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Editor’s NoteEditor’s NoteECLOGA VI

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Editor’s Note
Introduction
Virgil's Muse, his Thalea, first condescended to play with Syracusan verse and dwelt unembarrassed in the woods (1–2). Then, abruptly, Virgil tells how he came to write pastoral poetry.
  •       cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem
  •       uellit et admonuit: 'pastorem, Tityre, pinguis
  •       pascere oportet ouis, deductum dicere carmen.'
  •       nunc ego (namque super tibi erunt qui dicere laudes,
  •       Vare, tuas cupiant et tristia condere bella)
  •       agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam. (3–8)
  With the decline of letters in late antiquity, when Greek poetry, and especially Hellenistic poetry, ceased to be read in the West, Apollo's epiphany as literary critic could only be interpreted in an autobiographical sense1—that is, it could no longer be recognized for what it was, a literary allusion, Virgil's pastoral rendering of Callimachus' rejection of epic.
  •       καὶ γὰρ ὅτε πρώτιστον ἐμοῖς ἐπὶ δέλτον ἔθηκα‎
  •         γούνασιν‎, ʼΑπόλλων εἴπεν ὅ μοι Λύκιος‎·
  •       '……]… ἀοιδέ, τὸ μὲν θύος ὅττι πάχιστον‎
  •         θρέψαι, τὴ‎]ν Μοῦσαν δ‎ʼ ὠγαθὲ λεπταλέην‎.'
  • (Aetia fr. 1.21–4 Pf.)

For, when I first placed a writing-tablet on my knees, Lycian Apollo said to me: 'Poet, feed your burnt offering to be as fat as possible, but your Muse, my friend, keep her slender'.

  'Agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam': no attentive reader will fail to hear the echo of the First Eclogue, 2 'siluestrem tenui Musam meditaris auena'. There tenui may have seemed ornamental, contributing rather to the shape and balance of the line than to its sense.2 Here, however, tenui is defined by its context: it is the equivalent of λεπταλέην‎3 and signifies a concept of poetry, poetry as conceived by Callimachus.4 His pastoral poetry, Virgil implies, though ostensibly Theocritean, is essentially Callimachean.
  After paying an artful compliment to Varus, to whom the poem is addressed, and, in so doing, declining to celebrate his military exploits in an epic (6–12), Virgil introduces the figure of Silenus. Early in the morning two young shepherds, Chromis and Mnasyllos, discover Silenus asleep in a cave, drunk as usual. The garlands have fallen from his head and lie on the ground near by, yet even in his drunken stupour he clings to his beloved tankard. The shepherds bind him with his garlands, hoping thus to extort a song, of which he had often cheated them in the past. Aegle, loveliest of the Naiads, joins them and boldly (for Silenus is now awake and watching) daubs his face with mulberry juice. Laughing, Silenus promises a song to the shepherds, but to the Naiad—something else.
  Unknown to the poetry of Theocritus, Silenus is an intractable figure whom Virgil hardly confines within a pastoral frame of reference (13–30, 85–6). Traditional features remain:5 he is the ancient drunkard still, the lover of Nymphs and music, and possessed of secret wisdom, which he must be constrained, here playfully constrained, to reveal. Yet Virgil's Silenus—and the Silenus of the Sixth Eclogue can only be Virgil's6—is wondrously changed: the forest seer has undergone a Callimachean transformation, he has become a literary critic.
  The song of Silenus originates in Apollonius' song of Orpheus,7 as Virgil wishes his reader to notice, for he describes Silenus as singing even more enchantingly than Orpheus.8
  •       Ἤειδεν δ ̓ ὡς γαῖα καὶ οὐρανὸς ἠδὲ θάλασσα‎,
  •       τὸ πρὶν ἐπ ̓ ἀλλήλοισι μιῇ συναρηρότα μορφῇ‎,
  •       νείκεος ἐξ ὀλοοῖο διέκριθεν ἀμφὶς ἕκαστα‎·
  •       ἠδ ̓ ὡς ἔμπεδον αἰὲν ἐν αἰθέρι τέκμαρ ἔχουσιν‎
  •       ἄστρα σεληναίης τε καὶ ἠελίοιο κέλευθοι‎·
  •       οὔρεά θ ̓ ὡς ἀνέτειλε, καὶ ὡς ποταμοὶ κελάδοντες‎
  •       αὐτῇσιν Νύμφῃσι καὶ ἑρπετὰ πάντ ̓ ἐγένοντο‎.
