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Editor’s NoteEditor’s Note23. The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie

Quod Dumbar to Kennedy.
  • 33Dreid, dirtfast dearch, that thow hes dissobeyit
  • 34  My cousing Quintene and my commissar;
  • 35Fantastik fule, trest weill thow salbe fleyit;
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus36  Ignorant elf, aip, owll irregular,
  • Editor’s Note37  Skaldit skaitbird and commoun skamelar,
  • pg 78Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus38Wan fukkit funling that natour maid ane yrle—
  • 39Baith Johine the Ros and thow sail squeill and skirle
  • 40  And evir I heir ocht of ȝour making mair.
  • 41Heir I put sylence to the in all pairtis;
  • Critical Apparatus42  Obey and ceis the play that thow pretendis;
  • Editor’s Note43Waik walidrag and verlot of the cairtis,
  • 44  Se sone thow mak my commissar amendis,
  • 45  And lat him lay sax leichis on thy lendis
  • Critical Apparatus46Meikly in recompansing of thi scorne,
  • 47Or thow sail ban the tyme that thow wes borne;
  • Critical Apparatus48  For Kennedy to the this cedull sendis.
Quod Kennedy to Dumbar. Juge in the nixt quha gat the war.
  • Critical Apparatus57Revin, raggit ruke, and full of rebaldrie,
  • Critical Apparatus58  Scarth fra scorpione, scaldit in scurrilitie,
  • 59I se the haltane in thy harlotrie
  • 60  And in to uthir science no thing slie,
  • 61  Of every vertew void, as men may sie;
  • 62Quytclame clergie and cleik to the ane club,
  • Critical Apparatus63  Ane baird blasphemar in brybrie ay to be;
  • Editor’s Note64For wit and woisdome ane wisp fra the may rub.
  • 153In till ane glen thow hes owt of repair
  • Editor’s Note154  Ane laithly luge that wes the lippir menis;
  • pg 82155With the ane sowtaris wyfe off blis als bair,
  • 156  And lyk twa stalkaris steilis in cokis and henis—
  • Critical Apparatus157  Thow plukkis the pultre and scho pullis of the penis.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus158All Karrik cryis, God gif this dowsy be drownd!
  • 159  And quhen thow heiris ane guse cry in the glenis
  • Critical Apparatus160Thow thinkis it swetar than sacrand bell of sound.
  • 201Thow held the burch lang with ane borrowit goun
  • Critical Apparatus202  And ane caprowsy barkit all with sweit,
  • Critical Apparatus203And quhen the laidis saw the sa lyk a loun
  • 204  Thay bickerit the with mony bae and bleit:
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus205  Now upaland thow leivis on rubbit quheit;
  • 206Oft for ane caus thy burdclaith neidis no spredding,
  • Critical Apparatus207  For thow hes nowthir for to drink nor eit
  • 208Bot lyk ane berdles baird that had no bedding.
  • Editor’s Note209Strait Gibbonis air that nevir ourstred ane hors,
  • 210  Bla berfute berne, in bair tyme wes thow borne;
  • Editor’s Note211Thow bringis the Carrik clay to Edinburgh cors
  • Editor’s Note212  Upoun thy botingis hobland, hard as horne;
  • Critical Apparatus213  Stra wispis hingis owt quhair that the wattis ar worne:
  • 214Cum thow agane to skar us with thy strais,
  • 215  We sall gar scale our sculis all the to scorne
  • 216And stane the up the calsay quhair thow gais.
  • Editor’s Note225Than rynis thow doun the gait with gild of boyis
  • Critical Apparatus226  And all the toun tykis hingand in thy heilis;
  • 227Of laidis and lownis thair rysis sic ane noyis
  • Critical Apparatus228  Quhill runsyis rynis away with cairt and quheilis,
  • 229  And caiger aviris castis bayth coillis and creilis
  • 230For rerd of the and rattling of thy butis;
  • Critical Apparatus231  Fische wyvis cryis, Fy! and castis doun skillis and skeilis,
  • 232  Sum claschis the, sum cloddis the on the cutis.
  • 233Loun lyk Mahoun, be boun me till obey,
  • 234  Theif, or in greif mischeif sall the betyd;
  • Critical Apparatus235Cry grace, tykis face, or I the chece and fley;
  • Editor’s Note236  Oule, rare and ȝowle—I sall defowll thy pryd;
  • 237  Peilit gled, baith fed and bred of bichis syd
  • 238And lyk ane tyk, purspyk—quhat man settis by the!
  • 239  Forflittin, countbittin, beschittin, barkit hyd,
  • Critical Apparatus240Clym ledder, fyle tedder, foule edder: I defy the!
Quod Dumbar to Kennedy.
  • 265Quhen Bruce and Balioll differit for the croun
  • 266  Scottis lordis could nocht obey Inglis lawis;
  • 267This Corspatrik betrasit Berwik toun
  • Critical Apparatus268  And slew sevin thowsand Scottismen within thay wawis;
  • 269  The battall syne of Spottismuir he gart caus,
  • Editor’s Note270And come with Edwart Langschankis to the feild
  • Critical Apparatus271Quhair twelve thowsand trew Scottismen wer keild
  • Critical Apparatus272  And Wallace chest, as the carnicle schawis.
  • 273Scottis lordis chiftanis he gart hald and chessone
  • 274  In firmance fast quhill all the feild wes done
  • pg 86275Within Dumbar, that auld spelunk of tressoun;
  • Critical Apparatus276  Sa Inglis tykis in Scottland wes abone.
  • Editor’s Note277  Than spulȝeit thay the haly stane of Scone,
  • Critical Apparatus278The croce of Halyrudhous, and uthir jowellis.
  • 279He birnis in hell, body, banis and bowellis,
  • 280  This Corspatrik that Scotland hes undone.
  • Editor’s Note281Wallace gart cry ane counsale in to Perth
  • 282  And callit Corspatrik tratour be his style;
  • Critical Apparatus283That dampnit dragone drew him in diserth
  • 284  And sayd, he kend bot Wallace, king in Kyle:
  • 285  Out of Dumbar that theif he maid exyle
  • Critical Apparatus286Unto Edward and Inglis grund agane;
  • Critical Apparatus287  Tigiris, serpentis and taidis will remane
  • 288In Dumbar wallis, todis, wolffis and beistis vyle.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus289Na fowlis of effect amangis tha binkis
  • Critical Apparatus290  Biggis nor abydis for no thing that may be;
  • 291Thay stanis of tressone as the bruntstane stinkis.
  • 292  Dewlbeiris moder, cassin in by the se,
  • 293  The wariet apill of the forbiddin tre
  • Critical Apparatus294That Adame eit quhen he tynt Parradyce
  • Critical Apparatus295Scho eit, invennomit lyk a cokkatryce,
  • 296  Syne merreit with the Divill for dignite.
  • Editor’s Note337I perambalit of Pernaso the montayn,
  • 338  Enspirit wyth Mercury fra his goldyn spere,
  • Critical Apparatus339And dulcely drank of eloquence the fontayne
  • Critical Apparatus340  Quhen it was purifit wyth frost and flowit clere;
  • 341  And thou come, fule, in Marche or Februere
  • 342Thare till a pule, and drank the padok rod
  • Critical Apparatus343That gerris the ryme in to thy termes glod
  • Critical Apparatus344  And blaberis that noyis mennis eris to here.
  • 345Thou lufis nane Irische, elf, I understand,
  • Editor’s Note346  Bot it suld be all trew Scottis mennis lede;
  • 347It was the gud langage of this land,
  • 348  And Scota it causit to multiply and sprede
  • 349  Quhill Corspatrik, that we of tresoun rede,
  • 350Thy fore fader, maid Irisch and Irisch men thin,
  • Editor’s Note351Throu his tresoun broght Inglise rumplis in:
  • Critical Apparatus352  Sa wald thy self, mycht thou to him succede.
  • 369And yit Mount Falconn gallowis is our fair
  • 370  For to be fylde wyth sik a fruteles face;
  • Critical Apparatus371Cum hame and hyng on oure gallowis of Aire—
  • 372  To erd the undir it I sall purchas grace;
  • Critical Apparatus373  To ete thy flesch the doggis sall have na space,
  • 374The ravyns sall ryve na thing bot thy tong rutis,
  • Critical Apparatus375For thou sik malice of thy maister mutis
  • 376  It is wele sett that thou sik barat brace.
  • Editor’s Note425Fra Etrike Forest furthward to Drumfrese
  • 426  Thou beggit wyth a pardoun in all kirkis,
  • 427Collapis, cruddis, mele, grotis, grisis and geis,
  • Critical Apparatus428  And ondir nycht quhile stall thou staggis and stirkis.
  • Critical Apparatus429  Because that Scotland of thy begging irkis
  • Critical Apparatus430Thou scapis in France to be a knycht of the felde;
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus431Thou has thy clamschellis and thy burdoun kelde,
  • 432  Unhonest wayis all, wolroun, that thou wirkis.
  • 457Quhen that the schip was saynit and undir saile
  • Critical Apparatus458  Foul brow in holl thou preposit for to pas;
  • 459Thou schot, and was not sekir of thy tayle,
  • 460  Beschate the stere, the compas and the glas;
  • 461  The skippar bad ger land the at the Bas:
  • 462Thou spewit and kest out mony a lathly lomp
  • Critical Apparatus463Fastar than all the marynaris coud pomp,
  • Critical Apparatus464  And now thy wame is wers than evir it was.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus497Greit in the glaykis gude maister Gilliam gukkis,
  • Critical Apparatus498  Our imperfyte in poetry or in prose,
  • 499All clocis undir cloud of nycht thou cukkis;
  • 500  Rymis thou of me, of rethory the rose?
