Main Text

pg 556 Pericles

was entered in the Stationers' Register on 20 May 1608:

Edw Blount.

Entred for his copie vnder

thand Pericles of SrGeo. Buck

knight & Mr Warden Seton

A booke called. The booke of

Pericles prynce of Tyre          Pericles

The phrasing of this entry suggests that the manuscript submitted was the official company book. The original 'R' presumably indicates receipt of the fee; its deletion may imply cancellation of the entry. Certainly, Blount never published any extant edition of Pericles (or of Antony, entered at the same time). The first edition (BEPD 284a) was a quarto, dated 1609, published by Henry Gosson, who published a second edition (284b) the same year, using the same setting of type for the title-page. In Q1 sheets A, C-E differ in their running titles from B, F-I; there are also differences in type-face. Greg identified the printer of A, C-E as William White; Blayney identified the other printer as Thomas Creede. Edwards (1952) identified one compositor (x) in White's sheets and two (y, z) in Creede's. These divisions were confirmed, with one slight modification, by Hoeniger (1963). MacDonald P. Jackson has further corroborated them, noting that Compositor x used a measure about three millimetres wider than that employed by the other two compositors, who can be readily distinguished by their spacing practices: z usually (82%) spaced commas in short lines, y usually did not (23%). The spacing evidence confirms Hoeniger's reassignment of F3 and F4vfrom z to y (or an additional compositor). The division by pages is indicated in the diplomatic edition. In our reconstructed text, it is as follows:

x:

Sc. 1, 1–201/1–201

Sc. 5, 16.1–Sc. 15.4/506.1–1377

y:

Sc. 1, 202–Sc.2, 129.1/202–342.1

Sc. 15.5–143/1378–1516 ('haue')

Sc. 16, 49–Sc. 18, 22/1573–1747

Sc 21, 25 ('helicanus')–Sc. 22, 29/2043 ('helicanus')–2295

z:

Sc. 3, 1–Sc. 5, 16/343–506

Sc. 15, 144–Sc. 16, 48/1516 ('her')–1572

Sc. 18, 22.2–Sc. 21, 25 ('him?')/1747.2–2043 ('him?')

Sc. 22, 30–end/2296–end.

Editorially, the most important difference between these compositors is their treatment of line division—though even this has perhaps been exaggerated (see Taylor, 'Transmission').

The division of work between shops, and between compositors y and z, is peculiar. It has been widely assumed that sheet B was originally set by White, and that the extant sheet represents a resetting by Creede. Musgrove's alternative assumption, that work on sheet B was delayed as the printer awaited additional copy, is implausible. But it is not obvious why sheet B should have needed resetting in its entirety, or why if such resetting were necessary it should be given to the second printer. According to Hoeniger, Compositor x set by formes (p. xxvii); but y and z each set batches of four or more consecutive pages, involving both inner and outer formes. Creede's copy may therefore only have been cast off by half-sheets, and inaccurate casting off seems to have affected the text only on G2v, where at the end of a stint Compositor y mislined the text in order to stretch it (17.46–18.22/1719–47).

The few press variants in the nine extant copies of Q, which were collated by Hoeniger, do not suggest any consultation of copy. However, Hoeniger is unjustified in taking this lamentable but ordinary procedure as evidence of particularly 'hasty and careless printing' (p. xxxviii). Nor is shared printing in any way irregular, being a common commercial activity in this period (Blayney). Although an ordinary number of errors in Q is no doubt due to misreading and other compositorial mistakes, such sources can only account for a small proportion of the evident corruption. The division of work on Q between (certainly) two printers and (probably) three compositors provides the strongest possible evidence that the deficiencies of the text—present in the work of both printers— originate in the manuscript copy, not in the process of printing.

Q's deficiencies are of several interlocking kinds. First, there is massive mislineation and confusion of prose and verse, which in this instance cannot be reasonably attributed to the printer(s): by contrast with Quarto Lear (set by one printer who had never before attempted a play, and whose later play quartos often contain significant quantities of similar mislineation), Quarto Pericles was set by two experienced printers. Such mislineation suggests that we may be dealing with a reported text, and this supposition is reinforced by many other features. Metrically, Q as it stands—even allowing for normal compositorial error—can hardly belong to any period of Shakespeare's career; it shows the same kind of rhythmical disorganization evident in memorial texts. It also often repeats itself verbally, in ways which suggest that one correct use of a phrase, idiom, or image has contaminated another passage. (Many such repetitions are identified in the following notes.)

Lineation, metre, and verbal repetition can be, to a large degree, objectively described, and related to a Shakespearian norm. In all such features Q can be unpolemically described as 'significantly abnormal', and because of its printing history that abnormality can be confidently located in the printers' copy itself. In trying to account for these anomalies in the manuscript one enters, inevitably, the realm of speculation. In particular, one can only 'explain' a Quarto anomaly by (a) conjecturing how the text can be emended, to restore a pg 557'Shakespearian' verbal pattern, and then (b) offering a mechanism by which the 'correct' editorial conjecture could be 'corrupted' into the Quarto 'error'. This mechanism operates in all emendations, and hence to some degree in all editing. But the process becomes particularly obvious, and unusually important, in a case like Pericles, where the layer of corruption has seemed, to almost all readers, extraordinarily deep and broad. Hence, the 'evidence' which we offer for the hypothesis that Q is a reported text resides, to a large extent, in the following textual notes: the emendations we have adopted, the attendant explanations given for Q readings which seem to us corrupt.

What has seemed to most readers the most obvious characteristic of Q—the gross unevenness in dramatic quality and verbal style—is, unfortunately, not quantifiable; nor, however, can it be ignored. Most earlier scholars assumed that these discrepancies arose from collaborative authorship; Edwards (1952) tried instead to attribute them entirely to the method by which the text was transmitted, alleging that there were two reporters with very different methods of reporting. Taylor, drawing upon the criticisms of other scholars, has argued that Edwards's hypothesis is in practice self-contradictory, unsubstantiated, unparalleled, and unlikely. He proposes instead that, like other memorial texts, Q was reported by one or more actors: the boy who played Lychorida and Marina (probably also doubling a mute page in Sc. 6 and a mute lady in Sc. 7), and probably also a hired man, doubling a number of small parts (including, perhaps, a fisherman and the Pander). Taylor also proposes that the reporters had acquired, presumably surreptitiously, a copy of Gower's part, perhaps because the Gower-actor was the master of the Marina-boy. Taylor's reconstruction is, necessarily, conjectural, but it does account for many features of Q, and at the least seems a better working hypothesis than others so far offered.

The exact mechanism of reporting offered by Taylor is less important than the challenge to Edwards's hypothesis, with its attempt to 'save' the entirety of the play for Shakespeare. Bibliographical conjecture based on internal evidence is no more 'objective' or 'scientific' than a conjectural attribution based on internal evidence. We believe that no textual theory can make it credible that Shakespeare wrote the bulk of the first nine scenes, and that a variety of evidence points to George Wilkins as his probable collaborator. (See 'Canon and Chronology'.)

Wilkins's part-authorship of the original play lends even greater significance to a novella he published in 1608: 'The Painfull Aduentures of Pericles Prince of Tyre. Being The true History of the Play of Pericles, as it was lately presented by the worthy and ancient Poet Iohn Gower' (STC 25638.5). This pamphlet, not discovered until 1839, was unavailable to the play's earliest editors; of the two extant copies, only one (at Zurich) contains the dedication signed by Wilkins. The pamphlet openly professes to be based on the play, and this claim is substantiated by many details in which Painfull Aduentures (hereafter 'P.A.') agrees with Q against all other versions of the story. Hence, P.A. is, and admits to being—what Q also apparently represents—a 'reported text' of the play.

Like any reported text, P.A. is of variable accuracy and value. Wilkins clearly drew, not only upon the play (which he advertises), but also upon Twine's The Pattern of Painfull Aduentures, which in places he plagiarizes word for word (without acknowledgement). The author(s) of the play also used Twine, but far less slavishly: Gower is their main source. When P.A. reproduces Twine verbatim we can give it little credence as a report of the play. Editorially, the most significant features of P.A. are, accordingly, those which diverge from Twine. Bullough provides edited texts of both Twine and P.A. (and the play's other primary source, Gower's Confessio Amantis); for ease of reference all our quotations of these documents refer to page-numbers in Bullough's edition, though we have in fact checked these against the British Library copies. (P.A. is printed in black-letter type, with roman used for emphasis; in our text and notes we have translated black-letter into roman type, with italic for emphasis.)

Ideally, any student of the text of Pericles would wish to have parallel diplomatic editions of P.A., Twine (as a control on P.A.), and Q. Practically, an editor's collations must take Q as copy-text, and record P.A. only selectively. But such procedural difficulties should not continue to obscure the fact that P.A. is a 'substantive' text of Pericles: a 'reported' text (like Q), one cast in the mode of a prose narrative (unlike Q), one contaminated by Twine (unlike Q), but a substantive text nevertheless. In some places Q and P.A. strikingly confirm each other's testimony; in others, they are so close verbally that it is impossible to judge, when they differ, which is more probably correct; in others, Q has been regularly emended to coincide with P.A. (sometimes by editors unaware of P.A.'s existence). If Q were itself better than it is, P.A. might be of little editorial significance; but given the generally acknowledged inadequacy of Q, P.A. becomes enormously important. Two reports are obviously better than one.

Moreover, although in its plagiarism of Twine and its narrative format P.A. is obviously inferior to Q as an editorial document, in one crucial respect it is superior: the author of P.A. is the man most likely to have been Shakespeare's collaborator in writing the play. Scholars have in the past been puzzled by Wilkins's apparent reliance on memory, in compiling P.A.: if he were part-author, why did he not have a text of the play, which he would copy as mechanically as he did Twine? But the part-author of a Jacobean collaborative play need never have possessed a personal copy of the whole manuscript. Moreover, once the play was purchased by a theatrical company they became sole owners, and the playwright(s) could only acquire copies by the grace of the company. Pericles was obviously a popular play, and the King's Men would have every incentive to prevent the early circulation of loose copies. Moreover, for a collaborative play Wilkins may not even have possessed, afterwards, his own foul papers. A fair copy would need to be made for use by the company; Shakespeare, as the senior collaborator, may have made this copy himself (thus enabling him to smooth any joins between the two shares, or to revise his partner's work as he saw fit), or he may have arranged for a fair copy to be made by a scribe employed by the company. In either eventuality Wilkins's foul papers would have passed out of his hands well before the play was performed; the fair copy would be made for the company, and Wilkins himself would have no right or opportunity to ask for the foul papers to be returned. Thus, in the natural course of events Wilkins might have found himself, in 1608, without a written text even of his own portion of the play. Moreover, the company may pg 558have had good reason to ensure, in Wilkins's case, that the playwright retained no copy. As Prior has demonstrated, the documentary records of Wilkins's life leave us in little doubt that he was an unscrupulous petty criminal whose literary and theatrical career abruptly terminated in 1608. More particularly, Wilkins's earlier play for the King's Men, The Miseries of Enforced Marriage, was, despite its evident popularity, published in 1607, apparently from authorial foul papers, with an apparently authorial epigraph on the title-page. The Trauailes of the three English Brothers, of which he was part-author, was also published in 1607, with an epistle signed by the three authors (BEPD 248). Both plays, which draw upon topical material, must have been fairly new at the time of their publication. Wilkins's other major publication is a translation of 'The Historie of Iustine' (1606: STC 24293), which for the most part plagiarizes an earlier translation as unabashedly as P.A. in places plagiarizes Twine. All these publications would have given the King's Men cause to be cautious in their dealings with Wilkins, in relation to copyright in his plays. P.A. confirms the same pattern of activity: the pamphlet was clearly designed to cash in on the theatrical success of Pericles. The 1608 Stationers' Register entry, if it is a 'blocking entry', is easily reconciled with the assumption that the company suspected that Wilkins would try to publish the play without their consent. Finally, it may not be entirely coincidental that after 1608–despite the popularity of Miseries and Pericles—the King's Men and the other London companies had no further dealings with Wilkins.

Whatever the precise history of his relationship with the King's Men, there is nothing intrinsically implausible in the twin assumptions that (a) Wilkins wished to exploit financially the success of a play he had already sold to the King's Men, and (b) Wilkins no longer had a manuscript of the play. In these circumstances he would be forced to rely upon his memory, supplemented by lazy plagiarism of Twine. He would obviously know the parts of the play he had written himself much better than he knew Shakespeare's share; verbal resemblances between P.A. and Q are sporadic and casual in the second half of the play, but much more sustained and detailed in the first half. We have accordingly made much more editorial use of P.A. in what we believe to be Wilkins's share of the play (Sc. 1–9). We have also drawn upon P.A. for the forms of characters' names, since P.A. derives directly from one of the authors, whereas Q is based at least in part upon memory, aural transmission, and subsequent transcription by a third party.

The relative merits of specific variants between Q and P.A. are discussed in the following textual notes, but two structural differences—both involving the presence in P.A. of material absent from Q—require more extended comment. At 9.24/980 in Q King Simonides compliments Pericles on his 'sweete Musicke this last night', but in Q Pericles has been offered no opportunity to perform this music. A playwright might perhaps use such a reference as a substitute for the performance itself (in order to indicate Pericles' musical skills without having to display them), but Simonides' words are more plausibly interpreted as referring to an episode shown on stage. In Chapter 6 of P.A. Wilkins devotes a page to describing such an episode.

Throughout the portions of his novel corresponding to the play's first nine scenes, Wilkins adheres almost exactly to Q's plot, recalling the play's cues for entries and switching the focus of his narrative in accord with the play's scene divisions. Parts of Wilkins's opening chapter paraphrase, plagiarize, or expand Twine's novel, as introduction to Pericles' encounter with the incestuous Antiochus and his daughter. Twine is also used to fill out the story of Pericles' relief of Tharsus, and Chapter 4 of P.A. begins with some invented material, followed by some borrowing from Twine, to spin out Gower's lines about the storm which introduce the shipwrecked Pericles in Sc. 5. Otherwise Wilkins does not deviate in any significant degree from the play as Q presents it. It would be uncharacteristic of Wilkins's method in recounting the material covered by the play's first nine scenes to invent an episode as substantial as that in which Pericles sings and plays an instrument.

In both the play's sources, Gower's poem and Twine's prose fiction, Pericles displays his skill in playing the harp and singing at the banquet, after Thaisa has played and sung to him in order to cheer him up. But Q replaces this particular musical interlude with dancing—an improvement from the dramatic point of view, since it avoids any suggestion of Pericles' showing off by outperforming Thaisa as a musician and allows instead for the spectacle of a wordless ritual of courtship. (P.A. gives the dancing far less space than the singing, alluding only to 'much time being spent in dancing and other reuels'.)

Thus both the play's sources substantiate P.A.'s independent testimony that Pericles included a musical episode not present in Q, and modern productions usually essay to supply this deficiency. A song attractively contributes to the theatrical quality of the play (and particularly the play's first half). Thematically, it contributes to the larger structure of the play, naturally taking its place alongside Thaisa's reawakening to music, Marina's profession as music teacher, the song sung to Pericles, the music of the spheres, and the characteristic Shakespearian opposition of music and tempest. Moreover, such a scene could have given the King's Men no difficulty in practice, for their Volpone (1606) also includes a virtuoso set-piece, involving a solo song by the protagonist, who accompanies himself on an instrument. Finally, Q as a report is void of sound effects, so its omission of the song itself is not surprising; if (as P.A. indicates) the scene in question only involved Pericles himself, and a brief initial appearance by one or more attendants, then the reporter(s) would not have been present, and could not report it. Our reconstruction—on the basis of P.A.—of this short scene (Sc. 8a) is discussed in the textual notes. This reconstruction is necessarily conjectural in detail; but we are confident that such a scene existed.

The other passage for which P.A. contains material not present in Q is the play's most famous crux: the encounter between Lysimachus and Marina in the brothel (Sc. 19). In P.A., in converting Lysimachus Marina speaks at much greater length than in Q; moreover, Lysimachus afterwards confesses that he had originally come to the brothel with wicked intentions, whereas in Q he claims instead to have had 'no ill meaning'. Taylor ('Transmission') argued that no mechanism of textual transmission could account for Q having accidentally omitted the material present in P.A., and that Q as it stood was theatrically intelligible. These propositions still seem to us correct. But Jackson still felt very strongly that the P.A. outline of the scene was preferable. Moreover, in pg 559spring 1986 a production of Pericles at the Shakespeare Festival (Stratford, Ontario) made use of proofs of our reconstructed text of the play; but they balked at our refusal to expand or alter Q's text of that encounter. In this reaction they simply confirmed a long-standing tradition in the modern theatre, which has usually resorted to the addition of some cobbled rendering of P.A. We were thus confronted with an apparently irresolvable impasse between (a) the widespread theatrical and critical conviction that P.A. better represents Shakespeare's intentions, and (b) the implausibility of any hypothesis which would explain Q's accidental omission and alteration of this material.

Taylor now proposes that this enigma can be readily resolved as the result of censorship. In P.A. Lysimachus— variously described as the 'ruler', 'Gouernour', and 'regent' of Mytilene—visits a brothel as a regular customer; he tells Marina not to worry, because his authority can turn a blind eye on her prostitution; on the other hand, if she displeases him he can punish her. Marina's initial response dwells almost entirely upon Lysimachus's 'abuse' of his 'authority' and 'Iustice'. During the Jacobean period the Master of the Revels was particularly sensitive to allusions to the promiscuity of courtiers: passages containing such material were censored in The Second Maiden's Tragedy, The Honest Man's Fortune, Eastward Ho, Cynthia's Revels (and possibly Kinsmen: see Introduction, below). P.A.'s account is extremely objectionable, politically; Q's is entirely innocuous. We therefore believe that Q represents, with reasonable accuracy, the censored text of the play, as actually performed (and hence as familiar to the reporter); but that P.A. gives us, in essence, the more dangerous and more dramatic original. We have therefore attempted a scholarly reconstruction of the censored material, in so far as it can be recovered from P.A.; the textual notes discuss in detail the difficulties posed by any such reconstruction. As Taylor observed ('Transmission'), verbally the quality of the added material has clearly suffered from its transmission through the filter of Wilkins's (relative) mediocrity; but when relieved of some of his wordiness, and the mannerisms of his prose, the passages are, we believe, not noticeably incongruous in their dramatic context.

Early editors of Pericles, understanding little or nothing about its transmission, but able to see for themselves that it was grossly corrupt, emended Q freely; recent editors, knowing far more, do far less. The most influential contribution to the editing of Pericles in this century has been Fredson Bowers's Introduction to his text of Webster and Dekker's Sir Thomas Wyatt, in Dekker's Dramatic Works (i. 402–4). Bowers there asserts that 'The most that can ordinarily be expected of the editor of a "bad" quarto is that he attempt chiefly to emend errors which there is some reason to assign to the compositor and thus to recover what is often the equal impurity of the underlying printer's copy'; as a result, 'Paradoxically … the editorial principles adopted for this play are more conservative than those for Dekker's "good" texts'. Both Maxwell and Hoeniger quote Bowers approvingly, and other editors follow in practice the same principles.

Whether or not these principles are correct for Sir Thomas Wyatt, they seem to us obtuse and unhelpful for Pericles. They lead to a situation in which the 'worst' text is edited as though it were the 'best'. In this climate of opinion, the editor, intent upon preserving his own integrity and protecting himself from the criticism of his scholarly peers, 'Did nothing'. However fallible, an editor (or editors collectively), studying intensively Q, P.A., the play's sources, the verbal and theatrical style of the dramatist(s) in their uncorrupted work, and the nature of memorial corruption in other texts, is in a far better position than the ordinary reader or actor to attempt to reconstruct something closer than Q to an authentic text of the play. In the case of Sir Thomas Wyatt, an editor's failure to accept this obligation is relatively unimportant, because the play itself is unimportant: little read, never revived, never a masterpiece. But Pericles is a masterpiece, widely read and revived increasingly often. Moreover, more materials survive for such a reconstruction of Pericles. We possess not one report but two, the second by (we believe) one of the original collaborators; for the other and more important collaborator (Shakespeare) we possess texts, concordances, and centuries of scholarship which have contributed to our understanding of the nature and idiosyncrasy of his verbal style. In the preparation of this edition we have also been able to make use of computer-generated concordances of both P.A. and Miseries, Wilkins's only uncontested non-collaborative works. We have therefore attempted to reconstruct a text of Pericles closer to its state when it left the hands of its author(s). For those who wish to study the unedited primary document, we have also provided, in the original-spelling edition, a truly conservative text, in the form of a diplomatic reprint of Q.

Q was reprinted in 1609 (Q2), 1611 (Q3), 1619 (Q4), 1630 (Q5), and 1635 (Q6). Each of these reprints was printed from its immediate predecessor, though Q6 made some use of Q4 as well as Q5. Q4 itself was—like other texts in the Pavier collection—clearly 'edited', by someone without access to any authoritative document but with a desire to make some sense of nonsense. (See General Introduction, pp. 34–6.) The play was included in a group of seven apocryphal plays added to the second issue of F3 (1664), which supplied inept act divisions and an unreliable list of dramatis personae. From F3 the play passed to F4 and Rowe. Pope excluded it, with the other apocryphal plays, and it consequently dropped out of the main lines of the editorial tradition until 1780, when Malone edited it in his Supplement to the Edition of Shakespeare's Plays Published in 1778 (1780); Steevens then edited it for steevens-reed (1785), and Malone included it in his own edition of the Plays and Poems (1790). For the purposes of Pericles these three editions—undoubtedly the most important in the play's editorial history—will be identified as 'malone', 'steevens', and 'malone 2'. Thereafter the play becomes a regular part of the editorial tradition, and editions are identified by their usual sigla.

Q is not divided into acts or scenes. The play is irregularly divided into sections by the appearances of Gower (Sc. 1, 5, 10, 15, 18, 20, 22). F3 marked act divisions (to coincide with Gower's appearances) at Sc. 5 and 18; Malone, at Sc. 5, 10, 15, and 20. Any arrangement requires that some of Gower's appearances mark the beginning of a new act, while others do not; the use of the chorus figure therefore cannot be compared to Henry V. Moreover, in some cases (Sc. 1, 5, 15, 22) Gower's speeches overlap with the following scene, so that his exit does not coincide with a clearing of the stage. The traditional division thus misrepresents the original structure of performance so drastically that it cannot be redeemed; since our reconstructed text cannot easily be compared with pg 560earlier editions anyway, convenience of reference is not a significant issue. We have therefore given the play continuous scene references in both the original- and modern-spelling editions.

Because of the special circumstances of the text, and the pervasive interrelationship of various kinds of corruption, it has seemed desirable to abandon our usual analytic division of the textual apparatus, and to include modernizations (signalled by modern-spelling reference only), emendations of substantives, incidentals (I), lineation (L), and notes on stage directions in a single list. We also provide fuller information than usual on the editions and scholars responsible for changes of lineation, incidentals, and directions, so that readers may form a clearer idea of the collaborative, cumulative character of the restoration of Pericles.

The collations also depart from normal practice in recognizing that our text is the result of a close collaboration between Gary Taylor and MacDonald P. Jackson (editor of the forthcoming Oxford Shakespeare edition); 'This edition' thus indicates that an emendation has been jointly conceived; if one editor or the other is responsible for a conjecture which both have subsequently endorsed, his initials are appended. It will be observed that, in general, the joint emendations usually concern stage directions or cases of resort to P.A. The editors are also jointly responsible for the policy of indicating elisions orthographically in verse. Since Q is so unreliable in the texture of its incidentals, we have emended its orthography in order to indicate elisions which are (a) apparently required by the verse, and (b) indicated orthographically, at least occasionally, in authoritative Shakespearian texts. The editors are responsible for all such incidental emendations recorded below which are not attributed to some other source.

G.T./M.J.

works cited

  • Blayney, Peter W. M., The Texts of 'King Lear' and Their Origins (1982)

  • Brooks, see Hoeniger

  • Deighton, K., ed., Pericles, Arden (1907)

  • Edwards, Philip, 'An Approach to the Problem of Pericles', SSu 5 (1952), 25–49

  • ——ed., Pericles Prince of Tyre, New Penguin (1976)

  • Hoeniger, F. D., ed., Pericles, Arden (1963); with numerous conjectures by Harold F. Brooks

  • Lillo, George, Marina (1738): an adaptation, which anticipates some editorial emendations

  • McManaway, James G., ed., Pericles Prince of Tyre, Pelican (1961)

  • Maxwell, J. C., ed., Pericles, New (1956); with conjectures by John Dover Wilson

  • Miseries: George Wilkins, The Miseries of Enforced Marriage, ed. Glenn H. Blayney, MSR (1964)

  • Mommsen, T., ed., The Painfull Adventures of Pericles (1857)

  • Musgrove, S., 'The First Quarto of Pericles Reconsidered', SQ 29 (1978), 389–406

  • Prior, Roger, 'The Life of George Wilkins', SSu 25 (1972), 137–52

  • ——'George Wilkins and the Young Heir', SSu 29 (1976), 33–9

  • Ridley, M. R., ed., Pericles, New Temple (1935)

  • Round, P. Z., ed., Pericles, in marshall, vol. viii (1890)

  • Schanzer, Ernest, ed., Pericles, Signet (1965); also contributed conjectures to Hoeniger's edition

  • Taylor, Gary, 'The Transmission of Pericles', PBSA 80 (1986)

  • Tiessen, E., 'Beiträge zur Feststellung und Erklärung des Shakespeare-Textes', Englische Studien, 3 (1880), 15–42

  • Tonson, Jacob (publisher), Pericles Prince of Tyre (1734)

  • Theobald, Lewis: unpublished marginalia in copies of Q4 (Folger) and Q6 (University of Pennsylvania)

  • Trent, W. P., 'Some Textual Notes on Pericles', in Shakespeare Studies, ed. B. Matthews and A. H. Thorndike (1916)

TEXTUAL NOTES

THE NAMES … chastitie. ] P.A.; not in Q. The characters are listed by order of appearance; we have followed the same principle in our additions, for speaking characters.

PERSONAGES] Perſonages mentioned P.A.

Thalyart] The '-t' spelling is preferred consistently by the sources and P.A., and on the name's only occurrence in Gower's speeches. P.A. also prefers '-y' (7 to 2), and as the name only occurs in Wilkins's share we have adopted Wilkins's apparent preference.

Helycanus] Helycamus P.A. P.A. consistently prefers 'Hel' (27 times), and 'Hel' also occurs four times in Gower's speeches (5.17, 10.27, 18.13, 22.114/507, 1096, 1738, 2380). We have thus adopted 'Hel-', though Q overall prefers 'Hell-' (44 to 6). Both P.A. and Q mix their spellings of the second syllable—P.A. preferring 'y', Q preferring 'i'; we have left these as they stand in Q, adopting the numerically favoured 'i' (also endorsed by Gower's Confessio) in speech-prefixes.

Eschines] So P.A. consistently (twice); Escanes in Q (5 times), or Escenes (18.15/1740). In Wilkins's share of the play, we have followed his preferred form.

Dyonysa] We have used this form in speech-prefixes, which is consistently preferred in P.A (28 occurrences); for the same reason we have adopted it in the text, in Wilkins's share of the play. However, we have retained 'Dioniza' in the text of Shakespeare's share, because it is used three times in later Choruses; Shakespeare's spelling may have differed from Wilkins's.

Symonides] Consistently preferred in P.A. (23 times); 7 times in Q (twice in Gower's speeches), to only 4 of 'Sim-'.

Thaysa] So the name is consistently spelled in P.A. (31 occurrences), and once in Q (3. Ch.)—the only occurrence of the name in Gower's speeches.

Lichorida] P.A. spells 'Licor-' once, 'Lycor' 14 times. But this character does not appear at all in Wilkins's portion of the play, and hence P.A.'s testimony is of dubious value. 'Lichorida' occurs only three times in Q, but two are the only occurrences of the name in Choruses; this form has therefore been preferred in prefixes over Q's more common 'Lychorida'.

Cerimon] Preferred consistently in P.A. (11 times), and by Q (8, to 7 'Cery-'), including the name's only occurrence in Gower's speeches (22.116/2384).

Phylemon his seruant] not in P.A. The name only occurs in Q.

Boult, a] A P.A. The name does not appear in P.A.

Lysimachus] Strongly preferred by both P.A. and Q.

Title Pericles Prynce of Tyre] S.R.; the late, | And much admired Play, | Called | Pericles, Prince | of Tyre. | With the true Relation of the whole Historie, | aduentures, and fortunes of the ſaid Prince: | As alſo, | The no lesse strange, and worthy accidents, | in the Birth and Life, of his Daughter | mariana. Q (title-page); The Play of Pericles | Prince of Tyre. &c. Q (head title). As the Stationers' Register entry refers to 'The booke', we have followed its incidentals.

Sc. 1] F3 (Actus Primus. Scena Prima.). Editors since Malone regard Gower's speech as a Prologue, with the first scene proper beginning with the entrance of Antiochus and his court. But the heads remain on stage across this alleged scene-break; nor do pg 561Gower's other appearances encourage Malone's separation of them from the rest of the dramatic action. See Introduction.

1.6/6 Holyales] malone (Theobald); Holydayes Q; Whitson-ales maxwell (conj.). Q does not rhyme, and Theobald's is the minimal emendation. But OED under Whitsun cites 'This is a Tale | Would befit a Whitson-ale' (1614). Shakespeare at Henry V 2.4.25/881 and Winter's Tale 4.4.134/1739 associates Whitsun with related performances (pastoral and morris dancing).

1.11/11 these] Q2; thoſe Q1

1.17 This'] Q (This)

17 (I) then;] marshall; ⁓‸ Q

1.18/18 Buylt vp … for ] Q; builded … as twine

1.21/21 Pheere] malone (Theobald); Peere Q. Hoeniger and subsequent editors have reverted to Q, on the evidence of OED sb. 3, glossing as 'companion, mate'. But the only example of the word meaning 'mate, wife' is from c.1330; the few other examples all mean 'companion', and there are no examples of the idiom 'take a [wife]', which the sense requires here. The alternative, fere, was itself an old-fashioned, but intelligible, word.

24 (I) heau'n] heauen

1.27/27 Bad child,] Q. Wilson conjectured that these words are the only remnant of a lost couplet about the daughter, parallel to what follows on the father.

1.29/29 By] malone; But Q. Editors who retain Q have to assume that 'by' is understood, though not spoken.

1.30/30 Was] Q; Made maxwell. See P.A., 'The custome of sinne made it accompted no sinne' (497). But Maxwell's emendation produces a bewildering dislocation of word order, especially confusing with the disyllabic past participle form 'account'.

1.30 account'] Q (account'd)

38 (I) tould‸ not, ] Q2, Q1 (MS); ⁓, ⁓‸ Q1

1.39/39 a wight] F3; of wight Q1; of weight Q6; of might steevens (conj.)

1.39.1/39.1 A row of heads is reuealed] This edition; not in Q. Most editors assume that the heads are visible from the beginning of the scene, but they might then distract from the spectacular effect of Gower's entrance; they could just as easily—and perhaps more effectively—be revealed here.

41 (I) th'] the

41–2 (I) eye‸ | I giue, my cause‸ ] malone; ⁓, ⁓‸ ⁓, Q. Recent editors have reverted to Q for 42, but nevertheless emend the punctuation of 41, and assume a difficult ellipsis.

1.42.1/42.1 Sennet.] This edition; not in Q. Ceremonial royal entries are almost inevitably accompanied by some sort of fanfare, and sennets are often specified. Q contains few directions for sounds.

1.42.2/42.2 Lordsornaments ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 498.

1.45—7/45–7 (L) I … enterprise ] malone; emboldned| hazard| Q

1.48/48 Musicke! | Musicke sounds | Bring] hoeniger; Musicke‸ bring Q; ‸Bring malone

1.50/50 Fit for th'] This edition (conj. Elze); For Q; For the malone; Fit for anon. (conj. in Cambridge)

50 (I) eu'n] euen

52 (I) gaue, … presence; ] schanzer; gaue; … preſence, Q

1.54/54 In … perfections to knit ] This edition (G.T.); To knit in … perfections Q; Their best perfections in her to knit steevens (conj.). Steevens's desire to restore the rhyme seems justified, but he unnecesserily transposed 'in her' as well.

55 (I) apparel'd] Q4; appareled Q1

57 (I) eu'ry] euery

1.60 razed] Q (racte)

65 (I) the] Q3; th' Q1

1.67/67 boundlesse] rowe; bondlesse Q

71 (I) dang'rous] dangerous

1.71.1/71.1 Heheads ] This edition; not in Q

1.72.1/72.1 Hedaughter ] This edition; not in Q

1.73/73 Heau'n like face] This edition; face like Heauen. Transposition produces a rhetorically attractive parallelism with the preceding line.

1.79/79 semblants] This edition (G.T.); ſemblance Q. See OED. A concrete plural seems required to match 'Princes', 'tongues', 'Martyrs', and 'cheekes'; Q would be an easy aural error.

1.79/79 bloodlesse] This edition; pale Q. The reporter substitutes a synonym which weakens the horror and rhetoric of the description. For pale and bloodless as synonyms, see Contention 3.2.162/1726, Troilus 1.3.134/569, Titus 3.1.256/1272. It is as unnatural for a semblance to be bloodless as for a tongue to be speechless.

1.83/83 From] malone; For Q. Recent editors cite OED for, prep. 23 c, d; but no one has found a parallel for the idiom desist for.

88 (I) remembred] Q2; remembered Q1

91 (I) Heau'n] Heauen

94 (I) eu'ry] euery

1.98/98 blow (Antiochus)] Q; blow. | Antiochus⟩. malone. In Q there is a page-break between 1.98/98 and 1.99/99.

1.99/99 antiochus] alexander, Q (MS); not in Q. See preceding note.

1.99.1/99.1 HeRiddle ] hoeniger; not in Q. From P.A. 498.

1.101/101 thou] Q; so This edition conj.

1.102, 103 'sayed] Q (ſayd)

1.106.1/106 ⌈He takes vp and readsaloude] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 498.

1.108/108 which] Q; that P.A. (498)

1.110/110 in] Q; from P.A. (498)

1.113/113 this] P.A. (498); they Q

1.115.1/115.1 Aside] This edition; not in Q. cambridge adds this direction at the beginning of the line, but the first five words can be public.

116 (I) heau'n] heauen

1.118.1/118.1 Hedaughter ] This edition; not in Q; Takes hold of the hand of the Princess. malone; Aside to the Princess riverside. Malone's direction is contradicted by 1.130/130.

124 (I) Y'are] You are

126 (I) Heau'n] Heauen

132 (I) dang'rous] dangerous

1.139/139 like] This edition; is like Q

142 (I) cleare,] steevens (Mason); ⁓; Q

143 (I) them;] steevens (Mason); ⁓, Q

144 (I) heau'n] heauen

1.152/152 ha's] This edition; he ha's Q. Q's 'he' produces a superfluous stress after the caesura, and could easily result from anticipation of 1.186/186; without it the syntax is ambiguous, suggesting—in an elision typical of Wilkins—'thy head (which) has found …'.