  •       ἤειδεν δ ̓ ὡς πρῶτον Ὀφίων Εὐρυνόμη τε‎
  •       ʼΩκεανὶς νιφόεντος ἔχον κράτος Οὐλύμποιο‎.
  • (Ap. Rhod. 1. 496–504)

He sang how earth and sky and sea, joined together of old in one form, were separated from each other by a deadly quarrel; and how for ever in the heavens the stars and the paths of the moon and the sun keep their steadfast place; how the mountains rose up, and how sounding rivers with their Nymphs and all the animals came to be. He sang how first Ophion and Eurynome, the daughter of Ocean, held sway over snowy Olympus.

Silenus, like Orpheus, begins with the creation of the world and the emergence of living things, primeval figures, Pyrrha, Saturn, Prometheus; and his song is similarly if less regularly articulated: 31 'Namque canebat uti',9 41–2 'hinc … refert', 43 'his adiungit', 61 'tum canit', 62 'tum … circumdat', 64 'tum canit', 74–8 'Quid loquar aut … aut ut', 82–4 'omnia … ille canit'. But while Orpheus 'stayed his lyre and his immortal voice' (Ap. Rhod. 1. 512) with Zeus still a child, still thinking childish thoughts, in the Dictaean cave, Silenus continues on, singing as if, in the plenitude of song, his song could have no ending, singing 'until the Evening Star advanced in the unwilling sky' (86). He sings distractedly, it seems, touching on various themes; in fact, his song is a dense and harmonious composition, a neoteric ars poetica artfully concealed, with but a single subject: poetry, poetry as conceived by Callimachus (and poets after Callimachus) and now embodied in Gallus.10 That Pasiphae's perverse passion, her ἐρωτικὸν πάθημα‎ (45–60), and the literary initiation of Gallus (64–73) occupy so much of the song is indicative of contemporary taste, Virgil's and that of his friends.
  Although the Sixth Eclogue is addressed to Varus, the central figure is evidently Gallus, and Virgil's readers have therefore sensed a certain inconsistency or failure of design in it.11 The fault lies not with Virgil but with his readers, unschooled in Callimachean poetics. In refusing to write an epic a poet undertook to incorporate his refusal in a poem that should exemplify a contrasting idea of poetry.12 Apollo's magisterial rebuke to the poet and the poet's initiation on Helicon—these scenes are related and complementary, the one being implicitly, the other explicitly, programmatic, and are found in the second and first preface to the Aetia.
  One of the Muses conducts Gallus to the top of Helicon, where Linus, the divinely inspired shepherd, gives him the pipes of Hesiod, with these words:
  •          hos tibi dant calamos (en accipe) Musae,
  •       Ascraeo quos ante seni, quibus ille solebat
  •       cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos.
  •       his tibi Grynei nemoris dicatur origo,
  •       ne quis sit lucus quo se plus iactet Apollo. (69–73)
Apollo will be pleased by Gallus' epyllion about the Grynean Grove; and the reader may recall how displeased Apollo was by an epic about kings and battles. Now, with a dismissive 'Quid loquar?' (74), Virgil hurries the song of Silenus (and his own) to a pastoral close. The deliberate abruptness of the question underlines the reference to Gallus' epyllion, and Virgil speaks again, as he did at the beginning, in his own person, 'cum canerem reges et proelia'.

Bibliography

F. Skutsch, Aus Vergils Frühzeit (Leipzig, 1901), 28–49. ——Gallus und Vergil (Leipzig, 1906), 128–55. G. Jachmann, 'Vergils sechste Ekloge', Hermes, 58 (1923), 288–304. O. Skutsch, 'Zu Vergils Eklogen', RhM 99 (1956), 193–5. Z. Stewart, 'The Song of Silenus', HSCP 64 (1959), 179–205. J. P. Elder, 'Non iniussa cano: Virgil's Sixth Eclogue', HSCP 65 (1961), 109–25. G. Williams, Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry (Oxford, 1968), 243–9. W. Spoerri, 'Zur Kosmogonie in Vergils 6. Ekloge', MH 27 (1970), 144–63, 265–72. Ross (1975), 18–38. Clausen, 'Theocritus and Virgil', CHCL ii. 317–19. P. E. Knox, 'In Pursuit of Daphne', TAPA 120 (1990), 183–202.