  • 501  Lunatike, lymare, luschbald, louse thy hose
  • Critical Apparatus502That I may touch thy tone wyth tribulation
  • 503In recompensing of thy conspiration,
  • Critical Apparatus504  Or turse the out of Scotland; tak thy chose.
  • Editor’s Note505Ane benefice quha wald gyve sic ane beste,
  • 506  Bot gif it war to gyngill Judas bellis;
  • pg 94Critical Apparatus507Tak the a fidill or a floyte, and geste—
  • 508  Undought, thou art ordanyt to not ellis!
  • 509  Thy cloutit cloke, thy skryp and thy clamschellis,
  • Critical Apparatus510Cleke on thy cors, and fare on in to France
  • Critical Apparatus511And cum thou nevir agayn but a mischance;
  • Critical Apparatus512  The fend fare wyth the forthwarde our the fellis.
Critical Apparatus553               Quod Kennedy to Dumbar: 554               Juge ȝe now heir quha gat the war.

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
23. The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie. This is the earliest surviving example of a 'flyting'—a blend of primitive literary criticism and lampoon apparently popular in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Scotland. It is not the only evidence of lively dispute among Scotch literati: Dunbar rails against Mure, who 'indorsit myn indyting/ With versis off his awin hand wryting' (26), and Gavin Douglas in his Eneados (STS, iv. 192) remarks'detractouris intil every place' who'or evir thai reid the wark, byddis byrn the buke'. Few other 'flytings' have survived: James V 'flyted' Sir David Lindsay (Lindsay, Works, STS, i. 101), and Montgomerie and Polwart's Flyting is cited by James VI in Ane Schort Treatise, 1584 (STS, i. 81), to illustrate 'Rouncefallis or Tumbling verse' for 'flyting or Inuectiues'—which may point to an established fashion. The antecedents of the form are obscure. Suggested models closest to Dunbar in time and place include the Provençal sirvente and tenso (débat; see 16) and partimen (jeuparti); see Smith, pp. 51–7, for a cautious argument in favour of Continental influence; cf. E. K. Chambers on the 'minstrel repertory' in The Medieval Stage, 1903, i. 79–81. Dunbar may well have known the invectives of the Italian humanist Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459) against Filelfo and Lorenzo Valla, named among the poets in Gavin Douglas, Palice of Honour (c. 1501), ll. 1232–3: 'And Poggius stude with mony girne and grone / On Laurence Valla spittand and cryand fy!' Skelton was probably also writing in a Continental tradition in his exchanges with Garnesche (c. 1515), although Maurice Pollet reads these (John Skelton, 1971, p. 76) as imitations of Scotch 'flyting'; and there is a Latin tradition in invective from S. Jerome to Dunbar's contemporary Erasmus.
Whether or not Dunbar was directly influenced by Continental models, it seems very unlikely that the 'flyting' style and vocabulary used here, rhetorically mature and assured, and linguistically rich and varied, are his invention. Kennedy and his 'cousing Quintene' (l. 34) had 'ane thing … compild', which apparently was not only a 'bost' (ll. 3, 6) but 'bakbytting' (l. 22); and it is Kennedy, not Dunbar, who has the first brutally accomplished innings in the Flyting. It may be plausibly argued that Kennedy (and probably Quintene) wrote not out of Continental but ?ut of Gaelic tradition. Dunbar associates the dubious craft of 'flyting' with bards (ll. 17–21, 49, 120); and although his pejorative use of ba(i)rd is reflected in early acts against vagabond minstrels ('bardis, or sic lik utheris rynnaris aboute', 'sornaris, bardis, maisterfull beggaris or fenȝeit fulys'; 1449, 1457, Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, 1814–75, ii. 36 and 51), there is some evidence that 'bards' were specifically associated with invective. Cf. infra, ll. 105–8; Holland, The Buke of the Howlat (c. 1450), l. 811, 'The bard … bitterlye coud ban'; Aberdeen Ecclesiastical Records, 1562, 'All commoun skoldis, flyttaris, and bardis to be baneist'; the translation of ON skāld, a poet, into English scold. In Holland's Buke of the Howlat (ll. 791–804) the Rook comes as 'a bard out of Irland with "banachadee" [God's blessing]', speaking a gallimaufry of Scots and Gaelic, citing the Irish kings and threatening to ryme (Asloan MS; Bannatyne MS, 'ryve') if he is denied food and drink. Cf. Spenser, View of the Present State of Ireland, 1596, 'None dare displease [the Bardes] for feare to runne into reproch throughe their offence, and to be made infamous in the mouthes of all men'; J. E. Caerwyn Williams, in Proc. Brit. Academy, lvii (1971), 116–17. The Celtic associations were still live in 1574, when an Act was passed that 'na Irische and hieland bairdis and beggaris be brocht … in the lawland' (Acts, iii. 89). The practice of satire by Gaelic bards, in both Ireland and Scotland, is old. Altercations between poets go well back in tradition, and the aoir, a poetical invective, survived from the medieval Irish period down to modern times. The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy 'is as typical of the aoir as any Gaelic example could be' (James Ross, 'A Classification of Gaelic Folk-Song', Scottish Studies, i (1957), 119–21 and 149; cf. John MacInnes, 'The Oral Tradition in Scottish Gaelic Poetry', ibid, xii (1968), 33–40). The Flyting indeed 'reflects a common human resort under passion to improvised abuse' (Mackenzie, p. xxxii); Mackenzie illustrates the 'psychology' of the genre from a novel of 1931, and a jocular but freely abusive 'flyting' habit between a Scot and an Englishman in Burma in the Second World War is recorded in J. H. Williams, Elephant Bill, 1950, ch. 13. But the poetic mode of satire exemplified in the Flyting probably came into the Scottish court from Gaelic tradition before the time of Dunbar.
The Flyting may have been developed in a series of attacks and counter-attacks circulated in manuscript at court; it may, at least in its final form, have been recited before the king as a stylized duel in verse. As it has survived, it consists of Dunbar's initial challenge (ll. 1–24), Kennedy's counter-challenge (ll. 25–48), and a sustained piece of invective from each poet (ll. 49–248, 249–552). The stanza (ababbccb5) is not used elsewhere in Dunbar's extant poems. Alliterative four-stress patterns are interwoven with the syllabic metre, and the last stanzas of each poet's main contribution (ll. 233–48, 545–52) have additional internal rhyme. There is in Dunbar's sections an astonishing variety of language: melodramatic rhetoric, a 'langage rude' of calculated harshness and fine precision in the caricature of Kennedy, and a wildly vituperative climax which is just as much a tour de force in diction as any passage in the 'aureate poems. For a d?scussion of Schipper's unnecessary but at one time influential rearrangement of the text of the Flyting—an exercise in 'arbitrary ingenuity'—see Baxter, Appendix VI.
I have followed the Chepman and Myllar print from l. 316, where the fragment begins, as the version contemporary with (and possibly overseen by) Dunbar. For the first part of the poem I have followed Bannatyne, which is not only more legible than the Maitland Folio, but is properly ordered. Maitland's scribe took his text from a copy which had two leaves interchanged (ll. 65–128, 129–192), and so got these sets of stanzas in the wrong order; and when Reidpeth copied the MS he added further confusion (see W. A. Craigie, The Maitland Folio Manuscript, STS, ii. 69–70). Sequence apart, the differences between these two main MSS are numerous; and the many variants in Bannatyne against the Chepman and Myllar print suggest that the first part of the Bannatyne version (11. 1–315) too was not copied, however carelessly, from the lost opening of the print. Bannatyne is not at all points superior to Maitland—sometimes weaker in diction or metre, and sometimes obviously erroneous. Generally, however, the Maitland Folio MS is inferior to Bannatyne: weaker rhetorically or in metre (e.g. ll. 1, 11, 13, 24, 46, 52, 72, 88, 100, 101, 104, 137, 140, 168, 180, 195, 207, 258, 289, 314, 344, 379, 383, 417, 471, 498); weaker in diction or imagery (e.g. ll. 8, 14, 50, 75, 98, 101, 107, 132, 183, 188, 252, 255, 268, 283, 287, 301, 339, 428); simplified (e.g. ll. 18, 66, 88, 94, 106, 115, 129, 135, 172, 202(?), 228, 240, 256, 319, 477; and erroneous (e.g. ll. 19, 21, 27, 36, 83, 93, 117, 121, 127, 130, 161, 179, 192, 242, 260, 289, 328, 340, 343, 373, 415, 416, 434, 437, 452, 497, 498, 520, 521, 539, 540, 541).
Attempts have been made to date the Flyting on internal evidence. The Chepman and Myllar print is of little help; though it must be later than September 1507, when the royal licence was granted to the printers, and is probably earlier than 1510, by when Myllar (whose device ends the print) was apparently dead. But the poem itself cannot be regarded as having been published c. 1508, soon after its success at court, for Stobo (referred to by Kennedy at l. 331) died before 13 July 1505 (see 62. 86 n.). Baxter argues (ch. vi) for a date of composition 1500–5–probably 1500–1–when a prolonged gap in the payments of Dunbar's pension was probably caused by his long sea voyage, made just before his attack on Kennedy (ll. 89–96). M. P. MacDiarmid, reviewing Baxter in SHR (xxxiii, 1954), plausibly identifies the catastrophic voyage on the Katryne (ll. 449–72) as one recorded in July 1490 (Protocol Book of James Young, 1485–1515, Scott. Record Soc, 1952, p. 370); but he injudiciously reads Kennedy's obviously extravagant line, 'Thare is na schip that wil the now ressave' (470), as evidence that the Katryne voyage 'must have been actually Dunbar's latest excursion by sea', and concludes that the Flyting was written c. 1490. This conjecture would force us to read l. 452 as referring to future time, contrary to normal usage. But what decisively rules out MacDiarmid's dating is the portrayal of Kennedy as syphilitic (ll. 50, 52, 190–2); the disease entered Scotland in the late 1490s (see 32, intro. note). Baxter's arguments for 1500–5 stand, if we read l. 452 ('this twenty yere') as an exaggeration in round figures.
