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27FORES. CALDER. FORT GEORGE.

28We went forwards the same day to Fores, the town to which 29Macbeth was travelling, when he met the weird sisters in his way. 30This to an Englishman is classic ground. Our imaginations were 31heated, and our thoughts recalled to their old amusements.3

32We had now a prelude to the Highlands. We began to leave 33fertility and culture behind us, and saw for a great length of road 34nothing but heath; yet at Fochabers,t4 a seat belonging to the duke 35of Gordon, there is an orchard, which in Scotland I had never seen 36before, with some timber trees, and a plantation of oaks.5

37At Fores we found good accommodation, but nothing worthy 38of particular remark, and next morning entered upon the road, pg 191on which Macbeth heard the fatal prediction; but we travelled on 2not interrupted by promises of kingdoms, and came to Nairn, a 3royal burgh, which, if once it flourished, is now in a state of 4miserable decay;6 but I know not whether its chief annual 5magistrate has not still the title of Lord Provost.7

6At Nairn we may fix the verge of the Highlands; for here 7I first saw peat fires, and first heard the Erse language.8 We had 8no motive to stay longer than to breakfast, and went forward to 9the house of Mr. Macaulay, the minister who published an Critical Apparatus10account of St. Kilda,9 and by his direction visited Calder Castle, 11from which Macbeth drew his second title. It has been formerly a 12place of strength. The drawbridge is still to be seen, but the Critical Apparatus13moat is now dry. The tower is very ancient: Itsu walls are of 14great thickness, arched on the top with stone, and surrounded 15with battlements. The rest of the house is later, though far from 16modern.10

17We were favoured by a gentleman, who lives in the castle,1 18with a letter to one of the officers at Fort George,2 which being 19the most regular fortification in the island, well deserves the 20notice of a traveller, who has never travelled before. We went 21thither next day, found a very kind reception, were led round 22the works by a gentleman, who explained the use of every part,3 Critical Apparatus23and entertained by Sir Eyre Coote,4 the governour,v with such 24elegance of conversation as left us no attention to the delicacies 25of his table.

26Of Fort George I shall not attempt to give any account.5 27I cannot delineate it scientifically, and a loose and popular 28description is of use only when the imagination is to be amused. 29There was every where an appearance of the utmost neatness 30and regularity. But my suffrage is of little value, because this 31and Fort Augustus are the only garrisons that I ever saw.

32We did not regret the time spent at the fort, though in conse-33quence of our delay we came somewhat late to Inverness, the 34town which may properly be called the capital of the Highlands. 35Hither the inhabitants of the inland parts come to be supplied 36with what they cannot make for themselves: Hither the young 37nymphs of the mountains and valleys are sent for education, 38and as far as my observation has reached, are not sent in vain.6