1.154/154 our] F3; your Q

1.156/156 cansell] F3; counſell Q

156 of] Q, Malone; off F3

1.163/163 your worth and our degree] This edition (G.T.); our honour and your worth Q; our honour, your degree steevens (conj.)

1.163.1/163.1 Flourish.] This edition; not in Q. See 1.42.1/42.1.

1.163.1/163.1 Exeunt] malone; not in Q

1.170/170 you'r] F3; you Q

1.171/171 vncomely] maxwell (Delius); vntimely Q. See P.A., 500.

179 shew] Q; shun malone. See next note.

1.179 'schew] Q (shew), theobald. Hoeniger defends Q with parallels from Patient Grissil 1.1.44–5 and Dekker and Wilkins's Jests to Make You Merry (Grosart, ii. 333); he conjectures that the form is etymologically related to modern shy, but an aphetic form of eschew seems preferable as a modernization.

1.185.1/185.1 Enter] hoeniger begins a new scene here (1.1b), but the heads are probably still on stage: see 1.213.1/213.1.

1.186–9/186–9 (L) He … manner ] This edition; meaning| head| infamie| sinne| Q

1.186/186 the which] This edition (G.T.); which Q. This metrical emendation produces an idiom characteristic of Wilkins and the first half of Pericles.

1.192, 193, 196, 212/192, 193, 196, 212 Thaliart] This edition; Thaliard Q. See 'THE NAMES …'. Aural confusion of d/t would be easy.

pg 562

1.194–5/194–5 (L) And … ſaythfulnes ] This edition (G.T.); actions| Q

1.194/194 And to your secrecie] This edition (G.T.); And Q. See next note. Q offers a more commonplace construction (nominative-predicate-direct object-indirect object) which produces two metrically irregular lines.

1.195/195 actions; for] This edition (G.T.); actions, | To your ſecrecie; and for Q. See preceding note.

1.196–7/196–7 (L) Behold, … gold ] This edition (G.T.); Thaliard| Q. The rhyme seems deliberate.

1.202–3/202–3 (L) Enough … haste ] malone; prose Q

1.202.1/202.1 Enter a Messenger] dyce; Q places before Antiochus' speech.

1.202.1/202.1 hastily] P.A. 500; not in Q

1.204/204 Your Maiestie] This edition (G.T.); My Lord Q. Titles end vocatives are the least reliable feature of memorial texts, and Q here repeats 1.201/201, unmetrically. See 1.209/209.

1.204/204 Exit] malone; not in Q

1.205–9/205–9 (L) As … dead ] This edition; prose Q; thou| shot| mark| return| malone

1.205/205 after; like] This edition (G.T.); after, and like Q

1.208/208 it be to say] This edition (G.T.); thou ſay Q

1.209/209 Your Maiestie,] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Even in Q Antiochus' command echoes the messenger's report, with the rhyming substitution of 'dead' for 'fled'; it seems desirable both that the repetition be more emphatic (by including the vocative) and that it constitute a full verse line. See 1.204/204.

1.210/210 If] This edition (G.T.); My Lord, if Q. A superfluous commonplace extrametrical vocative, in a speech which already has one.

1.210–11/210–11 (L) If … highnesse ] steevens (subs.); prose Q

1.210/210 in] This edition (G.T.); within Q

1.211/211 farewell] This edition; ſo farewell to Q

1.212/212 antiochus] Q4, Q1 (MS); not in Q1

1.212/212 Exit Thalyart] dyce; not in Q

1.213.1/213 Exit.] Q2; not in Q1

1.213.1/213.1 The heads are concealed] This edition; not in Q. The presence of the heads could usefully serve as a 'location' marker for Antioch.

Sc. 2] malone; not in Q

2.0.1/213.2 distempered] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 501 ('his Princes distemperature').

2.1/214 Exeunt Lords] alexander; not in Q. For attendants who enter only to be dismissed, compare 1 Henry IV 3.2.0.1–3.1/1741.2–44.1, Much Ado 2.3.1.1–2.3.7/825.1–831, etc.

Edwards, who suspects that the order of events has been garbled in this scene, considers ludicrous the 'filing in' and out and in again of the lords. But the two or three lords that we might expect the company to have provided would scarcely constitute a 'file' and there is no need for a procession here. The point of their brief initial appearance is to show that Pericles is back in Tyre and to establish his insistence on being alone. The comparative regularity of the verse in this scene suggests that it is rather well reported. Pericles' long soliloquy, however inert poetically, is metrically flawless. It is unlikely that a reporter capable of rendering it so well would be wildly confused about the scene's development. The long account that Pericles gives Helicanus of his experience in Antioch is also perfectly coherent.

2.3/216 Be my] dyce; By me Q

218 (I) should] Q2; stould Q1

2.7/220 fearde's] dyce 2 (W. S. Walker); fearde is Q

2.10/223 cares] This edition (G.T.); the Q. Something seems needed to balance 'pleasures' in the preceding line. See following note.

2.10/223 authors] This edition (G.T.); others Q. For the meaning see OED 1c ('He who gives rise to or causes an action, event, circumstance, state, or condition of things'), 2 ('One who begets; a "father"'), and compare two passages by Wilkins: 'I did beget thee for my comforter, | And not to be the Author of my care' (Miseries 887–8); 'for you, to be author of my more misfortune' (P.A. 535). In Miseries, as here, there is a pun on 'parent'; in both, as here, the 'author' causes distress. (These are the only two uses of the word in Miseries and P.A.) There is also, here, a play on the sense 'writer' (OED 3), contrasting with 'Art'. An easy aural or graphical error.

229 (I) me;] Q4; ⁓‸ Q1

2.18/231 hee's] Q; he collier (Steevens)

2.20/233 honour him] rowe; honour Q

2.25/238 thostint] malone (Tyrwhitt); the stint Q

2.30/243 am] malone (Farmer); once Q; care sisson

2.33.1/246.1 among them olde Helicanus] dyce (subs.); not in Q. For the adjective see P.A. 501.

2.35/248 And … comfortable ] This edition (M.J.); prose Q

2.35/248 mind peacefull] This edition (M.J.); mind till you returne to vs | peacefull Q. Q here anticipates Pericles' injunction to lords to 'returne to vs' (2.55/268). Omission of the phrase from line 2.35/248, where it is metrically superfluous, eliminates the Second Lord's 'clairvoyance' (Edwards) over the secret journey that Pericles presently decides upon in the company of Helicanus alone.

2.37–42/250–5 You … contradict it. ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. From P.A., where Helicanus 'not sparingly towld' Pericles 'he did not wel so to abuse himselfe, to waste his body there with pyning sorrow, vpon whose safety depended the liues and prosperity of a whole kingdome, that it was ill in him to doe it, and no lesse in his counsell to suffer him, without contradicting it' (501). Although Edwards's suspicions of wholesale corruption in this scene seem unjustified (see notes above), two difficulties do exist: it is not clear why Helicanus accuses the lords of flattery, or clear what in the king's conduct he criticizes. Insertion here of these lines from P.A. solves both problems: explicitly criticizing Pericles' melancholy, and claiming that it is 'ill' of his council to let it go unrebuked. This comment on the nobles' failure to comment on Pericles' behaviour then leads naturally into the tirade against flattery.

2.41–2/254–5 Tis … contradict it ] Bullough conjectures 'If ill in you to do't, 'twere ill in me | To suffer you without reproving it'. The second line follows P.A. closely, only substituting 'reproving' for 'contradicting'; we have preserved P.A.'s verb, instead altering the preposition for the metre's sake. Reproofe occurs below (2.47/260).

257 (I) flattrie] flatterie

258 (I) flattred] flattered

2.46–7/259–60 (L) To … order ] Q4; stronger| Q1

2.46/259 winde] edwards (Steevens); ſparke Q; blast collier (Mason); breath malone; spur sisson

2.49/262 a] malone; not in Q

2.50.1/263.1 He kneeles] This edition; not in Q; Kneeling malone 2 (at 2.63/276); Kneeling collier 2 (after 2.52/265)

264 (I) pardon] Q2; paadon Q1

2.55/268 Exeunt Lords] malone2; not in Q

2.55/268 Hellicane] This edition (conj. Musgrove); Hellicans Q1; Hellicanus Q2

2.55–6/268–9 (L) And … lookes ] malone; hast| Q

269 (I) mooued] malone; Mooude Q

2.59/272 browes] This edition (G.T.); face Q. The emendation postulates an easy memorial substitution, and produces a 'rhyme' typical of the first half of the play.

273 (I) heau'n] heauen

2.60–1/273–4 (L) How … nourishment ] malone; heauen| Q

2.62/275 (L) Thou … thee ] Q; 2 lines malone: power|. The usual editorial rearrangement has little to recommend it; hexameters are common.

275 (I) pow'r] power

2.63/276 (L) I … blowe ] This edition (G.T.); 2 lines Q: my ſelfe|. The full hexameter would not have fitted Q's measure.

2.63/276 you but] Q4; but you Q1

2.64/277 lifting him vp] This edition (P.A. 501); not in Q

2.64/277 (L) Rise … flatterer ] Q; 2 lines steevens: rise,|

2.65/278 for it] Q4; fort Q1

2.65/278 the heau'ns] This edition (G.T.); heauē Q1; heauen Q2; high heaven steevens. Compare 'and Heauen forfend' (P.A. 1785); 'the heauens' occurs 6 times in P.A.

pg 563

2.68/281 makst] malone; makes Q. The single parallel which Hoeniger offers for Q's ungrammatical construction (Othello 5.2.68–9/2965–6) is variant: the Quarto has the grammatical form.

2.69–70/282–3 (L) To … your selfe ] knight; prose Q

2.70/283 you] steevens; you your ſelfe Q

2.75/288 Where as] Q2; Whereas Q1

2.78/291 As children are heau'ns blessings, to parents obiects,] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; For royal progeny are general blessings steevens (conj.); Worthy to heir my throne; for kingly boys w. s. walker (conj.). It seems clear that a line has been omitted, and that at the least a lacuna should be marked. In a reconstructed text it seems proper for editors to venture to fill the lacuna. One expects, from the context, a sententia; given the style of these scenes a sententia is likely to be expressed in rhyme, so that the missing line probably rhymed with 'subiects'; the only likely rhyme word is obiects—meaning 'any thing regarded with love … inspiring sympathy' (Schmidt) or 'Something which on being seen excites a particular emotion, as admiration' etc. (OED, sb. 3b). Issue are most likely to be described as the 'obiects' of their parents (as in Lear: History 1.1.205/205, Tragedy 1.1.213/214). As for the beginning of the line, one expects a causative conjunction to link the rhyming sententia with the preceding statement; 'As' seems preferable to 'For', because its graphic similarity to 'Are' at the beginning of the next line might explain the Quarto's omission (by eyeskip). After the conjunction one expects a synonym for 'issue' which can govern 'Are': babes, children, offspring, progeny. Walker's conjecture 'boys' seems unhappy, given the play's exclusive preoccupation with female children. Moreover, both Walker and Steevens assume that the missing line refers exclusively to royal children, but there is little to be said about such children which is not already expressed by the following line, and for the purposes of a gnomic generalization it would be best to begin with a reflection upon all children, before proceeding to the specific category of royal ones. The most obvious and appropriate generalization in this context is, as Steevens recognized, the proverbial 'bairns are blessings' (as at All's Well 1.3.25–6/329–30). Compare Wilkins's Miseries 2674–5: 'Heauen … bleste you with children, | And at heauens blessings, all good men reioyce'. This parallel suggests that the first half of the line identifies children as 'blessings' or 'heauens blessings'; if the second half ends with the word 'obiects', then the line has to have a divided structure (like the following line). The following line contrasts 'Princes' with 'subiects', and a similar contrast between 'heauens' and some human figure(s) seems probable here. But 'and parents obiects' would be unfortunately ambiguous, suggesting that parents (symmetrically to 'children') are themselves obiects; the use of 'to' solves this problem, and creates a parallel with the rhyming clause 'ioles to subiects'. The resulting line remains, of course, highly speculative; but it makes sense of the text in a manner characteristic of these scenes, of Wilkins, and of the period. It also contributes— as any solution to the crux must—to the play's preoccupation with the relationship of parents and children.

2.84/297 seemes] Q1; ſeeme Q2

2.86/299 of] This edition (anon. conj. in Cambridge); of a Q

2.88/301 me] rowe; not in Q

2.89/302 feares] F4; feare Q

2.91/304 dout, as] malone; doo't, as Q; doubt it, as steevens; doubt, as 'tis maxwell

2.91/304 doubt no] This edition (conj. Brooks); no Q

2.94/307 To … ope ] Q. One suspects that this line should end with 'bed', for rhyme's sake; but if so the corruption is drastic.

2.100/313 reprou'dst] Q; reprovest malone

2.105/318 griue] Q5; griue for Q1

319 (I) giu'n] giuen

2.110–15/323–8 (L) Will … be ] rowe; prose Q

2.113/326 Or] steevens; Or till the Q. Superfluous extrametrical contamination from the previous line.

2.117/330 in my absence wrong thy liberties] This edition (G.T.); wrong my liberties in my abſence Q. The editorial transposition (to restore the metre) presumes a reporter's transposition. Emendation to 'thy' (conjectured by Collier) makes the sense much clearer, and leads more naturally into Helicanus's answering 'Wee'. The pronoun substitution could easily arise from reporter or compositor error.

2.120 Tarsus] Q (Tharſus)

2.126/339 sure cracke] F3; cracke Q; cracke them maxwell. F3's metrical emendation is more meaningful than Maxwell's, and alliterates characteristically with 'shuns'.

2.127/340 we'll] malone; will Q. It is unnecessary to suppose that a line has been lost after 2.126/339: Wilkins is demonstrably fond of placing a single unrhymed line between couplets.

2.129.1/342.1 Exeunt] rowe; Exit. Q

Sc. 3] malone; not in Q

3.0.1, 32/342.1, 374 Thaliart] This edition; Thaliard Q. See note to 1.192/192.

3.1–10/343–52 (L) So … of Tyre ] Q paragraphs the prose, starting a new (indented) line with 'So', 'Well', 'Now', and 'Husht'.

3.2–3/344–5 and am … but if I doe it ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Maxwell convincingly conjectured that 'the reporter has dropped one horn of the dilemma'; but the error could be compositorial, resulting from simple eyeskip from one 'if I doe it' to another. Maxwell's conjecture was 'if I kill him and am caught, I am likely to be hanged here, and if I doe' (our italics). Since 'kill' has already been mentioned, Q's 'doe it' seems acceptable; repetition of 'doe' both improves the symmetry and increases the probability of haplography. 'Like'—which has the same meaning as 'likely'—is both more colloquial and better balances monosyllabic 'sure'. 'Here' is acceptable but flat and repetitious; 'abroad' better balances 'home', and contains an appropriate pun ('out of doors' and 'in a foreign country'). Finally, 'but' seems more appropriate to introduce the antithetical clause than 'and'.

3.11–14/353–6 (L) You … trauaile ] rowe; prose Q (first line divided after 'Tyre')

3.12/354 question] maxwell; question mee Q

3.13/355 seald] rowe; ſea-|led Q

3.15, 19, 26/357, 361, 368 aside] malone; not in Q

3.16–19/358–61 (L) If … at Antioch ] rowe; prose Q

359 (I) ‸Why (as ] F3; (⁓‸ ⁓ Q

359 (I) vnlicensde] vnlicenſed

361 (I) Antioch,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

3.20–5/362–7 (L) Royall … death ] rowe; prose Q

3.22/364 lest that hee] steevens; lest hee Q1; lest that Q4. Hoeniger's suggestion that 'doubting' is trisyllabic is wholly unsubstantiated. Q4 presumably intended Steevens's correction.

366 (I) Ship-mans] ⁓-| ⁓

3.26–30/368–72 (L) Well … Tyre ] malone; prose Q

3.28/370 Kings ears it] white (Dyce); Kings ſeas Q; King it sure steevens (Percy). As emended by Dyce, 'it' could have been omitted easily, because it falls between two Q prose lines.

3.29/371 on the Seas] steevens (Malone and Percy); at the Sea Q; at the seas collier 2

372 Comming forward] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

3.31/373 Lord Thaliart am I, of Antioch.] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. It is suspicious that Helicanus knows who Thaliart is without an introduction; suspicion is compounded by Q's omission of the speech-prefix (see next note). Eyeskip, or reporter omission, would have been easy.

3.32/374 helicanus] Q4; not in Q1; All. (MS correction in Bodleian Q1). The prefix is missing both from the text and the catchword.

3.32/374 of Antioch] This edition (G.T.); from Antiochus Q. Q's repetition—'from Antiochus … welcome | From him … come'—is suspicious, and a reporter could easily have confused an initial Indication of place (of Antioch) with a subsequent indication of person (from Antiochus).

3.33–7/375–9 (L) From … came ] rowe; prose Q

3.33/375 king Antiochus] This edition (G.T.); him Q. See preceding notes. Unemended, the speech must begin with a four-syllable part-line, which is rare. 'King Antiochus' balances 'princely Pericles'.

pg 564

3.36/378 Lord's] This edition (G.T.); Lord has Q

3.36/378 betoke] Q2 (betooke); betake Q1; betaken edwards

3.37/379 Now my] edwards; now Q1; my Q4

3.38–41/380–83 (L) Wee … Tyre ] rowe; prose Q

3.38/380 enquire] This edition (conj. W. S. Walker); desire Q; inquire of hudson 2

3.41/383 Exeunt] Q2; Exit. Q1

Sc. 4] malone; not in Q

388 (I) aspire,] Q4; ⁓? Q1

390 (I) ene] euen

4.8/391 they're] rowe; they are Q

4.8/391 midges] This edition (G.T.); miſchiefs Q. Most editors have felt that Q's word is corrupt, conjecturing 'mistful' (steevens), 'mistie' (singer 2), 'misery's' (w. s. walker), 'weakness'' (kinnear). Although mischief in the sense 'misfortune' is well attested (sb. 1), it is not clear why their griefs should be 'but' felt or seen with the eyes of misfortune (one would expect the victim's eyes to exaggerate the magnitude of the misfortune), or how the line contrasts with groves which grow higher by being topped. Midges, by contrast, are a suitable image of smallness; their attacks are 'felt'; they are naturally associated with 'Groues'. A 'midge's eyes' are small, and hence suggest diminutive grief; but midges can also 'rise' (like groves) and multiply (if 'topped', or sexually mounted). Q's 'mischiefs' could be an aural error.

4.13/396 our sorrowes dictate] This edition (G.T.); and ſorrowes Q; and sorrows cease not schanzer; and sorrows force us edwards. This couplet is obelized as hopelessly corrupt by both Maxwell and Hoeniger. The emendation of 'and' to 'our' presupposes an easy misreading, and allows 'sorrowes' to control 'toungs'—or vice versa, depending upon one's interpretation of the syntax. Of proposals for the missing verb, 'dictate' seems superior to 'force' or 'cease', because of its double meaning: 'command' but also 'read aloud'.

4.13/396 to] Q1; doe Q2; too malone

396 (I) deepe‸ ] malone; ⁓: Q

4.14/397 to] Q1; do malone I; too malone 2

397 (I) weepe,] Q3; ⁓. Q1

4.15–17/398–400 (L) Till … comfort them ] collier; proclaime| while| awake| Q

4.15/398 loungs] steevens; toungs Q

398 (I) fetch] feteh

399 (I) heau'n] heauen

4.17/400 helpes] malone; helpers Q

401 (I) seu'rall] ſeuerall

4.20/403 As you thinke] This edition (M.J.); Ile doe my Q. Q has Dionyza ludicrously respond to Cleon's rhetoric as though it were a literal request. The reporter must have misunderstood.Presumably the author intended Dionyza simply to acquiesce in her husband's desire to orate.

4.22/405 or] This edition (G.T.); on Q. Q is unidiomatic; no parallels have been offered, and misreading would be easy.

4.22 o'er] See above.

406 (I) eu'n] euen

4.23/406 the] Q3; her Q1

407 (I) tow'rs] towers

4.26/409 ietted and] Q; jetted all dyce; jetted so G.T. conj. Q's reflexive use of 'adorn'de' is unparalleled.

416 (I) heau'n] heauen

4.34/417 Those] dyce 2; Theſe Q

4.36/419 they] Q2; thy Q1

4.39/422 two sumers] P.A. (502); too ſauers Q

4.47/430 weeping] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. From P.A. 503: 'heere standes one weeping, and there lies another dying'. Q is pointless: it means no more than 'lords and ladies stand around weeping'. P.A.'s contrasts make much better sense of 'stands', and of Q's opposition between 'here' and 'there', 'lord' and 'lady'.

4.47/430 there lies] This edition (M.J.); and there Q. See above.

4.47/430 dying] This edition (G.T.); weeping Q. See above.

4.54/437 heede] collier 2; heare Q

4.55.1/438.1 ⌈faintingLord of Tharsusslowely⌉] This edition; Lord Q. P.A. 503: 'a fainting messenger came slowely into them'.

4.57–8/440–1 (L) Here … t'expect ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; Here| haste| malone

4.57/440 thou] Q4; thee Q1

4.57/440 bringst,] This edition (G.T.); ⁓‸ Q. The change of punctuation makes it clear that 'in hast' modifies 'speake' rather than 'bringst': 'speak in haste, though you move slowly'.

4.58/441 t'expect] This edition; to expect Q

4.59–60/442—3 (L) Wee … hitherward ] Q4; prose Q1

4.59/442 shore] Q; coastes P.A. (503)

4.61/444 thought] Q; fear'd M.J. conj. Alternatively, the whole part-line might be omitted.

446 succeede] ſucccede

4.64/447 neighbour] This edition; neighbouring Q. From P.A 503, 'some neighbour notion (taking aduantage of their present mishap)'. Q repeats 465.

4.66/449 Hath] rowe 3; That Q

4.66/449 these] malone (Steevens); the Q

4.68/451 mẽ] malone (men); mee Q; we steevens (conj.)

4.70–2/453–5 (L) That's … foes ] malone; I line of verse ending 'feare' followed by prose Q

4.72/455 not] This edition (G.T.); not as Q. An easy memorial repetition, superfluous and extrametrical.

4.73/456 hims] malone; himnes Q

4.75/458 and what they can,] Q; not in steevens. One sympathizes with the desire to reduce the wordiness of this speech, but 'will' and 'can' do convey a pertinent contrast. See 485.

4.76–8/459–61 (L) What … heere ] malone; 1 line ending 'lowest',followed by prose Q

459 (I) feare?] Q4 ( ⁓, ); leaue‸ Q1

4.77/460 Our graues] This edition (G.T.); our grounds Q1; the ground's Q4; On ground's maxwell. Editors cite Tilley G 464, 'He that lies upon the ground can fall no lower'. But this leaves 'halfeway there' nonsensical or flat, and the proverb may itself explain the memorial or compositorial error. If—as most editors agree—the line is corrupt, Q1's 'grounds' is as likely a candidate as its 'our' (which is demonstrably pertinent to their collective state). A grave is naturally described as 'low'—see for instance K. John 2.1.164/440, Timon 5.5.84/2303—and the idea of being halfway in the grave is related to the proverb 'One foot in the grave' (ODEP, p. 396). Finally, in a passage of P.A. not taken from Twine, Wilkins refers to music which could 'haue drawne backe an eare, halfe way within the graue' (513, our italics). In P.A.'s account of this episode, Cleon ends his address to the messenger by imploring their enemies at least to 'affoord them buriall' (503). The proposed error—graues/grounds—involves an easy misreading.

460 (I) lowest,] Q4; ⁓? Q1

461 (I) Gen'rall] Generall

4.79/462 (L) To … comes ] rowe; prose Q

4.79/462 comes?] This edition; comes, and what he craues? Q. 'What he craues' simply repeats 'for what he comes', and repeats a phrase elsewhere ('what they craue', 7.46/809). Without it Cleon's question is syntactically balanced (for what he comes … whence he comes) and metrically regular.

4.80/463 Exit] malone 2; not in Q

4.82.1/465.1 the Lord again, conducting] hoeniger (subs.); not in Q. From P.A. 503.

4.87–8/470–1 Since entering your vnshut gates haue witness'd | The widow'd] This edition (G.T.); And ſeene the Q. Pericles cannot have seen 'as farre as Tyre' the streets of Tharsus: rather, he heard of their misery before coming, and since coming has seen it for himself. See P.A.: Pericles 'no sooner entred into their vnshut gates, but his princely eies were partaking witnesses of their widowed desolation' (503).

4.89/472 hearts] hudson 2 (W. S. Walker); teares Q. The corruption may lie deeper: G.T. conj. 'to your sorrows to add feares'.

4.92/475 fraught] This edition (G.T.); stuft Q. Q repeats 4.66/449; P.A. has 'those his shippes which their fears might cause them to think were fraughted with their destruction, were intreasured with corne' (503).

4.93/476 importing] dyce; expecting Q

pg 565

478 (I) hunger staru'd] Q4; ⁓-⁓ Q1

4.96/479 falling on their knees and weeping] This edition; not in Q. From P.A.: 'not hauing strength enough to giue a showte for ioy, gazing on him, and heauen, fell on their knees, and wept' (504).

4.96/479 (L) The … you ] This edition (G.T.); 2 lines Q: protect you|

4.97–9/480–2 (L) Arise … men ] rowe; 2 lines Q: reuerence|

4.99/482 me, my] This edition (G.T.); our ſelfe, our Q. Q is extrametrical. See P.A.: 'to giue me safe harborage, and hospitalitie for my shippes and men' (504).

4.102/484 thought] Q; aught malone

486 (I) heau'n] heauen

4.105 ne'er] Q (neare)

Sc. 5] This edition; not in Q; Actus Secundus. F3; Act II Scene I rowe

5.4/494 Proue] steevens; That Will proue Q. Q seems wrong not only metrically, but in its shift of tense.

5.11/501 Tharsis] This edition (conj. Musgrove); Tharstill Q1; Tharſus Q4

5.12/502 speken] white; ſpoken Q

5.14/504 His Statue build] This edition (G.T.); Build his Statue Q. This seems the simplest of many conjectures seeking to remedy the metre of this line; it presumes transposition of unusual word order.

5.16.6/506.6 with their traines] malone 2 (subs.); not in Q

5.17/507 Helican] Q3 (Hellican); Helicon Q1. Malone's 'Helicane' is a mere modernization; Q3's form appears in Gower (582).

5.19/509 for that] This edition (conj. Proudfoot); for though Q; for thy singer 2

5.22/512 Sent word] This edition (G.T.); Sau'd one Q; Sends word steevens (Theobald)

5.24/514 hid] Qa; had Qb

5.24/514 intent] Qb; in Tent Qa

5.24/514 murdren] This edition (conj. Maxwell); murdred Qa; murder Qb

5.25/515 Tharsis] Q1; Tharſus F3

5.27/517 dẽing] This edition (G.T.); doing Q; knowing malone (Steevens). An easy misreading. Deem was often spelt 'deme' (OED).

5.36 aught] Q (ought)

5.38.1/528.1 Enter Pericles wette] This edition; after 5.40/530 Q. The misplacement of this direction could be due to the two different kinds of transmission (manuscript for Gower's speech; reported for the scene). See Introduction.

5.38.1/528.1 and halfe naked] This edition; not in Q. In Twine Pericles is 'cast vp now naked' (434); in Gower, 'All naked' (643). Complete nudity is unlikely on the Jacobean stage, but shipwrecked characters are elsewhere described as 'wet' and 'halfe naked' (Heywood, The Foure Prentices of London, ii. 176–7); in modern productions, too, Pericles usually enters with little on. This 'nakedness' agrees well with the action at 5.119–21/609–11, and seems emblematically significant, in contrast to his princely apparel in the preceding scenes.

5.40/530 Exit] malone; not in Q

5.40.1/530.1 Thunder and lightning] This edition; not in Q.

5.41/531 pericles] Editors since Malone mark the beginning of a new scene, but Gower's 'heere he comes' makes it probable that the action is continuous.

5.45/535 Seas] Q; sea rowe 3

5.46/536 my] Q; me malone

5.51.1/541.1 He sits.] This edition; not in Q. It seems most unlikely that the exhausted shipwrecked Pericles 'stands' aside during the following sequence; it would be awkward for an actor to speak his asides lying down, and in any case such a staging would anticipate the climactic collapse at 5.118.1/608.1. Sitting—like that of Constance, or Lear, in their distress—thus seems likely. In Twine 'when he had recouered to land, wearie as he was, he stoode vpon the shoare, and looked vpon the … sea, saying …' (434); the source thus suggests that his opening speech is spoken standing up.

5.51.2/541.2 two] This edition; three Q. The third probably lags behind the others; see following notes.

5.51.2/541.2 poore] This edition; not in Q. See P.A., 'these poore countrey people' (506), 'the poore Fisherman' (507), 'the poore Fishermen' (508), and Twine, 'a poore fisherman' (435).

5.52/542 maister] This edition; 1. Q. See P.A., 'the maister Fisherman' (507), and 5.56, 59/546, 549, etc.

5.52, 53, 55/542, 543, 545 calling] This edition; not in Q. The second fisherman would hardly address orders to his master, and so presumably speaks to the third (5.53–4/543–4); at 5.56/546 the third answers 'Maister', apparently in response to 5.55/545, with 'I say' and the correspondence of 'pelch' and 'Patch-breech', seems clearly addressed to the same figure as 5.52/542.

5.52/542 What‸ ho, ] malone; What, to‸ Q; What's‸ to, trent (conj. in Hoeniger)

5.52 Pilch] Q (pelch)

5.55.1–3/545.1–3 Enterbeholde ] This edition; not in Q. The description—'rough … beholde'—comes from Twine (p. 434), which seems clearly to have influenced the conception of this character (compare 'pelch', 'Patch-breech'). For the timing of his entrance see preceding notes.

5.55.3–4/545.3–4 herepaire ] This edition; not in Q. See P.A., where the fishermen 'were come out of their homely cottages to dry and repaire their nettes, who being busied about their work … passed away their labour with discourse to this purpose, in comparing the Sea to Brokers and Vsurers … Againe comparing our rich men to Whales …' (506). The detail of the nets does not come from Twine or other sources, so P.A. either invents it or takes it from the play; but it is superfluous to the narrative, and serves a clear purpose in performance, giving the fishermen something to do during their conversation. It also agrees with 5.53–4/543–4: since the Second Fisherman himself exits to draw a net out of the sea at 5.136–136.1/627–627.1, he is presumably not here asking for nets to be pulled in, but brought out. Compare the sewing women in Coriolanus 1.3/Sc. 4.

5.57–75/547–65 (L) Looke … all ] malone; verse Q: now| wanion| men| now| heare| them| our selues| much| tumbled| flesh| washt| Sea| a-land| little ones| fitly| tumbles| him| mouthfull| land| swallow'd|

5.58/548 fetch'th] Q1; fetch thee Q4

5.72/563 deuowres] F4; deuowre Q

5.74/564 they] Q; they've malone; they ha' maxwell (Cambridge)

5.77–8/567–8 (L) But … belfrie ] malone; verse Q: Sexton|

5.80/570 3. fisher-man] Q4; I. Q (c.w. and text)

5.80–5/570–5 (L) Because … minde ] malone; verse Q: too| belly| Belles| left| againe|

575 (I) minde,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

5.87–8/577–8 (L) We … honey ] malone; verse Q; Drones|

5.89 finny] Q (fenny)

580 (I) th'] the

5.93/583 Comming forward] This edition; not in Q

5.94–6/584–6 (L) Honest … after it ] malone; verse Q: you|

584 (I) Honest,] Q2; ⁓‸ Q1

5.95/585 scracht] singer 2; ſearch Q; scratch it malone (Steevens)

5.95 and] Perhaps 'an' meaning 'if'.

5.98–9/588–9 (L) What … way ] malone; verse Q; Sea|

5.104–6/594–6 (L) No … working ] malone; verse Q: begge| Greece|

5.116/606 craue] This edition (G.T.); aske Q. See 5.128–9/619–20.

5.118/608 pray] Q4; pray you Q1

5.118.1/608.1 He fals downe] This edition; not in Q. In Twine he 'fell down prostrate' at the fisherman's feet (434); P.A. describes 'the chiefe of these Fishermen … lifting [Pericles] vp from the ground' (507).

5.119 quoth-a] Q (ke-tha)

5.119 an] Q (and)

614 more‸ or ] malone (Farmer); ⁓; ⁓ Q

5.123 moreo'er] See preceding note.

pg 566

5.129–30/620–1 (L) But … whipping ] malone; verse Q: craue|

5.130 an] Q (and)

5.131/622 all your] Q4; you Q1; your Q4

5.134–6/625–7 Beadle. | maister Thine office sirrah, | 2. fisher-man Is to] This edition (G.T.); Beadle; but Maister, Ile goe Q. Q's transition to the exit of the two fishermen is abrupt and transparent; but P.A. has 'the maister Fisherman commaunding his seruants to goe dragge vp some other nettes' at this point (p. 507). Taylor ('Transmission') conjectured that one of the fishermen here doubled one of the bawds later; if so, this passage could be contaminated by recollection of Boult's 'but Ile go searche the market' (16.23/1548). The Master addresses the other fishermen as 'thou' elsewhere. See next note.

5.136/627 other Nets, Ile goe] This edition (G.T.); Net Q. See preceding note.

5.136.1/627.1 Exit with 3. Fisher-man] malone (subs.); not in Q

5.138/629 seating himselfe by Pericles] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 507.

5.141–2/632–3 (L) Why … Simonides ] malone; verse Q: Pentapoks|

5.141/632 is] Q2; I Q1

5.144/635 I sir, and he deserues so to be cal'd] Q; Yea, and rightly so called sir P.A. (507)

5.144–5/635–6 (L) I … gouernement ] verse Q: cal'd|

5.146–8/637–9 He … shore ] Q; prose malone. It seems unlikely that Pericles collapses into prose in only this and the next speech, while maintaining metrical speech throughout the rest of the scene.

5.146–7/637–8 from his subiects | He gaines] steevens; he gaines from | His subiects Q. An easy memorial transposition; Q substitutes the commoner word order.

5.148/639 shore] Q; place P.A. (507)

5.149–52/640–3 (L) Mary … partes of ] malone; verse Q: you| birth-day |

5.149/640 some halfe] P.A. (507); halfe Q

5.150/641 faire Daughter] Q; princely daughter named Thaysa P.A. (507)

5.151/642 and] Q; in the honour of which P.A. (507)

5.151/642 Princes] Q; many ⁓ P.A. (507)

5.152/643 for] Q; in hope to gaine P.A. (507)

5.153–4/645–6 (L) Were … there ] This edition (G.T.); desires| Q; prose malone

5.153/645 Were but] P.A. (507); Were Q; Did but steevens

5.153/645 aunswerable | To] P.A. (507); equall to Q; equal steevens. Q substitutes the less apt, more general, commoner word (answerable occurs only 3 times in Shakespeare; equal, 57 times). This emendation and the preceding produce acceptable verse for Pericles, in what would otherwise be anomalous prose.