Dunbar's adversary was Walter Kennedy, Master of Arts of the University of Glasgow (1478?; third son of Gilbert, first Lord Kennedy of Dunure in Ayrshire; grandson of Sir James Kennedy and Mary, Countess of Angus, who was a daughter of Robert III (cf. l. 417, 'I am the kingis blude'); nephew of James, Bishop of Dunkeld and St. Andrews and founder of St. Salvator's, St. Andrews; and uncle of David Kennedy, privy councillor to James IV and (1509) first Earl of Cassillis. In this context of high rank and family power, Dunbar's representation of Kennedy in the Flyting is bizarre satiric fantasy. A handful of Kennedy's poems—moral and religious—survive in the Bannatyne and Maitland Folio MSS, and in MS Arundel 285; but he is celebrated by Lindsay in the Testament of the Papyngo (1530), between the English Chaucerians and Dunbar, for his excellence in 'termes aureait' (ll. 15–16); he is set in the same company—'Greit Kennedie and Dunbar ȝit vndeid'—in Douglas's Palice of Honour (c. 1501; ll. 922–3); and Dunbar laments his imminent death in 62. 89–92. Dunbar's assault on Kennedy's poetry is no more justified, on what evidence we have, than his account of Kennedy's life-style and (presumably) appearance; conversely, despite the 'biographers', we ought to believe little of what Kennedy says about Dunbar.
Kennedy's 'cousing Quintene and … commissar' (ll. 2, 34) is a ghost now: he was apparently Kennedy's kinsman, but I have not traced a 'cousing' of that name; and his poetry has not survived. He is, however, placed with Kennedy and Dunbar by Douglas in The Palice of Honour (ll. 922–4), obscurely adorned 'with ane Huttok on his heid'; and his work was still read in 1530, when Lindsay put him into the Testament of the Papyngo (ll. 19–21):
  • Quintyng, Mersar, Rowle, Henderson, Hay and Holland,
  • Thocht thay be ded, thair libells bene leuand,
  • Cf. 27. 37. Quhilkis to reheirs makeith redaris to reiose.
The identity of Dunbar's 'commissar', Sir John the Ross (l. 1), is uncertain. He is among the dead poets in 62 (l. 83); the catalogue in that poem is roughly chronological; Sir John the Ross appears with Henryson just before Stobo and Shaw 'tane last of aw', and Stobo died in the summer of 1505. M. P. MacDiarmid (SHR, xxxiii (1954), 50) takes him to be Sir John the Ross of Montgrenan in Ayrshire, who died in 1494 (Exchequer Rolls, x. 416). A more likely alternative, if we accept c. 1500 as the date of the Flyting, is Sir John Ross of Halkhead, sheriff of West Lothian and a convivial companion of James IV's, dead by 1502 (Great Seal Register, ii, no. 2629)—or his grandson of the same name, who succeeded him both in title and in social function at court.
Critical Apparatus
1 ane thing thair is] thair is ane thing MF
Editor’s Note
1–2. compild / In generate: written as a 'bost' (l. 6), without specific reference, but apparently containing an implicit threat to the reputation of Dunbar.
Critical Apparatus
3 thame] thair MF
Editor’s Note
3. styld: honoured with titles. Cf. Lindsay, Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaits, ed. Kinsley, 1954, p. 59, 'Howbeit I haif lang tyme bene exyllit, / I traist in God my name sall ȝit be styllit'.
Critical Apparatus
6 Howbeit] Albeit MF
breistis wer als] breist war als hie MF
Editor’s Note
7. Lucifer … discendit: 'Quomodo cecidisti de caelo, Lucifer, qui mane oriebaris … Qui dicebas in corde tuo: In caelum conscendam, super astra Dei exaltabo solium meum …' (Isa. xiv. 12–14).
Critical Apparatus
8 harnis] heid MF
Critical Apparatus
10 in vennaum suddane] suld of the Venning MF (the in later hand)
Critical Apparatus
11 of] in MF
for redour] sail for reddour MF (sail deleted in later hand and d prefixed to reddour)
Editor’s Note
11. for redour quaik. Cf. Douglas, Eneados, IX. xii. 67, 'Of dreidfull reddour trymlyng for affray'.
Critical Apparatus
13 sege] segis MF
for schame sould sink] suld for schame sink MF (altered in later hand to suld schame think)
Critical Apparatus
14 mone] sone MF
thoill] tak MF
Critical Apparatus
15 sould hald] micht hald MF
Editor’s Note
16. Sa loud … clynk. The bathos of Dunbar's climax shows his burlesque intention at the outset. Cf. ll. 22–4; Burns, The Holy Fair, l. 181, 'now the L—'s ain trumpet touts', of: because of.
Editor’s Note
17–24. Bot wondir laith … proclame. For baird see supra, intro. note. Perhaps already a stock stance in Celtic satire. Cf. James McIntyre's aoir (1775) against Dr. Johnson (Trans. Gaelic Soc. Inverness, xxii (1898), 177–8) which, after a catalogue of foul metaphors, ends, 'And if it were not that I do not like the name of satirist, I myself would earnestly desire to abuse you'.
Critical Apparatus
18 for] richt MF
Critical Apparatus
19 For] At MF
Editor’s Note
20. tinsale: loss, deprivation (ON týna, lose, destroy); in Scots law, forfeiture; cf. Aberdeen Burgh Records, 1412 (i. 389), 'Vnder payne of lyffe and tynsale of gudis'.
Critical Apparatus
21 Incres] Entres MF
Critical Apparatus
22 mycht]may MF
Critical Apparatus
23 with] in MF
Critical Apparatus
24 cuntreis and kinrikis] kinrikis andcuntreis MF
Editor’s Note
25. blawis … thy boist: a stock phrase. Cf. Barbour, Brus, iv. 121–2, 'For the pomp oft the prid furth shawis, / Or ellis the gret bost that it blawis'.
Critical Apparatus
27 Ramowd] Raw mowit MF
fall … att] sail … to MF
Editor’s Note
27. roist: (?) contest, encounter. Cf. 'rule the roast', be master, hold sway (fifteenth century); Lindsay, The Tragedie of the Cardinall, l. 372, 'rebaldis new cum frome the roste'.
Editor’s Note
29. mymmerkin: dwarfish creature. Cf. Prester John (c. 1510; BM Royal MS 17 D xx, f. 311v, 'litill men or memmerkynis lik barnes of fyve or sax yeir aid' (DOST), bot in mows: as a mere joke, not to be taken seriously.
Critical Apparatus
31 I cry] I sail cry MF
Editor’s Note
31. cry … doun: suppress by proclamation (DOST, s.v. 7a).
Critical Apparatus
36 aip, owll] owle aip and MF
Editor’s Note
36. owll irregular. See 34. 7 n. irregular: disorderly, lawless, esp. in holy orders.
Editor’s Note
37. Skaldit skaitbird: scabby bird of prey (scall, a skin disease). The precise identity of the skaitbird is uncertain; but the context of skamelar suggests a scavenger. See Glossary.
Critical Apparatus
38 Wan fukkit] Wanfulkit MF
Editor’s Note
38. Wan fukkit: ineptly, weakly conceived. Dunbar is a foundling dwarf (yrle).
Critical Apparatus
42 the] thy MF
Editor’s Note
43. verlot of the cairtis: knave (of the cards); perhaps a reference to the card-playing popular at court (cf. LHTA, i. cclv and index).
Critical Apparatus
46 recompansing] recompensatioun MF
Critical Apparatus
48 For … sendis] in margin in B
Editor’s Note
49. lersche: Gaelic. See 52. 113–14 n., and supra, intro. note.
Critical Apparatus
50 coward] theif MF
Editor’s Note
50. Cuntbittin: poxed; cf. ll. 52, 191–2.
Critical Apparatus
51 farit] faceit MF
Denseman] Densmen MF
Editor’s Note
51. rattis: wheels on which a criminal, in Scandinavia and some Continental countries, was executed and left exposed. Rarely applied in Scotland; see G. F. Black's note in Rolland, The Sevin Seages, STS edn. Cf. infra, ll. 355, 424; Rolland, op. cit., l. 10696, 'On the Rattis reuin, hangit, drawin, and quarterit.…'.
Critical Apparatus
52 had … dynd] on thy gule snowt had dynd MF
Editor’s Note
52. gulesnowt: yellow nose; cf. ll. 191 –2.
Editor’s Note
55. strynd: character, quality. Cf. Alexander Scott, The Slicht Remeid of Luve, ll. 5–6, 'For knew ȝe wemens nature, course and strynd, / Ȝe wald nocht be so true to thair untruth'.
Critical Apparatus
57 raggit] riggit MF
and] all MF
Critical Apparatus
58 Scarth … scaldit] Skitterand scorpioun scauld MF
Critical Apparatus
63 ay] om. MF
Editor’s Note
64. For wit … rub: 'for a mere handful of hay might wipe off such wit and wisdom as you have'.
Critical Apparatus
65 preceded by ll.129–02 in MF
Editor’s Note
65, 97. Thow speiris … Thow callis the rethory. Apparently references to the initial 'thing … compild' by Kennedy and Quintene.