Editor’s Note
1 Thus Vita Donati 19 'mox cum res Romanas incohasset, offensus materia ad Bucolica transiit'; DServ. on l.5: 'quidam uolunt hoc significasse Vergilium, se quidem altiorem de bellis et regibus ante bucolicum carmen elegisse materiam, sed considerata aetatis et ingenii qualitate mutasse consilium et arripuisse opus mollius, quatenus uires suas leuiora praeludendo ad altiora narranda praepararet'; Serv. on l.3: 'et significat aut Aeneidem aut gesta regum Albanorum, quae coepta omisit nominum asperitate deterritus'. Since 1927, when Callim. Aet. fr. 1 Pf. was published by A. S. Hunt (P. Oxy. XVII 2079), there has been no excuse for this misinterpretation; but venerable error dies hard, e.g. B. Otis, Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry (Oxford, 1963), 33: 'Virgil had originally, it seems, thought of writing a Roman epic (res Romanae) but gave up the attempt and turned instead to the Bucolics'; similarly R. D. Williams, Virgil: The Eclogues and Georgics (New York, 1979), on 1. 3.
Editor’s Note
2 No doubt Virgil was thinking of Callimachus when he wrote 'tenui … auena', but could he have expected his reader, on a first reading of the Book of Eclogues and as yet ignorant of the Sixth Eclogue, to be aware of the literary implications of tenui?
Editor’s Note
3 A metrical convenience; the usual form is λεπτός‎. See Pfeiffer ad loc.
Editor’s Note
4 For a detailed description of Callimachus' style see A. W. Bulloch, CHCL i. 549–70.
Editor’s Note
5 See OCD s.v. 'Satyrs and Sileni', T. H. Carpenter, Dionysian Imagery in Archaic Greek Art (Oxford, 1986), 76–7.
Editor’s Note
6 F. Skutsch (1901), 48–9 thinks Virgil found him in the poetry of Gallus.
Editor’s Note
7 The song of Silenus, like the song of Orpheus, like the song of Demodocus (Od. 8. 500–20; see below, n. 9), is reported. Cf. A. 1. 742–6 (the song of Iopas), 8. 287–302 (the song of the men of Pallanteum, of which, however, only the first part is reported).
Editor’s Note
8 Notice how Orpheus' name immediately precedes Silenus' song, 30–1 'Orphea. / Namque canebat uti'.
Editor’s Note
9 So begins the song of Orpheus, Ἤειδεν δ‎ʼ ὡς‎. Cf. Od. 8. 514 ἤειδεν δ‎ʼ ὡς‎.
Editor’s Note
10 The hypothesis of F. Skutsch (1901), 38–48, that the song of Silenus is an allusive catalogue of the epyllia of Gallus, is perceptive but extreme. In G. 4. 345–7, Clymene is described as singing of the love-affairs of the gods and, like Silenus and Orpheus, beginning from Chaos, 347 'aque Chao densos diuum numerabat amores'. As Hollis observes on Ov. Ars 1. 283–342, the song of Silenus owes something to the catalogue-poetry of the Hellenistic period.
Editor’s Note
11 Thus Servius, concerned that Varus should not simply disappear from the poem, identifies Chromis and Mnasyllos as Virgil and Varus, with Silenus representing their teacher Siro, and Aegle Epicurean uoluptas.
Editor’s Note
12 See Clausen, 'Callimachus and Latin Poetry', GRBS5 (1964), 189 = K. Quinn (ed.), Approaches to Catullus (Cambridge, 1972), 277.
Editor’s Note
1–2. Prima … / nostra … Thalea: V. has recreated Theocritean pastoral in Latin; an assertion of primacy (within the limits of pastoral decorum) tempered by an awareness that the appropriated genre is relatively minor. Greek poets from Homer onward boast of the novelty of their songs, but this possessive sense of the tradition is peculiarly Roman; for references see Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 26. 10. V. was not the first Roman poet to make a claim of this sort; Ennius had done so, to judge from Lucr. 1. 117–18 'Ennius ut noster cecinit qui primus amoeno / detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronam'. (Perhaps V. had 'Ennius … noster … primus' in mind when he wrote 'Prima … nostra … Thalea'.) And Lucretius makes a similar claim—intense and personal, yet remotely Callimachean (see E. J. Kenney, 'Doctus Lucretius', Mnemosyne, 4th ser., 23 (1970), 369–70)—for his own poetry, 1. 926–30 (= 4. 1–5) 'auia Pieridum peragro loca nullius ante / trita solo. iuuat integros accedere fontis / atque haurire, iuuatque nouos decerpere flores / insignemque meo capiti petere inde coronam / unde prius nulli uelarint tempora Musae'. Cf. G. 3. 10–11 'primus ego in patriam mecum … / Aonio rediens deducam uertice Musas', Hor. Carm. 3.30. 13–14 'princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos / deduxisse modos', Epist. 1. 19. 23–4 'Parios ego primus iambos / ostendi Latio', Prop. 3.1.3–4 'primus ego ingredior puro de fonte sacerdos / Itala per Graios orgia ferre choros'.