5.156/648 get himselfe] This edition (G.T.); get Q. Get presumably means (a) acquire (b) conceive, beget. 'Himselfe' is in any case implied, but the sense of the passage is obscure unless the word is explicitly spoken (witness the confusion of editors). It contrasts with (a) the man's wife (b) the customer to whom he sells her, who 'gets' children on her, and by whom the husband 'gets' wealth.

5.156/648–9 for with] This edition (G.T.); for Q. Hoeniger cites numerous parellels for the underlying satiric sense of the sexual innuendo in this passage. But 'deal' by itself cannot mean 'trade'; another preposition is required. 'Deal for with' means both 'acquire in exchange for (his wife's soul, which he surrenders by prostituting her)', and 'negotiate about with (his wife's conscience, which may resist his desire to prostitute her)'.

5.158–62/650–4 (L) Helpe … Armour ] malone; verse Q: Net| out|

5.160.1/652.1 Before helpe comes, vp comes their prize] This edition; not in Q. See P.A.: 'before helpe came, vp came the Fish expected, but prooued indeede to be a rusty armour' (508).

5.163/655 pray] Qb; pary Qa

5.164/656 yeat] Qa; yet Qb. The Qa spelling is acceptable, though rare and obsolescent (OED).

5.164/656 thy] delius (Theobald); not in Q. Confirmed by P.A., 'all her crosses'(508).

657 (I) giu'st] giuest

5.165/657 losses] This edition (conj. Elze); ſelfe Q, See P.A.: 'so accompting all his other losses nothing' (508). P.A. in the same passage has 'repayre his fortunes', but 'Fortune … repayre my fortunes' seems awkward, and P.A.'s alternative provides a rhyme.

658 (I) owne,] Q5; ⁓‸ Q1

660 (I) eu'n] euen

663 (I) sau'd] ſaued

663 (I) it: in like necessitie,] malone (Theobald); ⁓‸ ⁓: Q

5.172/664 forfend,] This edition (G.T.); protect, Q. Shakespeare uses this verb 10 times, always in prayers to God(s). Here it improves the metre, disentangles the syntax, and jingles characteristically with 'defend'. See next note.

5.172/664 the‸ same may ] This edition (G.T.); thee, Fame may Q; thee‸ from, 't may malone; thee‸ from| may't staunton. Q is nonsensical and its mispunctuation seemingly a consequence of its misreading. Malone's emendation of 'Fame' leaves 'may' without a subject, requiring further emendation or the assumption of a difficult ellipsis. The new emendation assumes misreading of 'ſame' as 'fame', followed by misinterpretation of the ambiguous spelling 'the'. See preceding note.

5.174/666 spares] Q; spare malone

5.175/667 haue] Q1; hath Q2; they've malone

667 (I) giu'n't] giuen't

5.177/669 in's] Q4; in his Q1

673 (I) lou'd] loued

675 (I) Sou'raignes] Soueraignes

5.184/676 with't] steevens; with it Q

5.185/677 fortunes] steevens (Mason); fortune's Q

5.188/680 lernd] This edition; borne Q. See P.A.: 'telling them, that with it hee would shew the vertue hee had learned in Armes' (508).

5.189 d'ye] Qa (di'e), Qb (do'e)

5.195/687 this] This edition (G.T.); them Q; it malone

5.197/689 I'm] This edition; I am Q

5.198/690 rapture] rowe 3; rupture Q. Confirmed by P.A. (508).

5.201/693 delightsome] This edition (G.T.); delight Q; delightfull F3, Q1 (MS). An adjective is evidently required, but 'delightfull' is a mere commonplace guess; 'delightsome', with the same meaning, was in current literary use, and alliterates typically.

5.203–4/695–6 (L) Onely … Bases ] malone; 1 line Q. A line-divided foot.

5.203/695 friends] dyce; friend Q

5.205–7/697–9 (L) Wee'le … my selfe ] malone; verse Q: haue| paire|

5.208/700 equale] maxwell (Staunton); a Goale Q; egal bullen (conj.)

5.209.1/701.1 Exeunt with Nets and Armour] This edition; not in Q; Exeunt. rowe

Sc. 6] This edition; not in Q; [ACT II.] SCENE II. malone

6.0.1/701.2 Sennet.] This edition; not in Q. See 1.39.1/42.1.

6.0.1–2/701.2–3 with Lords in attendaunce] This edition; with attendaunce Q; Lords, and Attendants malone

6.0.2/701.3 and sit on 2. thrones] This edition; not in Q. See 6.6/707, and P.A., 'They thus seated' (508).

6.2–3/703–4 (L) They … them selues ] This edition; 2 lines Q: comming|

6.2/703 They] This edition; They are my Leidge, and Q

6.4/705 daughter] malone; daughter heere Q

6.7/708 Exit one] malone (Exit a Lord); not in Q

6.8/709 my] steevens; my royall Q. Probably contamination from 6.24/725 (where the phrase is metrical). Such vocatives are the least reliable feature of reported texts.

712 (I) Heau'n] Heauen

6.13/714 Renowne] malone; Renownes Q. The emendation seems worth making for the sake of symmetry, and because terminal 's' errors are so common (even in texts normally transmitted).

6.14/715 office] This edition (conj. Steevens); honour Q

6.16.1/717.1 Flourish.] This edition; not in Q. It would be odd for such entrances not to be accompanied by fanfares, as they regularly were in English royal entertainments.

pg 567

6.16.1/717.1 richly armed] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. (508).

6.16.2–3/717.2–3 andThaysa ] malone (subs.); not in Q. From P.A. (508–9); we follow its wording more closely than Malone and other editors. Malone also initiated the convention of only specifying the action for the first knight, and leaving it implicit for the others; but the formulaic repetition of the direction mirrors the artificiality of the ceremony.

6.21.1/722.1 SheKing ] hoeniger (subs.); not in Q. See P.A. (509); again we follow Wilkins more closely, and repeat the direction for the other knights.

6.23.1–2/723.1–2 HeKnight ] hoeniger (subs.); not in Q. Hoeniger has the shield returned 'through' Thaisa; this is possible but not necessary.

6.26/727 An Armed] This edition (G.T.); Is an Armed Q; Is an arm'd rowe

727 (I) conquer'd] F3; conquered Q

6.27/728 thus] This edition; thus in Spanish Q. The phrase 'in Spanish' does not occur in P.A. (509), and probably expresses no more than the reporter's own confusion, as the motto can hardly be turned into Spanish. See next notes.

6.27 Piùe] Q, P.A. (Pue), hoeniger; Piu malone; Mas malone (conj.)

6.27/728 Perper ] Q; Porpor rowe 3

6.27/728 dolceza] hoeniger (Hertzberg conj. in Maxwell); doleera Q; dolcera P.A. (509); dulçura malone

6.27 che] Q (kee), P.A. (qui), hertzberg (conj. in Maxwell); chi rowe 3; que malone

6.27 forza] Q (ſorſa), P.A. (sſorſa), rowe 3; fuerça malone; fuerza dyce

6.28/729 You … force. ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A.: 'more by lenitie than by force' (509). The ceremonial character of the occasion strongly endorses P.A.'s provision of a comment from the King on all six imprese. The gloss in P.A. can be made metrical by omission of its second 'by'. Simonides' comments, in both Q and P.A., often relate the motto directly to the knight or Thaisa; here, alternatively, one might conjecture 'You conquer' (though that seems an unfortunate repetition of 6.26/727).

6.29/730 what's] Q4; with Q1; who maxwell

6.29–31/730–2 (L) The third … apex ] steevens; deuice| Q

731 (I) Chiualry] Q2; Chiually Q1

6.31/732 pompæ] P.A. (509); Pompey Q

6.32–3/733–4 Desire … enterprise. ] This edition; not in Q. See note to 6.28/729. The gloss in P.A.—'the desire of renowne drew him to this enterprise' (509)—is correct in substance, but must be modified to produce verse, and can hardly be squeezed into a single line. Any conjecture must be built upon the two metrical phrases 'desire of renowne' and 'him to this enterprise'. The only other element absolutely required, and provided by P.A., is a verb linking the two phrases; but the verb alone can hardly consume the extra syllables required to produce two verse lines. The present conjecture takes account of (a) the rhyme in Simonides' next gloss, and in his speeches generally (b) the recurrence of 'which' and 'the which' constructions in this sequence, and generally in Sc. 1–9. For 'deuise' see OED, v. 5d ('represent by art').

6.34/735 A Knight of Athens, bearing] This edition; not in Q. The formal nature of the scene suggests that P.A is right to identify all the knights; identification of some but not others is theatrically awkward. In P.A. this emblem is borne by a man 'of Athens' (509). His rank is not specified, and Wilkins describes all the tilters as 'Princes' (508); but Q's stage direction identifies him as a knight, which therefore seems the safest specification. Addition of an identity for the fourth knight also rectifies the metre here.

6.37/738 this] This edition (conj. Maxwell); his Q; her w. s. walker (conj.)

6.37/738 &] Q: at maxwell

6.39/740 And who the fift?] This edition; not in Q. See note to 6.34/735. This is the only knight whose identification is not in Q prompted by some such question from Simonides. If the Fifth Knight is to be identified—see next note—then a short question is needed to fill out the verse line.

6.39–40/740–1 a Prince of Corinth, | Presents] This edition; not in Q. See P.A., 'a Prince of Corinth' (509). Though in P.A. he is the second knight, bearing the third knight's device, Corinth is the only location specified in P.A. which remains for Q's fifth knight. Moroever, Corinth had a reputation for wealth (see Stubbes), so the gold of the emblem is unusually appropriate.

6.43/744 So … into ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 509 ( … looked … ).

6.43.3–6/744.3–6 PericlesThaysa ] malone (subs.); not in Q. We follow P.A.'s wording (509).

6.44–5/745–6 (L) And … deliuereth ] steevens; which| Q; what's| himself| dyce

6.45/746 deliuereth] This edition (conj. Maxwell); deliuered Q

6.47/748 wither'd] rowe; withered Q

6.49/750 Frõ] This edition (M.J.); A pretty morrall frõ Q. A suspicious repetition of 5.76/567.

6.54/755 T'] This edition; To Q

6.56/757 Vnto] This edition; To Q

6.56/757 furnisht] Q; furnished malone

6.60/761 for] schanzer (anon, conj.); by Q

6.60.1/761.1 Cornets] This edition; not in Q. Cornetts are used to indicate the beginning and progress of an off-stage tilt in Kinsmen 5.3, the closest Shakespearian parallel for the action here.

6.61–2/762–3 (L) But … Gallerie ] malone; comming| Q

6.62/763 Exeunt] rowe; not in Q

6.62.1/763.1 Cornets and] This edition; not in Q. See 6.60.1/761.1.

6.62.1/763.1 within] dyce; not in Q

Sc. 7] This edition; not in Q; [ACT II.] SCENE III. malone

7.0.1/763.3 A stately banquet is brought in.] malone (A Banquet prepared); not in Q. See P.A.: 'Pericles as chiefe … with all the other Princes, were by the Kings Marshall conducted into the Presence, where Symonides and his daughter Thaysa, with a most stately banquet stayed to giue them a thankefull intertainment' (509).

7.0.2/763.4 Thaysa,] malone; not in Q

7.0.2/763.4 and their traine] This edition; not in Q; Lords malone; Lords, Ladies kittredge. In fact such supernumeraries are not required by the dialogue, though the occasion seems to call for a full stage. But 'traine' is conveniently ambiguous about whether any women are present, besides Thaisa.

7.0.2–3/763.4–5 at one doore ⌈, andat another doore] This edition; not in Q

7.0.3/763.5 a Marshall] craig; not in Q. See P.A. (quoted above).

7.0.3–4/763.5–6 conducting Pericles and the other] This edition; and Q

7.1/764 (to the Knights)] This edition; Knights, Q. Q's word is extrametrical and superfluous: bad quartos often translate stage action into dialogue.

7.2/765 To] F4; I Q

7.7/770 You're] This edition; You are Q

7.7/770 Princes, and] Q; not in steevens

7.11/774 yours] Q4; your Q1

7.13/776 Artists] steevens (Malone); an Artist Q. The plural is not only more metrical, but better agrees with 'some' and 'others'.

7.15/778 You are] This edition; And you are Q1; And you Q4; And you're malone

7.17 Marshal] Q (Martiall)

7.23/786 Haue] Q1; That Q4

7.24/787 Enuied] sisson (Trent); Enuies Q1; Enuie Q4. The manuscript fragment with several quotations from Pericles recorded by Beal (British Library, Add. MS 41063, fol. 87) agrees with Q4 in this and the preceding variant; which suggests it is both late and derivative.

7.24/787 shall] Q1; do Q4

7.25.1–2/788.1–2 PericksThaysa. ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. (510).

7.25.2–3/788.2–3 The guestsnothing ] This edition; not in Q. From Twine (436); Gower makes the same point, in different words (734–7).

7.26, 28, 35, 36/789, 791, 798, 799 Aside] cambridge; not in Q

7.26/789 thoughts] Q. This is not an obvious attribute for Jove, and suspiciously anticipates 7.27/790; nor does it provide either a parallel for Thaisa's oath or an attribute especially appropriate to pg 568the character (as hers is). Jove is described as 'the king of gods' at Troilus 2.3.11/1171.

7.27/790 distast] This edition (conj. Collier); resist Q. Q must take an unparalleled, awkward sense, and could easily arise from memorial or compositorial error.

7.27/790 but] hudson 2 (Mason); not Q. Though retained by some editors, Q would have to mean 'not thinking of him makes me lose my appetite', and hence 'thinking about him gives me an appetite'. But this is contradicted not only by Thaisa's next speech, but by P.A.: 'they could not spare so much time to satisfie themselues with the delicacie of their viands, for talking of his prayses' (510), in which thinking of Pericles is incompatible with eating.

7.29/792 (I am amaz'd)] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. The eate/meat rhyme, and the metre of this speech, strongly suggest that 4 syllables are missing, which would parallel Simonides' '(I wonder)', and correspond to P.A.'s 'as it were by some diuine operation, both King and daughter, at one instant were so strucke in loue' (510). It also seems dramatically appropriate that Thaisa herself should express some astonishment at so sudden an infatuation.

7.29–31/792–4 (L) all … gallant gentleman ] steevens; vnsauoury| Q

7.31/794 To the King] hoeniger; not in Q

7.31–2/794–5 Sure … countrie Gentleman ] Q. The two short repetitive lines are suspect; but the parallelism may be deliberate, and no expansion is attractive.

7.31–2/795–6 (L) Hee's … more ] boswell; 1 line Q

7.33–4/796–7 (L) then … passe ] malone; Staffe| Q

7.34/797 broke] This edition; broken Q. The use of broke or broken is elsewhere in the Shakespeare canon based entirely on metrical considerations (the lone exception being Q Richard II 2.2.59/975, where F emends to 'broke', restoring the metre). Even though this scene was probably not written by Shakespeare, the Shekespeare canon provides a large sample, which suggests that contemporary poets would have regarded the two forms as semantically indifferent, with the choice between them governed by metrical considerations.

7.36/799 Yon] Q2; You Q1

7.37/800 me] Q4; not in Q1

7.37/800 what] edwards; that Q

7.42/805 sonnes] malone; ſonne Q

7.42/805 a] steevens; like a Q

7.42/805 night] Q. Edwards alleges that 'The eclipsed sun is properly a glow-worm in the day, temporarily extinguished or invisible' (p. 36), and hence that the rhyme has been invented by the reporter, and the image muddled. But Pericles is now in the 'night' of his fortune, berest both of his sun-like father and of his glorious inheritance; even in the night, the glow-worm's light is insignificant compared to the sun's: a light so dim that it can only be seen when no other light competes with it.

7.48, 51/811, 814 the other knights] This edition; Knights. Q. It seems unlikely that Pericles joins in any of this cheerful communal dialogue; the sources, and P.A., stress his noticeable sorrow here, and Simonides remarks on it immediately after this exchange.

7.49/812 stor'd] malone; stur'd Q

7.50/813 you do] Q4; do you Q1

7.50/813 full] This edition (G.T.); fill Q. Q can only be an imperative verb, which requires the entire line to be interpreted as a selfsufficient parenthesis in the middle of Simonides' sentence. With 'full', the first two lines of the speech are a conceit: the cup is full to the brim, as you are full of love, and for a lover the natural 'brim' is his mistress's lip, the consummation to which he aspires. For a related metaphor, see 'Steep'd me in pouerty, to the very lips' (Othello 4.2.52/2463).

7.56–8/819–21 (L) O … them ] This edition; Daughter| aboue| Q; daughter| above| comes| malone

821 (I) eu'ry] euery

7.59/822 so doing] This edition (G.T.); doing ſo Q. Compare 'not so doing' at Coriolanus 3.2.26/1809 (the only other instance in the canon of these three words in juxtaposition).

7.59/822 like] This edition (G.T.); like to Q

7.61/824 entertaine] dyce 2 (W. S. Walker); entraunce Q1; enterance Q4

7.62/825 beare] This edition (conj. Wilson); ſay wee drinke Q. Hoeniger claims that P.A. 'gives as much support for drink as for bear'. But it is already clear from Q that Simonides drinks (7.51/814); in P.A., 'calling for a boule of wine, hee dranke to him, and so much further honoured him, that he made his daughter rise from her seate to beare it to him' (510). Simonides could himself tell Pericles, across the table, that he drinks to him; he has, in fact, already made such an announcement to all the knights. Both the dramatic sequence and the evidence of P.A. thus support Wilson's conjecture; without it, 'my prefer' (862) makes little or no sense; and Thaisa clearly does take the bowl to Pericles (7.73/836), though in the text of Q she has not been told to do so.

7.69/832 Furthermore] hoeniger; And furthermore Q; And further malone

7.69/832 know] malone; know of him Q

7.70.1/833.1 ThaysaPericles ] This edition; not in Q

7.71–2/834–5 you, | Wishing] This edition; you. | Peri. I thanke him. | Tha. Wishing Q. Pericles' short speech interrupts Thaisa's sentence, is not integrated into the metrical structure, and looks like an anticipation of his next speech.

7.73.1/836.1 He pledges the King] This edition; not in Q

7.79/842 vnconstant] This edition; not in Q; and vnconstant P.A. (510). P.A. reproduces this speech almost verbatim, except as noted below. It is suspicious that P.A. so readily produces an extra iambic pentameter line, and the two key words it adds—unconstant and unfortunately—occur nowhere else in the play, and so cannot have originated in a misplaced memory of some other phrase.

7.79–80/842–3 berest | Vnfortunately both] This edition; rest Q; most vnfortunately berest both P.A. (510)

844 (I) And] Q2; and Q1

7.81/844 driuen] Q; throwen P.A. (510)

7.81.1/844.1 ThaysaKing ] This edition; not in Q

7.83–4/846–7 (L) A … seas ] This edition; 1 line Q; Tyre| collier

7.83/846 (seeking aduentures) | Was] This edition; not in Q. Q's speech is metrically defective, does not contain a verb, and omits any equivalent of Pericles' 7.77–8/840–1; all three deficiencies are rectified by a concise paraphrase of 7.78–9/841–2 (Who … aduentures … Was).

7.84/847 solely] This edition (G.T.); onely Q; newly elze (conj.). Q, if correct, must take an unparalleled meaning, and could easily result from aural or synonym substitution for solely, which can mean both 'singly, alone' and 'only, merely'. Under the former sense OED cites Wilkins's translation of The Historie of Justine (Llij).

7.86/849 mis-haps] This edition; misfortune Q. From P.A. (see next note). Q's repetition is suspicious. Mishap(s) was normally strongly accented on the second syllable.

7.87.1–96/851.1–859 The Kingking ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. From P.A.: 'Which mis-haps of his the king vnderstanding of, hee was strucke with present pitty to him, and rising from his state, he came foorthwith and imnbraced him, bade him be cheered, and tolde him, that whatsoeuer misfortune had impayred him of, Fortune, by his helpe, could repayre to him, for both himselfe and Countrey should be his friendes, and presently calling for a goodly milke white Steede, and a payre of golden spurres, them first hee bestowed vppon him, telling him, they were the prises due to his merite, and ordained for that dayes enterprise: which kingly curtesie Pericles as thankefully accepting. Much time beeing spent in dauncing and other reuells,' (510). This passage does not derive from Twine, and the reporter's memory might easily skip from one of Simonides' efforts to brighten the atmosphere (the gifts) to another (the dance).

861 (I) E'un] Euen

7.99/862 Your limbs will] This edition (G.T.); Will Q; Will very F2; pg 569Your steps will well anon. (conj. in Cambridge). Q2's syntax and metre are both defective; 'steps' are not normally 'in armour', but 'limbs' are both armoured and used in the dance. The use of 'limbs' would also prepare for the pun on 'armes' below.

7.102.1/865.1 The Knights] malone; They Q

7.104/867 Come] This edition (conj. Elze); Come ſir Q. Q is extrametrical; see next note.

7.105/868 sir,] This edition (conj. Brooks); not in Q. See previous note. Memorial misplacement of vocatives is common.

7.105/868 that] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

868 ye] This edition (G.T.); you Q. See 'their' and 'those' below.

7.110.1/873.1 They] Q; The Knights and Ladies malone. See S. H. Long, 'Laying the Ghosts in Pericles', SQ 7 (1956), 39–42, for an argument that only Pericles and Thaisa dance. It seems best to preserve the ambiguity of Q.

7.112/875 Lights, pages, to] This edition (G.T.); Pages and lights, to Q; Pages and lights, steevens. Steevens's alternative metrical emendation preserves the presence of pages on stage; if ladies are, as seems probable, also present, the number of boy actors required seems excessive.

7.113–14/876–7 (L) These … owne ] malone; Lodgings| Q

876 (I) seu'rall] seuerall

877 (I) giu'n] giuen

7.114/877 should] maxwell (Wilson); not in Q; to F3; shall wilson (conj.). Hoeniger retains Q text and lineation, claiming that 'the intention may well have been to elide we have'; but such an elision does not solve the rhythmical problem in the second half of 7.114/877, or the syllabic deficiency of 7.113/876. See P.A.: 'giuing order, that Pericles Chamber should be next his owne' (510–11).

7.116/879 king] Q3; not in Q1

882 (I) best.] Q2; ⁓: Q1

7.119.1/882.1 Exeunt] malone; not in Q

7.119.1/882.1 seuerally] This edition; not in Q. See 7.113/876.

Sc. 8] This edition; not in Q; [ACT II] SCENE IV. malone

8.0.1 Aeschines] Q (Eſcanes), Eſchines P.A. (512). See 'THE NAMES … ' and Jackson, N&Q 220 (1975), 173–4.

884 (I) liu'd] liued Q

8.3–6/885–8 (L) For … glory ] malone; minding| that| heynous| pride| Q

885 (I) minding‸ ] Q4; ⁓, Q1

8.4/886 hold] This edition (G.T.); with-hold Q. Q says the same thing, extrametrically.

8.7–9/889–91 (L) When … him ] malone 2; in| daughter| Q; chariot| him| dyce

8.9/891 him, both apparrell'd all in Iewells] This edition (G.T.); him Q. The added words are from P.A. (511) (apparrelled).

8.10–11/892–3 (L) A … stounke ] malone; shriueld| Q

8.11/893 Their] steevens; thoſe Q. From P.A. (511).

893 (I) ene] euen

8.13/895 hands] This edition (G.T.); hand Q. The plural seems required to balance 'eyes', as well as being the natural complement to 'their'; P.A. 511 has 'eyes' and 'hands'.

8.14–16/896–8 (L) And … reward ] malone; great| shaft| Q

8.14/896 iustice] Q; just steevens. An extra syllable at a caesura is not unusual, and P.A. has 'Iustice' twice in this passage (511).

898 (I) heau'ns] heauens

8.16.1/899.1 three] malone; two or three Q

8.16.1/899.1 and stand aside] This edition; not in Q

905 (I) welcome,] Q2; ⁓‸ Q1

8.26/908 (L) Your … loue ] rowe; 2 lines Q: what|

8.26/908 your] Q; the steevens. Steevens may be right, but Q's construction—'your prince, [which] you love'—seems typical of the style of this part of the play.

8.29/911 step] This edition (G.T.); breath Q. Q could arise from aural or memorial error: a step proves life as easily as breath, and more naturally relates to 'ground'.

912 (I) resolude] reſolued

8.31/913 giue's] Q1; gives Q5

8.32/914 leaue] Q; leaves malone

8.33/915 death in deeds‸ ] This edition (conj. Brooks); death indeed, Q; death's indeed‸ malone. Brooks's solution is less ambiguous than Malone's, and better explains the error.

8.34/916 this: Kingdomes] maxwell; this, Kingdome is Q

8.36/918 vtter] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. The only other proposed solution to Q's metrical deficiency is steevens's drastic 'will soon to ruin fall'. The phrase 'vtter ruine(s)' is found in P.A. (533) and in Duke of York 1.1.254/255.

8.38/920 vnto as] This edition (G.T.); vnto our Q; vnto—our alexander. An easy misreading or substitution, which makes sense of Q's tortured syntax.

8.39/921 kneeling] This edition; not in Q. Some such referent seems desirable for Q's 'thus'.

8.40/922 By] alexander (Theobald); Try Q; For singer 2 (Dyce)

8.40/922 cause,] singer 2 (Dyce); ⁓; Q

8.41.1/923.1 The Lords rise] This edition; not in Q

8.44/926 But … loue, ] This edition (G.T.); after 8.48/930 Q. As the line stands in Q the transition it effects is meaningless, since the nobles can only search for Pericles if they have first conceded a delay; nor does 'this loue' have any clear referent. As conjecturally transposed, 'this loue' picks up 'If that you loue Prince Pericles' only three lines before, and the line is a pivot between Helicanus' outright rejection of their suffrages and his compromise proposal of a postponement (during which Pericles will be actively sought).

8.45/927 longer then, let me] This edition (G.T.); longer, let me Q; longer, let me then steevens. The word, added to repair the metre, makes better sense in the altered context (see preceding note): 'then' follows naturally from 'if'.

8.46/928 Further to beare] edwards (Hoeniger); To forbeare Q; To further bear bailey (conj. in Cambridge)

8.49/931 seeke] This edition (G.T.); fearch Q. Q probably anticipates the word in 8.50/932.

8.49/931 your noble Prince] This edition (G.T.); like nobles Q; like noblemen steevens; your noble king anon. (conj. in Cambridge). Q makes poor metre and poor sense, as there is no contrast between 'nobles' (or 'noblemen') and 'noble subiects'. The anonymous conjecture seems right, metrically providing the right contrast; but Pericles is usually identified as 'Prince', not 'King', in both Q and P.A.

8.51/933 returne] Q. One expects a rhyme here, or at 8.47–8/929–30; one 'returne' or the other is probably an error.

8.55/937 vs] globe; not in Q; it malone (Steevens); so collier (conj.). Perhaps the entire line should be omitted, on the assumption that—having misplaced 8.56–7/938–9—the reporter found it necessary to invent a paraphrased conclusion to this speech.

8.56–7/938–9 If in the … there. ] This edition (G.T.); after 8.29/911 Q ( ⁓, ) This couplet seems misplaced. Without it, 8.30–2/912–14 create none of the problems which have bedevilled commentators; nor do the Lords anticipate the advice which Hellicanus eventually gives them (that they seek out Pericles for themselves). Instead, the scene follows the same natural progress as P.A. (512): the lords ask Helicanus to prove that Pericles is dead or to become King himself; he tries to dissuade them, but in the end only gains a postponement, in which he urges them to try to trace Pericles. A reporter could easily have misplaced the lines, the opposition between 'liues' and 'dead' (8.30–1/912–13) recalling the similar opposition here.

8.56/938 liue] Q; trauaile G.T. conj. Q bathetically repeats the verb of 8.28/910 and 8.30/912; both senses of 'trauaile' contrast with 'rest' (8.57/939), and better suit 'seeke'. See P.A.: 'since he only knew their Prince was gone to trauell, and that, that trauell was vndertaken for their good' (512). If 8.58/940 is a reporter's gabble, then 'trauels' there may represent a memory of the verb in this line.

8.59/941.1 Exeunt] rowe; not in Q1; Exit. Q4

Sc. 8a] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. See Introduction. This short scene is editorially reconstructed from P.A.: 'whereas all the other Princes vppon their comming to their lodgings betooke themselues to their pillowes, and to the nourishment of a quiet sleepe, he of the Gentlemen that attended him, (for it is to be pg 570noted, that vpon the grace that the king had bestowed on him, there was of his Officers toward him no attendance wanting) hee desired that hee might be left priuate, onely that for his instant solace they would pleasure him with some delightfull Instrument, with which, and his former practise hee intended to passe away the tediousnesse of the night insteade of more fitting slumbers.

His wil was presently obeyed in all things since their master had commaunded he should be disobeyed in nothing: the Instrument is brought him, and as hee had formely wished, the Chamber is disfurnished of any other company but himselfe' (512–13). Bullough provides an alternative reconstruction (551–2), which verbally departs from P.A. more extensively than we do.

8a.0.1/941.2 Gentlemen] P.A. Q at the end of Sc. 7 calls for 'pages', which are an alternative possibility here.

8a.0.1/941.2 with lights] This edition; not in P.A. These properties usefully establish the continuity with the end of Sc. 7, and immediately establish the setting.

8a.1/942 1. gentleman … sir ] P.A. has nothing exactly corresponding to such an announcement, but the narrative takes up when Pericles arrives at 'his lodging' (512), and some such declaration seems desirable from an audience's point of view. Pericles' speech—indirectly reported in P.A. (513)—is most naturally versified by beginning with a part-line.

8a.6/947 1. gentleman Presently.] It seems relatively unlikely that one of the gentlemen would exit without a word; 'presently' occurs in P.A. in the sentence which corresponds to the next line.

8a.8.1/949.1 a stringed Instrument] P.A. refers to the 'fingering' of the instrument, and Pericles sings while he plays (513); in Twine it is a harp (438).

8a.9/950 I thanke you.] There is nothing comparable in P.A. or Bullough's reconstruction, but it would be jarringly untypical of Pericles not to express thanks (as he does seven times elsewhere in 1.1–7.52/1–815).

8a.9–10/950–1 Now … sleepe. ] Used in P.A. of the other knights (513); Bullough has the curt command, 'Now leave me'. Some formula of dismissal is needed; Pericles is characteristically courteous; and the lines emphasize, by contrast, his own inability to sleep (the same purpose they serve in P.A.).

8a.10.2/951.2 Pericles playes, and singes] P.A. describes this musical interlude verbally: 'hee beganne to compell such heauenly voyces from the sencelesse workemanship, as if Apollo himselfe had now beene fingering on it, and as if the whole Sinode of the gods, had placed their deities round about him of purpose, to haue beene delighted with his skill, and to haue giuen prayses to the excellencie of his art, nor was this sound only the rauisher of al hearers, but from his owne cleere breast hee sent such cheerefull notes, which by him were made vp so answerable to the others sound, that they seemed one onely consort of musike, and had so much delicacie, and out of discordes making vp so excellent a coniunction, that they had had power to haue drawne backe an eare, halfe way within the graue to haue listned vnto it, for thus much by our story we are certaine of, that the good Symonides (being by the height of night, and the former dayes exercise, in the ripenesse of his contentfull sleepe) hee reioyced to be awakend by it, and not accompting it a disease that troubled him in the hearing, but a pleasure wherewith hee still wished to be delighted. In briefe, hee was so satisfied to heare him thus expresse his excellence, that hee accompted his Court happy to entertaine so worthy a guest, and himselfe more happy in his acquaintance' (513). Bullough accordingly has Simonides 'In the next room' awake and listen, then speak in soliloquy a versified version of this description. But P.A. does not attribute the words to Simonides; they are most naturally explained as an attempt to compensate (descriptively) for the narrative's inability to reproduce the 'ravishing' theatrical effect of the song. Simonides can hardly be describing the qualities of Pericles' voice while Pericles is simultaneously singing. Bullough's reconstruction also requires simultaneous staging. Simonides would have to appear in his nightgown, and he can hardly remain in his nightgown in Sc. 9. Q marks the beginning of Sc. 9 as a new scene; in Bullough it is a continuation of this scene—which creates further problems. It thus seems reasonable to assume that in performance the song made its own effect, without the need for compliments from Simonides.

8a.11–13/952–4 Day … on. ] From P.A.: 'But day that hath still that soueraigntie to drawe backe the empire of the night, though a while shee in darkenesse vsurpe, brought the morning on' (513). Bullough attributes these words to Simonides (see previous note). Pericles needs to be given a reason for ceasing, and the audience needs to know that he has stayed awake the entire night.

8a.14–15/955–6 I … me. ] From P.A.: 'euen in the instant came in Pericles, to giue his Grace that salutation which the morning required of him' (514). In P.A. this occurs on the occasion of Pericles' entrance in Sc. 9, but the motive is best explained here, since it gives Pericles a reason to leave his lodging/the stage.

Sc. 9] This edition; not in Q; [ACT II.] SCENE V. malone

9.0.2/956.2 entering at another doore] malone; not in Q

9.4–5/960–1 (L) A … get ] This edition (G.T.); knowne| Q; herself| means| malone; life| known| steevens

9.5/961 none can] This edition (G.T.); by no meanes can I Q. Q's prepositional phrase is repeated, more appropriately, at 9.7/963; here it is unmetrical, and throws off the lineation of the speech.

9.6/962 haue] maxwell (W. S. Walker); get Q. 'Have access' is the normal idiom in both Shakespeare (seven times) and Wilkins (P.A. 534; 537, 'haue accesse to her').

9.7–8/963–4 it is impossible, | She … Chamber: ] This edition (G.T.); she hath ſo sttrictly | Tyed … Chamber, that t'is impoſsible: Q. Q creates insoluble metrical and lineation problems as it stands, easily resolved by transposition of the floating phrase 't'is impossible', which allows 'She … Chamber' to stand as an integral verse line. Q's 'that' belongs to its postposition of the phrase.

965 (I) liu'rie] liuerie

9.12/968 Loth] Q; Though ⁓ steevens; Right ⁓ anon. (conj. in Cambridge)

9.12.1/968.1 Exeunt Knightes] dyce; not in Q1; Exit. Q2

9.13–14/969–70 So … Knight ] This edition; 3 lines Q: dispatcht | heere |; 3 lines malone: So | letter |

9.15/971 light.] This edition (G.T.); light. | T'is well Mistris, your choyce agrees with mine: Q. Every element of the omitted line is repeated elsewhere: 'I like that well' (9.16/972), 'I do commend your choyce' (9.18/974). See subsequent notes.