Critical Apparatus
66 dagone] dragone MF
dowbart] added at end of line in MF
Editor’s Note
66. dagone: villain; originally the Philistine deity. 1 Sam. v; cf. Milton, Paradise Lost, i. 457 ff.
Critical Apparatus
68 thy] this MF
Critical Apparatus
70 that] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
72 to the tak] tak to the MF
Editor’s Note
72. knfye, swerd nor aix. With the phrasing cf. Blind Hary, Wallace, xii. 82; Douglas, Eneados, VI. ii. 142; Lindsay, The Historie of Squyer Meldrum, ed. Kinsley, 1959, l. 50 n.
Critical Apparatus
74 The] Thow MF
Critical Apparatus
75 tyrand] serpent MF
serpentis tung] teirrand mynd MF
Critical Apparatus
77 purpest for to] purposit till MF
our lordis] the lord thy MF
Editor’s Note
77–8. Thow purpest … in Paislay, etc. Plausibly taken as an allusion to the rebellion of the Earl of Lennox and Lord Lyle against the new king James IV in 1489, when the king's forces moved against Lennox's castle at Crookston and Lyle's at Duchal, both in Renfrewshire; LHTA, i. lxxxviii–xcix; in viewof the standing of the Kennedys and of Walter himself (see infra, l. 417 n.), doubtless another libel by Dunbar. The charge here is probably treason, not attempted murder. Cf. Blind Hary, Wallace, xi. 96–8:
  • Tresonable folk thar mater wyrkis throu lyst [craft
  • Poyson sen syn 'at the Fawkyrk' is cald,
  • Throu treson and corrupcion off ald.
Critical Apparatus
79 For] [For] the MF
Editor’s Note
79. thoill a breif: answer an indictment.
Editor’s Note
81–2. thy frawart phisnomy … men. Cf. Henryson, Fabillis, ll. 2830–2:
  • Ane thrawart will, ane thrawin phisnomy,
  • The auld proverb is witnes off this lorum— [conclusion
  • Distortum vultum sequitur distortio morum.
Critical Apparatus
82 to] till MF
Critical Apparatus
83 glengoir loun] ganȝelon MF
Editor’s Note
83. glengoir: pox(ed); cf. infra, ll. 154, 161. On the medieval association of syphilis and leprosy see Denton Fox's edition of Henryson, The Testament of Cresseid, 1968, pp. 24–30.
Editor’s Note
84. fen: midden. (Variant readings of Henryson, Fabillis, l. 111, are 'midding: fene'.)
Critical Apparatus
85 My … pen] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
86 leis] leit MF
Critical Apparatus
88 recryat] recryit MF
or thy] or than thy MF
Critical Apparatus
90 abone] abuif MF
Editor’s Note
90–6. Thow saw the saill, etc. Baxter (p. 82) declares that in this recent voyage Dunbar was not bound for Scandinavia but was 'tempestdriven towards it', and conjectures that he was making for Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt, on the way to Italy. But if Seland is Zeeland, the geographical course from Holland to Zeeland to Ȝetland is inexplicable; and Dunbar says only that the voyage was stormy, not that he was off course. I read the stanza as an account of a rough, dark voyage from northern Holland up the west coast of Jutland and round into the Kattegat past Zealand; and thereafter to the south of Norway on the return journey—the destination being Denmark, with which Scotland at this time had active diplomatic relations. Dr. Karl Sandred of Uppsala supports my identification of Ȝetland with Jutland.
Critical Apparatus
92 us] wes B wind and MF: woundis B
Critical Apparatus
93 mony] monye ane MF
blaw] draw MF
Critical Apparatus
94 Holland, Seland] hiland forland MF
Northway] Norroway MF
Critical Apparatus
95 sey desert quhill MF: desert quhair B
Critical Apparatus
97 thy] tne MF
Critical Apparatus
98 glowrand] gonnand MF
Critical Apparatus
99 gluntoch] glunto MF
Editor’s Note
99. gluntoch with thy giltin hippis: (a) bare-kneed (Highlander) with your yellowed hips (Gael glùn, knee; Mackenzie).
Critical Apparatus
100 lounry … fyld] lymmerie hes money leische befylit MF
Critical Apparatus
101 Wan visaged] Vane vagabund MF
Critical Apparatus
102 lathand] lauchtane MF
Critical Apparatus
104 bawis] ballokis MF
Editor’s Note
104. Thy bawis … breik. The kilted Highlander has no breik; cf. infra, l. 119.
Editor’s Note
105. of all the warld reffuse. Cf. Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, i. 570, 'That am refus of every creature'.
Critical Apparatus
106 ferly] marvele MF
Editor’s Note
106–12. Quhat ferly is, etc. A clear enough statement that 'flyting' is a Celtic craft. See 10. 259 n.
Critical Apparatus
107 thay in Erschry] thow in eriche dois MF
Critical Apparatus
108 thraward] fraward MF
Editor’s Note
109. fair indyte: the high 'aureate' style. Cf. 10. 262–70.
Editor’s Note
112. Carrik: the southern district of Ayrshire, largely Gaelic-speaking until the Reformation. See W. L. Lorimer, 'The Persistence of Gaelic in Galloway and Carrick', Scottish Gaelic Studies, vi (1949), 114–36; John MacQueen, 'The Gaelic Speakers of Galloway and Carrick', Scottish Studies, xvii (1973), 17–33.
Editor’s Note
113. leid ane doig to skomer. Cf. Master of Game (c. 1400), xx, 'teche þe childe to leede þe houndes to scombre twyse on þe daye' (OED).
Critical Apparatus
114–20 line–endings defective in MF; supplied from Reidpeth (R)
Critical Apparatus
115 peis this] heit of R
Critical Apparatus
116 for] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
117 Syne rubbit] And rub it MF
auld] om. R
Critical Apparatus
119 breik] breikis R
bellokis] balgis R
Critical Apparatus
120 club] bratt R
Critical Apparatus
121 larbar loungeour] lundyr and lairbair MF (baith deleted)
Critical Apparatus
122 skyn] skyrne MF
Editor’s Note
123–6. For he … flaid. A tradition passed down from S. Ambrose has it that S. Laurence, commanded by the Roman prefect to hand over the Church's treasure, distributed it among the poor with 'These are the treasure of the Church', and was martyred by roasting on a gridiron. There is a fresco of his life and martyrdom in the Church of S. Lorenzo in Rome. There are frescos in England at Abbots Langley and Frindsbury. sanct Johnis ene: almost certainly a reference to John the Baptist. The notion that he was blindfolded before being beheaded may be an echo of the blindfolding of Christ. In the Luttrell Psalter (c. 1340; BM Add. MS 42130, f. 53v) S. John is represented at his prison window, before his executioner, with a head-dress; and alongside is a grotesque wearing a wimple. Bellenden, in his translation of Boece's History (c. 1531), repeats the traditional story that the English, not approving the preaching of Augustine of Canterbury, 'sewit fische talis on his abil ȝeament. Vtheris allegis þai dang him with skaitt rumpillis … God tuke on þame sic vengeance þat þay and all þair posterite had lang talis mony ȝeris eftir'. Scotichronicon, ix. 32. S. Bartholomew is said to have been flayed alive at Albanopolis in Armenia, and then crucified. He is portrayed carrying a knife, and sometimes with a human skin over one arm. Cf. the Luttrell Psalter, ff. 107v and 108r; Berenson, Italian Pictures, 1932, p. 242; O. Sirén, Giotto, 1917, ii, pl. 194. With l. 124 cf. Legends of the Saints, STS, ii. 251, 'Dowchtir … lene me þi curch to heile me, / Till þat myn hewid of strikin be'.
Critical Apparatus
124 ene] corr. heid in B
Critical Apparatus
127 graceles] gratious MF
Critical Apparatus
128 followed by l.193 in MF
Editor’s Note
128. ane haggeis: the first Scotch reference to this variety of pudding, apparently popular in England in the fifteenth century. It derives much of its emblematic virtue from Burns's Address. For an eighteenth-century recipe see Burns, Poems and Songs, ed. Kinsley, 1968, iii. 1221–2. Dunbar seems to disparage the haggis as peasant fare. On the hungry gled see 42. 13 n.
Critical Apparatus
129 naman … kers] that na man curis ane kers MF
Editor’s Note
129. na man comptis the ane kers: proverbial; Whiting, C546.
Critical Apparatus
130 ay for] fra MF
Editor’s Note
130. swappit: whopping, great big (?).
Editor’s Note
131. kis his ers: an act of homage, in mimicry of the witchrite of kissing the Devil's arse (osculum infame). Cf. 33. 23; the comedy of the contractual kiss in Lindsay, Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaits, ed. Kinsley, 1954, p. 115; Gammer Gurton's Needle, 1575, II. i. 68 ff.
Critical Apparatus
132 nocht sic ane] nane sic MF
Critical Apparatus
133 mair] corr. thair in B
Editor’s Note
133 skaffis: scrounge. Perhaps from the Du and G schaffen, to procure food; brought in by soldiers from Continental campaigns.
Critical Apparatus
134 Nor]Than MF
Critical Apparatus
135 thow are at] thow for wage MF
Critical Apparatus
137 Mater … haif] I have mater aneuche MF
Critical Apparatus
139 he sail I] heir I sail MF
Editor’s Note
139. senȝie: war-cry. See DOST, s.v. ensenȝe. Cf. Barbour, Brus, xv. 497, 'Than his ensenȝe he can hye cry'; Douglas, King Hart, l. 222, 'Thay cryit on hicht thair seinȝe wounder lowde'. Dunbar's use of the formula is ironic: he will display Kennedy in his 'true colours' in what follows.