Editor’s Note
1. Syracosio … uersu: 'Syracosio autem Graece ait, nam Latine Syracusanus dicimus' (Serv.). The Greek form, first attested here, is rare and almost exclusively poetic; prose writers and Plautus (Men. 1069, 1109) use Syracusanus. Cf. 10. 50 'Chalcidico … uersu'.
Editor’s Note
ludere: cf. 1. 10; here opposed to canerem (3), which connotes epic.
Critical Apparatus
vi 2 neque Pω‎: nec RVf
Critical Apparatus
Thalia ω‎, Seru.
Editor’s Note
2. erubuit: here first with an infinitive (TLL s.v. 822. 66).
Editor’s Note
siluas habitare: 2. 29 n.
Editor’s Note
Thalea: her first appearance in Latin poetry. The names of the Muses, a bevy of goddesses only vaguely realized in Homer (but see Heubeck on Od. 24. 60), appear to have been invented by Hesiod; see West on Theog. 75–9. Propertius to the contrary, 3.3. 33 'diuersaeque nouem sortitae iura Puellae', it was not until late antiquity that a definite province of poetry was allotted to each Muse, to Thalea comedy and light verse; see Roscher's Lexicon s.v. Thaleia, Thalia 450. According to Rhianus, it makes no difference which Muse you invoke, because 'when you speak the name of one, all listen', fr. 19 Powell πᾶσαι δ‎ʼ εἰσαΐουσι, μιῆς ὅτε τ‎ʼ οὔνομα λέξῃς‎. See also Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 24. 3.
Editor’s Note
3–5. See Introduction, p. 174.
Editor’s Note
3. Cynthius: 'Apollo a Cyntho monte Deli, in quo natus est' (Serv.). Greek poets apply the adjective to the hill sacred to the god (The Homeric Hymn to Apollo 17 Κύνθιον ὄχθον‎, Eur. IT 1098, Ar. Clouds 596–7) but not to the god himself, with a singular exception: Callimachus, Hymn 4. 9–10 Ἀπόλλων‎ | Κύνθιος‎, where see Mineur, Aet. fr. 67. 5–6 Pf. ἄναξ‎ … | Κύνθιε‎, and 114. 8 Κύνθιε‎ in the same metrical position as Cynthius here; cf. C. Weber, HSCP 91 (1987), 268: 'the aesthetic implicit in cum canerem reges et proelia is undermined by the mollities of the following diaeresis'. (On the infrequency of the bucolic diaeresis in the E. as compared with Theocritus—there are at least five times as many bucolic diaereses in Idylls 1 and 5 (302 lines) as in all the E. (828 lines)—see ibid, n. 39.) Cynthius as an epithet must be Callimachus' invention, that is, a literary epithet unhallowed by cult or tradition, and as such perceived by V., who introduces it into Latin poetry and uses it only once again, in an intensely Callimachean context, G. 3. 36. See Clausen, AJP 97 (1976), 245–7 and 98 (1977), 362.
Editor’s Note
3–4. aurem / uellit: 'tweaked my ear', as a reminder, a proverbial expression, e.g. Copa 38 'Mors aurem uellens "uiuite," ait, "uenio"', Sen. Epist. 94. 55 'sit ergo aliquis custos et aurem subinde peruellat'. See Otto, no. 212. 4. Hence a plaintiff would call a bystander to witness a summons (antestari) by tweaking his ear; cf. Pliny, NH 11. 251 'est in aure ima memoriae locus, quem tangentes antestamur', Plaut. Persa 745–8, Hor. Serm. 1. 9. 76–7.
Editor’s Note
4. pinguis: proleptic, 'ut pinguescant' (DServ.); cf. Hor. Serm. 2. 6. 14–15 'pingue pecus domino facias et cetera praeter / ingenium'.