9.18/974 Mistris t'is well,] This edition (G.T.); Well, Q. See preceding note. This comment is much more appropriate here, where its ambiguity—it is well (absolutely), it is well for you that my choice agrees with yours—responds to the impertinence of her 'absolute' behaviour. In Q 'Well' is a pointless extrametrical repetition contributing to an unassimilated mid-speech part-line. We have supposed that 'Mistris t'is well' was misplaced by the reporter, who also (unmetrically) transposed the vocative. (steevens first adopted our word order, leaving the phrase following 9.15/971.)

9.18–20/974–6 (L) I … dissemble that ] steevens; longer| comes| Q

9.18/974 your] This edition (G.T.); her Q. See note to 9.15/971 (Q), where it follows 'T'is well Mistris'.

9.20–1/976–7 that | In shew, I haue determin'd on in' heart] This edition (G.T.); it Q. From P.A.: 'in the instant came in Pericles … when the king intending to dissemble that in shew, which hee had determined on in heart' (514).

979 (I) much,] ⁓: Q1

9.24–5/980–1 night: my eares, | I do protest,] steevens; night: |I do protest, my eares Q; night: I do | Protest, my ears malone. Malone seves Q's (unreliable) word order by means of an (intolerable) line-break.

9.29/985 my good] Q; good my G.T. conj.

9.30/986 (L) Let … daughter ] This edition (G.T.); 2 lines Q: thing|

9.30/986 thinke you of my Daughter] This edition (G.T.); do you thinke of my Daughter, sir Q; do you think, sir, of | My daughter steevens

pg 5719.31/987 And] This edition (G.T.); And she is Q1; And shees Q2

9.33/989 My Daughter sir,] malone; Sir, my Daughter Q

9.34/990 So well indeed] This edition (G.T.); I ſo well Q

9.37.1/993.1 Hereads ] This edition; not in Q

9.39.1/995.1 Hefeete ] This edition; not in Q; Kneels hoeniger (Schanzer). From P.A. (515).

998 (I) aymde] Q4; aymed Q1

9.43/999 her.] This edition; her. | king. Thou hast bewitcht my daughter, | And thou art a villaine. | Peri. By the Gods I haue not; Q. Simonides' charge is repeated by P.A. (515), with greater verbal and dramatic authority, at 9.47–50/1003–6 (see following notes). 'By the Gods' recurs at 9.53/1009. Q's lines scan awkwardly, however arranged, and look like a paraphrased misplacement. In P.A. the equivalent of 9.41–3/997–9 and 9.44–6/1000–2 is a single speech.

9.44–6/1000–2 (L) Neuer … displeasure ] rowe; thought| actions| louel| Q

9.47/1003 Thou lyest like a Traytor] This edition; Traytor, thou lyest Q. From P.A.: the King 'tolde him, that like a traitour, hee lyed. Traytour, quoth Pericles? I, traytour, quoth the king,' (515).

9.47–50/1003–6 traytor, | That … Childe. ] edwards; traytor. Q. From P.A. (515); we depart from P.A. (and Edwards) only in reading 'With' for 'with the'.

9.51/1007 rising] This edition; not in Q. See 9.39.1/995.1.

9.51–2/1007–8 Who cals me Traytor, vnlesse it be the King, | Eu'n in his bosome] This edition (G.T.); Euen in his throate, vnlesse it be the King, | That cals me Traytor Q. The transposition of the opening phrases of these two lines yields a much more intelligible and speakable sense, while according also with P.A.: Pericles 'boldely replyed, That were it any in his Court, except himselfe, durst call him traytor, euen in his bosome he would write the lie'(515).

9.52/1008 will write] This edition (P.A. 515); returne Q. A much more vivid expression: 'bosome' corresponds with 'will write', as Q's commonplace 'throate' does with 'returne'.

9.54/1010 bloud] This edition; thoughts Q. From P.A.: 'his bloud was yet vntainted' (515).

9.56/1012 in search of Honour] This edition (P.A. 515); for Honours cauſe Q. Q echoes 8.40/922.

9.57/1013 your] hudson (W. S. Walker); her Q. From P.A.: 'he came into his Court in search of honour, and not to be a rebell to his State'(515).

9.60–2/1016–18 I … witnesse ] This edition; No? heere comes my Daughter, she can witnesse it Q. Malone noted Q's echo of Othello 1.3.169/455, 'Here comes the Lady, let her witnesse it'; Maxwell and others note that memories of Othello have probably influenced the reporter here. The line in Othello is the cue for the entrance of Desdemona, who (like Marina) would have been played by the company's principal boy; if Marina were the reporter of Q, the chances of contamination are obvious. We have therefore adopted P.A.'s account: the King 'answered, he should prooue it otherwise, since by his daughters hand, it there was euident, both his practise and her consent therein' (515).

9.64–5/1020–1 By what you hope of heauen, or desire | By your best wishes heere i'th' worlde fulfill'd,] This edition; not in Q. From P.A.: Pericles upon Thaisa's entrance 'demaunded of her by the hope she had of heauen, or the desire she had to haue her best wishes fulfilled heere in the worlde' (516).

9.68/1024 made] This edition (G.T.); that made Q. Omission of the relative (which restores the metre) is characteristic of the style of Scenes 1–9.

9.69–70/1025–6 (L) Why … glad ] malone; offence| Q

9.71/1027 How minion] This edition (P.A. 516); Yea Mistris Q. A much more vivid phrase; Q echoes 9.18/974.

9.72/1028 Aside] Q (in margin opposite 9.97/1051)

9.72–96/1028–52 on't, (to Thaysa) is … onely childe ] This edition; on't with all my heart, Q. We follow P.A. (516) in expanding this dialogue: 'How minion, quoth her Father (taking her off at the very word, who dare be displeased withall?) Is this a fit match for you? a stragling Theseus borne we knowe not where, one that hath neither bloud nor merite for thee to hope for, or himselfe to challenge euen the least allowaunce of thy perfections, when she humbling her princely knees before her Father, besought him to consider, that suppose his birth were base (when his life shewed him not to be so) yet hee had vertue, which is the very ground of all nobilitie, enough to make him noble: she intreated him to remember that she was in loue, the power of which loue was not to be confined by the power of his will. And my most royall Father, quoth shee, what with my penne I haue in secret written vnto you, with my tongue now I openly confirme, which is, that I haue no life but in his loue, neither any being but in the enioying of his worth. But daughter (quoth Symonides) equalles to equalls, good to good is ioyned, this not being so, the bauine of your minde in rashnesse kindled, must againe be quenched, or purchase our displeasure. And for you sir (speaking to prince Pericles) first learne to know, I banish you my Court, and yet scorning that our kingly inragement should stoope so lowe, for that your ambition sir, Ile haue your life. Be constant, quoth Thaysa, for euerie droppe of blood hee sheades of yours, he shall draw an other from his onely childe.' Bullough also reconstructs this passage but is less conservative in retaining P.A.'s wording.

9.73/1029 A … where ] edwards, saying this line 'proclaims its genuineness and is altogether too good to lose', inserts it nonsensically after 9.105/1058.

9.97/1053 yea] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. See 9.71/1027. Q is metrically deficient.

9.98/1054 you‸ not‸ ] This edition (G.T.); ⁓‸ ⁓, Q1; ⁓, ⁓‸ Q4. The line is probably deliberately ambiguous; there seems little necessity to emphasize one meaning at the expense of the other.

9.100/1056 aside] Q (in the margin opposite 9.101/1057)

9.102.1, 103.1/1058.1, 1059.1 He catcheshand ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A.: the King 'catching them both rashly by the handes, as if hee meant strait to haue inforced them to imprisonment, he clapt them hand in hand, while they as louingly ioyned lip to lip' (516).

9.103–5/1059–61 (L) Therefore … wife ] This edition (conj. Elze); frame| heare you| make you| Q

9.105/1061 I shall] This edition (G.T.); Ile Q; I will steevens

9.105/1061 He clapstogether ] This edition; not in Q. See note to 9.102.1/1058.1

9.106–9/1062–5 (L) Nay … pleas'd ] malone; hands| ioynd| griefe| Q

9.106.1/1062.1 Pericleskisse ] This edition; not in Q. See note to 9.102.1/1058.1.

9.107.1/1063.1 He parts them] This edition; not in Q

9.108/1064 your further] This edition (G.T.); further Q; a further malone. Malone merely patches the metrical deficiency; but 'your' makes better sense, and a better rhetorical contrast.

9.108/1064 you] This edition; you both Q. Q is extrametrical, and suspiciously anticipates 9.111/1067.

1065 (I) pleas'd] pleaſed

1066 (I) Eu'n] Euen

9.113/1069 Then] malone; And then Q

Sc. 10] This edition; ACT III. malone

10.2/1071 the house about] malone; about the houſe Q

10.6/1075 fore] steevens (Malone); from Q

10.7/1076 Crickets] rowe 3; Cricket Q

10.7/1076 sing at] Q; at maxwell (Collier)

1076 (I) th'] the

10.8/1077 As] malone (Steevens); Are Q; Aye dyce; E'er singer 2 (Dyce); All delius; Sing maxwell

10.10/1079 Where by] Q2; Whereby Q1

10.13 eche] Q (each). Properly modern 'eke', but the older consonant is preserved for the rhyme.

10.14/1083 dumbe] Q; dark maxwell (Daniel)

10.14.1/1083.1 Dumbe shew.] Q5; not in Q1

10.14.3/1083.3 comeshastilyin to them] This edition; meetes Q. From P.A.: 'came hastily in to them' (517).

10.14.8–10/1083.8–10 with … an other ] malone (subs.); not in Q

10.17/1086 Coignes] rowe 3; Crignes Q

10.21 stead] Q (steed)

1090 (I) quest:] rowe 3; ⁓‸ Q

pg 5721090 (I) Tyre ] rowe 3; ⁓: Q

10.29/1098 mutanie] Q; mutine staunton. P.A. confirms Q (518); for the elision compare Coriolanus 3.1.129/1574.

10.29/1098 mutanie‸ there, hee ] steevens; mutanie, hee there⌈ Q. Q's word order, though kept by modern editors, is awkward metrically and grammatically.

10.29/1098 appease] steevens; oppresse Q. P.A. confirms (518).

1103 (I) Pentapolis] Q6; Penlapolis Q1

1104 (I) Irauyshed] malone (Steevens); Iranyshed Q

1110 I) crosse?] ⁓‸

10.46/1115 fortunes mood‸ ] malone (Theobald); fortune mou'd, Q

1125 (I) conuay,] malone; ; Q

1126 (I) not‸ ] malone; ⁓? Q

1126 (I) told;] malone; ⁓, Q

1127 (I) hold‸ ] malone; ⁓: Q

10.60/1129 sea] rowe 3; ſeas Q

10.60/1129 Pericles] Q; prince steevens

10.60/1129 specke] This edition (G.T.); ſpeake Q. The obsolete inflection seems desirable, for the sake of a rhyme; Q's compositor could easily have normalized, consciously or not, the eccentric form.

10.60/1129 Exit] Q5; not in Q

Sc. 11] This edition; not in Q; [ACT III.] SCENE I. malone. There is no indication of overlap between Gower's speech and Pericles'.

11.0.1/1129.1 Thunder and Lightning] This edition; not in Q

11.1/1130 The] Q; Thou rowe. For the with a vocative see Franz §261 and 1 Henry IV 1.2.156/259. Q's 'The' might alternatively represent a misinterpretation of ambiguous manuscript ye/ye; Shakespeare often uses 'ye gods' as a vocative, and at Troilus 2.3.10–12/1171–3 switches from addressing one god as 'thou' to addressing another as 'ye'.

1131 (I) heau'n] heauen

1132 (I) Brasse,] malone; ⁓; Q

11.4/1133 call'd] Q; recall'd dyce 2

1133 (I) deepe;] malone; ⁓, Q

1135 (I) sulph'rous] ſulphirous

11.7/1136 thou] malone; then Q

11.7/1136 stormest‸ ] dyce; storme‸ Q; storm, malone. Malone's emendation seems the more conservative, but entails a substantive emendation of punctuation (with 'venomously' modifying 11.8/1137); Dyce's presumes only the omission of a single type (an st ligature).

11.8 spit] Q (ſpeat); split hoeniger (conj.)

1139 (I) Vnheard.] malone; ⁓‸ Q

11.11 patroness] Q (patrionesse)

11.11/1140 mydwife] malone (Steevens); my wife Q

11.14.1/1143.1 with an Infant] steevens; not in Q

11.16–18/1147–9 (L) Who … Queene ] malone; 2 lines Q; doe|

11.26–7/1155–6 (L) Patience … charge ] This edition; 1 line Q

1156 (I) Ene] Euen

11.27.1/1156.1 SheInfant. ] This edition; not in Q

11.27.1–2/1156.1–2 Periclesweepes ] This edition; not in Q. See P.A.: 'We must intreate you to temperance sir … as you respect your owne safety, or the prosperitie of that prety Babe in your armes. At the naming of which word Babe, Pericles looking mournfully vpon it, shooke his head, and wept' (520). In P.A. the Master is speaking, but 11.27/1156 is the only comparable moment in Q.

1157 (I) blust'rous] blusterous

1160 (I) e'er] euer Q

1162 (I) Heau'n] Heauen

1163 (I) th'] the

11.34/1163 Poore inch of Nature,] hoeniger (Collier); not in Q. From P.A. (519).

1164 (I) Eu'n] Euen

11.36/1165 partage] This edition (conj. Edwards); portage Q. Q has never been satisfactorily explained, and has two specific meanings ('porthole', 'mariner's part-cargo') which would be suggested by the context but are confusingly irrelevant. These senses themselves could, on the other hand, help to account for Q's error, which is anyway an easy one (aurally or palaeographically). Partage was current in the sense 'the share apportioned to one' (OED sb. 2, 1436 +).

11.37.1/1166.1 ⌈the Maisterand a Sayler] This edition; two Saylers Q. In P.A. only 'the Maister' appears (520); this may be implied by Q's '1. Sayler⟩.' in speech-prefixes. One would not expect anyone less than the ship's master to convey such demands to a prince.

11.38, 43, 47, 51/1167, 1172, 1176, 1180 maister] This edition; 1. Sayler⟩. Q (variously abbreviated). See preceding note.

11.40/1169 its worst] This edition (G.T.); the worst Q. For the idiom see Othello 5.2.166/3063, Coriolanus 5.2.105/2904–5, Macbeth 3.2.26/970 ('Treason ha's done his worst'), Sonnets 19.13, 92.1. Q could arise from assimilation to the second half of the line.

11.43/1172 calling] This edition; not in Q

1172 (I) Slake] Qa; Slacke Qb

11.43–4/1172–3 (L) Slake … selfe ] F4; verse Q:wilt thou |

11.43 Slack] Qa (slake), Qb

11.43 bow-lines] Q (bolins)

11.45, 69/1174,1198 sayler] This edition; 2. Sayler⟩. Q (variously abbreviated). See note at 11.38/1167.

11.45–6/1174–5 (L) But … not ] This edition; verse Q: billow|

11.45 an] Q (and)

11.47–9/1176–8 (L) Sir … dead ] This edition; verse Q: hie| Ship|

11.50/1179 but] This edition; not in Q. Compare P.A.: 'the Prince seeking againe to perswade them, tolde them, that it was but the ſondnes of their superstition to thinke so' (520). Whether or not the sailors were intended to speak verse in this passage, Pericles clearly should, and the addition strengthens both sense and metre.

11.51–3/1180–2 (L) Pardon … 'er ] This edition; verse Q: obserued|

1181 (I) obserued,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

11.52/1181 custome] singer (Boswell); easterne Q

11.53/1182 'er] Q1; her Q4

11.53/1182 for … straight. ] malone; ⁓: Q (after 'meet;', 11.54/1183)

11.54.1–2/1183.1–2 Shebed. ] edwards (subs.); not in Q

11.54.2/1183.2 PericlesInfant ] This edition; not in Q. It is awkward for Pericles to hold the baby during his emotional speech, and he apparently no longer has it at 11.66–7/1195–6.

11.59/1188 the oaze] steevens; oare Q. Edwards objects that this traditional emendation is 'almost certainly wrong'; the parallel at Tempest 3.3.100/1447–'my Sonne ith Ooze is bedded'—he dismisses because the passage describes a corpse lying in the mud while this one concerns a coffin being cast to lie with simple shells. The alleged contrast between corpse and (be-corpsed) coffin seems irrelevant; moreover, Shakespeare elsewhere associates 'the Owse and bottome of the Sea' (Henry V 1.2.164/297) with sunken treasure, comparable to the rich chest in which Thaisa is buried. As Shakespeare nowhere else alludes to sea-shells we can hardly legislate on whether he would have found the association with 'ooze' incongruous; he seems elsewhere to have treated 'ooze' es a synonym for 'sea-bottom' (Cymbeline 4.2.206/2157). Compare Richard III 1.4.16–41/781–798, which imagines corpses and treasure scattered on the 'slimy bottome'. The r/z misreading is easy, and omission of 'the' could be due to reporter or compositor.

11.61/1190 And] steevens; The Q

11.61/1190 aye] steevens (Malone); ayre Q; e'er globe. Compare Troilus 3.2.156/173: 'To feed for aye her lampe and flames of loue'. Shakespeare elsewhere has no compounds with either e'er or aye (though several with ever).

11.64/1193 Paper] Q2; Taper Q1

11.66/1195 Coffer] malone; Coffin Q

11.68.1/1197.1 Exit Lichorida] malone 2; not in Q

11.69–70/1198–9 (L) Sir … ready ] malone; verse Q: hatches|

11.72, 74/1201, 1203 maister] This edition; 2. Q; edwards reads first sailor. We follow Edwards in interpreting the prefix as an error, but identify the 'First' sailor as 'Maister' throughout. See note to 11.37.1/1166.1.

11.73/1202 from] maxwell (Collier); for Q

pg 57311.74/1203 breake of] Q. Omission of these words would make the metre more regular; however, Shakespeare nowhere uses By day to mean 'by dawn', and does use breake of day elsewhere. 'Day breake' (OED, 1530 +) would be even more attractive metrically, though again Shakespeare does not use it. See next note.

11.74/1203 Make] This edition; O make Q. There is little need for exclamatory passion in issuing instructions for a ship's course; the line has too many syllables, and reporters often add interjections.

11.78.1–3/1207.1–3 Exitcurtaines ] This edition; Exit. Q; Exeunt rowe. Pericles must depart separately from the sailors, and Thaisa's body must be concealed at some point in the scene. After the Sailor's speech at 11.69–70/1198–9, it would be natural and theatrically effective for him to exit through the trapdoor.

Sc. 12] This edition; not in Q; [ACT ILL] SCENE II. malone

12.0.1/1207.4 poore man and a] hoeniger (subs.); not in Q. The omission might have been compositorial. In P.A. Cerimon is 'this morning in conference with some that came to him both for helpe and for themselues, and reliefe for others; and some that were relating the crueltie of the last nights tempest' (521).

12.2/1209 those] schanzer; theſe Q

12.2.1/1209.1 Exit Phylemon] hoeniger; not in Q

12.4/1211 seen] This edition (G.T.); been in Q. Of the three close parallels for this speech cited by Malone and subsequent editors, two use the verb 'seen' (Macbeth 2.4.1–4/760–3, Caesar 1.3.5–10/403–8), the other 'heard' (History of Lear 9.48/1568). The substitution also improves the metre.

12.5 ne'er] Q (neare)

12.7/1214 in] This edition (M.J.); to Q. Cerimon, versed in nature's cures (12.35/1242), knows that none can be effective in this case. Possible anticipation of 'to' in the next line. Q makes a general statement about the human condition ('nature'); but Cerimon is diagnosing a particular patient, and asserting that only supernatural aid could help him now—a mere physician is helpless.

12.8/1215 to poore man] hoeniger (Brooks); not in Q; To Philemon malone

12.8/1215 to th'] This edition; to the Q

12.9/1216 Exeuntseruant ] hoeniger; not in Q

12.9/1216 morrow] Q; morrow, sir steevens

12.10/1217 Lordship.] ⁓, Q

12.10–11/1217–18 (L) Gentlemen … early ] steevens; 1 line Q

12.11–12/1218–19 (L) Sir … sea ] steevens; 1 line Q

12.14–16/1221–3 (L) The … house ] malone; 2 lines Q: topple|

12.18/1225 our] The speech might be better without this word; it could then be relined, dividing after 'cause', and leaving Cerimon's words at 12.18/1225 as an unassimilated short line.

12.19–20/1226–7 lordship should, | Hauing … you, at ] This edition (G.T.); Lordship, | Hauing … you, should at Q. In Q 12.19/1226 is metrically defective and 12.20/1227 overloaded; editors move 'Hauing' to the end of 12.19/1226 (malone), but the resulting line-break is odd and pointless, and it seems more likely that the reporter transposed the auxiliary verb.

12.20/1227 this hower] This edition (M.J.); theſe early howers Q. Neither 'these early hours' nor 'this early hour' occurs elsewhere in Shakespeare; 'at this hour' is frequent, and creates a regular pentameter; Q's 'early' repeats 'so early' in 12.11, 17/1218, 1224.

12.22/1229 to] This edition (G.T.); should Q. Q may have substituted the more common reading under the influence of the preceding sentence; 'be' can more easily take the required metrical stress, if preceded by 'to'.

1230 (I) compell'd] compelled

12.23–38/1230–45 (L) I … Bagges ] malone; Cunning| Riches| expend| former| god| Physicke| Authorities| famyliar| dwels| the | cures | delight | or | Q

12.23/1230 held] malone; hold Q. Hoeniger doubts the emendation, but compare 'My life I neuer held' (History of Lear 1.147/147), 'I haue euer held' (Antony 2.7.56/1189).

12.26/1233 dispend] This edition (G.T.); expend Q. Previous editors have noted that 'dispend', in P.A.'s parallel to this passage (521), may be the correct word: although Shakespeare uses expend three times elsewhere, none of the parallels involves material possessions; 'dispend' alliterates with 'darken', and is the rarer word. The fact that Shakespeare does not use it elsewhere is irrelevant: all his good texts contain a high proportion of unique usages.

12.33/1240 dwels] Q; dwell F4

12.34/1241 so] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; I malone. Malone's emendation adds nothing but metrical padding, since the pronoun is in any case implicit. 'So' alliterates, clarifies the logical transition, and reduces the sense that Cerimon is boasting, or telling his listeners what they already know.

12.35/1242 doth giue] Q; gives malone (Theobald). Shakespeare's late works contain many hexameters, and Q allows a greater emphasis on 'me'.

12.36/1243 and cause] This edition (G.T.); in courſe Q. Editors suspect 'serious corruption' in this line, but Shakespeare uses 'true delight(s)' at Dream 3.3.40/1434 and As You Like It 5.4.196/2693; 'a more content' recurs at Kinsmen 2.2.100/699 (Fletcher?), and there are four other examples of 'a more [noun]', including 'a more delight' (Venus 78). The line's apparent lameness is isolated in the linking phrase 'in course of', which manages to be both unidiosyncratic and superfluous. Q's 'in course' could be a corruption—by mishearing or misreading or both—of 'and cause', meaning 'and [more] cause'. Alternatively, one might emend to 'more cause'.

1244 (I) tott'ring] This edition; tottering Q. Elided thus on all four of its other occurrences in Shakespeare.

12.38/1245 pleasure] Q; pleaſure steevens

12.39/1246 glad] This edition (G.T.); pleaſe Q. Steevens's emendation of the preceding line eliminates a striking image; it is much more likely that the verb in this line has been contaminated by a memory of the earlier phrase.

12.39–45/1246–52 (L) Your honour … neuer ] This edition (conj. W. S. Walker); Ephesus| themselues| restored| payne| Cerimon| Q. Editors follow Malone, who kept Q's lineation, only moving 'pour'd foorth' back to the end of 12.39/1246. In a normal text this more conservative policy would make sense, but here—as the previous speech demonstrates—mislineation is endemic.

1247 (I) pour'd] malone; Poured Q

1249 (I) restor'd] restored

12.42/1249 alone] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Compare K. John 1.1.210/210 'And not alone in habit and deuice … But'. Editors agree that this is what Q must mean, but do not explain how it could communicate this meaning as it stands.

12.43/1250 personall] Q. Always treated by Shakespeare as disyllabic.

1250 (I) ene] euen

12.45/1252 neuer—] malone; ⁓. Q; ⁓ raze . dyce. The omission can hardly be due to the reporter, since the drift of the sentence is so obvious that anyone could supply the conclusion. Hoeniger blamed the error on a compositor, but accidental omission of the final word of a speech, followed by a full stop, is unusual. The obviousness of the missing conclusion makes its omission dramatic and intelligible, while filling the lacuna produces an undramatic resounding triteness.

12.45.1/1252.1 Phylemon and one or two] This edition (G.T.); two or three Q. Q correctly identifies Philemon in the stage direction at 12.1/1208 because he is called in the same line; but as Q stands the identification is pointless. In Twine Cerimon's assistant plays a crucial role; and P.A. also emphasizes 'a seruant of his' (522).

12.46/1253 etc. phylemon] This edition (G.T.); Seruant⟩. Q (variously abbreviated). See preceding note.

12.48–50/1255–7 (L) Sir … wracke ] steevens; shore| Q; Sir| shore| malone. Lines 12.46–7/1253–4 are amphibious, belonging with both 12.45/1253 and 'Sir, euen now'.

12.49/1256 The sea tost vp] This edition (G.T.); did the ſea tosse vp Q; did the sea toss malone. Compare 'tost it vpon our shore' (see first reference to 12.54/1261), probably a memorial repetition of this line. As alternative formations of the past tense, 'tossed' and pg 574'did toss' are easily confusible memorially; Shakespeare never uses 'did toss' but has 'toss'd' 7 times.

12.50/1257 Set't] Q. For the contraction compare Le't (5 times in Shakespeare).

12.51–2/1258–9 (L) What … heauie ] malone; 1 line Q

12.52–3/1259–60 did … sir, ] This edition (G.T.). Q places this question and answer after 'bitum'd' at 12.58/1265; Maxwell notes that Cerimon's 'pointless question smacks of the reporter', and Hoeniger conjectured that it belonged after 'wracke', 12.50/1257: 'Cerimon is then directly answering the servant's statement'. But Cerimon's incredulity is most naturally prompted by his recognition of the chest's weight. This recognition is followed in Q by the command 'Wrench it open' (12.54/1261), a command pointlessly repeated et 12.58/1265—a repetition most easily explained by the reporter's misplacement of Cerimon's question and the servant's answer. Moreover, 'cast it up' seems at first an innocent synonym for 'tost vp' (12.49/1256), but through the ambiguity of 'cast' naturally initiates the vomiting imagery of 12.55–6/1262–3.

12.53–4/1260–1 (L) I … eager ] This edition (conj. Brooks); 1 line Q

12.54/1261 Or a more eager] This edition (G.T.); as tost it vpon shore Q. Q lamely repeats 12.49/1256. In P.A. the chest is cast on shore 'by a more eager billow' (521). The image is striking, and 'eager' here contributes to the developing imagery of sickness: compare Sonnet 118, Richard II 2.1.37/651, Hamlet 1.5.69/686, and All Is True, 4.2.24/2096, where Shakespeare associates eagerness—which can mean 'bitterness'—with sickness or indigestion.

12.54/1261 cerimon] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; but see second note to 12.58/1265.

12.54.1/1261.1 Theworke ] This edition (conj. Brooks); not in Q

12.56–7/1263–4 (L) T'is … vs ] This edition; 1 line Q

12.56/1263 by] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); not in Q

12.56/1263 queasie] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); not in Q. Hoeniger shows that the verbal associations of this word elsewhere in Shakespeare strongly resemble this passage.

12.58/1265 bittum'd] malone; bottomed Q

12.58/1265 They force the lid] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Cerimon's preceding words indicate a particular attention to the manner in which the chest has been sealed; his next words suggest that the odours inside have been released.

12.58–9/1265–6 (L) soft … sense ] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); 1 line Q

12.58/1265 soft] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); Cerimon⟩. Wrench it open ſoft Q. See note to 12.52–3/1259–60.

12.60.1/1267.1 Theyoff ] This edition; not in Q

12.62–3/1269–70 (L) Shrowded … Spices ] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); prose Q

12.62/1269 and crownd,] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. In P.A. Cerimon finds her 'so crowned, so royally apparelled, so intreasured as before' (522). The added detail completes the verse line, and allows 'balm'd … Spices' to be preserved as a verse line. (Steevens and most editors break it after 'entreasur'd'.)

1270 (I) Balm'd] Q4; balmed Q1

1270 (I) entreasur'd] steevens; entreaſured Q

12.64–5/1271–2 (L) A … Characters ] steevens; prose continued Q; me| malone; Apollo| hoeniger (conj.)

1271 (I) to!] malone; ⁓‸ Q

12.64.1/1271.1 HeChist ] This edition; not in Q

12.65/1272 i'th'] This edition; in the Q. The elision is required however we divide the lines.

1279 (I) Besides‸ ] Q4; ⁓, Q1

1281 (I) liu'st] liuest Q1

12.75/1282 euen] Q4; euer Q1

12.76–83/1283–90 (L) Nay … dead ] malone; looks| sea| Closet| yet| spirits| Q

12.77/1284 looke] Q. Maxwell calls the repetition 'scarcely Shakespearian', and conjectures 'see'. But compare Troilus 1.2.197/343, 'looke how hee lookes', and Hamlet 3.2.120–1/1848–9, 'looke you how cheerefully my mother lookes'.

1284 (I) looks.] ⁓‸

12.77/1284 rash] This edition (conj. Melone); rough Q. See P.A., 'condemning them for rashnesse' (523).

12.78/1285 a Fire] Q; fire steevens. An extra stressed syllable after a caesura is common enough in Shakespeare's late plays.

12.79/1286 all my] Q; all the steevens

12.79.1/1286.1 Exit Phylemon] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; Exit a servant dyce

12.81/1288 And … againe ] Q. For the rhythm compare Lucrece 1475 ('Thy eye kindled the fire that burneth here'), where 'kindled' forms a reversed foot in mid-line (as here).

12.82–4/1289–91 I … recouer'd ] Q (subs.). Edwards replaces these words with a passage from P.A.: 'I haue read of some Egyptians, who after foure houres death, (if man may call it so) haue raised impouerished bodies, like to this, vnto their former health' (522). If the patient is Egyptian, the doctor might be assumed to be; there is little to choose between Q and P.A. Given 12.92/1299 ('fiue'), Q's '9' seems more likely than P.A.'s 'foure'. P.A.'s 'some Egyptians' seems less apt than Q's 'an Egiptian' (which occurs also at Othello 3.4.56/1985). Appliance is a word Shakespeare uses elsewhere in medical contexts; 'like to' is characteristic of Wilkins. (M.J.)

12.82/1289 haue heard] malone (Steevens); heard Q; haue read P.A. (522)

12.83/1290 9. howers] This edition (G.T.); that had 9. howers lien Q

12.84/1291 applyaunces] dyce; applyaunce Q

1291 (I) recouer'd] singer; recouered Q. Both the syllabic '-ed', and the rhyme it creates, are uncharacteristic of Shakespeare's late style.

12.84.1/1291.1 Phylemon] This edition (G.T.); one Q

12.85–6/1292–3 (L) Well … haue ] Q4; and| Q1

12.85/1292 Well sayd, well sayd] Q. This repetition occurs at Othello 4.1.114/2241.

12.86/1293 still] maxwell (Delius); rough Q

12.87–9/1294–6 (L) Cause … Gentlemen ] This edition (G.T.); you| blocke| ayre| Q

12.87/1294 Musick] hoeniger; not in Q

12.87 vial] Q (Violl). Both Gower and P.A. have Cerimon pour a 'liquor' in Thaisa's mouth. Hoeniger, who interprets this word as a reference to a viol, dismisses this coincidence, claiming that Wilkins here consulted Gower; but this is the sole instance of the alleged influence. Wilkins, as co-author of the play, would certainly have read Gower, but in P.A. he was lazily plagiarizing Twine, and there is no reason to believe that he dipped into Gower for this simple detail. Moreover, if fire, warm clothes, and music are sufficient to revive Thaisa, why does Cerimon call for 'all my Boxes in my Closet' (12.79/1286)? And what is in those boxes, if not medicines?

12.90–3/1297–1300 (L) This … againe ] steevens; liue| her| howers| Q

1297 (I) awakes;] steevens; ⁓‸ Q

12.90–1/1297–8 warmth | Breaths] steevens; warmth breath Q1; warm breath Q2

1300 (I) flow'r] flower

12.93–5/1300–2 (L) The … euer ] malone; 2 lines Q: wonder|

12.94/1301 set] malone; ſets Q

12.95–7/1302–4 (L) She … lost ] malone; 2 lines Q: ey-lids|

1303 (I) heau'nly] heauenly

12.99–102/1306–9 (L) The … bee ] malone; 3 lines Q: appeare| weepe|

1308 (I) weepe,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

12.102–3/1309–10 (L) O … this ] malone; Lord| Q

12.104/1311 (L) Is … rare ] 1 type line Q

12.104–8/1311–15 (L) Hush … vs ] malone; hands| linnen| relapse| Q

12.104/1311 gentle] steevens; my gentle Q

Sc. 13] This edition; not in Q; Actus Tertius. F3; [ACT III.] SCENE III. malone

13.0.1/1315.2 at Tharsus] Q4; Atharſus Q1

13.0.2/1315.3 andBabe ] malone (subs.); not in Q

pg 57513.1.3/1316–18 (L) Most … peace ] malone; prose Q

13.3.5/1318–20 (L) you … you ] malone; 2 verse lines Q: thankfulnesse|

13.5.7/1320–2 (L) Your … vs ] maxwell (W. S. Walker); mortally| Q

13.5/1320 strokes] round; shakes Q; shafts steevens

13.6/1321 hurt] steevens; hant Q

13.7/1322 woundingly] deighton (Schmidt and Kinnear); wondringly Q

13.7.9/1322–4 (L) O … her ] rowe; prose Q; Queen| pleas'd| hither| F4

13.8/1323 you'd] rowe; you had Q

13.9/1324 T'haue] This edition; to haue Q

13.9–11/1324–6 (L) We … end ] steevens; vs| in| Q

1325 (I) pow'rs] powers

13.10/1325 should] This edition (M.J.); Could Q

13.13/1328 nam'd so] named ſo Q; so nam'd G.T. conj.

13.14/1329 and leaue] steevens; leauing Q. Q is metrically end syntactically awkward, and anticipates 'beseeching' in the next line.

13.15–17/1330–2 (L) The … borne ] steevens; 2 lines Q: her|

13.17–25/1332–40 (L) Feare … generation ] malone; Grace| which| child| vile| relieu'd| that| it| Q

1334 (I) pray'rs] prayers

13.25/1340 th'] This edition; the Q

13.25–29/1340–4 (L) I … remayne ] malone; goodnes| maried| honour| Q

1343 honour‸ ] malone; ⁓, Q. In the original-spelling edition, by removing this comma we leave the syntactical relationship of 'all' ambiguous; in the modern-spelling text, we accept Malone's view that it modifies 'we'.

13.29/1344 Vnsisserd] steevens; vnsisterd Q. See P.A. 'his head should grow vncisserd' (524).