Critical Apparatus
140 in grit] in thy grit MF
Critical Apparatus
141 to] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
142 koy] kow MF
Critical Apparatus
143 wathemanis: wachemanis B: wathman MF
Editor’s Note
143. wathemanis weid: outlaw's dress (waith, hunting). Cf. 54. 8; The Murning Maiden, ll. 64–9 (Maitland Folio MS, p. 303):
  • In waithman weyd Sen I ȝow find
  • In this wod walkand ȝour alone
  •  Ȝour mylk quhyt handis we sail bind
  • Quhill that the blude burst fra the bone
  •    Chargeand ȝow to prwsoun
  •    To the kingis deip dwngoun ….
Critical Apparatus
145 polk breik] pok brat MF
Editor’s Note
145. Ersche katherene: Highland reiver. Cf. 10. 259, 52. 113–14 nn. rilling. Cf. Blind Hary, Wallace, i. 215–19, 'Thow Scot … Ane Ersche mantill it war thi kynd to wer … Rouch rewlyngis apon thi harlot fete'.
Critical Apparatus
147 mylne] mill MF
Critical Apparatus
149 thus … ȝe] ȝit … thow MF
Editor’s Note
149–52. Fowll heggirbald … damis. heggirbald is obscure; the image in ll. 150–2 is of a predatory fox or wolf.
Critical Apparatus
151 faldis] fauld MF
Critical Apparatus
152 lymmerfull] lymmair MF
Editor’s Note
154. Ane laithly luge … menis: identified by editors as the house of Glentig (Tig Water is a tributary of the River Stinchar in Carrick); according to Paterson (Life and Poems of Dunbar, 1860, p. 24), acquired by Kennedy from John Wallace in 1504. But the transaction is not documented (see Baxter, pp. 75–6), and there is no evidence of Glentig having been a leper-house. Dunbar is probably romancing; Kennedy's reply (infra, ll. 361–7) has the ring of truth about it.
Critical Apparatus
157 plukkis] pykis MF
Critical Apparatus
158 this dowsy be] that deuse war MF
Editor’s Note
158. dowsy. Cf. More (1529), 'Beeing so dowsie drunke, that he could neither stande nor reele' (OED).
Critical Apparatus
160 it] thame MF
sacrand: seccrind B: sacryne MF
of] that MF
Critical Apparatus
161 lene] bene MF
Editor’s Note
161. lazarus: here not (as commonly) a leper (Luke xvi. 20; cf. Henryson, Testament of Cresseid, ll. 343, 531), but a resurrected corpse (John xi. 17, 43–4); n.b. tramort, and cf. ll. 167, 175–6.
Critical Apparatus
162 the] this MF
Critical Apparatus
164 For] Full MF
Editor’s Note
164–5. For hiddowis, haw … ble. Cf. Henryson, Testament of Cresseid, ll. 337–41.
Critical Apparatus
165 cheik bane] cheikblaid MF
Critical Apparatus
166 Thy … garris] Thy choulk, thi chollare, makis MF
Critical Apparatus
168 hungert heland] heiland hungart MF
Critical Apparatus
169 lukis] linkis MF
Editor’s Note
171. lyk ane saffrone bag: orange-red, yellow. Saffron was used for colouring, flavouring, and medicinally. Cf. Whiting, S11; infra, l. 191.
Critical Apparatus
172 dispyt] dispyse MF
Editor’s Note
172. spreit of Gy: the spirit of Guido de Corvo, which haunted his widow and was ultimately exorcized by four Dominican friars (Scotichronicon, xiii. 6–9; Mackenzie).
Critical Apparatus
173 tykis face, fy] verray tyk face MF
Critical Apparatus
175 With … wry MF. om. B
Critical Apparatus
176 to] till MF
Critical Apparatus
178 lowsy loun] lyk ane (lousiedel.) lowne MF
Critical Apparatus
179 hirpland hippit] hippit harpand MF
Critical Apparatus
180 ribbison] ribbis all on MF
Critical Apparatus
181 harth] hard MF
Critical Apparatus
182 ar] als MF
Critical Apparatus
183 baird] carle MF
Editor’s Note
184. carrybald. See 14. 94 n.
Critical Apparatus
185 pure pynhippit MF: purehippit B
Critical Apparatus
186 holkand … thy] holland … the MF
Editor’s Note
187. Reistit … hill. Cf. supra, l. 51.
Critical Apparatus
188 And oft … ourhie] And all beskitterrit everie tyme and MF
Editor’s Note
188. beswakkit… tyd. Cf. Douglas, Eneados, I. iii. 22–3, 'Heich as a hill the iaw of watir brak / And in ane hepe cam on thame with a swak'.
Critical Apparatus
191 sawsy] soust MF
Critical Apparatus
192 all with clowis] of no clowse MF
Editor’s Note
192. clowis: 'the dried flower-bud of Caryophyllus aromaticus, much used as a pungent aromatic spice' (OED).
Editor’s Note
193. wirling. Origin unknown; but cf. The Wars of Alexander (1400/1450), l. 1733, 'A selly noumbre of wrichis and wirlingis' (OED).
Editor’s Note
194. the hurle behind: diarrhoea. Cf. Stewart in the Bannatyne MS, f. 140v, 'They haif the hurle ay behind / The stynk that thay mak in the wind / Will Flanderis infeck'.
Critical Apparatus
195 beschittin] schittin MF
Critical Apparatus
196 Nor] Than MF
or] and MF
Editor’s Note
196. gers on grund or leif on lind. Burlesque application of common alliterative phrases.
Critical Apparatus
197 foly] fulty MF
me MF: my B
Critical Apparatus
199 Thy] The MF
Editor’s Note
199. Thy gulsoch gane … bind. I take this metaphor of a jaundiced face bound to Kennedy's back as a grotesque way of saying that his jaundice has run into a flux. Cf. Gilbert of the Haye's Prose Manuscript (1456; STS, ii. 139), 'Wateris of pulis and dubbis … engenderis evill collis [bilious humours] that byndis mannis body and mistemperis it …'.
Critical Apparatus
200 go] be MF
Critical Apparatus
202 caprowsy] cap roustit MF
Critical Apparatus
203 laidis] laddis MF
Critical Apparatus
205 on] corr. apone in MF
Editor’s Note
205. rubbit quheit: wheat rubbed in the hands to extract the grain. Cf. supra, ll. 116–17.
Critical Apparatus
207 for … eit] to drink nor ȝit to (interlined) eit MF
Editor’s Note
209. Strait Gibbonis air. In 1503 a payment was made to 'Strait [stingy] Gibbon' by royal command; LHTA, ii. 395. He was possibly a court jester.
Editor’s Note
211. Edinburgh cors. See 75. 22 n.
Editor’s Note
212. hard as horne. Cf. Lydgate, The Assembly of the Gods, l. 618; Whiting, H481.
Critical Apparatus
213 that] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
217–22 MF worn; supplied from Reidpeth (R)
Critical Apparatus
217 Off] In R
Editor’s Note
217. as beis owt thrawis: a stock simile. Cf. Chaucer, CT, III. 1693, 'Right so as bees out swarmen from an hyve'; Whiting, B117.
Critical Apparatus
218 ay] hay MF
Editor’s Note
218. our awin queir clerk. Cf. infra, l. 417 n.
Editor’s Note
219. lyk ane howlat chest with crawis. Cf. 54. 69 ff.
Critical Apparatus
220 Quhill … dois] Sa all the brachattis at thy bottnis R
Editor’s Note
221. Keip curches in the merk: 'hide your finery'; see 14. 23 n.
Critical Apparatus
222 gaipis] om. R
ane]ȝon R
Editor’s Note
225. gild. Cf. Douglas, Eneados, I. xi. 107–8 (transl. Virgil's l. 747), 'The gyld and ryot Tyrryanys dowblit for ioy, / Syne the rerd followit of the ȝonkeris of Troy'. 233. Mahoun. See 14. 101 n.
Critical Apparatus
226 hingand] hingis MF
Critical Apparatus
228 cairt] cartis MF
Critical Apparatus
231 skillis] squell MF
Critical Apparatus
235 tykis] tyk MF
fley] corr. flee in MF
Editor’s Note
236. rare: i.e. in lamentation; cf. Barbour, Brus, v. 97; Douglas, Eneados,V xi. 26, 'al togiddir gan to weip and rair'. defowll: the literal sense is of trampling underfoot; cf. Brus, ii. 359; Kennedy, The Passioun of Crist, l. 444 (Devotional Pieces, p. 22).
Critical Apparatus
240 fyle] fill MF
Critical Apparatus
241 Mauch] Myche MF
byt MF: byle B
Editor’s Note
241. Hilhous: an obscure allusion to Sir John Sandilands of Hillhouse near Edinburgh.
Critical Apparatus
242 Rank] Bannok MF
foule] flay MF
fleggar MF: fleggaris B
Editor’s Note
243. Chittirlilling. DOST glosses 'obscure term of abuse'; but probably a playful variant (for rhyming) of chitterling, pig's guts (cf. l. 241, mauch muttoun).
Critical Apparatus
244 rehator] rebeatour MF
tratour, feyindis] tratour and feyndis MF
Editor’s Note
244. rehator. See also l. 401. Origin and meaning obscure; but cf. Douglas, Eneados, XIII. vi. 117 (transl. 'improbus', wicked, vile).
Critical Apparatus
245 Filling] filine MF
rak sauch] rak a sauche MF
Editor’s Note
245. rak sauch: 'stretch-the-withy', 'gallows-bird'. Cf. Satirical Poems of the Reformation (1570), xii. 56, 'For this foule deid ȝour seid man rak ane sauch' (OED, s.v. saugh).