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
3 JB's was depressed by his urge to look upon a hanged man on a gibbet between Elgin and Fochabers (Journal, 84), but on their arrival at Forres he roused himself to write to Garrick (Life, v. 347–8). SJ's comment is a prolepsis for they did not traverse the Hardmuir, the traditional site of Macbeth's meeting the witches, until they had quitted Forres, as pp. 18–19 make clear.
Editor’s Note
t Fochabers; Fochabars 1, 2, 6. JB knew how to spell this name (Journal 83) and SJ read his journal, though he was sometimes inattentive to such details. Nevertheless the a/e confusion in his handwriting is common enough (cf. Introd. l) for so simple an emendation to be adopted.
Editor’s Note
4 'P. 50, l. 3. from the bottom. Fochabers is between Cullen and Elgin.' (JB: Remarks). Fochabers is not mentioned in Letter 323 which may have contributed to the writing of the Journey (Introd. xxxviii) so SJ must have depended upon another series of notes for this part of the route. The lost 'book of remarks' (Letter 329) was perhaps cursory enough.
Editor’s Note
5 Pennant, Tour 1769, 126: 'Castle-Gordon, a large old house, the seat of the Duke of Gordon, lying in a low wet country, near some large well-grown woods, and a considerable one of great hollies.'
Editor’s Note
19 6 It was at Nairn that they heard a girl spinning and singing in the room above (Journal, 85; Life, v. 117–18). Loch noted that it had a population of about 1,000, with 46 looms weaving linen and woollens (Tour 56).
Editor’s Note
6 SJ is thinking of Macqueen's daughter (28 above). The school she attended was perhaps Raining's School, founded under the aegis of the SPCK for Scotland. 'The Town of Inverness being very populous, and by reason of the Resort of Highlanders thereto, the Society did, several years ago, settle in the Interim a School thereat, which is maintain'd on a Fund mortified by the deceast John Raining Merchant in Norwich' (State of the Society, Edinb., 1741, 88). In the Report for 1771, the SSPCK noted. 'The girls are taught spinning and knitting of stockings. Particularly at Inverness, the Society have erected a large School-house for the above purpose, and put it under the direction of two Schoolmasters and a Schoolmistress, in consequence of a sum of money bequeathed to them by the late Mr John Raining of Norwich (14). See also below, 86 n. 8. According to A. G. Pollitt, Historical Inverness, 35, the Crown Primary School stands on the site of Raining's. Cf. also T. M. Murchison in T G S I (1983). Pennant however, in Tour 1769, 170, noted, 'At Glen-Moris-ton is a manufacture of linnen, where forty girls at a time are taught for three months to spin, and then another forty taken in.' Alex Macdonald, Story and Song, 37, recorded that this 'factory' was established after the '45 by the Forfeited Estates Commission, but that it was discontinued about 1791. He also mentioned an SSPCK school established in the glen 'about the year 1728 … at Dundreggan' (68). In 1787 Bailey observed 'There are also, besides a grammar school, and several private ones for the children of the town, two very genteel boarding-schools for young ladies; to which as Doctor Johnson says "the nymphs … &c."' (i. 113.)
John Mason, Hist. of Scottish Experiments in Rural Education, mentions the establishment of a spinning school at Inverness in 1764 by the Commissioners of the Forfeited Estates (52–6). General surveys of the SSPCK schools will be found in John Knox, Scottish Education, 181–91, and James Scotland, Hist. of Scottish Education, i. 97–103.
Editor’s Note
7 In Letter 323 he was more positive: 'we came to Nairn, a miserable town, but a royal burgh, of which the chief annual Magistrate is stiled Lord Provost.'
Editor’s Note
8 There is a long tradition that Nairn marked a linguistic boundary, (Life, v. 117n). Pennant, Tour 1769, 133 noted at Auldearn: 'Am now arrived again in the country where the Erse service is performed', and 198: 'On the eastern coast it begins at Nairn; … near Lough Lomond, it is heard at Luss, at Buchanan, east of the lake, and at Roseneath, west of it.' Bailey found himself wilfully obstructed here by a Gaelic-speaking hostler (i. 54–5).
Critical Apparatus
19 10 St. Kilda,] 2; St. Kilda, 6
Editor’s Note
9 The Revd. Kenneth Macaulay (Life, v. 505–7), published his History of St. Kilda in 1764. SJ doubted his authorship, and L. F. Powell showed that the work was enlarged by Dr John Macpherson of Sleat 'but his contribution, although extensive, was not so interesting or so valuable as that made by the Rev. Kenneth Macaulay' (Life, v. 507). SJ's low opinion of Macaulay was such that he described him, under his own roof, as 'Crassus homo', and later as 'the most ignorant booby and grossest bastard' (Journal, 86, 215).
Critical Apparatus
13 ancient: Its] 2] ⁓. Its 6
Editor’s Note
19 u ancient: Its 1, 2; ancient. Its 6. David Hume was particularly anxious to preserve the use of a colon with a capital following for sentences which were distinct but consequential (Letters of Hume, i. 247). SJ does not show much regularity in this usage, but examples are at 4/5, 5/20, 7/35, 8/8, perhaps 9/24, 16/2, 19/36, 20/22, 20/25–6 (all in phase 1 of the printing), and 72/27 (in phase II); only 20/25–6 was also changed in ed. 6. See other examples in Rambler 8, par. 7; 26 par. 3; 87 par. 3; 120 par. 3, and 151 pars. 3, 6, and 9. There is no need to adopt the reading of ed. 6 (1785) here, since that text has no authority, and the sense does not demand the elimination of an old-fashioned practice.
Editor’s Note
10 'In the neighbourhood we saw the castle of the old Thane of Cawder. There is one ancient tower with its battlements and winding stairs yet remaining, the rest of the house is though not modern, of later erection' (Letter 323).
Editor’s Note
1 JB's journal shows that this was Valentine White, a Welshman, factor to the Cawdor estate (Life, v. 122, 509). He is buried in Cawdor churchyard.
Editor’s Note
2 George Ferne, Master of the Stores at Fort George (Life, v. 123).
Editor’s Note
3 Major John Brewse (Life, v. 509) of the Royal Engineers. 'The Major of Artillery walked with us round the walls, and showed us the principles upon which every part was constructed and the way in which it could be defended' (Letter 323).
Critical Apparatus
23 governour] governor 2, 6
Editor’s Note
4 'P. 52. Sir Eyre Coote is not Governour of Ft. George. He commanded because his Regt. then lay there' (JB: Remarks). Eyre Coote served under Clive in India, but was in Britain from 1762 until 1777 when he became C-in-C in India. He was Colonel of the 27th Foot in 1771, and of the Inniskillings from 19 Feb. 1773.
Editor’s Note
v governour, 1; governor, 2, 6. The final '—our' is highly characteristic of SJ's writing (cf. Letters, iii. 476 (II)), and was surely in the MS copy; the change in ed. 2 is a compositorial regularizing.
Editor’s Note
5 'On the 28. we went to Fort George, which is accounted the most regular Fortification in the Island' (Letter 323). 'The most outstanding example in Britain of Hanoverian military architecture' (J. Tomes, Scotland 'Blue Guide', 307).
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