13.29 hair] Q (heyre), steevens

13.30/1345 show ill] singer 2 (Theobald); shew will Q

13.32/1347 dyonysa I] Q ('Dion. I' text); Cler. I (c.w.)

13.32–7/1347–52 (L) I … heauen ] malone; prose Q

13.35/1350 cleon] Q4; Cler. Q

13–36/1351 th' masted] This edition (G.T.); the mask'd Q; the vast hudson 2 (Dyce); the moist w. s. walker (conj.); the mighty kinnear (conj.); the calmest elze (conj.). Editors gloss Q as 'deceivingly calm'. Aside from the difficulty of communicating this alleged sense, what would its dramatic function be? Cleon wishes Pericles 'The gentlest winds of heauen', and he has no reason to hint darkly that the sea is less friendly than it seems; nor does any such foreboding serve a dramatic purpose—for Pericles' voyage from Tharsus is, atypically, uneventful. Q's reading therefore seems to us corrupt; but previous conjectures seem feeble. OED's first citation of masted in this sense (ppl. a.1) dates from 1627, but Shakespeare uses the noun 11 times, and the neologism would be typical of his style. For the resulting Image of Neptune, compere Antony 4.15.58–9/2406–7 ('and o're greene Neptunes backe | With Ships, made Cities'). The 'masts' lead naturally by association to 'winds'. The conjectured error could be aural or palaeographical.

13.38–9/1353–4 (L) I … teares ] malone 2; prose Q; embrace| O, no tears| tears| malone 1

1353 (I) deer'st] deerest

13.40–1/1355–6 (L) Looke … Lord ] malone; prose Q

13.41/1356 Exeunt] rowe; not in Q

Sc. 14] This edition; not in Q; [ACT III.] SCENE IV. malone

14.2–3/1358–9 (L) Lay … Character ] malone; command| Q

14.2/1358 are al] This edition (G.T.); ere Q; ere now malone. Q'S line is a syllable short, and the line-break lame. Shakespeare never uses 'now' in conjunction with the noun or verb 'command', but does so use 'all' 10 times. Alternatively, Q's 'are' might be an error for 'attend'. Compare 'attends your Ladiships command' (Two Gentlemen 4.3.5/1706) and 'attend his maiesties command' (All's Well 1.1.4/4). The compositor might have misread 'al' as a nonsensical duplication of 'at'.

14.4–10/1360–66 (L) It … ioy ] rowe; prose Q

1361 (I) eu'n] euen

14.5/1361 eaning] F3; learning Q; yielding mason (conj.); yeaning white (Mason); bearing ridley (conj.)

1362 (I) deliuerd] deliue-|red

14.6/1362 th'] This edition; the Q

1365 (I) liu'rie] liuerie

14.11/1367 cleon] Q6; Cler. Q1

14.13/1369 till … expire you may abide, ] hudson 2 (Fleay); you may abide till … expire, Q

14.16/1372 thaysa] Q4; Thin. Q1

14.17.1/1373.1 Exeunt] rowe; Exit. Q

Sc. 15] This edition; not in Q; ACT IV. malone

15.4/1377 ther's] Q; there malone

15.8/1381 Musick,] tonson; Musicks‸ Q. Q is defensible, but the emendation (independently adopted by Malone) seems preferable.

15.10/1383 hir] steevens; hle Q

15.10/1383 the hart] steevens; the art Q; th' heart riverside

1384 (I) gen 'rall] generall

15.14/1387 Seeks] rowe; Seeke Q

1388 (I) kind:] maxwell (Dyce); ⁓, Q

15.15/1388 our Cleon has] This edition (G.T.); our Cleon hath Q; hath our Cleon malone (Steevens); Cleon doth own daniel (conj. in Cambridge). As Maxwell notes, Steevens's emendation requires an unparalleled accentuation of the name. Compositorial or memorial substitution of 'hath' for 'has' is common, and Shakespeare increasingly used 'has' in his later work. See next note.

15.16/1389 full growne lasse] This edition (G.T.); full growne wench Q; wench full grown malone (Steevens). Shakespeare elsewhere rhymes on both lass and has, but never on grown. Moreover, lass is strongly associated with Shakespeare's late work: 8 of of 11 uses post-date 1605. 'Wench' would be an easy substitution.

1390 (I) Ene] Euen

15.17/1390 ripe] Q2; right Q1

15.17/1390 right] collier; sight Q; fight malone (Theobald)

15.21/1394 they] Q; she malone

1396 (I) neele] maxwell; needle Q; neeld malone. See 20.5/1999.

1398 (I) it,] Q2; ⁓‸ Q1

15.26/1399 bird] malone (Theobald); bed Q

1402 (I) Dian, still‸ ] malone; ⁓‸ ⁓, Q

15.32/1405 With Doue] munro; The Doue Q; With the dove steevens (Mason)

15.32/1405 might] steevens (Mason); might with Q. See previous note.

15.38/1411 murder] This edition (conj. W. S. Walker); murderer Q. Compare 'the present death of Hamlet' (Hamlet 4.3.67/2544), etc.

15.42.1/1415.1 A tombe is reuealed] This edition; not in Q. Lychorida's 'graue' or 'tombe' is clearly required later (15.66, 68/1439, 1441), and is prominent in P.A.'s account of this scene (527–9). Gower's line is a natural cue for its discovery, and visually relates this chorus to the next.

1417 (I) wrath‸ ] F3; ⁓. Q1

1418 (I) th'] This edition; the Q

15.47/1420 carrie] steevens; carried Q

15.48 on] Q1 (one), Q2

15.50.1/1423.1 EnterLeonine ] This edition; after 15.52/1425 Q. Compare 5.38.1/528.1

15.52/1425 Exit] Q. Editors since malone mark a scene-break, beginning 'ACT IV SCENE I';but see note to 15.421/1415.1 and 15.50.1/1423.1.

15.53–8/1426–31 (L) Thy … which ] rowe; prose Q

15–55/1428 i'th'] This edition; in the Q

15.57.8/1430–1 or … Vnflame ] This edition; in flaming, thy loue boſome, enflame Q; thy love inflame sisson. A major crux; many other emendations were proposed by earlier editors. Essentially one must choose between emending the words Q offers, or excising some of those words as duplications. Sisson, the most persuasive advocete of excision, proposed that the copy was 'foul papers … with corrections currente calamo'; Hoeniger, rejecting his textual hypothesis, rejected his emendation too. But a reporter pg 576is just as capable as an author of 'corrections currente calamo' (Maxwell). Nevertheless, one would expect 'loue' to be the first shot, not 'bosome' (as Sisson assumed). But 'bosome' is always disyllabic in Shakespeare. Although 'bosome' might itself be a memorial substitution for 'breast', the need for further emendation to support it weakens one's confidence in Sisson's solution. Equally disconcerting, Shakespeare often juxtaposed the words in Q: 'pitty, loue, nor feare' (Duke of York 5.6.68/2832), 'flames of loue' (Troilus 3.2.156/1731), 'conscience is borne of loue' (Sonnet 151.2), 'and sway in loue … haue enflamde desire in my breast' (Pericles 1.62–3/62–3); love and bosom are juxtaposed at Two Gentlemen 3.1.249/1268, Measure 1.3.3/268, LLL 4.3.134/1376, Merchant 3.4.17/1657, Sonnet 9.13; Shakespeare imagines conscience as a deity 'in my bosome' (Tempest 2.1.283/856) and writes of 'the bosome of my Conscience' (All Is True 2.4.179/1251). Such evidence strongly suggests that both 'loue' and 'bosome' belong in this context, and hence that Sisson's policy of excision is wrong. See following notes.

15.57/1430 or] deighton; in Q

15.57/1430 fanning‸ ] This edition (G.T.); flaming, Q. Q's repetition of 'in flaming' and 'enflame' is deeply suspicious; nor is it easy to see how two objects—one 'cold' and the other 'flaming'— could be yoked in having a single effect upon Leonine's bosom. If 'flame' is right below, it is presumably wrong here. Shakespeare often associates the verb fan with cold or cooling: 'fan'd snow' (Winter's Tale 4.4.362/1969), 'fanne our people cold' (Macbeth 1.2.50/61), 'the Fan | To coole a Gypsies Lust' (Antony 1.1.9–10/9–10), 'turne the Sunne to yce, with fanning in his face' (Henry V 4.1.199/1980–1); the verb figuratively suggests loss of courage or resolution in Macbeth and in 'fan you into dispaire' (Coriolanus 3.3.131/2060). Compare also 'the loue I beare him, | Made me to fan you thus' (Cymbeline 1.6.177–8/699–700). These parallels cluster remarkably in Shakespeare's late work. The unusual nature of the image, and anticipation of the verb in the next line, easily explain the reporter's error.

15.57/1430 loue thy] singer (anon, conj.); thy loue Q. Also adopted by Deighton, and those who accept his other emendations.

1430(1) bosome‸ ] ⁓,

15.58/1431 Vnflame] This edition (G.T.); enflame Q; Enslave deighton. Deighton objects that it is hard 'to understand how "cold conscience" can "inflame"'. But 'Enslave' and 'nicely' are an odd combination, and 'Enslave' is not suggested or supported by the other imagery of this speech. Enslave is first recorded by OED in 1643; vnflame in 1635; Shakespeare was a great coiner of words, often by means of en- or un- prefixes, and on such grounds 'vnflame' is as plausible as 'enslaue'—and involves a simpler misreading (of one letter, instead of three). OED's first citation is close to this passage: 'Where neither … doubt afflicts, nor baser fear | Unflames your courage in pursuit' (Francis Queries, Emblemes, III. Pro. 22). Finally, Shakespeare elsewhere juxtaposes bosom and breast with images of figurative heat (K. John 5.7.30/2485, Titus 3.1.212/1228, Duke of York 2.1.83/665, 2 Henry IV 1.3.13/514), and cold (Romeo 1.4.102/560, Contention 5.2.35–6/3071–2, Richard II 1.2.34/239, Complaint 259, 292); there are no such collocations with slave(s).

15.59–60/1432–3 (L) Ene … purpose ] malone; prose Q

1432 (I) Ene] Euen

15.60–1/1433–4 (L) I … creature ] edwards; 1 line Q

15.61–2/1434–5 But … her ] Q. P.A. suggests that something may be missing here: 'he resolued her in blunt wordes, that he was come to kill her, that hee was hired vnto it by Dyonysa her foster mother, that she was too good for men, and therefore he would send her to the gods, that if she would pray, pray, for hee had sworne to kill her' (528–9). The beginning end end of this passage—which is not based on Twine—clearly and closely correspond to 15.116–122/1489–95, and the middle echoes 15.60–2/1433–5 (the link being mention of Dionyza). G.T. conjectures 'But yet she is a goodly creature.— I, | Too good for men: the fitter then the Gods should haue her'.

15.62/1435 The fitter then] Q; Tis then the fitter that M.J. conj.

15.62–3/1435–6 her. | Here] Q; her. Here | steevens. A line-divided foot. See note to 15.63/1436, 'weeping'.

15.62.1–2/1435.1–2 Enterflowers ] malone; after 15.64/1437 Q

15.62.1/1435.1 to the tombe] This edition; not in Q

15.63/1436 weeping] This edition (conj. Mason); weeping for Q. Q's superfluous preposition—Shakespeare often uses the verb transitively—creates an hexameter, thus contributing to the irregularity of an implausibly irregular passage.

15.63/1436 nurses] steevens (Percy); Mistresse Q. If 'nurſes' were misread 'mistres' it could be normalized to 'Mistresse'. Alternatively, the error might be memorial: perhaps 'fostress'?

15.65–72/1438–45 (L) No … friends ] rowe; prose Q

15.66/1439 graue] F3; greene Q. Editors traditionally cite Lord Chalfont's gloss 'the green turf with which the grave of Lychorida was covered' (cited by Malone). But Chalfont cited only a single parallel—'My ashes cold shall be buried on this greene, | Enioy that good this bodie nere possest' (Fairfax's 1600 translation of Godfrey of Bulloigne, vii. 314–15). The Fairfax context makes the use of 'greene' unexceptional and Intelligible, as the Pericles context does not. In this context a compositor could easily misinterpret 'graue' as 'grene'. Shakespeare often speaks of strewing—especially of flowers—upon graves: Romeo 5.3.17, 280/2707, 2970; Hamlet 5.1.243/3213, Cymbeline 4.2.286, 392/2237, 2343.

1439 (I) Flow'rs] Flowers

15.68/1441 tombe] This edition (G.T.); graue Q. Shakespeare does not elsewhere use graue to refer to the structure erected on top of the burial pit (as the context here requires); nor does he use hang in such conjunction with grave. But 'hang … vpon (her/the) tomb' occurs twice in Much Ado (5.1.276, 5.3.9/2342, 2494); in P.A. Leonine 'attends for [Marina] at Lychoridaes Toombe' (528); P.A. also speaks of her 'monument' (526) and 'sepulchre' (527), but never other 'graue'. Memorial substitution thus seems probable. (If F3 is correct in 15.66/1439, the repetition of 'graue' is also suspicious.)

15.71/1444 but] This edition (G.T.); not in Q1; like Q4; as maxwell (Cambridge)

15.71/1444 ceaselesse] This edition (G.T.); lasting Q; blasting malone (conj.); lashing craig (conj.). Both earlier conjectures are feeble because they lose the image of 'storme perpetuall' (Winter's Tale 3.2.212/1223) by presuming mere compositorial error. But 'the repetition smacks of the reporter' (Hoeniger), and 'doth last' in 15.69/1442 is confirmed by the parallel at Cymbeline 4.2.219–20/2170–1 ('Flowers | Whil'st Sommer lasts'). Q's adjective here is thus probably memorial, and 'lasting' has been substituted for some two-syllable synonym. Of the available Shakespearian alternatives endless is more frequent (12 occurrences) but also commonplace, and requires emendation of 'a' to 'an'; ceaseless— as at Lucrece 967—is a much rarer word (see OED), and thus more prone to memorial substitution. P.A. twice juxtaposes cease and tempest (521, 522).

15.73/1446 How … alone? ] Q. See Macbeth 3.2.10/954: 'How now, my Lord, why doe you keepe alone'. Hoeniger thinks that 'Macbeth was in Shakespeare's mind all through this scene', but the words are spoken by Lady Macbeth—who, like Marina, would have been played by the company's leading boy (the reporter?).

15.73/1446 why doe] Q1; doe G.T. conj.

15.73/1446 doe yow keep] Q1; doe you weepe Q2; de'ye weepe Q4; keep you hudson 2

15.74/1447 is] Q; Philoten's M.J. conj.

15.76/1449 Haue you] Q1; You haue Q4; Have you not malone (conj.)

15.76–7/1449–50 fauour | Is changd] schanzer; fauours | Changd Q; favour's chang'd malone; favour's Changèd cambridge

15.78/1451 Giue me your flowers come,] This edition (G.T.); Come giue me your flowers Q; Come, come, give me your wreath of flowers malone. The line's metrical irregularity is easily rectified by transposition of the interjection, which a reporter could easily misplace.

15.78/1451 ore] This edition (Theobald); ere Q; on hudson 2. pg 577Lexically the difference between on and o'er is insignificant here, and Theobald's conjecture presupposes less corruption.

15.78/1451 margent] hudson (Theobald: 'margin'); marre it Q

15.79/1452 is percing] This edition (G.T.); is quicke Q; 's quick malone; quicker anon. (conj. in Cambridge). The earlier conjectures record an unease with Q's metre in this line, but the real impetus for emendation comes from the following line. See next notes. Shakespeare uses piercing 13 times, including All's Well 3.2.112–13/1420–21 ('aire | That sings with piercing').

15.80–1/1453–4 (L) And … her ] This edition (G.T.); stomacke| Q; Come| steevens

15.80/1453 And quicke,] This edition (G.T.); And it perces‸ Q; Piercing, steevens. Although the air might be piercing, and might sharpen the appetite, it does not 'pierce the stomach'. Q's line is also, for Shakespeare, metrically impossible. The reporter might easily transpose the two attributes, resulting in metrical confusion in two adjacent lines. (See note to 15.79/1452.)

15.80/1453 it sharpes] This edition (G.T.); and sharpens Q; and sharpens well steevens; and sharps w. s. walker (conj.); and will sharp hudson 2. The other conjectures rectify the metre by superfluous alterations of the sense. This form of the verb was common; it does not occur elsewhere in Shakespeare, but he only used the alternative 4 times (3 in verse, where metre required it). The reporter could easily have misplaced the pronoun, attaching it to the wrong verb in the line (see previous note); in the previous phrase it is redundant, but here it makes the sense easier to communicate.

15.80/1453 come] Q. This might be memorial filler, but feminine caesuras are common enough.

15.81/1454 th'] This edition (G.T.); the Q

15.81–2/1454–5 (L) No … seruã;t ] rowe; 1 line Q

15.82–92/1455–65 (L) Come … old ] rowe; prose Q

1457 (I) eu'ry] euery

15.90/1463 resume] maxwell (Wilson); reſerue Q

15.92–3/1465–6 (L) Care … alone ] rowe; prose Q1; separate line Q4

15.93–4/1466–7 (1.) Well … it ] rowe; 1 line Q

15.94/1467 truly] This edition (G.T.); yet Q. Q is unmetrical, and redundant. For 'but truly' compare Much Ado 3.5.19/1604, Hamlet 2.1.87/895, Antony 5.2.270/2926, and Merry Wives 4.1.4–5/1859–61 ('But truely … Mistris Ford desires you to come').

15.95/1468 Nay] This edition (G.T.); Come, come Q. Dionyza has already used the same interjection four times in her last two speeches—including a 'Come, come' at the beginning of her last speech. Nay was idiomatically used 'not simply to deny or refuse, but to reprove, to correct, or to amplify what has been said before' (Schmidt); here it contributes to a line-divided foot.

15.95–7/1468–70 (L) I … sed ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q1; you| least) Q4

1470 (I) warnt] warrant

15.98–100/1471–3 (L) lie … of you ] rowe; prose Q

15.99/1472 Pray you] malone; pray | Q. The omission might be compositorial, as 'you' would fall between prose lines in Q—a frequent occasion for omission.

15.100.1/1473 Exit Dioniza] malone; not in Q

15.103/1476 (L) My … feare ] rowe; prose Q (but 'Is' is capitalized in mid-line after a comma)

1476 (I) nurse] Q2; nutſe Q1

15.103/1476 ses] Q; said malone

15.104–5/1477–8 (L) But … ropes ] This edition; prose Q; galling| Hands rowe; galling| malone

15.104/1477 Mariners] This edition (M.J.); Saylers Q. An easy unmetrical memoriel substitution.

15.105/1478 with] malone; not in Q

15.105/1478 ropes] Q; the ropes rowe

15.106–7/1479–80 (L) And … decke ] malone; prose Q; Mest| rowe

1479 (I) endur'd] rowe; endured Q

15.109–13/1482–6 (L) When … skip ] rowe; prose Q

15.111/1484 Once] This edition (G.T.); and Q. malone conjectured that a line was missing ('O'er the good ship the foaming billow breaks, | And … '); steevens transposed 15.111–5/1484–8 to follow 15.107/1480. Sense is more easily restored by assuming a simple misreading, and interpreting 'washes off' as intransitive (v. 15d).

15.114–5/1487–8 (L) From … confusion ] malone; prose Q; Stern| calls | rowe

15.114/1487 stemme] malone; sterne Q

15.116/1489 prayers] Q; prayers speedily steevens

15.118–9/1491–2 (L) If … tedious ] rowe; prose Q

15.120/1493 The] This edition (G.T.); for the Q. Q's conjunction is superfluous and extrametrical: reporters often make implicit connectives explicit.

15.120–1/1493–4 (L) The … haste ] malone; prose Q; Ear| rowe

15.121/1494 Why would you] This edition (G.T.); Why‸ will you Q1; Why, will you Q2. As Q2 makes clear, Q1's syntax idiomatically suggests that 'Why' is a mere interjection; 'would' better fits the question, and better parallels 15.122/1495.

15.122–9/1495–1502 (L) Why … offended ] malone; prose Q; can| hurt her| word| Creature| Mouse| Worm once| rowe

1495 (I) kild? | Now‸ ] malone; kild‸ now? Q

15.128/1501 I] Q; Nor maxwell (Daniel). Maxwell accuses Q of 'mincing fatuousness'; but that is a fault no emendation can alleviate. 'Nor' produces an image of Marina killing mice, hurting flies, and treading on worms—in each case 'against her will'— and weeping every time. It seems better to take 15.127/1500 as a general confession of innocence, followed by an admission of a single transgression, modified by extenuating circumstances (once … against my will … wept).

15.128/1501 once on a worme] This edition (G.T.); vpon a worme Q1; vpon a worme once Q4. Q4's clarification is not strictly necessary, but does seem an improvement.

15.129/1502 for it] Q4; fort Q1

15.130–1/1503–4 (L) Wherein … danger ] rowe; prose Q; or| steevens; death | life| brooks (conj.)

15.130/1503 anie profit] Q; profit steevens

15.131/1504 danger] steevens; any danger Q. An easy memorial interpolation, under the influence of the preceding line.

15.131–2/1504–5 (L) My … doo't ] rowe; prose Q

15.133–9/1506–12 (L) You … weaker ] rowe; prose Q

1507 (I) fauour'd] rowe; fauoured Q

1511 (I) life, Come‸ ] Q2; lifeCome, Q1

15.139/1512 drawing out his sword] This edition; not in Q; He seizes her globe. From P.A. 529.

15.139–40/1512–13 (L) I … dispatch ] malone; 1 line Q

15.140.1/1513.1 running] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 529.

15.141.1/1514.1 Leonine runs away] malone; not in Q

15.141.1/1514.1 and hides behind the tombe] This edition; not in Q. From Twine, which serves as the blueprint for the action here: 'he ran away as fast as he could, and hid himselfe behind the sepulchre' (454). See 15.42.1/1415.1.

15.144.1/1517 Pirats, ⌈carrying Marina⌉] This edition; not in Q; Pirates with Marina malone. In Twine 'the Pyrats … caried her away to their ships' (454); in P.A., 'carried her to their shippes' (529).

15.144.2/1517.1 Leoninesteales backe⌉] This edition; Enter Leonine Q. From P.A.: 'hauing fledde some distance from them, and obseruing them not to pursue, he secretly stole backe' (529); not in Twine. malone initiated a new scene here (4.2), but even if Leonine fully exits at 15.141.1/1514.1 the tomb presumably remains on stage, and there is no lapse of time.

15.145–50/1518–23 (L) These … remaine ] rowe; prose Q

15.146 An] Q (and). Understanding this word as the beginning of a conditional clause removes a bathetic declaration of the obvious (M.J.).

15.147/1520 shee'le] malone; shee will Q

15.151.1/1524.1 The tombe is concealed] This edition; not in Q

Sc. 16] This edition; not in Q; [ACT IV.] SCENE III. malone; [ACT IV.] SCENE II. dyce

16.0.1/1524.2 A brothel signe.] This edition; not in Q; Mitylene. A Room in a Brothel. malone; Mytilene. In front of a Brothel. pg 578hoeniger (Brooks). Brooks seems right about the location, which could easily have been signalled to a Jacobean audience by one of the signs familiarly used for brothels.

16.0.1–2/1524.2–3 the PanderBoult ] This edition; the three Bawdes Q; Pander, Boult and Bawd F3

16.4/1528 lose] This edition (G.T.); lost Q. An easy misreading. Alternatively, one might read 'this last mart'.

16.4/1528 too much] Q2; too much much Q1; much anon. (conj. in Cambridge)

16.5/1529 wenchlesse] This edition (conj. Mexwell); too wenchlesse Q. An easy contamination from the preceding phrase.

16.6/1530 out] Q; short G.T. conj.

16.8/1532 they with] Q; with malone

16.10–11/1534–5 what ere wee pay for them] Q. Compare 'at what rate soeuer' (P.A. 531).

16.19/1543 they're too] malone; ther's two Q. An easy aural error.

16.34/1558 sorts] Q; trades malone

16.36/1560 mystery] This edition; trade Q. There is no discernible difference in meaning, connotation, or respectability between profession and trade (see OED); if anything, the former was more prestigious. Shakespeare elsewhere uses mystery ironically of a bawd's occupation (Othello 4.2.32/2443) and a hangman's (Measure 4.2.27–39/1747–59); like profession and calling—but unlike trade—the word also has religious connotations, which suit the context. Many professions were not mysteries ('recognized guilds'); moreover, however secretive prostitution might be it was never 'an enigma' or 'a closely guarded secret'. A reporter might easily have substituted the common synonym 'trade', which lacks all these particular pertinences.

16.36/1560 It's] Q; crying hem is G.T. conj. Compare Othello 4.2.31/2442.

16.38/1562 to the Pirats] This edition; not in Q; To Marina malone

1562 (I) wayes‸ my maisters, ] Q1; ⁓. ⁓, malone

16.40/1564 a pirat] rowe; Sayler. Q; Pirate malone

16.49/1573 boult i] Q; Pirate. I LILLO (Malone); Boult. It dyce. See Hoeniger's defence of Q.

16.49/1573 hundred Sestercies] This edition; thouſand peeces Q. See P.A., 'a hundred Sestercies of golde' (531), and Twine, 'an hundred sestercies of gold' (456). A reporter might easily have substituted Q's less specific phrase; there seems little reason for Shakespeare to abandon his source in such a detail.

16.53.1/1577.1 Exeunt Pander ana Pirats] malone; not in Q

16.61/1585 (L) Alecke … slow ] rowe; prose Q. This line is metricelly anomalous, but no solution is compelling. Perhaps 'so slacke-slow', on the analogy of compounds like 'willful-slow' (Sonnet 51.13).

16.62–4/1586–8 (L) He … mother ] malone 2; prose Q; pirates| over-board| malone 1

16.63/1587 had but] malone; had not Q; Had rowe 3

16.64/1588 To] malone; for to Q

16.71–2/1595–6 (L) The … die ] malone 2; prose Q; I| malone 1

16.72/1596 like] Q4; not in Q1

1597 (I) pleasure] Q2; peaſure Q1

16.81/1606 not a] Q; no G.T. conj.

16.87–8/1612–13 must stir] Q4; stir Q1

16.88/1613 vp:] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); vp: Boults returnd. Q. Memorial texts often enough substitute dialogue for action, and vice versa.

16.88.1/1613.1 Enter Boult] Q4; not in Q1

16.96/1621 watred, as] This edition (G.T.); watred, and Q1; ſo watred, that Q4; water'd‸ and hoeniger. Hoeniger plausibly contends that the sense required to link the two clauses is 'as if'; but there is no evidence that and can take such a sense, while as frequently does. An easy memorial substitution.

16.102/1627 Verolles] malone (Veroles); Verollus Q

16.108/1633 of] edwards (W. S. Walker); in Q

16.110/1636 all] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

16.114/1640 to despise] malone; ‸ deſpiſe Q

1642 (I) Louers, seldome‸ ] malone; ⁓‸ ⁓, Q

16.122/1648 bawd] F3; Mari. Q (text and c.w.)

16.129/1655 (L) Who … it ] malone; a separate line Q

16.132/1658 giuing him money] This edition; not in Q

16.136–7/1662–3 reapst … setting forth ] This edition (M.J.); hast … report Q. There is no parallel in Shakespeare for 'hast' a harvest, and 'report' suspiciously repeats the previous sentence. Shakespeare often collocates reap and harvest (As You Like It 3.5.104/1825, Contention 3.1.381/1562, Richard III 2.2.104/1287, Sonnet 128.7); 'setting forth' can mean 'to recommend, praise' (used of a woman's beauty at Lucrece 32), and set can mean 'plant' (Winter's Tale 4.4.100/1705, etc.). Memorial error assisted by aural similarity.

16.140.1/1667 Exit] This edition; not in Q. If Boult is being paid and sent into town, he should not enter the house with the women.

16.146/1673 with me] This edition (G.T.); with vs Q. See 16.140.1/1667; the plural could have been picked up, by compositor or reporter, from the preceding line. Alternatively one might omit the phrase altogether.

16.146/1673 Exeunt.] F3; Exit. Q

16.146/1673 The signe is remoued] This edition; not in Q. See note to 16.0.1/1524.2.

Sc. 17] This edition; not in Q; [ACT IV.] SCENE IV. malone; [ACT IV.] SCENE III. dyce

17.0.1/1673.2 in mourning garments] This edition; not in Q. From P.A (530), following Twine (454). See 17.43/1716 ('And yet we mourne').

17.1/1674 are] Q4; ere Q1

17.3–4/1676–7 The … agen ] Q. One or both of these lines is presumably corrupt: two tetrameters in sequence are unlikely.

1677 (I) childe] Q4; chidle Q1

17.5/1678 (L) Were … world ] rowe; prose Q

17.5–6/1678–9 this … the ] Q; the … this G.T. conj.

17.6–47/1679–1720 (L) Ide … done ] malone; prose Q

17.6/1679 deede, a] maxwell (Delius); ⁓. O Q. The misreading is only possible in minuscule, which suggests that the heavy punctuation is compositorial.

1681 (I) earth‸ ] Q4; earth-| Q1

17.12/1685 fact] singer 2 (Dyce); face Q

17.13/1686 demaunds] This edition (G.T.); shall demaund Q

17.15/1688 is not] This edition (G.T.); it, not Q1; it, nor Q4

17.17/1690 pious] collier (Mason); impious Q1; not in Q4. Confirmed by P.A.: 'if such a pious innocent as your selfe do not reueale it' (530).

1693 (I) heau'ns] heauens

17.25/1698 cow'd] steevens; coward Q. Q is extrametrical and commonplace. Compare 'it hath Cow'd my better part of man' (Macbeth 5.10.18/2089), 'cowish terrer of his spirit' (History of Lear 16.12/2118; a scene strikingly similar to this), and 'like a Cow in Iune' (Antony 3.10.14/1678; of Cleopatra's flight at Actium)—all late plays.

17.26/1699 euer] Q; euen M.J. conj.

17.27/1700 prime] dyce; prince Q

17.28/1701 sourses] dyce; courſes Q

17.31/1704 distaine] singer (Steevens); diſdaine Q

17.33/1706 Marinas] Q2; Marianas Q1

1707 (I) Whilst] whilest

17.34 malkin] Q (Mawkin)

17.35 through] Q (thorow)

17.37/1710 finde] Q. Perhaps an error for 'fonde' (G.T.), contrasting Dionyza's love with Cleon's lack of it; 'I finde' seems redundant. But an appropriate syntax is difficult to reconstruct.

17.39/1712 your] Q; our dyce 2 (W. S. Walker)

17.41/1714 And as for] Q; For brooks (conj.)

1716 (I) And] &

17.43/1716 yet we mourne] Q; even yet ⁓ malone; ⁓ mourn for her elze (conj.)

1717 (I) finish'd] malone; finished Q

1719 (I) gen'rrall] generrall

17.48–9/1721–2 (L) Which … talents ] Q4; prose Q1

17.48–9/1721–2 Angell … Eagle ] This edition (G.T.); Angells … Eagles Q. For angel adjectivally compare Much Ado 4.1.163/1808, pg 579LLL 1.1.113/113, Richard III 4.1.68/2295; for eagle, Timon 1.1.49/49.

17.49/1722 Ceaze in] This edition (G.T.); ceaze with Q. The syntax is, probably deliberately, entangled: 'betray' belongs with 'Angell face', while 'doest' belongs with 'Ceaze'. No single emendation can alter this interpretation of the syntax, and since it relates to the context it must be regarded as deliberate. The repetition of 'with' might be defended similarly; but it could easily result from inadvertent compositorial or memorial error. The first 'with' is necessary to the conceit: 'by means of' her angel's face, the harpy betrays her victim, thus enabling her to seize it: the face is instrumental to the betrayal and hence the seizure, and an instrumental preposition is therefore appropriate (and metaphorically striking). But the instrumental character of the claws is secondary, and interferes with the metaphor: the angel's face betrays the victim into the harpy's claws.

17.49 talons] Q (talents)

17.51–2/1724–5 (L) Doe … aduise ] Q4; kills| youle| Q1; one| Gods| know| w. s. walker (conj.)

17.51/1724 Doe … Flies ] Q. Most editors have regarded this passage as obscure and perhaps corrupt. Maxwell notes that 'sweare too'th Gods' must mean 'take an oath that, testify that [something is true]', in this case that winter kills the flies. Maxwell, followed by Hoeniger, further assumes that 'he who swears is exonerating himself'. But if this were correct one would expect 'killd': 'winter did it, not I'. More important, the whole point of the image (self-exoneration) is left unstated; nor has Cleon been engaged in self-exoneration in this scene. One would expect Dionyza's image to refer openly to Cleon's foregoing behaviour: he wishes the deed undone, he calls it impious and ignoble, he asks the heavens to forgive it, he berates his wife. We would gloss 'sweare too'th Gods' as 'inform the gods (in an inappropriately serious manner)' of (a) something they already know, which is (b) trivial, and (c) unavoidable, unalterable, natural. Emendation seems unnecessary.

17.52/1725 Exeunt] rowe; not in Q1; Exit. Q4

Sc. 18] This edition; not in Q; Actus Quartus. F3; [ACT IV] SCENE IV. malone

18.0.1/1725.1 Enter Gower] Q4; not in Q1

18.1/1726 long] Q1; longest Q4. Most editors adopt Q4, but leagues are of a fixed length: none of Shakespeare's other uses of leagues or longest encourages the emendation.

18.1/1726 make we] This edition (conj. Maxwell); make Q. Sisson and Hoeniger defend the metrical irregularity as deliberate archaizing, but there is nothing archaic—or indicative that the speech is by Gower in particular—in this passage: see Introduction.

18.2 an] Q (and)

18.3/1728 take] hudson; take our Q; take your malone

1730 (I) pard'ned] Q4; pardoned Q1

1731 (I) seu'ran] ſeuerall

18.7–8/1732–3 (L) Where … teach you ] Q4; 4 lines Q1: liue| beseech you| gappes|

18.7/1732 sceane seemes] maxwell; ſceanes ſeemes Q1; ſceanes ſeeme Q4

18.8/1733 ith] maxwell (Bullen); with Q1; in Q4; i'the malone (Steevens)

1733 (I) teach you,] F4; ⁓. Q

1734 (I) storie,] F4; ⁓‸ Q

18.10/1735 the] Q2; thy Q1

1738 (I) along, behind‸ ] daniel (conj. in Cambridge); ⁓‸ ⁓, Q

18.14/1739 gouerne, if] This edition (conj. Maxwell); ⁓‸ it, Q

1739 (I) mind,] malone; ⁓. Q1; ⁓‸ Q2

18.16/1741 Tyre] schanzer (W. S. Walker); time Q. An easy compositorial misreading and normalization.