Critical Apparatus
247 purspyk, carlingis] purspyk and carlingis MF
Editor’s Note
248. cry cok: admit defeat. Cf. Douglas, Eneados, xi, Prologue, ll. 119– 20, 'Becum thow cowart, crawdoun recryand, / And by consent cry cok, thy ded is dycht'.
Editor’s Note
249. Dathane deivillis sone: son of the devil Dathan, who with Abiron (l. 250) rebelled against Moses and was swallowed up in the earth (Num. xvi).
Editor’s Note
250. Beliall. See 52. 74 n.
Critical Apparatus
252 fowll] and MF
Critical Apparatus
255 thow of new begynis] now beginnit of new MF
Critical Apparatus
256 bleir eit] bleirit MF
Editor’s Note
256. blait … bestiall. For the sense of beaten into ox-like submissiveness cf. Stewart, Buik of the Croniklis, 1535, l. 12880, 'calland ws sa bestiall bodeis blait … But mycht and strenth'.
Editor’s Note
257. thy for bearis:, the earls of Dunbar and March, descended from Gospatrick, Earl of Northumberland, who retired into Scotland in 1068 after the Conquest and in 1072 was given the manor of Dunbar and lands in the Merse by Malcolm Canmore. Patrick, eighth Earl of Dunbar and first Earl of March (d. 1308), adhered to the interest of Edward I of England (ll. 261–4, 270). His part in opening Berwick to Edward's attack (ll. 267–8) is told in Blind Hary's Wallace (the 'carnicle' of l. 272), i. 78 ff.: 'Eduard entrit and gert sla hastely / Off man and wiff vii thousand and fyfty, / And barnys als.' For the Battle of Spottismuir (Dunbar, 1296; ll. 269–72) see Wallace, viii. 180 ff.
Critical Apparatus
258 the writ] as the wryting MF
Editor’s Note
258. Cokburnis peth: in Berwickshire, where a tower belonged originally to the earls of March.
Critical Apparatus
260 Sa … callit] Was he and callit MF
Critical Apparatus
261 of a meir] on ane meir MF
Editor’s Note
261. a meir of Mar. DOST cites Major's Historia, 1740, vi. 14, 'Many Scots are wont privately to compare the Stewarts to the horses of Mar, which are good when they are young but bad when they are old'.
Critical Apparatus
262 Wes] om. MF
Editor’s Note
262–3. be illusion, etc. Cf. Wallace, vii. 5–6, the 'Inglismen … With suttelte and wykkit illusione / The worthi Scottis to put to confusione.'
Critical Apparatus
268 sevinthowsand: vijm B
within thay] in the MF
Editor’s Note
270. Edwart Langschankis: Edward I, so nicknamed in the chroniclers. Cf. infra, l. 410.
Critical Apparatus
271 twelve: xij B
Critical Apparatus
272 chest,as the carnicle] choissit as us the cronicles MF
Critical Apparatus
276 wes] war MF
Editor’s Note
277–8. Than spulȝeit thay … jowellis. Cf. Wallace, i. 115 ff.
Critical Apparatus
278 and] with MF
Editor’s Note
281–4. Wallace gart cry … king in Kyle. Wallace, viii. 1–22: 'Corspatrik'
  • Lychtly … lowch, in scorn as it had beyn,
  • And said he had sic message seyldyn seyne:
  • 'That Wallace now as gouernour sall ryng,
  • Her is gret faute off a gud prince or kyng.
  • That king off Kyll I can nocht wndirstand.
  • Off him I held neuir a fur off land …
Critical Apparatus
283 dampnit] depryvit MF
in] in till MF
Critical Apparatus
286 Unto] On to MF
Critical Apparatus
287 Tigiris] Teirandis R (MF faded)
serpentis and taidis] tadis and serpentis MF
Critical Apparatus
289–96 MF partly faded; supplied from Reidpeth (R)
Critical Apparatus
289 effect amangis: effectis amangis B: effect of gude amang MF R
Editor’s Note
289. fowlis of effect. Cf. Holland, The Buke of the Howlat, l. 165, 'Thir ar fowlis of effect, but fellony or feid'.
Critical Apparatus
290 nor abydis] na bydis R
Critical Apparatus
294 eit]bayt R
Critical Apparatus
295 lyk a] as ane MF
Critical Apparatus
298 That] It MF
Critical Apparatus
299 Archbald: Archbard B
Editor’s Note
299–304. Archbald Dumbar … deip. In 1446 'Attour Archebald Dunbar seigit the castell of Haillis [near Haddington] in Lowtheane and at the first assault he wan the samin and slew them all that he fand thairin. He schortlie thairefter was beseigit be James Douglas in quhois will he put himself and the castell but ony farder debaitt' (Pitscottie, i. 56). George, eleventh Earl of Dunbar and March, had his earldom and estates forfeited in 1435; Hepburn of Hailes was one of those sent to take possession of March's castle at Dunbar, and remained there as constable. Archibald Dunbar, possibly a son of the eleventh Earl, seems to have been taking his revenge.
Critical Apparatus
301 throw that to thair] thairthrow to uther MF
Critical Apparatus
303 the]his MF
Critical Apparatus
304 in ane] in till ane MF
Critical Apparatus
305 bayth] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
306 or] and MF
Critical Apparatus
307 Quhilkis … borne] That war bayth borne gottin MF
Editor’s Note
308. Belgehubbis oyis. See 14. 112 n.; cf. infra, l. 533.
Critical Apparatus
309 prestyt] blank in MF
Editor’s Note
309. Thow wes prestyt and ordanit be Sathan. A slur on Dunbar's true ordination (cf. infra, ll. 505–8), which took place before 15 August 1500, when he was awarded a pension of £10 'for al the dais of his life or quhil he be promovit be oure soverane lord to a benefice of xl lib.' (Baxter, p. 61), and possibly much earlier.
Critical Apparatus
314 sentence foundit] sentence thus foundit MF
Critical Apparatus
315 Thy] Thyn MF
Critical Apparatus
316 Chepman & Myllarfragment begins
Apon] And on B
Critical Apparatus
318 psaltris, psalmis] psalmes psalteris MF
Critical Apparatus
319 trentalis of mysdedis] rentellis and misdeidis B: tres-sonabill deidis MF
Editor’s Note
319. trentalis: 'great numbers'; a trental is properly a set of thirty requiem masses for the repose of a soul.
Editor’s Note
321–2. cesse, false Eustase air … Alathya. An allusion to the Ecloga Theoduli, a Carolingian Latin pastoral familiar as a textbook in the Middle Ages (Raby, SLP, i. 228–9). It describes a poetical contest between an Athenian shepherd Pseustis, who draws on pagan mythology, and Alithia, a shepherdess of the line of David, who counters with biblical analogues. Cf. Chaucer, The House of Fame, l. 1228. hald of: am a vassal, tenant, of. For this sense cf. the Asloan MS (STS, i. 194), 'Thai held of him in Yngland, richt as the Ynglis king held and suld hald of the king of Fraunce'.
Critical Apparatus
323 the cause] the cais MF
Critical Apparatus
324 allya: Allya C&M
Critical Apparatus
325 kneis: keneis C&M
Critical Apparatus
326 the king] thy king B MF
Critical Apparatus
328 wyth] om. B
deliquisti] de eli quisti MF; see Commentary
Editor’s Note
328. deliquisti quia, 'because you have sinned'. The Maitland Folio MS reading 'de eli quisti quia' is perhaps a clumsy echo of Ps. xxii. 1, 'Deus, Deus meus, respice in me: quare me dereliquisti'. This is not a penitential psalm, and has no relevance here.
Editor’s Note
330. cum in will: not sacramental, but military; 'submit to his will'. Cf. Blind Hary, Wallace, x. 289–90, 'And kep thaim in, quhill thai for hungyr sor / Cum in his will or ellis de tharfor'.
Editor’s Note
331. Stobo. See 62. 86 n.
Critical Apparatus
332 bill: bull C&M
Critical Apparatus
333 hald the] corr. hald thy in MF
Editor’s Note
333. Heve … handis: a posture of prayer and thanksgiving. Cf. Gilbert of the Haye, Buke of Knychthede, STS, p. 10; Wallace, xii. 544, 'Heyffyt wp thar handis and thankit God off grace'.
Critical Apparatus
334 thus] this MF
bogane] brigane B: bogill MF
Critical Apparatus
335 pik, fire] pik and fyre MF
or] and B MF
Editor’s Note
336. Arthuris Sete: a hill (822 ft.) immediately south of Holyrood in Edinburgh.
Editor’s Note
337–40. I perambalit, etc. See 35. 78 n.
Critical Apparatus
339 dulcely] dulely B
fontayne] well and fontane MF
Critical Apparatus
340 wyth] fra MF
Critical Apparatus
343 the] thy MF
glod] gude B
Critical Apparatus
344 blaberis that] blaberis and billis that MF
eris] heiris B
Editor’s Note
346–8. Bot it suld … sprede: Kennedy's reply to ll. 105 ff.
Editor’s Note
351. Inglise rumplis. See supra, ll. 123–6 n. (quotation from Bellenden).
Critical Apparatus
352 him: hun C&M
Critical Apparatus
353 mokis] crakkis MF
Critical Apparatus
355 apon] on B MF
Editor’s Note
355–6. Quhare thou writis, etc. See supra, l. 51 n. The king's father, James III, had married Princess Margaret of Denmark in 1468. A mission was sanctioned in 1489 to renew the alliance between the two countries (Acts of the Parliaments, ii. 214), and Sir James Ogilvie concluded a treaty of peace and alliance in Denmark on 21 June 1492.
