg 286account the wider implications of the simile, is the πολύτροπος‎ and πολύμητις‎ of the animal kingdom, cf. Thgn. 215–18.

433. -όφι‎ is not original in consonant stems, see 59 n.

436 ὑπὲρ μόρον‎: Aristarchus took this phrase as a single word, inspired perhaps by such forms as the adjective ὑπέρμορα‎ Il. ii 155). For the thought see i 34–5 n.

438. κύματος‎ is collective, hence the plural relative τά‎.

ἐρεύγεται‎: see 403 n.

445. ὅτις ἐσσί‎: the preamble of a prayer would normally specify the god's titles or prerogatives, e.g. Il i 37, xvi 233, 514. Odysseus apologizes for his ignorance, as he does at much greater length before Nausicaa, vi 149 ff.

πολύλλιστον‎: i.e. 'most welcome', cf. Il. viii 488 ἀσπασίη τρίλλιστος‎ … νύξ‎.

ἱκάνω‎ contains the nuance of supplication that is made explicit at 449 σά τε γούναθʼ ἱκάνω‎.

447. αἰδοῖος‎: the claim of the suppliant, except in the heat of battle, was absolute against other men, and sanctioned by Ζεὺς ἱκετήσιος‎ (xiii 213): a suppliant god (e.g. Thetis to Zeus, Il. i 500 ff.) would have an analogous claim against another god: but it expressed a hope rather than stated a fact to make the same claim when mortal confronted god.

458–90. the last scene of the book repeats the pattern of 400–57: a description of the hero's straits; a monologue (the choice of two evils); the prompting of the goddess; the hero's escape. Each sequence is ornamented by a simile (432–3, 488–90), but they are not 'associated' in Moulton's sense (Similes, 19). On the repetitions in the narrative of the wreck it should be observed that 'the repeated use of larger narrative units, like the smaller dictional formulae themselves, is part and parcel of the poet's technique. He repeats larger units just as he repeats the smaller phrase and sentence formulae. Moreover, when the repeated elements are arranged in studied sequences like the above, they lend a certain pleasing symmetry to the passage, and the repeated order is obviously a mechanical convenience as well. The storm and shipwreck scene is long; by proceeding along set, repetitive lines, the poet can easily maintain full control of the narrative.' (Fenik, Studies, 145.)

462. λιασθείς‎, 'having turned away from', a common Iliadic word. It leads on to the action σχοίνῳ ὑπεκλίνθη‎ and cannot refer to Leucothea's injunction at 350, as Ameis–Hentze–Cauer suggest.

463. ζείδωρον‎: the first element (*ζεϝε‎-) of this word, like the second of φυσίζοος‎, is seen in the noun ζειαί‎ 'kind of cereal'; but at least from the time of Aeschylus (Supp. 584) was associated with the root of ζῆν‎. If that etymology were as old as the Odyssey an interesting problem would arise here. The epithet is formulaic (12 times), and should therefore according to the normal use of decorative epithets be employed without reference to the immediate context: see M. Parry, Epithète traditionnelle, 147–81 (= Homeric Verse, 119–45). Yet no reader could fail to discern the pathetic force of the epithet in this context, however the poet had contrived to hit upon it: on this see further W. Whallon, 'The Homeric Epithets', YCIS xvii (1961), 97–142, and Kirk, Commentary, on Il. iii 243–4.

pg 287

467. θῆλυς‎: fem. A few other adjectives occasionally show -ύς‎/-ύν‎ as a fem., but its frequency in this word (8 times) suggests that it is in some way prompted by the meaning. The sense here is disputed: τρόφιμος‎, schol., would be purely decorative, an awkward combination with στίβη κακή‎; 'gentle', LSJ9, is open to the same objectior; hence the 'moist', 'soaking', 'chilly' of various commentators.

468. κεκαφηότα‎: only here and (in the same formula) at Il. v 698. Doubtless < *καπ‎-, cf. καπύω‎ (Il. xxii 467). The -η‎- should mark an intrans. formation, so that the ptcp. may agree with μ'‎, and θυμόν‎ construe with it as an acc. of respect, cf. τετιημένος ἧτορ‎; but the formulaic combination suggests that κεκαφηότα‎ and θυμόν‎ go together, cf. τετιηότι θυμῷ‎. It is unlikely that κεκαφηότα‎ is trans., as rendered in the paraphrase of Eustathius ἐκπεπνευκότα τὴν ψυχήν‎.

476. ἐν περιφαινομένῳ‎: it is hard to separate the sense of this phrase from that of the περίσκεπτοι χῶροι‎ in which the house of Circe (x 211) and the piggery of Eumaeus (xiv 6) were built: hence 'beside a clearing' (where presently Nausicaa and her maids will play their game of ball, vi 99 ff.).

477. φυλίης‎: variously identified: a species of fig (Hesych.), a wild olive (schol.), or the evergreen thorn, Rhamnus alaternus, called φυλίκη‎ in some modern Greek dialects.

478. Join ὑγρὸν ἀέντων‎ (adverbial acc.).

478–80. These same lines are used at xix 440–2 to describe the lair of a wild boar. If they were traditionally used for such a purpose, their employment here like everything in this episode would emphasize the depths to which Odysseus has been reduced.

481. The 3rd pl. is properly ἔφῠν‎: see Schwyzer, Grammatik, i 664. But natural short syllables are tolerated before the caesura.

482. δύσετ'‎: for this type of aor. see vi 321 n.

ἐπαμήσατο‎: this middle verb, 'gather together', cf. ix 247, is usually separated from the active verb ἀμάω‎, 'mow', 'reap' (which has an unexplained long initial ἀ‎- in Homer), but these are technical words whose sense evolves with the skills they denote. The etymologies are disputed: see Chantraine, Dictionnaire s.v. ἀμάω‎.

488. δαλόν‎: < *δαϝελός‎, from the root *δαϝ‎-, cf. δαίω‎ (< δαϝ‎- γω‎) 'burn'. It is not fanciful to think of Odysseus too as keeping alive the spark of life.

490. αὔοι‎ (codd.) is a hapax legomenon, but the compound ἐναύειν‎, 'to give someone a light', is well attested. The etymology is uncertain. Alien's αὕῃ‎ (the subjunctive is a grammarian's unnecessary correction to obtain a better sequence of tenses) is taken from Herodian and would be a derivative of αὖος‎, 'dry' (Attic αὗος‎).

492. The slightly awkward rhythm of the first hemistich arises from the adaptation of the verse-end formula ὕπνον ἐπὶ βλεφάροισιν ἔχευεν‎ (-αν‎), xii 338, xx 54.

παύσειε‎: the subject is ὕπνος‎, as shown by the masculine participle ἀμφικαλύφας‎ (493).

493. δυσπονέος‎: apparently a blend δυσπόνου‎ and δυσπενέος‎, according to Schulze, Quaestiones, 244. The word fittingly sums up the bitter realism of pg 288this part of the Odyssey. This quality is a widespread feature of the poem (cf. H. Fränkel, Dichtung und Philosophie des frühen Griechentums (Munich, 1969), 96 ff.), but is especially effective at this point. It is the poet's wish that the recovery of Odysseus' fortunes shall begin from the lowest possible point.

As at the ends of i, ii, iii, and iv the narrative is broken off with nightfall or sleeping, so that a new episode may be begun with the following book.

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