18.17/1742 (L) Well … brought ] Q4; 2 lines Q1: winds|

18.18/1743 his] malone; this Q

1743 (I) thought,] F4; ⁓‸ Q

18.19/1744 go one] maxwell (Malone); grone Q; grow on malone

18.19 on] Q (one)

1745 (I) gone;] F4; ⁓‸ Q1

18.21/1746 (L) Like … a while ] Q4; 2 lines Q1: them|

18.22.1/1747.1 Dombe shew.] malone; not in Q

18.22.3/1747.3 in mourning garments] This edition; not in Q. See note to 17.0.1/1673.2.

18.22.4/1747.4 drawes the curtaine and] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. The tomb must be made visible to an audience between 18.0.1/1725.1 and 18.22.4/1747.4; this seems the most probable method, with the tomb being revealed to Pericles and the audience simultaneously. Editors since malone bring the tomb on with Gower, at 18.0.1/1725.1.

18.22.7–8/1747.7–8 followeddoore ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; Then cleon and dionyza retire, malone; Then exeunt cleon, dionyza, and the rest cambridge

1748 (I) See] Gowr. See Q

18.24/1749 owde] maxwell (anon, conj.); olde Q

1751 (I) ore-showr'd,] F4; ⁓. Q1

18.29/1754 puts] malone; put Q

1754 (I) Sea, he beares‸ ] malone (subs.); ⁓‸ ⁓, Q

1755 (I) teares,] ⁓. Q1

1756 (I) out.] ⁓, Q1

1756 (I) wit‸ ] ⁓:

18.32–3/1757–8 (L) The … Dionyza ] malone; 1 line Q

18.33.1/1758.1 Hetombe ] malone (subs.); not in Q

18.34/1759 sweetest, best] malone (Steevens); ſweetest, and best Q; sweet'st, and best steevens (Malone); chastest, and most best P.A. (530)

1760 (I) withred] rowe (wither'd); withered Q. P.A. has 'wythred' (530).

18.36–7/1761–2 Ingood ] P.A. (530). For Q's eight lines, see Additional Passages. Maxwell calls Q's alternative 'a shocking piece of fustian (for which one hopes the reporter is largely responsible)'; Hoeniger describes it as 'sheer poetic drivel'. But according to our textual hypothesis, the reporter cannot be held responsible, for Gower's speeches apparently do not derive from the reporter; and Hoeniger notes that the first couplet is based upon Gower. But there can be no doubt that P.A.'s text is much superior, poetically and dramatically, and we have therefore adopted it, assuming either (a) that P.A. represents Shakespeare's revised text, and Q a first shot later cancelled in performance, or (b) that P.A. is a revision (or alternative) by the collaborator Wilkins.

1766 (I) ordered,] Q4; ⁓; Q1

18.42/1767 Sceane] malone 2; Steare Q

1768 (I) welladay,] F4; ⁓. Q

Sc. 19] This edition; not in Q; [ACT IV.] SCENE V. malone

19.0.1/1770.1 A brothel signe.] This edition; not in Q. See note to 16.0.1/1524.2.

19.2/1772 2. gentleman] '2. Gent.' Q (text), Qb (c.w.); Gower. Qa (c.w.)

19.9/1779 Exeunt] F3; Exit. Q

19.9.1/1779.1 Enter Bawdes] Q. Editors since malone mark a new scene here, but it seems likely that the brothel sign remains on stage. Even if it does not, there need be no gap in time, and the place is clearly the same. The gentlemen are leaving the brothel; the bawds are ambiguously in or out of it, and see Lysimachus approaching; one goes in to fetch Marina; Lysimachus asks Marina to 'bring me to some priuate place' (19.97/1868). One tends to assume that the later part of the scene takes place 'in' the brothel, but the Jacobean stage need not have been perturbed by an ambiguous shift of locale in mid-scene.

19.9.1/1779.1 Pander, Bawd, and Boult] malone; not in Q

19.13/1783 the whole of] This edition (conj. Maxwell); a whole Q. In Q 'generation' must mean 'the whole body of individuals born about the same period' (sb. 5; never elsewhere in Shakespeare); the sense is possible, but of no special pertinence. 'The whole of procreation' is much more appropriate, especially as a suitably hyperbolic companion to the first half of the sentence; it also permits a Shakespearian pun on whole (= 'hole', vagina), supplying the female counterpart to Priapus.

19.21 cavalleria] Q1 (Caualereea); Caualeres Q4

pg 580

19.24.1/1794.1 Enter Lysimachus] This edition; after 19.27/1793 Q

19.24.1/1794.1 disguised] This edition; not in Q

19.26 loon] Q (Lowne)

19.27/1797 custome] This edition; customers Q. The emendation permits a triple pun on 'customers, business patrons' (sb. 5; compare Shrew 4.3.99/1978, Winter's Tale 5.2.98/2785, and Pericles 16.134/1660), 'tradition, conventional practice' (sb. 1; here, the normal fate of women, normal practice in a brothel), and 'customary service done by feudal tenants to their lord, customary rent … tax or tribute' (sb. 3) or 'impost or duty … esp. that levied in the name of the king or sovereign authority upon merchandise … imported into his dominions' (sb. 4). The last sense is especially relevant to Marina in relation to Lysimachus.

19.29 to-bless] Q (to blesse)

1801 (I) may‸ so, ] Q4; ⁓, ⁓‸ Q1

19.33/1803 iniquitie‸ haue you, ] Q; iniquity? Have you‸ malone

19.37/1807 deede] Q5; deedes Q1. Hoeniger's claim that 'the plural form is not unusual' seems unfounded. His citations from Miseries and The Knave in Grain are irrelevant, because the wording in Miseries is 'and yet by light such deeds of darkness may not be', and in The Knave 'I defie thee, and thy deeds of darkness'. This is quite different from doing the deeds of darkness (M.J.).

19.40/1810 Exit Pander] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; Exit Boult white. White's emendation entails further emendation of speech-prefixes; dyce has Boult exit at 19.46/1816, where he has little time to re-enter, and exits without particular motive. The Pander, who has nothing else to do hereabouts, can exit on command.

19.45/1815 dignifies] Q4; dignities Q1

19.46/1816 a noble] This edition (M.J.); a number Q; an anchor singer; a maiden hudson 2; a punk schanzer; a pander kinnear (conj.); a wenton anon. (conj. in Cambridge); a whore tiessen (conj.). Although Q produces an intelligible sentence, and so has been accepted by most recent editors, the resulting sense is lamentably feeble, and Malone was probably right in thinking Q corrupt. Our emendation assumes that Lysimachus compared his own hypocrisy to that of Boult, and the censor insisted on changing the word. See Introduction.

19.46.1/1816.1 Enter Pander with Marina] This edition (G.T.); not in Q1; Enter Marina. Q4; Re-enter Boult with Marina. dyce (after 'you', 19.48/1818). Dyce's postponement of Marina's entrance, despite the implication of the dialogue, was designed to make more plausible his decision that Boult should fetch her.

19.47–8/1817–18 (L) Here … creature ] malone; verse Q: stalke| you |

19.49–50/1819–20 (L) Faith … vs ] malone; verse Q: Sea|

19.50.1/1820.1 He pays the Bawd] edwards; not in Q

19.51–2/1821–2 (L) I … presently ] malone; verse Q: word|;

1821 (I) leaue:] malone; ⁓‸ Q. Though Maxwell and Hoeniger retain Q, they can provide no parallels for its expression.

19.56–7/1826–7 honorably know] This edition (M.J.); note Q. Q is sensible but feeble. Marina picks up on 'honorable', saying that she will 'know' him virtuously (not carnally). The reporter repeated the wrong word ('note' instead of 'honorabl(y)').

19.69/1840 hers] This edition (G.T.); her Q. The emendation gives a pun on 'Honor'.

19.69–70/1841 goe thy wayes] Q. malone attributed these words to Lysimachus, taking them as a literal injunction to exit; but the phrase is often used metaphorically in reproach or exhortation, and in any case the Bawd might be hurrying her companions off stage.

19.70/1841 Exit 3. Bawds] malone (subs.); not in Q1; Exit Baud Q4

19.71/1842 Faire] This edition (G.T.); Now prittie Q. Lysimachus repeats 'prettie one' at 19.91/1862, and the Bawd so addresses Marina at 16.65/1589 (where it must be correct). For faire one(s) as a vocative, see Henry V 5.2.118/2973, As You Like It 4.3.76/2163, Measure 2.3.20/895, All's Well 2.1.99/658, and Pericles 21.55/2073.

19.73/1844 I] This edition (M.J.); Why, I Q. The word is metrically superfluous, and Lysimachus uses it again at 19.79/1850 and 19.86/1857 (and, in Q, 19.79/1850).

19.73/1844 name it but] edwards (Hoeniger); name but Q; name't but F3

19.74–5/1845–6 (L) I … name it ] rowe; 1 line

19.75–6/1846–7 (L) How … profession ] This edition (conj. Brooks); 1 line Q

19.77–8/1848–9 (L) Did … seuen ] This edition (conj. Brooks); prose Q: gamester | at

19.78/1849 or] This edition (G.T.); or at Q. Superfluous extrametrical repetition.

19.78–9/1849–50 (L) Earlyer … one ] This edition (conj. Brooks); 1 line Q

19.79–80/1850–1 (L) Why … sale ] This edition (conj. Brooks); prose Q

19.79/1850 Why] Q (confirmed by P.A. 535)

19.80/1851 Proclaimeth] This edition (G.T.); proclaimes Q

19.80/1851 you] This edition (conj. Brooks); you to be Q. Anticipation of the following line.

19.80/1851 Creature] Q. A syllable may be missing hereabouts, but creature is conceivably trisyllabic.

19.81–4/1852–5 (L) And doe … Prouince ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

19.81/1852 And] This edition (conj. Brooks); not in Q. 'A light syllable seems wanting. The And of surprised expostulation would sufficiently combine respect with reproach, and might easily slip the reporter's memory' (Brooks).

19.82/1853 intoo it] This edition (G.T.); intoo't Q

19.83/1854 bloud] This edition (G.T.); parts Q. Q's word could result from memorial substitution or censorship. Lysimachus' vague 'abilities' are not so pertinent here as his social status. Shakespeare often puns on blood in the sense 'sexual passion' (or 'sexual emission'); Marina would here declare 'honorable inherited rank', while implying 'instead of dishonorable passion'. Q's 'parts' would be politically innocuous, because a person of any rank might have 'honourable parts'; but 'honourable blood' (Contention 4.1.52/2063) specifically alludes to Lysimachus' aristocratic status, which was probably a sore point with the censor.

19.84/1855 whole Prouince] This edition (G.T.); fair town brooks (conj.); place Q. M.J. notes numerous repetitions of place, especially in this scene and Sc. 21; this one is particularly unfortunate, as in context place apparently means 'brothel'. Moreover, as with 'parts', Q here offers a vague and politically innocuous word; one suspects that the original was more provocative. For 'Prouince' see 21.50/2068. P.A. uses 'whole' of a political entity (city, kingdom, state) 10 times; it seems an appropriate adjective here, to fill out the metre. Marina has been told by the Bawd that Lysimachus is governor of 'this country', not just the 'city'.

19.85/1856 (L) What … em ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

19.85/1856 What,] This edition; Why, Q; Why? F3. Of Lysimachus' first seven speeches to Marina, four begin with 'Why', which in one or more of them may be intruded through recollection of the others (Hoeniger). See 19.73/1844. Three of the speeches are exasperated statements, which appropriately begin with 'Why'; only this is a surprised question, for which 'What!' seems more appropriate.

19.85/1856 inform'd] This edition (G.T.); made knowne vnto Q. Q's phrase (made or make known unto) is unparalleled in the canon; the verb could have been picked up from 22.33/2299 ('Made knowne her selfe … ').

19.86–91/1857–62 (L) Why … authoritie ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

19.87/1858 seeds of shame, rootes of] This edition (G.T.); ſeeds and rootes of shame and Q. Q is unmetrical; a reporter could easily have repeated the wrong word ('and', rather than 'of'), confusing the construction by transposition of the two medial nouns in this group of four.

19.87.1/1858.1 She weepes] This edition; not in Q. See Twine (457) and P.A. (536). Q treats 19.87/1858 as the end of a speech pg 581(blank space to the end of the line) and indents 19.88/1859 as though it begins a new speech (though there is no new prefix). Something may be omitted here, which would prompt Lysimachus' change of direction.

19.88/1859 y'haue] This edition (M.J.); you haue Q. For the elision compare Caesar 2.1.236/798, Timon 5.1.74/2041, Antony 2.6.108, 2.7.24/1104, 1156, and Sonnet 120.6 (as well as three occasions in Fletcher's share of All Is True).

1859 (I) pow'r] power

19.89/1860 off] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Compare 1 Henry VI 4.4.21/1880 ('Keepe off aloofe') and All's Well 4.2.36–7/1895–6 ('Stand no more off, | But giue thy selfe vnto my sicke desires'), etc.

19.89/1860 alofe] rowe; aloft Q

19.89/1860 a] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. In P.A. Lysimachus suspects Marina's tears at this point, thinking they are intended 'to drawe him to a more large expense' (535).

19.91–6/1862–7 can … ling'ring ] This edition; shall not ſee thee, or elſe looke friendly vpon thee, Q. See Introduction. This passage is adapted and versified from P.A. 535: 'vrging her, that he was the Gouernour, whose authoritie coulde wincke at those blemishes, her selfe, and that sinnefull house could cast vppon her, or his displeasure punish at his owne pleasure, which displeasure of mine, thy beauty shall not priuiledge thee from, nor my affection, which hath drawen me vnto this place abate, if thou with further lingering withstand me.' P.A.'s switch in mid-sentence into direct address strikingly suggests that Wilkins here echoes a dramatic text, and the content—the abuse of power by Lysimachus—is especially likely to have provoked the ire of the censor.

19.91–2/1862–3 can wincke at blemishes] This edition (G.T.); shall not ſee thee Q. See previous note. P.A.'s image here is definitely Shakespearian: compare 'the winking of Authoritie' (K. John 4.2.212/1833), Henry V 2.2.54, 5.2.297/661, 3157, Macbeth 1.4.54/287, etc. P.A. generalizes in a politically dangerous way; Q is specific ('thee') and innocuous.

19.92/1863 or can on faults looke friendly] This edition (G.T.); or elfe looke friendly vpon thee Q. P.A. has nothing corresponding to Q's phrase here. On the evidence of the rest of the passage Q has been censored to substitute an uncontroversial specific ('thee') for a dangerous generalization. Compare Caesar 4.2.146/1883: 'A friendly eye could neuer see such faults'. Q's contrast between not seeing (or 'winking') and looking upon in a friendly way seems genuine, and it leads naturally into the rest of the passage in P.A.

19.93/1864 at my pleasure] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; at his owne pleasure P.A.; then at will bullough (conj.). P.A.'s symmetry seems too good to destroy.

19.94–5/1865–6 From which displeasure, not thy beauty shall | Priuiledge thee] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; from which displeasure of mine, thy beauty shall not priuiledge thee from P.A.; From which thy beauty shall not privilege thee bullough (conj.). Bullough's reorganization of the syntax—omitting 'of mine', and having from begin the clause rather than end it, seems irresistible. His omission of displeasure is more dubious; if it is retained, the syntax and the verse arrangement are more muscular, and characteristic of Shakespeare's late style. With the exception of the omitted 'of mine', the text here retains P.A's words, but arranges them as late Shakespearian verse rather than Wilkinsian prose.

19.96/1867 here] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; vnto this place P.A.

19.96/1867 ling'ring] This edition; lingering P.A. (535). All Shakespeare's 13 uses of this word mark the elision.

19.97/1868 (L) Come … come ] This edition (conj. Brooks); prose Q

19.98–100/1869–71 Let … your selfe ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. These lines are adapted from P.A.: 'If as you say (my Lorde) you are the Gouernour, let not your authoritie, which should teach you to rule others, be the meanes to make you mis-gouerne your selfe' (535). Another politically sensitive sentiment. We have not taken over P.A.'s conditional clause, because in Pericles it is Marina who first identifies him as the Governor: P.A has, under the influence of Twine, confused the exact order of events. (See Taylor, 'Transmission'.)

19.98/1869 not] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; not your P.A.

19.98/1869 teaches] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; should teach P.A

19.99/1870 gouerne] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; rule P.A.

19.100/1871 much] This edition (G.T.); not in Q, P.A. A syllable seems to be missing; compare 'thy much misgouernment' (Much Ado 4.1.99/1744).

19.101–3/1872–4(L.) If … of it ] rowe; prose Q

19.103–13/1874–84 What … impouerish me ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. These lines are adapted from P.A: 'What reason is there in your Iustice, who hath power ouer all, to vndoe any? If you take from mee mine honour, you are like him, that makes a gappe into forbidden ground, after whome too many enter, and you are guiltie of all their euilles: my life is yet vnspotted, my chastitie vnstained in thought. Then if your violence deface this building, the workemanship of heauen, made vp for good, and not to be the exercise of Sinnes intemperaunce, you do kill your owne honour, abuse your owne iustice, and impouerish me.' (535).

19.103–113/1874–1884 (L) What … impouerish me ] This edition (conj. Bullough); prose P.A

19.103/1874 reason's] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; reason is there P.A.

19.106/1877 y'are] This edition (M.J.); you are P.A.. Shakespeare prefers this form of the contraction (53 times, to only 28 of 'you're' only one in a text from authorial copy).

19.107/1878 whome after] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; after whome P.A

19.108–9/1879–80 of all their euilles | Your selfe are guiltie] This edition (G.T.); you ere guiltie of all their euilles P.A. This transposition lets 'all' carry on immediately from 'too many', and postpones 'you are guiltie' to the climax of the sentence, where it is juxtaposed with the completion of the verse line ('my life is yet vnspotted'). P.A offers instead normal prose word order.

19.109/1880 Your selfe] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; you P.A. For the emphatic use of your selfe meaning 'you' compare Richard III 2.1.18/1059 ('your selfe is [Q 'are'] not exempt'), etc.

19.110/1881 eu'n] This edition; not in Q, P.A.; even bullough (conj.)

19.111/1882 deface] P.A. Compare 'his soul's fair temple is defaced' (Lucrece 719; of the effect of lust) and 'defacer of Gods handie worke' (Richard III 4.4.51/2556).

19.111/1882 building] P.A. Shakespeare often uses this word of the human frame (Macbeth 2.3.68/682, etc.); it retained a strong verbal sense, as 'a thing built' (OED), which leads naturally into the religious image of the next line.

19.112/1883 heau'n, you] This edition (M.J.); heauen, made vp for good, and not to be the exercise of sinnes intemperaunce P.A 'Wilkins habitually pads out his lines with antitheses that elaborate on what something is not; neither the phrasing nor the imagery sounds Shakespearian, and the digression weakens the syntax of the conclusion to this part of her argument' (M.J.). Omitting these phrases produces either an hexameter or an extra stress at the caesura (both acceptable in Shakespeare's late verse).

19.112–13/1883–4 your … your ] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in Q; your owne … your owne P.A.

19.113/1884 me.] P.A. continues: 'Why, quoth Lysimachus, this house wherein thou liuest, is euen the receptacle of all mens sinnes, and nurse of wickednesse, and how canst thou then be otherwise then naught, that liuest in it? It is not good, answered Marina, when you that are the Gouernour, who should liue well, the better to be bolde to punish euill, doe knowe that there is such a roofe, and yet come vnder it' (535). But this repeats 19.79–82/1850–3, which is essential to the progress of the dialogue (see Taylor, 'Transmission'); the reiteration could be defended as intensive, but neither text has Lysimachus pose this pg 582objection twice, and since the repetition is solely the result of conflation it seems to us undesirable. Moreover, P.A. also seems here to echo 19.200/1971 ('Olde receptacles … of filthe'). We have therefore ignored P.A.'s version of this question and answer.

19.114–119/1885–90 (My yet … maint'nance ] This edition; not in Q. Taken from P.A.: 'Is there … ' etc.

19.114/1885 (My] This edition (G.T.); Is there a necessitie P.A.; Is there a need bullough (conj.). The whole phrase is otiose, in Wilkins's wordiest prosy manner.

19.115/1886 strait] This edition (conj. Bullough); strait then thither P.A.

19.115/1886 Suppose] This edition (G.T.); Or if suppose P.A.; Or else, suppose bullough (conj.). There are no parallels in the Shakespeare canon for P.A.'s phrasing, which looks like Wilkins's syntax; Shakespeare often begins sentences with an imperative Suppose.

19.116/1887 too too many feele] The iteration of too is characteristic of Shakespeare (seven occurrences, including 'too too oft' and 'too too much'); it does not appear elsewhere in P.A.; or in Miseries. Collocation of feel and too occurs at John 3.4.59/1364, All Is True 1.2.129/387.

19.118/1889 The] This edition (conj. Bullough); not in P.A.

19.118/1889 it] This edition (conj. Bullough); it therefore P.A.

1890 (I) maint'nance] This edition (conj. Bullough); maintenance P.A.

19.120/1891 Kneeling] This edition; not in Q. See Twine (457–8) and P.A: 'which wordes (being spoken vpon her knees)' (536). in this speech Marina specifically supplicates Lysimachus; in the next, the gods.

19.120–3/1891–4 (L) For … Phisicke ] malone 2; prose Q

19.122/1893 frāc't] This edition (G.T.); plac't Q. The fourfold repetition of 'place' in this end Marina's preceding speech in Q (19.81–4/1852–5; see note to 19.84/1855) smacks of error. Compare Richard III 4.5.2–3/2976–7: 'in the stye of this most deadlie bore, | My sonne George Stanlie is franckt vp in hold'. Q could result from misreading, facilitated by the three other occurrences of 'place' on this page. Alternatively, one might conjecture 'set' (presuming memorial error).

19.122/1893 Stie] Q; loathsome sty steevens. The emendation was made for metrical reasons, treating 'Fortune … Stie' as one line. If an adjective were wanted 'nasty' (as at Hamlet 3.4.84/2298) would be more attractive.

19.126/1897 mooued] This edition; not in Q. See Twine: 'astonied and mooued with compassion' (457).

19.126–9/1897–1900 (L) I … it ] rowe; prose Q

19.127.1/1898.1 Hee lifts her vp with his hands] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 536 ( … lift … ).

19.128/1899 Though] This edition (G.T.); Had Q. See next note.

19.129/1900 hath] This edition (G.T.); had Q. These two simple alterations change Q's subjunctive sentence into a declarative one, thus producing the same sense as in P.A.: 'I hither came with thoughtes intemperate, foule and deformed' (536). Q's text here, in contrast to P.A.'s, again presents a sanitized portrait of Lysimachus, and although Q makes the best human sense possible of the resulting situation (see Taylor, 'Transmission'), censorship seems highly probable.

19.129/1900 alter'd] rowe; altered Q

19.129/1900 He wipes the wet from her eyes] This edition; not in Q. See P.A.: 'So in steede of willing her to drie her eyes, he wiped the wet himselfe off, and could haue found in his heart, with modest thoughts to haue kissed her, but that hee feared the offer would offend her' (536). Such a moment of innocent physical intimacy is normal and affecting in performance.

19.129/1900 and my foule thoughtes] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. See first note to 19.129/1900 for P.A's 'thoughtes … foule'. Neither P.A. nor Miseries has any other example of this collocation; Shakespeare has 'foule … thoughts' at Contention 4.7.100/2558, Lucrece 346 (of lust), Othello 2.1.258/940 (of lust), and Antony 4.10.17/2260.

19.130/1901 Thy … white ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A.: 'the which your paines so well hath laued, thet they are now white' (536).

19.130/1901 Thy] This edition (G.T.); the which your P.A. P.A. normally uses you, but in Q Lysimachus uses thou consistently from 19.90/1861 (where P.A. also switches to thou, though it does not keep up the distinction). P.A.'s 'the which' is a typical Wilkins construction, superfluous and extrametrical

19.130/1901 teares] This edition (conj. Bullough); paines P.A. Compare More II.C.108 ('Wash your foul minds with tears'), Much Ado 4.1.154–5/1799–1800 ('speaking of her ſoulenesse, | Washt it with teares'); Shakespeare speaks of tears 'washing' or 'bathing' something 9 times elsewhere.

19.130/1901 hath] P.A.; have bullough (unrecorded emendation)

19.130/1901 lau'd] P.A. (laued). This verb appears nowhere else in P.A. or Miseries; Shakespeare uses it 3 times elsewhere, including OED's first recorded figurative use (Macbeth 3.2.34/978), and Titus 4.2.101–2/1628–9 ('Can neuer turne the swans blacke legs to white, | Although shee laue them howrely in the flood'). For the image, compare 'Cleanse the foule bodie of th'infected world' (As You Like It 2.7.60/983), 'I wash my braine, | And it grow fouler' (Antony 2.7.94–5/1227–8).

19.130/1901 that they're now] This edition (G.T.); that they are now P.A.; till they are bullough (conj.)

19.131–3/1902–4 I … honesty. ] This edition (conj. Bullough); holde, heeres golde for thee, Q. From P.A.: 'and for my parte, who hither came but to haue payd the price, a peece of golde for your virginitie, now giue you twenty to releeue your honesty' (536).

19.131/1902 I came heere meaning but to pay] This edition (G.T,); who hither came but to haue payd P.A. The repetition of hitherP.A. has 'hither came' twice in the same sentence—is unlikely to be Shakespeare's; the rhythmically and syntactically flabby 'but to haue payd' sounds more like Wilkins than Shakespeare. Compare 'but he meanes to pay' (1 Henry IV 5.4.42/2839).

1903 (I) golde‸ ] Q (text); ⁓, Q (c.w.)

19.132–3/1903–4 thy … thine ] This edition (G.T.); your … your P.A. See note to 19.112–13/1883–4.

19.132/1903 virginitie] P.A. In P.A. (as in Twine) Lysimachus has taken pains to ensure that he is Marina's first customer; he therefore literally pays for her 'virginitie'. In Q he simply arrives on the scene as a regular customer, so that he did not literally come for the explicit purpose of buying her virginity. Nevertheless, he is assured (18.47–8/1817–18) that she is a virgin, before he agrees to pay. In performance this sort of minor contradiction is not noticed, and Shakespeare's plays are full of examples. If emendation were necessary, one might read 'impurity' (G.T.).

19.133/1904 Heeres] This edition (conj. Bullough); now giue you P.A. The emendation in fact reverts to Q's wording ('holde, heeres golde for thee').

19.134–5/1905–6 (L) Perseuer … thee ] rowe; prose Q

19.134/1905 Perseuer still] steevens; perſeuer Q. Persever is always accented on the second syllable elsewhere, and clear never elsewhere disyllabic, so Q is metrically defective: either 'cleare' should be replaced by a disyllabic adjective, or an adverb added after 'perseuer'. The use of clear is demonstrably Shakespearian. Of appropriate monosyllabic adverbs, fast ('continue fast', Cymbeline 1.6.138) seems inappropriate to the 'way' metaphor; for true there are no close parallels; but 'continue(s) still' occurs 3 times (1 Henry VI 4.1.11/1717 ('still continue'), Contention 4.8.17/2699, Antony 4.6.29/2178). And see the corresponding speech in P.A.: 'continue still to all so … It shall become you still to be euen as you are' (536).

19.135/1906 good Gods] Q; gods steevens. 'The' (or 'you') 'good gods' occurs at Timon 4.1.37/1373, Antony 3.4.15, 5.2.217/1430, 2873, Coriolanus 3.1.291, 4.1.57, 5.2.77/1736, 2133, 2876, Pericles 11.37/1166, Cymbeline 3.2.29/1303 and 5.5.103/2609.

19.136/1907 The] This edition; For me be you thoughten, that I came with no ill intent, for to me Q. Q continues its excuse of Lysimachus' behaviour; its words, whether or not accurately pg 583reported, belong to the censored version of the text. As for Q, 'For me' suspiciously repeats the opening of 19.120/1891 (Marina's speech), and is duplicated by 'to me' below. Q1's 'be you thoughten, that' is omitted by Q4; Edwards says of it, This is not English, and can hardly be the true reading'. But Deighton noted that participles in -en are frequent in Shakespeare; more particularly, for two such participles Shakespeare provides OED's only examples: 'moulten' (1 Henry IV 3.1.148/1627) and 'sweaten' (Macbeth 4.1.81/1372). OED itself notes that thoughten here was probably formed by analogy with boughten. Unusual word-formation is more characteristic of Shakespeare than of a reporter.

19.137/1908 (L) Fare … vertue ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q. malone divided after 'and' (see next notes). A line-divided foot (vilely | Fare).

19.138/1909 The … made, ] This edition (conj. Maxwell); not in Q. In P.A. this phrase immediately follows 'a peece of goodnesse' and precedes 'and if that any shall inforce you ill, if you but send to me, I am your friend' (536). Compare 'wrought by nature' (Errors 1.1.34/34), and for a woman wert thou first created, | Till Nature as she wrought thee fell a-doting' (Sonnet 20), and Cymbeline 2.4.72–5/1074–7, where a tapestry of Cleopatra is described as 'A peece of Worke … so rarely, and exactly wrought'. The juxtaposition of Nature and piece is equally Shakespearian: see 'Natures peece, 'gainst Fancie' (Antony 5.2.98/2754) and 'O ruind peece of nature' (History of Lear 20.129/2458). Shakespeare similarly expresses superlative praise in calling Desdemona 'Thou cunning'st patterne of excelling nature' (Othello 5.2.11/2908), Helen 'the most virtuous gentlewoman, that euer Nature had praise for creating' (All's Well 4.5.9–10/2326–7), end Rosalind as Nature's distillation of the graces of all other women into one body (As You Like It 3.2.138–51/1282–95). The collocation 'Nature made' occurs 6 times. Nature is a particularly important concept in Shakespeare's late plays, from Timon and All's Well to Cymbeline. Finally, with this added line Lysimachus' reference to Marina's 'training' follows naturally: he moves from nature to nurture, in a traditional topos.

19.139/1910 (L) And … noble ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q ( & … ). malone divides after 'theefe' (as here), but puts 'And' on the previous line.

19.139/1910 not] This edition (G.T.); not but Q. Doubt can be used with or without 'but', to produce the same meaning; an easy memorial error, which here disrupts the metre. M.J. observes that 'I doubt not but' recurs at 19.209/1980 (in Marina's speech, where it is confirmed by P.A.) and at 19.221–2/1992–3; its occurrence here is thus especially likely to be memorial in origin.

19.140/1911 (L) A … theefe ] rowe; prose Q

19.141/1912 (L) That … golde ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

19.141/1912 honour] This edition (G.T.); goodnes Q. Q's word is suspicious, given 'good' in the next line (which idiomatically must be right); nor is it easy to see how anyone could rob Marina of her goodness. Q could easily be a synonym substitution for 'honour', which Shakespeare frequently uses in the sense 'chastity': see especially Giacomo's 'I haue pick't the lock, and ta'ne | The treasure of her Honour' (Cymbeline 2.2.41–2/838–9). Despite her goodness, Marina's chastity could be stolen—as Boult prepares to do when Lysimachus leaves. And in P. A. Marina later accuses Boult of trying 'to robbe me of mine honour' (538), which supports the emendation.

19.141/1912 hold, heeres more golde,] This edition (G.T.); hold, heeres more golde for thee, Q (after 'noble'). This sentence is of a kind easily misplaced by a reporter, since it could be fitted anywhere in the speech. In Q it interrupts the metricel flow and has to be treated as an isolated mid-speech half-line, and the end of the speech is metrically awkward. Placed after rather than before the sentence ('A curse … honour'), it contributes to an acceptable pentameter, with a feminine caesura (the commonest of metrical licences). The omission of 'for thee' seems desirable not only metrically, but because the words are superfluous, and suspiciously repeat 19.132/1903.

19.142/1913 (L) If … good ] malone 2; prose Q; me| steevens; dost| dyce. An acceptable hexameter.

19.142.1–2/1913.1–3 standingout ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. (537), with 'hee' for 'Lysimachus'. All editors since malone add 'Enter Boult' before this speech, but it seems reasonably clear that Boult is—as his profession requires—simply waiting outside the door; thus, when Lysimachus makes to exit, he opens the door and discovers Boult. Boult would hardly enter without warning, when a woman is entertaining a client.

19.144–6/1915–7 (L) Auaunt … Away ] rowe; prose Q

1917(I) ouer-whelme] Q4; ouer-|whelme

19.146/1917 Exit] rowe; not in Q

19.151–55/1922–6 come … say ] Q. Maxwell, noting that the 'substance' of these lines recurs at 19.177–9/1948–51, condemned them as 'suspicious', concluding that the wording 'prob. belongs in the later passage'. But 'weele haue no more Gentlemen driuen away' seems to belong here (Hoeniger) and it is not clear that Boult himself intends to rape Marina here (as Maxwell assumes). Moreover, though Maxwell claims that P.A. 'has nothing corresponding to this passage', it has nothing corresponding to 19.147–50/1918–22 either, and as a narrative has less need to allow a reasonable interval before the entrance of the other bawds.

19.154/1925 executioner shal doe] This edition (G.T.); hãg-man shal execute Q. The passage clearly puns on 'maiden-head', as at Romeo 1.1.20–5/34–9; but there the head is 'cut off', as we would expect, rather than hung. Q's 'hãg-man' is especially suspicious, not only because it makes poor sense but because—as M.J. notes—'the common hang-man' recurs at 19.201/1972 (Marina's speech), where 'hang-man' seems clearly correct; memorial contamination seems probable. 'Common executioner' occurs at As You Like It 3.5.3/1724 and Measure 4.2.8–9/1728–9; the reporter might well have used the key word as a verb ('execute') when it should have been a noun ('executioner'), under the influence of 'hang-man'.

19.154/1925 weele] This edition; come your way, weele Q. The pointless repetition of this catch-phrase—three times in five lines here, and nine times in the brothel scenes—almost certainly derives in part from the reporter. This instance is particularly suspicious: 19.151/1922 is necessary, and 19.155/1926 a deliberate repetition of the first (' … I say'), but the present one serves no purpose, rhymes awkwardly with 'away' and 'say', and separates 'executioner' from 'Gentlemen', thus obscuring the point that if Marina refuses the letter she shall get the former.

19.155.1/1926.1 Bawd and Pander] maxwell; Bawdes Q1; Bawd rowe. Maxwell retains and interprets Q's plural on the grounds that 'it is a pity to edit away any scrap of evidence'. Moreover, P.A. has 'the whole swarme of bawdes … rushing in hastily vppon' Marina and tells us even more specifically that 'the men and wife (though both bawdes) departed', leaving Marina with Boult (537). These details cannot be taken into P.A. from Twine, who has only a single master bawd, and they strongly confirm Q's plural. See 19.166/1937.

19.160/1931 She] rowe; He Q

19.166/1937 pander] This edition (G.T.); Bawd. Q. Q brings the Pander on stage (see 19.155.1/1926.1), and it seems unlikely that he should remain completely silent. Of the available speeches, 19.156/1927 clearly, and 19.172–6/1943–7 probably ('the way of wemen-kinde'), belong to the Bawd. Such a speech-prefix error would be especially likely after a run of alternating Bawd/Boult prefixes. In Twine the Meister Bawd (a male) gives Boult this order; in P.A. Marina later says that Boult goes about 'to doe an office at their setting on, which thy master himselfe hath more pitty then to attempt' (538), which suggests that the Pander himself gave Boult the order.