Critical Apparatus
358 thyne] thy B
Critical Apparatus
360 thyne] thy B MF
Editor’s Note
360. thou devis … dyn. Cf. 52. 118 (Dunbar's small revenge?).
Critical Apparatus
361 that] om. B MF
Critical Apparatus
362 land] landis B
Critical Apparatus
363 gnaw, lad] knaw laird B
Critical Apparatus
364 smoch] snoch B: smust MF
Critical Apparatus
365 purs, I] purs and I MF
Critical Apparatus
366 cultur, I] cultyre, and I MF
Critical Apparatus
367 Substance] For substance B
thou has] and ȝow MF
Editor’s Note
368. Mount Falconn: the gallows-hill of Paris. Dunbar, according to Kennedy, was soon to travel to France and Italy. Cf. infra, ll. 433–40.
Critical Apparatus
371 on] undir B
Critical Apparatus
373 na]sum MF
Critical Apparatus
375 of] on MF
Critical Apparatus
377 amang] amangis B
Critical Apparatus
378 the storm] thy scorne B: the stormes MF
Editor’s Note
378. muldis: graves, burial mounds, where Dunbar lost his 'small fynance' in the sea off Zealand (supra, ll. 90–6 n.).
Critical Apparatus
379 sailit to] saill it for to MF
Editor’s Note
381. reule: conduct. For this sense cf. York Mystery Plays, ed. L. Toulmin Smith, 1885, xxvi. 31–2, 'þer is a ranke swayne / Whos rule is noȝt right'.
Critical Apparatus
382 the]ȝon MF
Critical Apparatus
383 caritas at duris] at durris Carritas B
amore] proamore MF
Critical Apparatus
385 a] om. MF
Editor’s Note
386–8. The erl of Murray … W estfelde knyght. Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar and March, became Earl of Moray when his wife, Lady Agnes Randolph, assumed the title of Countess of Moray on the death of her brother in 1346. Kennedy is, however, selective; he does not mention Archibald Earl of Moray, who was killed fighting against James II in May 1455 and attainted of treason. The earldom was then vested in the crown, and conferred by James IV on his natural son James Stewart in 1501. James de Dunbar, cousin and heir of Thomas, third Earl of Moray (d. c. 1430), was father of Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield.
Critical Apparatus
387 trew … ware] trew and constant to the king grace war B
Critical Apparatus
388 that B MF: tha C&M
Critical Apparatus
389 wycht: wyth C&M: wicht B MF
Critical Apparatus
391 kyn] king MF
Critical Apparatus
392 dicht: ditht C&M
Editor’s Note
394. cry cor mundum on thy kneis: Ps. li. 1,10, 'Miserere mei, Deus … Cor mundum crea in me'; said at lauds on the first Sunday in Lent.
Critical Apparatus
395 Duerch: Duerth C&M: derch B: Duerche MF
thou dryte] thow bayt(h)dryt B: thou sall dryt MF
Editor’s Note
397. degrade … greis: deprive … academic degrees. If Dunbar was the man of that name listed in the records of St. Andrews as a 'determinant' (bachelor) in 1477, he probably matriculated in 1475 and he graduated Master of Arts in 1479.
Critical Apparatus
398 shere … the scule] scar … thy swle B
Editor’s Note
398. Scaile … and shere the of the scule: 'dismiss … and cut you off from the university'.
Critical Apparatus
399 the hede] thy heid B MF
till] as B
Editor’s Note
399. round the hede: 'crop-head'. Cf. 26. 18–19 n.
Critical Apparatus
400 syne] om. B
wyth] for MF
trone the to] gar trone the on B
Editor’s Note
400. trone … to the treis: (?) pillory, trone: weighing-beam often associated with a pillory (cf. 75. 24 n.). For this use of the verb cf. William Stewart, To the King (Maitland Folio MS, p. 299), ll. 49–50, 'Than trasoun man be thrwnit to ane tre / And mwrthour markit for his grit mischeiff'.
Critical Apparatus
401 rehatour] rebeature MF
Editor’s Note
401. rehatour. See supra, l. 244 n.
Critical Apparatus
402 linage and] lenagis MF
war] was MF
Critical Apparatus
403 of kynde] oft B
Critical Apparatus
404 rug] rin B
and] to B MF
Editor’s Note
404. ryde on nycht: 'ride out under cover of dark'. Cf. infra, l. 428.
Critical Apparatus
405 Quhare] Quhen B MF
Editor’s Note
405. Quhare … poysoun to me: supra, ll. 77–8.
Critical Apparatus
406 preve … wyth] and preif … with MF: and preif it on B
Critical Apparatus
407 clergy, I] clergy for I B
Editor’s Note
407. Clame not to clergy: 'do not claim your ecclesiastical status'.
Critical Apparatus
408 wyth me duerche … dele] annuch derch of the deill B
Critical Apparatus
409 thyne] thy B
Editor’s Note
409. oule. See 34. 7 n.; cf. supra, l. 36.
Critical Apparatus
410 thy] thyn MF
Editor’s Note
410. Edward Langschankis. See supra, l. 270 n.
Critical Apparatus
411 thai] om. B
the] thy B: that MF
Critical Apparatus
414 thyne] thy B MF
Critical Apparatus
415 abone in poesie] in poysie abone B: abone be prophecy MF
Critical Apparatus
416 that] thy MF
Critical Apparatus
417 am the] am of the MF
blude, his] blude and his MF
Editor’s Note
417. I am the kingis blude. See supra, intro note, his trew speciall clerk. Walter may have acted as deputy for Lord Kennedy of Dunure, hereditary bailie of Carrick (Baxter, p. 63). He is described in an action of 1491 as 'pretendit bailye depute of Carrik' (Acts of the Lords of Council, i, 1478–1495, 212a).
Critical Apparatus
418 hym] his B
Critical Apparatus
419 mynallegeance] mynd in tho(ch)t B
Critical Apparatus
420 on] upoun B
Critical Apparatus
423 Quhen] Quhair B
ryve] rug MF
thine] thy B MF
Editor’s Note
424. on the rattis … residence. See supra, l. 51 n.
Editor’s Note
425–30. Fra Etrike Forest … felde. See 55, intro. note and ll. 31–40. Whether these escapades as an itinerant preacher are truth or fiction, Kennedy seems to have known of Dunbar's poem.
Critical Apparatus
428 ondir] on the MF
quhile stall thou] quhylis thow stall B: quhilk stall thow MF
Critical Apparatus
429 that] om. B
Critical Apparatus
430 a] om. B
the] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
431 thy clamschellis] the clamschell MF
Editor’s Note
431. clamschellis … burdoun: the scallop shells and staff of the pilgrim 'knycht of the felde' (a derisive title; cf. chevalier de cuisine), kelde is of uncertain sense. DOST conjectures 'caused or allowed to cool' (kele, to cool); Mackenzie glosses 'coloured', prob. from kele, red ochre for marking sheep.
Editor’s Note
433–5. Mount Barnard, etc. Alpine places on the pilgrim ways to Rome.
Critical Apparatus
434 Scarpre] scharp MF
Critical Apparatus
435 thare] the B
Editor’s Note
435–6. 'On Mount Niklaus … brigands stop such fellows as you and blind them …'.
Critical Apparatus
436 Brigantis sik bois and] Sic beis of briggand B
blyndis] bludis MF
Critical Apparatus
437 Parise] pairtis R
the] thy B
Editor’s Note
437–8. buriawe: hangman; cf. supra, ll. 367 ff.
Critical Apparatus
440 sall] man B
the lawe] that law MF
Critical Apparatus
441 have] a B MF
Editor’s Note
441. the devill … hais: 'may the Devil take the property you have'.
Critical Apparatus
442 mon] ma B: man MF
Critical Apparatus
443 thrift: trift C&M
sald and] and als B
Critical Apparatus
444 that … service] in service that will B
Critical Apparatus
446 of] on MF
Editor’s Note
446. Danskyn: Danzig, ludicrously far from Dunbar's intended route. There was a Scotch trading colony there.
Critical Apparatus
447 fend] sett B
Editor’s Note
447. de profoundis: the opening of one of the penitential psalms (cxxx), used in the Office of the Dead.
Critical Apparatus
448 line om. MF
Editor’s Note
449. In to the Katryne. M. P. MacDiarmid has suggested that this was on the voyage of 1490 (supra, intro. note). The same ship carried ambassadors to France in the summer of 1491 (LHTA, i. 179), from North Berwick, and Dunbar may have been one of the company. But if he was indeed put ashore sick 'at the Bas' (l. 461), he had not been long aboard. However, the allusion in l. 466 supports MacDiarmid's conjecture, for the Katryne was captured by the French in 1490.
Critical Apparatus
451 sene that thou B MF: sene thou C&M
Critical Apparatus
452 Thy] The B
clevis till] clethis to MF
Critical Apparatus
453 na] nor B MF
Critical Apparatus
454 Deulbere, devillis birth] devillis birth dewlbeir B: devilbeir devill birth MF
Critical Apparatus
455 The] Thay MF
sonkyn] suckin B
throu] all throw MF
Critical Apparatus
456 sa] sic B
Critical Apparatus
458 holl] how MF
preposit for] purpost for B: purposit MF
Critical Apparatus
463 than] nor B MF
Critical Apparatus
464 now … wers than] ȝit … war nor B
Critical Apparatus
465 prouvait sa] sa provydit B: sa purvait MF
Critical Apparatus
468 the collum] na tollum B
Editor’s Note
468. collum ship (? equals; collvin). Cf. Stewart, Buik of the Croniklis, l. 5034, 'Ane navin larg, With craik [ship], colvine, with mony bark and barge'.
Critical Apparatus
469 at a] at the B
Critical Apparatus
470 wil the] the will B
Critical Apparatus
471 fylde] fylit B: fild MF
than] nor B MF
fyftenesum] fyftein MF
Critical Apparatus
472 thy] om. MF
muk B MF: mak C&M
Critical Apparatus
474 with the to have] to haif with the B
Editor’s Note
474. a false botwand. Obscure; but apparently a stave or other evidence of function or identity; cf. infra, ll. 475–6.
Critical Apparatus
475 marschall: marsehall C&M
Editor’s Note
475. horse marschall: man in charge of horses (cf. LHTA, i. 305, i. 330).
Critical Apparatus
477 ferily on] frelie upon MF
Critical Apparatus
478 Happyn] For happyn MF
to] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
480 And] For B
mon] may MF
Editor’s Note
481. Hye souverane lorde: James IV.
Critical Apparatus
482 nacioun: nacion C&M
Critical Apparatus
483 That] Lat B MF
nane] om. MF
Critical Apparatus
484 A] Or MF
the] thy MF
Editor’s Note
484. thare doune: in England.
Critical Apparatus
486 In] On B
Critical Apparatus
488 Cary] Caus Cary B (Caus apparently added)
corrupt] corruptit B
Editor’s Note
489. Thou was consavit in the grete eclips. Taken by editors as evidence that Dunbar was born in 1460. But Denton Fox shows (PQ, xxxix (1960), 414–15) that the total eclipse of the sun of 18 July 1460 would not have been noticeable north-west of Italy, and that there was no 'grete eclips' visible in Scotland between 1441 and 1468, though Dunbar was certainly born within that time. This encourages scepticism about all the 'biographical' data in the Flyting.
Critical Apparatus
490 god] grit B
Critical Apparatus
491, 493 na] nor B MF
Critical Apparatus
491 at] in MF
Critical Apparatus
494 myten full] my ting fule B
flyrdom like] the flurdome maist lyk B
Editor’s Note
494. myten. Cf. Bannatyne MS, f. 140r, 'Thow Sathanas seid … Mandrag, mymmerkyn and mismaid mytting'.
Critical Apparatus
495 A] om. MF
crabbit, scabbit] transposed in MF
Critical Apparatus
496 schyre MF: schir C&M: schrewit B
Critical Apparatus
497 gude] and MF
Gilliam] Gwilliane B: Gibboun MF
Editor’s Note
497. gukkis. DOST glosses as 'a jocular title' (cf. 13. 39); but this is probably the verb, 'talks, behaves foolishly'.
Critical Apparatus
498 Our … prose] Nother parfyte in pecie nor prose MF
or] and B
Critical Apparatus
502 tone] toung B
Critical Apparatus
504 thy] the MF
Editor’s Note
505–6. Ane benefice … beste. Apparently the first (unfulfilled) promise of a benefice came with Dunbar's pension in 1500 (Baxter, pp. 61, 210 et passim), to gyngill Judas bellis: for treachery. The image is perhaps that of an ass (beste) with bells.
Critical Apparatus
507 or a floyte, and] or floyit to B: and ane flute and MF
Critical Apparatus
510 cors] croce B
fare on in] syn pas on MF
Critical Apparatus
511 mischance: mischanche C&M
Critical Apparatus
512 forthwarde] ford wart B MF
Critical Apparatus
513 trowane] trowand MF
Editor’s Note
513. Caym: Cain (Gen. iv); in the Middle Ages, a demon. Tutivillus: a demon who gathered up the words mumbled or syncoped by careless clerks, and those of people who talked in church; familiar from miracle plays, misericords, and other church decoration. See M. D. Anderson, Drama and Imagery in British Churches, 1963, pp. 173–7 and pls. 16b and 24d; G. L. Remnant, A Catalogue of Misericords in Great Britain, 1969, pp. 19 (Ely, no. 2), 114 (Gayton, Northants, no. 3), 132 (New College, Oxford, no. 27), and 141 (Enville, Staffs., no. 2); and Neville Denny in Medium Ævum, xliii (1974), 255, 259.
Editor’s Note
515. the lard of Hill house. See supra, l. 241 n.
Editor’s Note
517. Fowmart: polecat; term of abuse. Cf. Bannatyne MS, f. 139v, 'Cum furth fowmart and face thy flytting'. fasert: hermaphrodite fowl; coward. Cf. Rolland, The Court of Venus, Prologue, l. 203, '[als] uncontrair his complexioun / As ane fasert to fecht with ane falcoun'.
Critical Apparatus
518 fond] fownd B: feynd MF
fiend] fleird B
phisnom fy] phisnomy B
Critical Apparatus
519 of dirt drepis … nevir] ay drepis of dirt … noght B: of dirt droppis and nevir gois MF
Critical Apparatus
520 tume: tune C&M: twme B: toyn MF
has tyrit] wald tyre B
Critical Apparatus
521 hell] hellis B: and bell MF
Editor’s Note
522. Turk:. Muslim, pagan. Cf. 54. 5; infra, ll. 525–6.
Editor’s Note
523. attircop: spider. Cf. 'like to the venemous attercope, who … drinkes up the corrupt and poysonable humors' (DOST; 1586).
Editor’s Note
524. lollard laureate: 'champion heretic'. Cf. Gilbert of the Haye, Buke of the Law of Armys (1456), iv (STS, i. 12), 'a man that traistis to lollardis and fals prechouris and takis to his fude the sedis of errouris and herisy'.
Critical Apparatus
525 provit] prowd B
Editor’s Note
525. symonyte: one who traffics in benefices, emoluments, etc. (Acts viii. 9–24).
Editor’s Note
528. Gog and Magog. See 29. 19 n.
Critical Apparatus
529, 531 transposed in MF
Editor’s Note
529. Golyas: the Philistine champion Goliath (1 Sam. xvii).
Critical Apparatus
530 Egipya] Egippa B: Egiptia MF
Editor’s Note
530. Egipya: in the Testamentum Josephi, the name of Potiphar's wife (cf. Gen. xxxix. 7 ff.).
Critical Apparatus
532 Termygantis] Tarmagant MF
temptise: tempise C&M MF
the] om. B
thine] thy B MF
Editor’s Note
532. Termygantis: Tervagant, one of three Sacracen gods (cf. La Chanson de Roland, ll. 611, 2467–8, 2696–7, 'Pleignent lur deus Tervagan e Mahum / E Apollin dunt il mie nen unt'); hence, a devil. Cf. 52. 115. Vaspasius: the Roman emperor Vespasian.
Critical Apparatus
533 will] he will MF
Editor’s Note
533. Belȝebub. See 14. 112 n.
Critical Apparatus
534 thyne air] thy air B
Editor’s Note
534. Cayphas: the high priest who condemned Jesus (Matt. xxvi. 57 ff., John xi. 49–53 and xviii. 14 ff.).
Critical Apparatus
535 thy hede of] the heid of thy B
Editor’s Note
535–6. Pluto … leme. See 10. 125–6 n. on … leme: by daylight and torchlight.
Critical Apparatus
536 To … on] To leld the to hell of B
Critical Apparatus
537 thyne] thy B
Editor’s Note
537. Egeas: the proconsul who martyred S. Andrew (Bruce Dickins, TLS, 21 Feb. 1924).
Editor’s Note
538. Marciane: probably Marcion of Sinope (d. c. 160), initiator of the heresy that the Gospel was one of love, excluding the Law. Maxencius: the cowardly and luxurious son of Maximianus, drowned after his rebellion against Constantine in a.d. 317; executioner of S. Catherine of Alexandria.
Critical Apparatus
539 kynnismen] kyniswoman MF
Editor’s Note
539. Antenor: betrayer of Troy by the wooden horse; Eneas, represented in the Middle Ages (e.g. in Chaucer's Legend of Good Women, iii) as the betrayer of Dido.
Critical Apparatus
540 Throp] throup MF
Editor’s Note
540. Throp: Criseyde, who was unfaithful to Troilus. Cf. Lydgate, Fall of Princes, Prologue, ll. 281–7; Chaucer 'In youthe … made a translacioun / Off a book which callid is Trophe / In Lumbard tunge … Gaff it the name of Troilus & Cresseide' (Bruce Dickins, TLS, 10 July 1924). Olibrius: the Roman prefect who martyred S. Margaret at Antioch (Mackenzie).
Critical Apparatus
541 Eyobulus] Eubalus B: eik Eȝobulus
Editor’s Note
541. Puttidew: the Wandering Jew, who pushed Jesus (F boute-dieu) on the via dolorosa and was doomed to wander the earth until the Last Day (Bruce Dickins, TLS, 14 Dec. 1935). Eyobulus: Aurelius Eubulus, officer to the emperor Elagabalus, torn to pieces by the soldiers and people (Dion Cassius, Hist., lxxx. 21).
Critical Apparatus
542 fendis] fryndis B
flour] flouris MF
Critical Apparatus
544, 545 Deulbere] Devilbeir MF
Critical Apparatus
546 strynde] stryndie B: strynd of MF
Critical Apparatus
548 Prickit: Pirckit C&M: Pickit B
wickit, convickit] wickit stickit convickit B
Editor’s Note
548. lamp Lollardorum. Kennedy returns to the charge of lollardry (see supra, l. 524).
Critical Apparatus
549 blamyt, schamyt] transposed in B (line om. and added after 552)
paganorum] pagaorium B: pagi-norum MF
Critical Apparatus
550 that] thy MF
Critical Apparatus
552 ad Tertara] ad tertera C&M: and Tartara MF
Editor’s Note
552. ad Tertara termagorum: to the hell of the devils (supra, l. 532 n.).
Critical Apparatus
colophon Quod … war B: Quod Kennedy to Dunbar MF
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