19.167/1938 ice] This edition (M.J.); glass Q. Compare 'the yce of chastity' (As You Like It 3.4.16/1682), 'chaste as yce' (Hamlet 3.1.138/1674), 'Chaste as the Isicle' (Coriolanus 5.3.65/2975), 'to breake the ice' (Shrew 1.2.267/793), and 'colde as a Snoweball' (above). See also the semi-proverbial 'break ice in one place, it will crack in more'—with a sexual meaning (M.J.).

pg 584

19.176/1947 ExeuntPander ] maxwell; not in Q1; Exit. Q4

19.177/1948 catchinghand ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. (537).

19.186–7/1957–8 (L) Neither … command ] rowe; prose Q

19.186/1957 can be] This edition (G.T,); are Q; are yet rowe. Rowe recognized that the metre is defective but his addition—which duplicates 'are yet' in 19.202/1973—has nothing to recommend it. 'Can be' sustains the idiom of the question and answer (Canst … to be … to bee), alliterates, and avoids the lame repetition of 'are … art'.

19.188–9/1959–60 (L) Thou … thee ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; fiend| rowe

19.188/1959 place] This edition (G.T.); place for which Q. Q's syntax is contorted and confused; metrically, 'for which' forces an awkward enjambment after 'feende'. If we omit these words, the sense is clear, end the line breaks naturally after 'hell'. See 19.189/1960.

19.189/1960 change with thee] This edition (G.T.); change Q. For Shakespearian examples of 'with before the person with whom the exchange is made' see Schmidt. See 19.188/1959: the reporter seems to have chosen the alternative construction, and then confused it. The recurring and characteristic emphasis on 'thee' is more dramatic than the medial syntactical contortion 'for which'.

19.190/1961 (L) Thou … custrell ] steevens; prose Q; every| malone

19.190/1961 Thou] This edition (G.T.); Thou art the Q. Q's extra words are redundant, and extrametrical, forcing editors into the grotesque enjambment 'every | custerell'; reporters often make explicit such implicit words. At 19.144/1915, moreover, Q has 'thou damned door-keeper' (probably by contamination from this passage).

1961 (I) eu'ry] euery

1961 (I) custrell] custerell

19.191–2/1962–3 (L) That … rogue ] malone; prose Q

19.191/1962 Tib] Q; penny Tib G.T. conj. The line is short by a foot, and the only plausible location for an addition is before 'Tib'. For penny as a derisive adjective compare 'penny cord' (Henry V 3.6.46/1441, Cymbeline 5.5.260/2766). OED cites exemples of penny '(of a person) that sells something or does some work for a penny or at a cheap rate; here, engaged in mean or inferior work' (sb. 11); examples from this period include 'penny foot-post' (Fletcher, The Chances) 'penny Poet' (Kemp, Nine Daies Wonder) and 'penny-wits' (H. Hutton, 1619); see also 'Penibag' (Staple of News), 'pennie-bench Theatres' (Satiromastix, 4.2.53), 'penny-father' (several times in Nashe).

19.192/1963 To th'] This edition; To the Q

19.192/1963 eu'ry] euery Q; each steevens

19.193–4/1964–5 (L) Thy … lungs ] rowe; prose Q

19.199/1970 (L) Doe … emptie ] malone; prose Q; dost| rowe

19.200–2/1971–3 (L) Olde … this ] rowe; prose Q; receptacles| hudson

19.200/ sew'rs] Q (shores)

19.201/1972 publike] This edition (G.T.); common Q. The repetition of this adjective in the same position from the line above is suspicious enough; but Q also has 'common hang-man' at 19.154/1925 (see note). Shakespeare uses public as an epithet of contempt elsewhere; synonym substitution, by reporter or compositor, would be easy.

19.202/1973 these] This edition (G.T.); theſe wayes Q. The omitted word is extrametrical and superfluous: 'occupations, offices, employments' are implied, in any case, and 'wayes' does not make 'these' any less vague. M.J. conjectures 'Any employment is yet better than this'.

19.203/1974 (L) For … speak ] rowe; prose Q

19.204/1975 (L) Would … thee ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

19.204/1975 deere,] This edition; deere, that the gods wold safely deliuer me from this place: Q. As M.J. notes, Q repeats 19.124/1895 (that the gods would set me free from this vnhalowed place); in the earlier position this exclamation is clearly authoritative, but here it is much more dubious. It produces an unassimilated mid-speech part-line, abruptly changes the subject from Boult to Marina, and interrupts the sequence 'too deargold for thee … if that thy master would gain'. It is also clearly corrupt metrically, and where it differs from 19.124/1895 is undistinguished verbally. P.A., which paraphrases this passage closely, has Marina move from abusing Boult to offering him money; there is nothing comparable to this exclamation (538). Nor does safely deliver occur anywhere else in the Shakespeare canon. It seems best to omit the exclamation altogether.

19.204/1975 heers] This edition; here, heers Q; here, here is steevens. Q's first word is extrametrical and superfluous, and the kind of deictic interpolation to which actors are prone. The only comparable juxtaposition occurs at Troilus 1.2.177–8/323–4 ('Heere, here, here's an excellent place, here wee may see most brauely'), where here is e specific on-stage place, and the repetition characterizes Pandarus.

19.205/1976 (L) If … me ] malone 2; prose Q

19.205/1976 make gaine] hudson 2; gaine Q; gain aught malone; have gain kinnear (conj.); get gain anon. (conj. in Cambridge). The line is metrically defective; of suggested metrical improvements, only Hudson's is paralleled in Shakespeare (Othello 5.1.14/2780, 'makes my gaine').

19.206–8/1977–9 (L) Proclaime … teache ] rowe; prose Q

19.208/1979 I will] rowe; will Q

19.209–10/1980–1 (L) I … schollers ] malone; prose Q

19.213–14/1984–5 (L) And … house ] rowe; prose Q ( 'And … ' )

19.217/1988 women] Q4; woman Q1

1990 (I) but] Q4; But (first word of line) Q1

1994.1 The signe is remoued] This edition; not in Q

Sc. 20] This edition; not in Q; ACT V malone

2000 (I) berry,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

2001 (I) ene] euen

2001 (I) Roses;] malone; ⁓‸ Q1; ⁓, Q4

2002 (I) Silke, Twine‸ ] Q2; ⁓‸ ⁓, Q1

20.8 twin] Q (Twine)

20.13/2007 Wee] This edition (G.T.); Where wee Q. Q's 'Where' is not only extrametrical but supersluous; it complicates the syntax pointlessly, and contributes to a clutter of repetition in 20.9–15/2005–9 ('here … Where … there … Where … Heere where'; see following notes). An easy interpolation in this context, by reporter or compositor.

20.13/2007 waues there him tost] This edition (G.T.); wee there him left Q; we there him lost malone. Q is bathetic, and does not rhyme; Malone retrieves a rhyme, but it is difficult to see how the audience has 'lost' Pericles, or why such stress should be placed on a contrast between 'left' and 'loss'. Since the beginning of this line ('wee left him') has clearly contaminated the ending ('wee … him left'), the contamination—by reporter or compositor—might have affected the subject as well as the verb. For the collocation of 'Waues … tost' see 5.34/524; waves and 'windes' (20.14/2008) are proverbially coupled.

20.14/2008 Whence] steevens; Where Q

20.14/2008 tofore] This edition (G.T.); before Q. Editors regularly note that this line echoes Gower's 'tofore the wynde thei driue' (1615); 'before' for the rare 'tofore' would be an easy substitution for any compositor.

2010 (I) Anchor] Anchor Q

20.20/2014 ſerner] Qb; former Qa

2016 (I) Pericles ] malone (subs.); ⁓, Q

20.22/2016 the] malone; his Q

Sc. 21] This edition; not in Q; [ACT V.] SCENE I. malone

21.0.1–2/2018.1–2 aboue; below, at the first doore enter] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. malone added, as a head-note to this scene, 'On board Pericles' ship, off Mitylene. A close Pavilion on deck, with a curtain before it; Pericles within it, reclined on a couch. A barge lying beside the Tyrian vessel'; moreover, he hed Helicanus enter 'to' the Sailors, rather than vice versa (as in Q). The editorial stage directions here and below (21.1/2019, 21.5 and 21.5.1/2023 and 2023.1, 21.6/2024, 21.8.1–2/2026.1–2) attempt both to make the stage action clearer, and to indicate the ways in which Jacobean theatres created the impression of a shipboard scene by pg 585using the permanent features of the stage (rather than through novelistic or scenic devices like those suggested by Malone and other editors). Even by its own standards, Q makes a mess of the action and dialogue of the first portion of this scene, which is full of short speeches and complicated comings and goings—a nightmare for a reporter.

21.0.2–3/2018.2–3 oneMetaline ] malone (subs.); not in Q

21.1/2019 sayler of tyre (to Sayler of Metaline)] malone; 1. Say. Q

21.1/2019 Lord … Sir ] This edition (M.J.); Where is Lord Helicanus? hee can reſolue you, | O here he is Sir Q

21.2–4/2020–2 (L) There … will ] steevens; prose Q

21.3/2021 In it] This edition (G.T.); and | in it is Q

21.5/2023 Exitdoore ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

21.5.1/2023.1 Exit Helicanus aboue] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

21.6/2024 sayler of tyre] malone; 2. Say. Q

21.6/2024 Ho] This edition; Ho Gentlemen Q

21.6/2024 from below] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

21.6/2024 to them enter Helicanus] This edition (G.T.); not in Q

21.6/2024 What is your Lordships pleasure] This edition (G.T.); Doeth your Lordship call Q. See Cymbeline 2.3.78/927, 'what's your Lordships pleasure?'

21.7–8/2025–6 (L) Gentlemen … fairely ] steevens; prose Q

21.7/2025 some] This edition (G.T.); there is ſome Q

21.8/2026 you] Q6; not in Q; thee F3; ye rowe

21.8.1–2/2026.1–2 atMetaline ] This edition; not in Q; The Gentlemen and the two Sailors descend, and go on board the barge. Enter, from thence, Lysimachus attended; the Tyrian Gentlemen, and the two Sailors, malone

21.9/2027 sayler of metaline] This edition (G.T.); Hell. Qa; 1. Say. Qb; Tyr. Sail. malone

21.9/2027 (L) This … you ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; Sir| would| malone. (See following note.)

21.9/2027 This] This edition; Sir, this Q

21.9/2027 ought] This edition; ought you would Q

21.11–12/2029–30 (L) And … doe ] malone; prose Q

21.11/2029 Syr] malone; not in Q. See 21.17/2035.

21.12–16/2030–4 (L) You … are ] rowe; prose Q

21.13/2031 I … Metaline, ] This edition (G.T.); Hell. First what is your place? | Ly. I am the Gouernour of this place you lie before. Q. Q places its exchange after 21.16/2034, where it intrudes unnaturally between Lysimachus' question and Helicanus' answer, and rudely implies 'I won't answer you until I know who you are'. Such a tone seems inappropriate to Helicanus' own expressed desire that Lysimachus be greeted 'fairely' (21.8/2026). Moreover, the issue naturally arises as a part of the initial formalities, and Lysimachus' identification of himself leads naturally into the explanation for his visit. Finally, it is nonsensical for Helicanus to ask 'what is thy place' when he has already been informed of it (21.3/2021). A reporter could remember that Lysimachus' rank entered into this exchange, without remembering its exact place or form. (M.J. alternatively conjectures that the whole exchange should be omitted.) 21.13/2031 Metaline] This edition (G.T.); this place you lie before Q. Another of Q's many repetitions of the vague 'place', coupled with a repetition of 'before' from his preceding speech.

21.17/2035 Our] This edition (M.J.); Syr our Q. The reporter appears to have transposed this word from one Helicanus speech to another: here it is extrametrical, but in 21.11/2029 it would rectify Q's otherwise defective metre and balance the 'Syr' in Lysimachus' greeting.

21.17/2035 our King] This edition; the King Q

21.17–20/2035–8 Our … griefe ] steevens; prose Q

21.21/2039 grew] This edition (G.T.); is Q. Q's verb is unidiomatic and flat. Shakespeare often uses grow of the development of mental states: 'from whence his sorrows grow' (Romeo 1.1.151/165), etc. He juxtaposes 'grow' and 'ground' at Richard II 5.3.104/2478, and similarly puns on 'ground' at LLL Add. Pass. A.8, Richard III 3.7.49/2039, and 2 Henry IV 4.1.107–8/1955–6. He also juxtaposes the verb 'grow' with 'tedious' (Measure 2.4.9/928), 'told over' (Dream 5.1.23–6/1723–6: see next note), and 'griefe' (History of Lear 24.213/2996).

2039 (I) distemp'rature] distemperature

21.22–4/2040–2 (L) Twould … wife ] malone; prose Q

21.22/2040 tell it ouer] This edition (G.T.); repeat Q. Q is a foot short—especially improbable here, since the next line is also short. Q's verb may have been contaminated by 4.31/414 ('grewe odious to repeat'); 'repeat' here supersluously suggests that Helicanus has had to tell the story before. For 'tell it ouer' compare Dream 5.1.23/1723, Richard III 4.4.39/2544 ('Tell ouer your woes againe'), Othello 3.3.173/1621—all relevant to this passage.

21.23/2041 precious] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. The line is a foot short; malone read 'grief of all' (a lame filler). Shakespeare's favourite modifier for loss is dear (7 times); costly (Troilus 4.1.62/2147) is a variant of the same image. He only once juxtaposes grief and Joss, as here: 'my griefe in such a precious losse' (Troilus 4.5.10/2299). Precious, like dear, plays upon the material and spiritual sense of loss; precious is elsewhere juxtaposed with lose or lost (Romeo 1.1.230/244, Lear: History 24.187/2970, Tragedy 5.3.182/2822, Kinsmen 5.3.19/2371), or in similar contexts (Venus 824, Sonnet 30.6, 77.2, Tempest 1.2.242/308, K. John 4.3.40/1931). But the most striking parallel is Winter's Tale 4.2.23–5/1446–7, where Leontes' 'losse of his most precious Queene & Children, are euen now to be a-fresh lamented'.

21.25–7/2043–5 (L) See … any ] steevens (subs.); prose Q; bootless| malone

21.25/2043 See him Sir you may] This edition (G.T.); You may Q. Three syllables seem to be missing; steevens read 'You may indeed, sir'—which is lame, and leaves a defective caesura. More attractive than a vegue intensive like 'indeed' would be an emphasis upon the verb see: 'you can see him, but that's all'. See is repeated in single or adjacent lines 78 times in the canon; even if we exclude mere repetitions (see, see; let me see, etc.), there are 54 examples, many involving echo across a question and answer, and/or between speeches (Dream 3.1.109–11/896–8, 5.1.177–8/1877–8, Lear: History 14.80–1/2003–4, Tragedy 3.7.80–1/1982–3, etc.). The echoing by one speaker of the last words of the previous one, and chiasmus, are also characteristic rhetorical devices. Shakespeare juxtaposes sir and may 7 times (Coriolanus 2.3.3, 2.3.147/1187, 1328, Richard III 1.4.95/860, etc.), sir and see 12 times (Antony 3.11.30/1730, Twelfth Night 1.5.106/388, etc.).

2044 (I) bootlesse‸ is ] Q4; bootlesse. Is Q1

21.26/2044 sight, hee‸ ] Qb; ⁓, ſee, Qa

21.27/2045 any. lysimachus] Q4; any, Q1

21.27/2045 Let me yet] This edition (G.T.); yet let me Q. Q is metrically anomalous, and could easily arise from transposition (memorial or compositorial). Compare 'O let vs yet' (Henry V 2.2.47/654), 'Let me yet know' (Twelfth Night 2.1.8/593).

21.28/2046 helicanus] Q4; Lyf. Q1

21.28/2046 HelicanusPericles ] edwards; not in Q; Pericles discovered malone

21.28/2046 lyingfingers, ] This edition; not in Q. Detail from P.A. (541), developed from Twine (462).

21.28/2046 and attired in sacke-cloth] maxwell (Wilson); not in Q

21.28–9/2046–7 person, |‸Till ] Q4; ⁓. | Hell. ⁓ Q1

21.29–30/2047–8 (L) Till … this ] malone; prose Q

21.29/2047 of] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); that Q. Q inevitably suggests that he was driven mad on one night; Hoeniger's conjecture more plausibly specifies that the disaster itself—not the madness—occurred on one night (Thaisa's death, leading to his separation from Marina).

21.29/2047 night] malone; wight Q

21.31/2049 (L) Sir … sir ] This edition (M.J.); prose Q; hail| malone; you| dyce

21.31 Sir, King,] ⁓‸ ⁓‸ Q. Editors usually interpret Q as 'Sir King'; dramatically, it seems more likely that 'Sir' and 'King' are alternative vocatives.

21.31/2049 all haile] This edition (M.J.); all haile, the Gods preſerue pg 586you Q. Q repeats 21.10/2028, where the phrase follows 'Hayle reuerent Syr' (as here it precedes 'haile royall sir'). At 21.10/2028 the phrase cannot be disentangled from the dialogue; here it is superfluous, extrametrical, and different in character from the rest of the speech.

21.31.1/2049.1 Pericles … pillow ] This edition; not in Q. From P.A. 541 ('hee shruncke …').

21.33–4/2051–2 (L) Sir … him ] malone 2; prose Q

21.34–7/2052–5 (L) Tis … ports ] malone; prose Q

21.36/2054 choiſe] steevens; choſen Q. An easy graphic or memorial error.

21.36/2054 allarum] This edition (G.T.); allure Q. Allure seems singularly inappropriate, as though Marina—who has hitherto been remarkable for cooling ardour—were expected to arouse Pericles sexually; it also interrupts the development of imagery from 'harmonie' to 'battrie' and 'defend'. 'Allarum', by contrast, naturally mediates between 'win' and 'battrie', as well as sustaining the aural imagery. Shakespeare elsewhere uses the word figuratively: see Othello 2.3.24/1029 ('when she speakes, is it not an alarme to loue?'), Venus 424, 'To loues allarmes it will not ope the gate … they make no battry'), Macbeth 2.1.53/531, Lear: History 6.52/929, Tragedy 2.1.52/929, Kinsmen 5.2.13/2297 ('th'allarme to whispers', i.e. incitement to love-talk). The whole sentence plays upon the conceits that war has a harmony, and that love is like both war and music. Shakespeare often thinks of alarums as occurring at night, rousing people from sleep.

21.37 deafened] Q (defend)

21.37/2055 ports] maxwell (Steevens); parts Q

21.38–41/2056–9 (L) Which … side ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; stopp'd| of all| upon| against| malone. Malone's arrangement produces a mid-speech part-line, and two adjacent lines ending in prepositions. The alternative is regular, except for a line-divided foot (happie | As).

21.38/2056 in all] This edition (G.T.); is all Q; all as steevens. Steevens's conjecture does nothing to remedy the central difficulty with Q, that Marina can hardly be called 'comprehensively fortunate' or even 'completely contented'. For the idiom happy in, meaning 'possessed of, endowed with [an accomplishment or talent]', compare Two Gentlemen 4.1.33/1523 and Cymbeline 3.4.175/1637. Marina has every desirable talent, as well as beauty—praise much more relevant to this speech than Q.

2057(1) fair'st] This edition (G.T.); fairest Q. steevens transposed 'of all' to precede 'the fairest', but it is simpler to assume mere failure to mark the required elision.

21.39/2057 among] This edition (G.T.); and Q; and with malone; Is, with steevens. However one construes the passage, Lysimachus must mean to say where both Marina and her companions can be found. Compare 'among maids' (Winter's Tale 4.4.241/1847), 'Among my Maids' (All Is True 3.1.74/1384), 'among falce mayds' (Troilus 3.2.186/1761).

21.39/2057 maides] Q; maid schanzer. Schanzer assumes that Q's 'es' is an error for 'is', thus supplying the usual editorial verb. But why should Lysimachus specify a single particular 'maid' here? Q gives us, more naturally, Marina in the company of a group of young women, one of whom later comes to the ship with her.

21.40/2058 Dwells now i'th'] This edition (G.T.); now vpon the Q; is now upon | The malone; now within | The steevens. Q lacks a verb, and is unmetrical; Malone supplies the commonest and least specific of verbs—producing the uncharacteristic flatness of three successive clauses governed by the same lame copula (are … is … is); and Malone confesses, 'I know not how she could be upon' a shelter.

21.41/2059 Goe fetch her hither.] This edition; not in Q; He whispers one of the attendant Lords malone. Edwards suggests that 'a nod would do'. But any such interpolated stage direction is unnecessary, elliptical, potentially confusing, and uncharacteristic of contemporary stagecraft, which abounds in explicit directions for attendants to go fetch things or people. Lysimachus' speech also, however aligned, ends in an incomplete line. Why should he whisper 'Go get her', when he could say it aloud? 'Goe fetch him/them hither' occurs at Measure 5.1.468/2632, Shrew 5.2.108/2509, Troilus 4.2.60/2226, Titus 5.3.58/2359 ('fetch him hither'), Cymbeline 4.2.252/2203. There are also several requests to 'fetch' specific people 'hither': Othello 1.3.120/406, Twelfth Night 5.1.276/2375, etc.

21.41.1/2059.1 Exit Lord] malone; not in Q

21.42–52/2060–70 (L) Sure … sorrow ] malone; prose Q

2061 (I) recou'ries] recoueries

21.48/2066 Gods] dyce (W. S. Walker); God Q

21.52–3/2070–1 (L) Sit … preuented ] steevens; prose Q; see| malone; you| collier

21.52/2070 it] steevens; it to you Q. Superfluous and extrametrical.

21.52.1/2070.1 Entermaid ] malone (subs.), after 'preuented'; not in Q

21.54/2072 (I) heer's] Q2; hee'rs Q1

21.55/2073 presenc] malone; preſent Q

21.58–9/2076–7 (L) Came … wed ] Q1; stock| Q4

21.58/2076 of] steevens; of a Q. Q seems unidiomatic; it could have been picked up from 21.57/2075.

21.58/2076 or] This edition (G.T.); and Q. Hoeniger, suspecting corruption in this line, notes that 'gentle kind and noble stock are suspiciously synonymous'. But both collocations are Shakespearian, and seem synonymous only because of Q's conjunction: in fact 'gentle kind' and 'noble stock' can express very different degrees of social rank. Lysimachus would be satisfied, If she were gentry or nobility.

21.58/2076 Ide] Q4; I do Q1

21.59/2077 to] This edition (G.T.); and Q

21.59/2077 wed] Q4; to wed Q1. Q1 may represent a bungled press-correction; see previous note.

2078 (I) on,] malone; ⁓‸ Q

21.60 one] Q (on)

21.60/2078 bountie‸ ] malone (Steevens); beautie, Q. Maxwell defended Q, which subsequent editors retain, but the resulting syntax is virtually unintelligible; it also implies that Marina possesses only such goodness as resides in beauty. If 'beautie' is correct, perhaps 'Expect' should be 'Express' (G.T.).

2079 (I) ene] euen

21.62 feat] Q (fate)

21.65–8/2083–6 (L) Sir … him ] malone; prose Q

21.66/2084 recure] hudson 2 (W. S. Walker); recouerie Q. Maxwell objects that 'recure' is not found elsewhere as a substantive in Shakespeare, but he uses it as a verb three times (all verse, all in situations where 'recouer' would fit the sense but not the metre), the substantive is recorded until 1626, and Shakespeare's authentic work always contains a high proportion of hapax legomena. The reporter could easily have substituted the commoner, extrametrical word.

21.66–7/2084–5 prouided | That none … companion maid ] Q (and malone); | Provided none … companion steevens. Q'S 'that' is dispensable, but 'companion maid' is an unusual collocation, unlikely to originate in a reporter; without the second emendation the first seems to little purpose.

2086 (I) suffer'd] malone; ſuffered Q

21.68/2086 (L) Let … her ] steevens; prose Q

21.68/2086 Let] This edition (conj. Hoeniger); Come, let Q

pg 587

21.69/2087 prosper her] This edition (G.T.); make her pro-|ſperous Q. Q repeats the adjective from 21.62/2080; its formula only appears once elsewhere (Richard II 1.3.78/357). The alternative 'god(s) prosper [X]' occurs at 2 Henry IV 3.2.289/1813, History of Lear 14.90, 20.29.–30/2013, 2357–8; Folio Merry Wives has 'Heauen prosper' (which we emend to 'God prosper') at 3.1.29/1207, 5.2.12/2465.

21.69/2087 The men withdraw] maxwell (subs.); not in Q

21.69.1/2087.1 The Song] Q; Marina sings malone. P.A. (542), here plagiarizing Twine (464), has Marina alone sing; but this moment is the only occasion when Marina's companion could serve any dramatic function, by vocal accompaniment. See also 21.70/2087 ('nor lookt on vs'), where if Marina alone were responsible for the song one would expect 'me'.

21.69/2087 comming forward] This edition; not in Q

21.69/2087 Markt] Q4; Marke Q1

21.70/2088 maid] This edition (anon. conj. in Cambridge); Mar. Q. An attractive conjecture, based on a simple misreading ('Mai'/'Mar'): see note to 21.69/2087.

21.72.1/2090.1 He roughly repulses her] maxwell (Wilson); not in Q; pushing her back hoeniger (Cambridge). Hoeniger objects that the 'more violent' direction—based on Gower, Twine, and P.A. — is 'not suitable' to Pericles' character in the play, but our only evidence for the action at this moment is the sources and analogues, and our judgement of Pericles' character is itself partly based on this moment.

21.73–85/2091–2103 (L) I … speake ] malone; prose Q

21.75/2093 (I) gaz'd] malone; gazed Q

2094 (I) endur'd] malone; endured Q

21.85/2103 stay] This edition (G.T.); go not Q

21.86–7/2104–5 (L) My … you ] malone; prose Q

21.88–9/2106–7 (L) I … violence ] malone; prose Q: parentage|

21.89/2107 My Lord] This edition (M.J.); Q places after 'sed'. Misplacement of vocatives is particularly common in memorial texts; in this case, before rather than after the conditional clause.

21.90/2108 (L) I … me ] dyce; prose Q; do| malone; so| steevens

21.90/2108 I do] Q; I hudson 2

21.91–2/2109–10 (L) Your … shores ] malone; prose Q

21.91 You're] Q (your)

21.91–2/2109–10 woman? | Heere] malone (Charlemont); women ‸ heare Q1; woman‸ heare Q6

21.92/2110 shores … shores ] malone (Charlemont); shewes … shewes Q

21.92–4/2110–2 (L) No … seeme ] malone; prose Q

21.94/2112 seeme] This edition (G.T.); appeare Q. Apparent substitution of an unmetrical synonym.

21.95–6/2113–4 (L) I … such ] malone (subs.); prose Q; woe| wife| such a one hoeniger (W. S. Walker)

21.96/2114 such] This edition (M.J.); ſucha one Q. Q repeats 21.57/2075, superfluously and extrametrically.

21.97–106/2115–24 My … owe ] malone; prose Q

21.100/ cased] Q (caste)

2118–9 (I) Iuno, | Who] ⁓. Who Q1

2121 (I) straunger,] Q6; ⁓‸ Q1

2121 (I) decke‸ ] Q6; ⁓‸ Q1

21.106–8/2124–6 (L) If … reporting ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; seem| malone; If| lies| maxwell. Malone's lineation leaves Pericles' half-line incomplete, and produces an hexameter below. This arrangement is regular except for a defective caesura (of which all Shakespeare's late plays contain a few examples).

21.107/2125 it would] Q; 'Twould steevens

21.108–17/2126–35 (L) Prethee … discending ] malone; prose Q

2127 (I) look'st] malone; lookest Q

2128(1) seem'st] Q4; ſeemest Q1

21.110/2128 Pallas] malone (Lillo); Pallas Q. Q's spelling is acceptable as a form of modern 'palace', but the italics indicate compositorial misinterpretation as the Greek goddess. Shakespeare may have intended the pun, but palace seems the primary sense.

2130 (I) And] & (in prose)

21.112/2130 make my senses] Q4; make | ſenſes Q1

21.113/2131 thou show'st] This edition (G.T.); for thou lookest Q1; for thou look'st Q4. Q repeats 21.109/2127, here extrametrically. For the verb compare Coriolanus 4.5.63/2325, Lear: History 4.261/755, Tragedy 1.4.246/751, Sonnet 126.3.

21.114/2132(1) lou'd] rowe; loued Q

21.115/2133 say] malone; stay Q

21.117/2135 (L) So indeed I did] same type line as end of preceding speech Q

21.118–21/2136–9 (L) Report … open'd ] malone; prose Q

2139 (I) open'd] malone; opened Q

21.121/2139 (L) Some … sed ] maxwell; prose Q

21.122–3/2140–1 (L) And … likely ] collier; prose Q

21.122/2140 circumstance] This edition (M.J.); thoughts Q. The word occurs at about the same point in the scene's development in P.A.: 'Pericles … by all the circumstances … ghessed she was his child' (544). The word can mean both 'condition, stage of things' (Two Gentlemen 1.1.36, 37/36, 37, etc.) and 'particulars of evidence, details' (Troilus 3.3.109/1892, etc.). Q repeats 21.120/2138, in a metrically short line.

21.123–33/2141–51 (L) Tell … at me ] malone; prose Q

2142 (I) consider'd] malone; considered Q

21.124 thousandth] Q (thouſand)

2144 (I) suffer'd] malone; ſuffered Q

21.129/2147 them?] malone; not in Q

21.130.1/2148.1 She sits] This edition; not in Q

21.131/2149 sir,] steevens not in Q

21.133–9/2151–57 (L) Patience … cald Marina ] steevens; prose Q

21.134/2152 patient:] Q; patient: but G.T. conj.

21.139–41/2157–9 (L) You … here ] malone; prose Q

21.142–3/2160–1 Fairie? | Motion as well?] maxwell; Fairie? | Motion‸ well, Q; Fairy? | Motion? well,F3; fairy? | No motion?— Well; steevens; fairy—motion? Well, | malone 2 (Mason); fairy‸ | Motion? Well, hoeniger

21.144–5/2162–3 (L) Calld … sea ] malone; 1 line Q

21.146/2164 (L) My … King ] malone; prose Q

21.147–8/2165–6 (L) Who … weeping ] This edition (M.J.); prose Q; born| oft| malone

21.147/2165 when] This edition (M.J.); the minute Q. Q anticipates 21.199/2217, unmetrically here.

21.148/2166 recounted] This edition (G.T.); deliuered Q. Edwards (1952) first stigmatized this repetition of 21.95/2113 as a memorial corruption.

21.149–150/2167–8 (L) O … withall ] Q; little| sleep| malone; little| dream| edwards. Q's second line is regular, and its first acceptable (extra initial stress, feminine caesura).

21.149/2167 aside] malone; not in Q

21.151–3/2169–71 (L) This … you ] This edition; prose Q; be| bred| story| malone; buried| bred| story| edwards. If we accept Q's lineation for the beginning of the speech, the remainder can be divided into three lines (the last with a line-divided foot, and feminine caesura).

21.151/2169 be my daughter,] Q; be. | My daughter's‸ steevens

21.154/2172 (L) You … ore ] Q; me| edwards (W. S. Walker)

21.154/2172 You will] This edition (G.T.); You Q; You'll malone. Malone's emendation is difficult to justify: even if 'scorne' is a compositorial misreading (see next note), it need not have led to a sophistication of the preceding word, for 'You'll scorne' makes as much sense as 'You scorne'. Independent compositorial or reporter omission of 'will' seems likelier as a source of error. Shakespeare uses the collocation will scarce 6 times elsewhere, but never elides the preceding auxiliary verb. Metrically, the unelided form simply produces a line-divided foot, or an extra initial stress.

21.154/2172 scarce‸ beleeue me, ] malone; ſcorne, ⁓‸ Q. If Marina says 'You scorne', meaning 'You mock me', then 'believe me' is little more than an expletive (= 'I assure you'), whereas the natural inference from Pericles' protestation in reply to her, 'I will belieue you', is that Marina has used 'belieue' in the same way as at 21.139/2157, warning that he'll find her story scarcely credible. The misreading of 'scarce' as 'scorne' would be very easy. (M.J.)

21.155–7/2173–5 (L) I … bred ] malone; prose Q; believe you| deliver| parts| edwards

21.160–1/2178–9 (L) Did … doo't ] Q; woo'd| malone; woo'd| drawn| brooks (conj.)

21.160/2178 wooed] This edition (M.J.); hauing wooed Q. Probably a reporter's anticipation of the next line: omitting it improves syntax and metre.

21.161/2179 the deed] This edition (M.J.); it Q. For collocation of attempt and deed compare Macbeth 2.2.10/552 (of a murder). Q anticipates 'doo't', is vague and metrically deficient.

21.161/2179 hauing] Q; being malone

21.162/2180 came and rescued] Q; rescued brooks (conj.)

21.163/2181 To Metaline they brought me] This edition (G.T.); pg 588Brought me to Metaline Q. The reporter seems to have levelled this line and 22.30/2296 (see note) to almost identical wording.

21.163–4/2181–2 (L) To … may be ] steevens; Metaline| Q, followed by prose; whither| malone

21.164/2182 What wil you of me] This edition (G.T.); whither wil you haue me Q. Q repeats Marina's phrasing at 19.152, 179/1923, 1950.

21.164/2182 It may be] Q; May be G.T. conj.

21.165–7/2183–5 (L) You … be ] malone; prose Q

21.165 impostor] Q (imposture). See All's Well 2.1.155/714.

21.168/2186 pericles Hoe] Q4; Hell. Hoe Q1 (text); ‸ Hoe Q1 (c.w.)

21.168/2186 rising] This edition; not in Q. By 21.182/2200 ('Oh come hither') Pericles can no longer be sitting beside Marina (as at 21.130.1/2148.1), and this seems the most natural occasion for him to rise.

21.169/2187 comming forward] This edition; not in Q

21.171–3/2189–91 (L) Most … weepe ] malone; prose Q

2189(1) gen'rall] generall

21.173–4/2191-2 (L) I … Metaline ] maxwell; prose Q (1 line); but| malone

21.173/2191 not] Q; not, I maxwell (conj.)

21.174/2192 heres] Q; Here is malone

21.175/2193 (L) Speakes … her ] malone; prose Q

21.175–7/2193–5 (L) She … weepe ] malone; parentage| Q

21.175/2193 would neuer] steevens; neuer would Q

2194 (I) demaunded‸ that, ] Q4, Q1 (MS); ⁓, ⁓‸ Q1

21.178–82/2196–2200 (L) Oh … hither ] malone; prose Q

2196 (I) honor'd] malone; honored Q

21.182.1/2200.1 Marina stands] This edition; not in Q

2201 (I) Thou] Q2; thou Q1

2207 (1) For] Q2; for Q1

21.190–1/2208–9 (L) First … title ] steevens; 1 line Q

21.191–6/2209–14 (L) I … father ] This edition (conj. Brooks); my| sayd| kingdomes| Q; I| now| said| kingdoms| malone; now| said| kingdoms| steevens

21.193/2211 rest] singer (Jackson); rest you ſayd Q. 'Redundant memorial expansion' (Brooks). It also produces a clash with 'thou' (which Pericles consistently uses to Marina, after 21.183/2201), and 'you', within a single sentence. Such switches are unparalleled in reliable Shakespearian texts (see Richard III 3.7.52/2042).

21.194/2212 So proue but true in that, thou art my daughter,] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; So be but right in that, thou art my daughter, brooks (conj.). Since Malone, editors have suspected a lacuna here, but only Brooks has made a plausible conjecture, in part because his rearrangement of the verse allowed him to see that a complete verse line is apparently missing. 'So' and 'in that' are the necessary complements to 'as in the rest' (21.193/2211); 'thou art my daughter' the necessary cue for 'Is it no more | to be your daughter' (21.197/2215). Only Brooks's 'be but right' seems lame and un-Shakespearian. For 'proue but true' compare Twelfth Night 3.4.367/1845: 'Proue true imagination, oh proue true' (followed shortly afterwards by 'if it proue, | Tempests are kind, and salt waues fresh in loue').

21.195/2213 life] steevens (Mason); like Q

21.196/2214 kneeling] This edition; not in Q. Marina can no longer be sitting (21.182/2200), but she is later commanded to rise (21.200/2218), and she would naturally kneel before her parent, according to Renaissance custom, for his blessing (21.200/2218). In Twine the daughter 'hearing her fathers words, fell down at his feet … ' (468).

21.196–7/2214–5 (L) Is … name ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; than| malone; be| brooks (conj.). This arrangement, like Brooks's, produces an hexameter, but avoids the harsh line-break.

21.197/2215 name] This edition (conj. Brooks); name was Thaiſa Q. 'Memorial expansion and duplication' (Brooks).

21.198–9/2216–7 (L) Thaisa … began ] malone; prose Q

21.200/2218 thou art] Q4; th'art Q1

21.200.1/2218.1 Marina stands.] This edition; not in Q

21.200.1/2218.1 He kisses her] This edition; not in Q. Both Twine (467) and P.A. (544) repeat this, the latter drawing on several adjacent details in the play; in Gower he takes her in his arms (1740). All three accounts thus agree in a moment of natural physical intimacy here, which balances the unnatural incestuous claspings of Antiochus and his daughter.

21.201–8/2219–26 (L) Giue … see you ] malone; prose Q

21.202/2220 Not] steevens; shee is not Q

21.208–12/2226–30 (L) I … dout ] malone; robes– girle– Marina– Q

21.208/2226 sir] steevens; not in Q

21.209/2227 He is attired in fresh robes] This edition; not in Q. As Hoeniger notes, a crucial and symbolic stage action, comparable to Lear: History 20.80/2408, Tragedy 4.5.80/2287, Antony 5.2.277.1/2933.1, and the treatment of Prospero's robe.

21.210/2228 Celestiall Musicke] This edition; not in Q; Music dyce (after 21.218/2236); Music. hoeniger (after 'daughter', 21.213/2231). Some editors refuse to supply a stage direction for music, arguing that (a) it is heard by Pericles alone among those on stage, and that (b) attempts to simulate the heavenly harmonies will inevitably be bathetic. But (a) it is surely Pericles' blissful state of mind that the audience is invited to share in this scene, not the normality of Helicanus and Lysimachus, and (b) an imaginative musical accompaniment will aid rather than hinder the process of emotional identification. John P. Cutts, N&Q 205 (1960), 172–4, cites two King's Men plays of around 1620 in which 'music of the spheres' was certainly played, and compares the 'solemn music' ushering in Posthumus' vision in Cymbeline and the music called for in the reanimation of Hermione in Winter's Tale. (M.J.)

2228–9 (I) Musicke, | Tell‸ ] steevens (subs.); ⁓, tell, Q

21.212/2230 dout,] malone; doat. Q; doat, Q2

21.213/2231 How‸ ] Q2; ⁓, Q1

21.215/2233 (L) None … Marina ] Q; None| malone

21.216/2234 aside to the others] This edition; not in Q

2235 (I) Rar'st] This edition (conj. W.S. Walker); Rarest Q. Compare Cymbeline 5.5.161/2967.

21.2218–9/2236–7 Lord? | pericles I heare‸ most ] maxwell (Cambridge); Lord? I heare. | Per. Most Q

2237 (I) heau'nly] heauenly

21.220/2238 raps] collier; nips Q. Modern editors, while acknowledging its strangeness, accept 'nips', which in Maxwell's opinion provides 'a vividly Sh[akespearian] image for the keen attention the music provokes'. Edwards's comment that Q's expression is 'too original for a reporter' is irrelevant, since Collier's emendation assumes an easy minim misreading by the compositor. Nip inevitably suggests what is niggling end chilling, en irritant, whereas Pericles experiences rapture, leading to visionary sleep. (It is not 'a nipping and an eager air' that Pericles hears, but celestial harmony.) The transitive verb 'raps' (transports) is used in Cymbeline 1.6.52–3/574–5, 'What, deere Sir, | Thus rap's you?' (M.J.)

21.221/2239 eyelids] steevens; eyes Q. The emendation improves both metre and image. Compare 2 Henry IV 3.1.5–6/1425–6, 'ô sleepe! ô gentle sleep! | … how haue I frighted thee, | That thou no more wilt weigh my eye-liddes downe'. The collocation of eyelids and hang occurs in Much Ado 4.1.106/1751, 'on my eie-liddes shall Coniecture hang'. (M.J.)

21.221.1/2239.1 He sleeps] malone; not in Q. See P.A.: 'he fell into a slumber: in which sweet sleepe of his, hee was by Diana, warned …' (544).

21.222/2240 A … friends ] This edition (G.T.); A Pillow for his head, ſo leaue him all. | Well my companion friends Q. Editors cast doubt on this speech as 'perhaps the reporter's padding' (Hoeniger) or 'reporter's tack' (Edwards). But the adjectival use of companion is rare outside Shakespeare: OED cites only Faustus Sc. 6.92, Richard II 1.3.93/372, and Pericles 5.1.67/2085. Shakespeare juxtaposes 'friend and companion' at Antony 5.1.44/2623, and 'but … just' often (Titus 4.1.127/1526, Merchant 4.1.323/2132, Much Ado 5.1.294/2360, Troilus 4.7.16/2572, Measure 4.2.86/1806, Cymbeline 5.1.7/2462). For remember = 'reward', see Macbeth 2.3.20/634 (OED, v. 2b). Verbally, the essentials of the passage seem Shakespearian, and pg 589'If … beliefe' is a good pentameter. But the speech does seem to have been memorially corrupted: the repetition of 'well' is pointless, and the lineation anomalous. The first, excrescent 'Well' can be removed; 'my' is equally dispensable, extrametrical, and perhaps picked up from 'my companion maid' at 21.67/2085.

More serious than such verbal tinkering is the dramatic problem. Modern prompt-books regularly omit or abridge this speech: the first line in particular seems a bathetic conclusion to the preceding scene: to which 'leave him all' is the natural culmination. But this difficulty—and the anomalous lineation—is rectified by the simple transposition of 'So leaue him all' to the end of the speech. See following notes.

21.222/2240 Companion friends] Q (subs.); companion-friend singer 2 (Malone). Malone conjectured that this sentence belonged to Marina, and was addressed to her 'companion maid'. This seems unlikely, but no more so than Steevens's belief that Lysimachus intends to reward all his followers, out of mere generosity, for his own happiness. But he could address Marina and her companion (who are 'companion-friends' of one another), or address them and the Lord who suggested sending for Marina in the first place. But Marina must be the focus of Lysimachus' thoughts. The speech (so interpreted) serves the useful function of reminding us of Lysimachus' pre-eminence, his noble generosity, and his interest in Marina: 'Ile well remember you' is particularly apposite, in its usual sense, addressed to her.

21.223–4/2241–2 (L) If … you ] steevens; prose Q

21.224/2242 So leaue him all] This edition (G.T:); ſo leaue him all Q (after 'head', 21.222/2240). See preceding notes.

21.224.1/2242.1 Exeunt all but Pericles] malone (subs.); not in Q

21.224.2/2242.2 Dianadiscends from the heauens⌉] This edition (G.T.); Diana. Q; Actus Quintus. Diana F3; Diana appearing to Pericles asleep rowe; [ACT V.] SCENE II. The same. Pericles on deck asleep; Diana appearing to him as in a vision. malone. Editors unaccountably continue to print Malone's direction almost verbatim. Diana clearly appears to the audience, as well as to Pericles, probably by means of the same spectacular mechanism used for supernatural entrances in Macbeth, Cymbeline, and Tempest. Such entrances are usually described by the verb descend, and the descent clearly began from the 'heavens' over the stage.

21.225–6/2243–4 (L) My … sacrifice ] rowe; Ephesus| Q

21.227/2245 (L) There … together ] rowe; prose Q

21.228–9/2246–7 At large … voyce, ] This edition; not in Q. As previous editors have noted, the absence of a rhyme for 'sacrifice' and the short line 'Before the people all' strongly suggest that a line and a half are missing, steevens, the only editor to attempt to repair the lacuna, conjectured 'Before the people all, in solemn wise | Recount the progress of thy miseries'; the resulting rhyme scheme (ababb) requires alteration of 'call' to 'go'. Gower supports Q, for at this point Shakespeare clearly drew upon his rhymes (sacrifice/wise, all/befalle, wife/life). If we retain Q's and Gower's rhyme, then the lacuna must occur before (rather than after) the word 'before'. Steevens's proposed rhyme with miseries is unfortunate; moreover, the sense seems too explicit, for Pericles in Sc. 22 gives his name and rank, and for the most part recounts good news: his marriage to Thaisa, the birth of his child, her remaining a virgin, her 'better stars' in escaping death, his recovery of her. Steevens's conjecture—accepted by no editor—is no more likely than Q itself to represent what Shakespeare wrote.

Steevens assumed that the missing one and a half lines all belonged to one sentence, but this seems to us improbable. The speech as a whole is staccato; a grammatical heavy stop is required after every second line; formally, a full stop at the end of the first stanza seems desirable. If so, then the four syllables missing in the short line 'Before the people all' ere either a short imperative sentence, or an adverbial clause modifying 'Reueale'. The missing line must be a command, completing the sentence 'There, when … together'.

'Discourse' is the verb P.A. uses here (544); it also occurs in Twine (473), later on, in the material dramatized in the next scene. 'At large' is more than a metrical filler, meaning both 'publicly' and 'in detail'. For 'at large discourse(d)' compare Errors 5.1.398/1747, Richard II 5.6.10/2657, and Dream 5.1.150/1850 (also 'large discourse' at Hamlet Add. Pass. J.27). The parallel in Errors is especially noteworthy, because it comes from a passage clearly dependent on Gower (the main source for the frame story), in which the Abbess at Ephesus brings the play to a close: 'And heare at large discoursed all our fortunes, | And all that are assembled in this place … '. In Gower Pericles is told to make known 'His fortune' (1806), and fortune is a key word in the play. Wise is one of only two words which Shakespeare elsewhere rhymed with sacrifice (22.11–12/2277–8); the other, enterprise (Troilus 1.2.278–9/422–3), cannot plausibly be fitted into this context. Moreover, Gower rhymes sacrifice with wise in this very passage (1803–4), and once earlier (963–4); he uses 'in … wise' twice again in the following 25 lines, and 'in this wise' at 379 and 817; in all, Gower uses 'wise' for a rhyme 10 times. Although 'in this wise' occurs nowhere else in Shakespeare (and would here have been used solely for the rhyme), he does use the synonymous 'in this manner' 4 times. Twine has 'With a loude voyce' at this point (471), in both the text and (more conspicuously) the chapter heading; 'with loud voyce' occurs at Contention 1.1.158/158, 'with full voyce' at Coriolanus 3.3.61/1990, and 'so full a voyce' at Henry V 4.4.64/2346.

21.229–35/2247–53 (L) before … dreame ] rowe; prose Q

2250 (I) And] & (in prose)

21.232/2250 life] malone (Charlemont); like Q

21.233/2251 Performe] malone; or performe Q

2251 (I) liu'st] malone; li-|uest Q

21.234/2252 Doo't] Q; Do it singer 2 (Dyce)

21.234/2252 rest] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; be malone. Q is metrically defective and syntactically odd. Malone, as elsewhere, supplies the flattest and commonest of verbs. Compare 'Rest you happy' (Antony 1.1.64/64). The senses 'remain' and 'retire, cease from labour' are both relevant; and the Imperative followed by an adjective is often used as a formula for farewells (Schmidt).

21.235.1/2253.1 Diana ascends into the heauens] This edition (G.T.); not in Q; Diana disappears malone. See 21.224.2/2242.2.

2254 (I) Argentine,] Q2; ⁓. Q

21.237/2255 (L) I … Sir ] 1 type line Q

2255 thee (calling)] This edition; thee‸ Q1; ⁓: Q4

21.237.1/2255.1 Enter Helicanus, Lysimachus, and Marina] malone; not in Q

21.239–41/2257–9 (L) Th'inhospitable … sayles ] malone; first| Q

21.239/2257 Th'] This edition; The Q

21.241–4/2259–62 (L) eftsoones … neede ] malone; prose Q

21.241.1/2259.1 Exit Helicanus] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Q is completely unreliable about marking exits within a scene; Helicanus should respond at once to the order; he has nothing to do in the rest of the scene, and the final exeunt is symbolically tidier without him.

21.244–5/2262–3 (L) With … shuit ] This edition (G.T.); a shore| Q

21.244/2262 With all my heart, sir,] steevens; Sir, with all my heart, Q; Sir, | With all my heart, malone

21.245/2263 haue a] This edition (G.T.); haue another Q. Lysimachus has no other suit; 'another' is extrametrical; 'I haue a suite' occurs at Merchant 2.2.129–30/673–4, Contention 4.7.3/2458, Othello 3.3.81 /1529, All Is True 5.2.194/2617 (perhaps by Fletcher); Q by contrast is unparalleled in the canon.

21.245/2263 shuit] malone (suit); sleight Q. Q's error is easier to understand if the manuscript contained the 'sh-' form of the noun: 'shuit' misread 'sleit' and then normalized by the compositor. (See OED for the spellings of suit and sleight.) Moreover, this form produces a characteristic verbal jingle (a shore … a shuit).

21.246–7/2264–5 (L) You … her ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q; prevail| seems| malone. Malone's arrangement leaves an unassimilated part-line; ours presupposes a line-divided foot.

21.248.1–2/2266.1–2 Exit Pericles, with Lysimachus at one arme, Marina at the other] This edition (G.T.); Exeunt. Q

Sc. 22] This edition; not in Q; [ACT V.] SCENE II. steevens

22.0.1/2266.3 Enter Gower] Q4; not in Q1

pg 590

22.2/2268 dum] Q; dun F4

22.3/2269 (L) This … mee ] Q. The line seems to be a foot short, but none of the conjectures—'deign to giue' (dyce), 'freely giue' (staunton), 'pray you, giue' (hudson 2), 'please you giue' (kinnear)—is persuasive. G.T. conj. 'last and best'.

2274 (I) Metalin,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

22.9/2275 well] This edition (conj. Brooks); not in Q; has malone. ' The heavy emphasis on So seems awkward and improbable' (Brooks). Shakespeare modifies the verb with 'well' 4 times: Venus 640, Richard III 3.5.96/1968, Othello 1.1.53/53, Timon 4.3.170/1598.

2278 (I) sacrifice,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

2280 (I) Int'rim] Interim

2280 (I) pray‸ you, ] malone; ⁓, ⁓‸ Q

22.17.1/2283.1 An alter, Thaysa, and other Vestalls are reuealed] This edition (G.T.); not in Q1; Enter Pericles, Lysimachus, Hellicanus, Marina, and others. Q4 (after 22.20/2286); SCENE III. The Temple of Diana at Ephesus; Thaisa standing near the altar, as high priestess; a number of virgins on each side; Cerimon and other inhabitants of Ephesus attending. Enter Pericles with his train; Lysimachus, Helicanus, Marina, and a Lady. malone (after 22.20/2286). Absurdly, modern editors continue to accept Malone's staging, although maxwell transposes the first part of Malone's direction ('the Templeattending') to precede rather than follow Gower's speech. It is neither necessary nor helpful to have Thaisa etc. standing in the background throughout Gower's speech. All that is absolutely required to establish 'the temple' is an altar (like that in Kinsmen) and vestals, whom Gower can dramatically discover on cue; if available, an effigy of Diane would also be appropriate.

22.18.1–2/2284.1 Enter … attendantes ] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. See preceding note.

22.20.1/2286.1 Gower stands aside] This edition (G.T.); not in Q1; Exit Q4. Editors follow Q4, but Q1 provides neither an exit here nor an entrance at 22.108/2374, and Gower might appropriately remain on stage for the final episode of his story.

22.21/2287 pericles] Q. All editors since malone mark a new scene (5.3), although since maxwell most editors keep Thaisa and the temple on stage across the scene-break. Even if Gower exits (see preceding note), no break is required. See 22.17.1/2283.1.

22.23–9/2289–95 (L) Who … stars ] rowe; prose Q

22.23/2289 espouse] This edition (M.J.); wed Q. Metre requires an iambic synonym for 'wed' and Wilkins supplies one. In P.A., which has several verbal echoes of the play here and adheres quite closely to its events, Pericles at Diana's temple recounts how in youth he had been 'curteously entertained by good Symonides king of Pentapolis, and after espoused his faire daughter Thaysa' (544). Shakespeare uses the verb espouse 7 times. Except for one instance in Henry V, the examples are all early, but a word with some savour of a discarded poetic diction is appropriate to the formality of Pericles' announcement.

22.24/2290 The faire Thaisa, at Pentapolis,] malone; at Pentapolis, the faire Thaiſa Q

22.24/2290 Thaysa startes] This edition; not in Q. P.A. continues: 'his faire daughter Thaysa. At the naming of whome, she her selfe being by, could not choose but starte' (544–5); not in Twine.

22.26/2292 who] F4; whom Q. Q is possible, but uncharacteristic of Shakespeare; and see note to 22.28/2294.

2293 (I) liurey] liuerey

22.28/2294 whom] tonson; who Q; her elze (conj.). Q is awkwardly ambiguous.

22.30/2296 Bore] This edition (G.T.); brought Q. The word suspiciously occurs three times in five lines, and this seems the least appropriate of the three occasions (especially because of the chime with 'sought'). 'Bore' could be used generally of her 'stars' or specifically of the ship (and pirates) which forcibly carried her away: for the verb used of ships, see Tempest 1.2.145/211, Errors 1.1.102/102 and 5.1.247/1596; Errors 5.1.161/1510 contrasts 'brought forth' and 'borne hence'. See note to 21.163/2181.

22.30–1/2296–7 (L) Bore … Barke ] rowe; prose Q; shore | malone. Malone's arrangement, followed by editors, produces a pointlessly harsh line-break, and a short line at 23.30/2296.

22.31/2297 our Barke] This edition; vs Q. Q's line is a syllable short, and entails an idiom unparalleled in the canon (and producing an awkward continuation in 'Where'). One would expect a reference to a ship. Of the available nouns, Shakespeare elsewhere uses four in conjunction with 'aboerd'. The most frequent—which is also attractive for its alliteration—is 'bark'. Compare 'In few, they hurried us a-boord a Barke, | Bore vs some Leagues to Sea' (Tempest 1.2.144/210—of the violent abduction of a prince and his daughter), and 'a Barke of Epidamnum | That stales but till her Owner comes aboord' (Errors 4.1.85–6/1001–2), Other collocations are 'aboord a new Ship' (Winter's Tale 4.4.763/2372), 'Aboord my Gally' (Antony 2.6.82/1078), and 'aboard our dauncing Boat' (Pericles 20.22/2016). But neither 'galley' (7 times) nor 'boat' (17) is used very often by Shakespeare, and Pericles' ship in Sc. 21 is not called a 'galley' or 'boat' elsewhere in the play. In fact, it is first identified as 'this the Barke' (Sc. 21). For 'our Barke' compare Duke of York 5.4.28/2621, Troilus 1.1.104/134, and Timon 4.2.19/1396 (possibly by Middleton). Barque is used of a boat 30 times in Shakespeare—more often than any other noun but ship.

22.32–3/2298–9 (L) Where … Daughter ] rowe; prose Q

22.33–4/2299–2300 (L) Voyce … Pericles ] malone; prose Q

22.34.1/2300.1 She falls] This edition; not in Q; She faints away. rowe. Faint never appears in the stage directions of the canon, and it seems best to preserve the ambiguity (see 'shee die's', below).

22.35/2301 (L) What … Gentlemen ] Q4; prose Q1

22.35/2301 nun] collier (manuscript correction, Capell copy of Q1); mum Q. Both P.A. (545) and Twine (471) describe Thaisa as a 'Nunne', in narrating this episode.

22.36–9/2302–5 (L) Noble … armes ] malone; prose Q

22.39/2305 same] This edition (G.T.); verie Q. Shakespeare uses 'these same' at Richard II 5.5.9/2538, Merchant 1.1.106/106, 1 Henry IV 3.1.126/1605, 2 Henry IV 4.1.339/2187, Othello 4.3.24/2686, Lear: History 24.274/3057, Tragedy 5.3.253/2893, Coriolanus 1.9.41/669; 'those same hands' occurs at K. John 2.1.319/595. The reporter could easily have substituted the extrametrical synonym 'verie', especially because very same was itself a common contemporary collocation.

2306 (I) warnt] warrant

2307 (I) oer-joyde] malone; ouer-joyde Q

22.42–3/2308–9 (L) Earlie … shore ] This edition; prose Q; was| malone

22.42/2308 on] steevens (Malone); in Q

22.42 one] See preceding note.

22.42/2308 Ladie] Q. The repetition is suspicious, creating as it does a short line.

22.43–5/2309–11 (L) I … temple ] malone; prose Q (separate paragraph)

2310 (I) recouer'd] rowe; recoue-|red Q

22.47–54/2313–20 (L) Whither … death ] malone; prose Q

22.48/2314 vpon him!] malone; not in Q

22.56–7/2322–3 (L) That … drownd ] This edition (conj. Elze); 1 line Q; I| edwards

22.58/2324 taking Thaysas hand] This edition; not in Q. This conjectural (but naturel) action explains her noticing the ring upon his finger.

2324 (I) Imortall] Q4; I mortall Q1

22.59–61/2325–7 (L) Now … ring ] rowe; prose Q

22.61/2327 ring.] Q; ring. Shews a ring. malone; ring. Points to his ring. hoeniger. See 22.58/2324.

22.62–67/2328–33 (L) This … bosome ] malone; prose Q

2331 seene,] Q (c.w.); ⁓; (text)

22.66/2332 They embrace, and kisse] This edition; not in Q. P.A. describes Pericles 'throwing his head into her bosome … he cried aloude, O you heauens! my misfortunes were now againe blessings' (545). In Twine, 'Then did hee most louingly embrace and kisse his ladie … and shee likewise requited him' (473–4).

22.66/2332 kneeling to Thaysa] malone; not in Q

pg 591

22.68–70/2334–6 (L) Looke … there ] rowe; prose Q (first line ending 'Thaiſa')

22.70/2336 embracing Marina] This edition; not in Q. P.A. describes Pericles 'giuing his daughter to her? armes to embrace her as a child' (545). In Twine, 'Then kissed and embraced she her daughter' (474).

22.71/2337 kneeling to Thaysa] This edition; not in Q

22.72/2338 pericles] Q4; Hell. Q1

22.72–81/2338–47 (L) You … miracle ] rowe; prose Q

2346 (I) preseru'd] preserued

22.82–4/2348–50 (L) Lord … you ] steevens prose Q

22.82/2348 is the] dyce 2 (W. S. Walker); not in Q

2349 (I) pow'r] power

22.84–5/2350–1 (L) Reuerent … officer ] rowe; prose Q (1 line)

22.86–7/2352–3 (L) More … reliues ] steevens; prose Q

22.87–9/2352–5 (L) I … her ] malone; prose Q

2355 (I) her,] Q4 (subs.); ⁓. Q1

22.90/2356 And tolde] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. The line is a foot short, and it seems unlikely that Pericles would be 'showne' how she was placed in the temple. One must in any case assume some ellipsis, end '[shall be] tolde [you]' is certainly no more difficult an ellipsis than ' [and shall be showne you]'.

22.90–1/2356–7 (L) how … omitted ] rowe; prose Q

22.90/2356 how in this Temple shee came plac'ste] This edition (G.T.); How shee came plac'ste heere in the Temple Q. 'The similarity in wording to [22.44–5/2310–11] suggests cross-contemination of the two passages by the reporter' (Brooks). The emendation is based upon P.A., 'for in this Temple was she placed to be a Nunne, by Lord Cerimon' (545). P.A. transposes the preposition, to a more unusual position; Q's ordinary position repeats the syntax of 22.44–5/2310–11, from which it also repeats the superfluous 'heere'.

2357(I) needfull] Q2; needfulll Q1

22.91–2/2357–8 (L) Pure … offer ] malone; prose Q (1 line)

22.91/2357 Diana] malone; Dian Q. Both forms are common, both used in this play: an easy memorial confusion.

22.92/2358 I] malone; not in Q. See next note. It seems safer to suppose simple compositorial omission (frequent enough for this word) than substitution of 'and' for 'I'.

22.92/2358 and] Q; I F3

22.93–4/2359–60 Nightly… daughter ] steevens; prose Q

22.93/2359 Nightly] maxwell; Night Q; My night steevens

2359 (I) thee;] Q4; ⁓‸ Q1

22.93/2359 belou'd] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. Brooks noted that some such word as 'Come' or 'Dear' seems to have dropped out here. But Thaisa was celled 'deere' at 22.78/2344, and 'Come' seems pointless. The only adjectives appended to Thaisa's name in P.A. are 'faire' (8 times) and 'beloued' (547); the first has been used once already in this scene, and in any case seems less appropriate in a vocative construction. Metrically, a two-syllable adjective is acceptable, assuming only a (common) feminine caesura. Shakespeare uses the word 55 times elsewhere: compare 'Beloued Regan' (Lear: History 7.295/1303, Tragedy 2.2.205/1319).

22.95–6/2361–2 At … ornament ] This edition (G.T.); prose Q

22.95/2361 At Pentapolis shall marrie her,] This edition (G.T.); shall marrie her at Pentapolis, Q (prose). Q produces an irregular sequence of stresses; as transposed the line is reguler, assuming a line-divided foot.

22.96/2362 And now this ornament] Q. hoeniger obelisks this phrase, marking a lacuna before 'this'. Something may be missing, but it is hard to see what, and the anomalous short line might result from the fact that 'Makes mee looke dismall' is a disguised amphibious section, forming a complete verse line either with the preceding (rowe) or following (dyce) phrase.

22.97/2363 (L) Makes … forme ] dyce;prose Q

22.98–9/2364–5 (L) And … beautifie ] rowe; prose Q

22.100–1/2366–7 (L) Lord … dead ] rowe; prose Q

2366 (I) credit,] Q4; ⁓. Q1

22.101/2367 from Pentapolìs;] This edition (G.T.); not in Q. P.A. reports this news when Pericles departs for Tyre, 'taking Pentapolis in his way, whome [sic: read 'where'] by the death of good Symonides' (545); Twine also at this point refers to 'Pentapolis' (477). Addition of this information completes the verse line, picks up 'At Pentapolis' in the preceding speech (22.95/2361), and explains 'there' in the following speech (22.102/2368).

22.102–5/2368–71 (L) Heau'n … raigne ] rowe; prose Q

22.102/2368 pericles Heau'n] This edition; Per. Heauens Q (text); Per. Heauen (c.w.). Shakespeare overwhelmingly prefers the singular.

22.107.1/2373.1 Exeunt] Q4; FINIS. Q1

22.107.1/2373.1 all but Gower] This edition; not in Q1; Enter Gower. Q4. See 22.201/2286.1.

2376 (I) Pericles,] rowe; ⁓‸ Q

2377 (I) keene,] ⁓. Q

22.112/2378 preserud] tonson; preferd Q

22.113/2379 Led] Q2; Lead Q1

2379 (I) heau'n] heauen

22.119/2385 thir] Q4 (their); his Q1

22.119/2385 deede‸ to th' ] maxwell (Collier); deede, the Q

22.121/2387 his] Q; her halliwell

2388 (I) seemed] Q4; ſeemde Q1

22.122/2388 so content] Q: to consent edwards. Edwards calls the Q reeding difficult, but it surely means 'thereby content'; divine contentment at such a death seems more appropriate to the reality here than mere 'consent'. Edwards's emendation also produces an awkward repetition of 'to'.

22.123/2389 them] malone; not in Q; crime hudson 2 (anon, conj.)

22.125.1/2391.1 Exit] not in Q

Additional Passage

8 (I) heau'ns] heauens

10 (I) Batt'ry] Battery

QUARTO STAGE DIRECTIONS

1.0.1/0.1 Enter Gower.

1.42/42 Exit.

1.42.1–2/42.1–2 Enter Antiochus, Prince Pericles, and fellowers. (perhaps 'followers')

1.54.1/54.1 Enter Antiochus daughter.

1.106.1/106.2 The Riddle.

1.163.1/163.1 Manet Pericles solus.

1.185/185 Exit.

1.185.1/185.1 Enter Antiochus.

1.192/192 Enter Thallard.

1.202.1/202.1 Enter a Messenger. (after 1.201/201)

2.0.1/213.1 Enter Pericles with his Lords.

2.33.1–2/246.1–2 Enter all the Lords to Pericles.

2.129.1/342.1 Exit.

3.0.1/342.2 Enter Thaliard solus.

3.10.1/352.1 Enter Hellicanus, Escanes, with | other Lords.

3.41/383 Exit.

4.0.1–2/383.1–2 Enter Cleon the Gouernour of Tharsus, with | his wife and others.

4.55.1/438.1 Enter a Lord.

4.82.1–2/465.1–2 Enter Pericles with attendants.

4.107/490.1 Exeunt.

5.0.1/490.2 Enter Gower.

5.16.1/506.1 Dombe shew.

5.16.2–7/506.2–7 Enter at one dore Pericles talking with Cleon, all the traine | with them: Enter at an other dore, a Gentleman with a | Letter to Pericles, Pericles shewes the Letter to Cleon; | Pericles pg 592giues the Messenger a reward, and Knights him: | Exit Pericles at one dore, and Cleon at an other.

5.38.1/528.1 Enter Pericles wette. (after 5.40/530)

5.51.2–3, 5.55.1–4/541.2, 545.1–4 Enter three Fisher-men. (after 5.51/541)

5.157.1 /649.1 Enter the two Fisher-men, drawing vp a Net.

6.0.1–2/701.1–2 Enter Simonydes, with attendaunce, and Thaisa.

6.16.1–3/717.1–3 The first Knight passes by.

6.22.3–5/723.3–5 The second Knight.

6.28.3–5/729.3–5 3. Knight.

6.33.3–5/734.3–5 4. Knight.

16.38.3–5/739.3–5 5. Knight.

6.43.3–6/744.3–6 6. Knight.

6.62.1–2/763.1–2 Great shoutes, and all cry, the meane Knight.

7.0.1–4/763.3–6 Enter the King and Knights from Tilting.

7.102.1/865.1 They daunce.

7.110.1/873.1 They daunce.

8.0.1/882.2 Enter Hellicanus and Escanes.

8.16.1/899.1 Enter two or three Lords.

9.0.1–3/956.1–2 Enter the King reading of a letter at one doore, | the Knightes meete him.

9.19.1/975.1 Enter Pericles. (after the King's speech)

9.62.1/1018.1 Enter Thaisa.

9.72/1028 Aside. (opposite 9.97/1053)

9.100/1056 Aside. (opposite 9.101/1057)

9.113.1/1069.1 Exeunt.

10.0.1/1069.2 Enter Gower.

10.14.2–10/1083.2–10 Enter Pericles and Symonides at one dore with attendantes, | a Messenger meetes them, kneeles and giues Pericles a letter, | Pericles shewes it Symonides, the Lords kneele to him; | then enter Thaysa with child, with Lichorida a nurse, | the King shewes her the letter, she reioyces: she and Pericles | take leaue of her father, and depart.

11.0.1/1129.1 Enter Pericles a Shipboard.

11.14.1/1143.11 Enter Lychorida.

11.37.1/1166.1 Enter two Saylers.

11.78.1–3/1207.1–3 Exit.

12.0.1–2/1207.4–5 Enter Lord Cerymon with a seruant.

12.1/1208 Enter Phylemon.

12.9/1216 Enter two Gentlemen.

12.45.1/1252.1 Enter two or three with a Chist.

12.84.1/1291.1 Enter one with Napkins and Fire.

12.102/1309 Shee moues.

12.108.1/1315.1 They carry her away. Exeunt omnes.

13.0.1–2/1315.2–3 Enter Pericles, Atharsus, with Cleon and Dionisa.

14.0.1/1356.1 Enter Cerimon, and Tharsa.

14.17.1/1373.1 Exit.

15.0.1/1373.2 Enter Gower.

15.50.1/1423.1 Enter Dioniza, with Leonine. (after 15.52/1425)

15.52/1425 Exit.

15.62.1/1435.1–2 Enter Marina with a Basket of flowers. (after 15.64/1437)

15.140.1/1513.1 Enter Pirats.

15.144.1/1517 Exit.

15.144.2/1517.1 Enter Leonine.

15.151.1/1524.1 Exit.

16.0.1–2/1524.2–3 Enter the three Bawdes.

16.23/1547.1 Exit.

16.37.1/1561.1 Enter Boult with the Pirates and Marina.

16.60/1584 Exit.

16.146/1673 Exit.

17.0.1/1673.1 Enter Cleon, and Dioniza.

18.22.2–8/1747.2–8 Enter Pericles at one doore, with all his trayne, Cleon and Dio-|niza at the other. Cleon shewes Pericles the tombe, whereat Pe-|ricles makes lamentation, puts on sacke-cloth, and in a mighty | passion departs.

18.45/1770 Exit.

19.0.1/1770.1 Enter two Gentlemen.

19.9/1779 Exit.

19.9.1/1779.1 Enter Bawdes 3.

19.24.1/1794.1 Enter Lysimachus. (after 19.27/1797)

19.155.1/1926.1 Enter Bawdes.

19.223.1/1994.1 Exeunt.

20.0.1/1994.2 Enter Gower.

20.24/2018 Exit.

21.0.1–3/2018.1–3 Enter Helicanus, to him 2. Saylers.

21.6/2024 Enter two or three Gentlemen.

21.8.1–2/2026.1–2 Enter Lysimachus.

21.69/2087 The Song.

21.224.2/2242.2 Diana.

21.248.1–2/2266.1–2 Exeunt.

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