Critical Apparatus
5 diductum P
Editor’s Note
5. oportet: a very prosaic word, here only in V., and generally avoided in the higher forms of poetry; see Axelson 13–14, Ross (1969), 69–70. But why should V. have used such a word here, in his elegant imitation of Callimachus? Was he thinking of Catullus, who had used it in his imitation of Callim. Epigr. 25 Pf. (=11 G.–P. = AP 5. 6)? See Fordyce on Catull. 70, Ross (1969), 152–3. 'Pascere oportet ouis' is metrically equivalent, even in the detail of an elision, to Catull. 70. 4 'scribere oportet aqua', that is, to the second half of a pentameter; cf. Prop. 3. 7. 72 'condar oportet iners', 4. 1. 70 'sudet oportet equus', Lygdamus 1. 14 'mittere oportet opus', Ov. Ex Pont. 3.1.6 'condar oportet humo', 144 'tu quoque oportet eas'. Placed as it is here, in what may be described as its elegiac position, oportet is unique; elsewhere, Ciris 262 'oportet amari' and Juv. 14. 207 'oportet habere' excepted, oportet always stands at the end of the hexameter: Lucr. 1. 778, Catull. 90. 3, Hor. Serm. 1. 6. 17, 2. 6. 52, Epist. 1. 2. 49, 10. 12, Dirae 36, Prop. 2. 4. 1, 8. 25, Ov. Her. 1. 83, Ars 1. 699, Rem. 23, Trist. 1.5. 51, Ex Pont. 3. 1. 35, Pers. 5. 155, Priapea 38. 1.
Editor’s Note
deductum … carmen: 'tenue; translatio a lana, quae deducitur in tenuitatem' (Serv.). The metaphor is explicit in Hor. Epist. 2. 1. 225 'tenui deducta poemata filo', implicit in Hor. Serm. 2. 1. 4 'mille die uersus deduci posse' and here.
Editor’s Note
6. super tibi erunt: the future tense as in Hor. Carm. 1. 7. 1 'Laudabunt alii'; others, but not Horace, will praise the famous cities of Asia and Greece. For the tmesis cf. Plaut. Curc. 85 'si quid super illi fuerit', Lucr. 3. 878 'esse sui quiddam super', A. 7. 559 'si qua super fortuna laborum est', and see Wackernagel ii. 175.
Editor’s Note
6–7. laudes, / Vare, tuas: conventional and convenient flattery; cf. Cic. Pro Marcell. 9 'itaque, C. Caesar, bellicae tuae laudes celebrabuntur'. But the exploits of P. Alfenus Varus (cos. suff. 39 bc), such as they may have been, can hardly have been a fit subject for epic celebration; see R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford, 1939), 235, 245 n. 4, Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 18. Not surprisingly, readers in late antiquity were puzzled and identified Varus as P. Quinctilius Varus, who perished with his legions in Germany in ad 9: 'alii Varum eum dicunt qui in Germania cum tribus legionibus interiit' (DServ.). Servius invents (or inherited) a somewhat more complicated fiction: 'hic autem Varus Germanos uicerat et exinde maximam fuerat et gloriam et pecuniam consecutus, per quem Vergilius meruerat plurima'. According to the Vita Donati 19, V. wrote his E. 'maxime ut Asinium Pollionem, Alfenum Varum, et Cornelium Gallum celebraret, quia in distributione agrorum … indemnem se praestitissent'; cf. DServ. here and on 9. 27.
Editor’s Note
7. tristia: 'epitheton bellorum perpetuum' (Serv.); cf. A. 7. 325 'tristia bella', Hor. Ars 73–4 'res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella / quo scribi possent numero monstrauit Homerus'.
Editor’s Note
condere bella: a variation of the phrase carmen (carmina) condere; cf. 10. 50–1 'condita … / carmina' and see TLL s.v. condo 153. 74.
Editor’s Note
8. agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam: cf. 1. 2
'siluestrem tenui Musam meditaris auena' and see Introduction, p. 175. Had V. written siluestrem here, readers would doubtless refer it to 'neque erubuit siluas habitare Thalea'. But he wished to vary the phrase, after the fashion of Hellenistic poets, while simultaneously imitating Lucretius: 4.589 'fistula siluestrem ne cesset fundere Musam', 5.1398 'agrestis enim tum Musa uigebat'. Neither phrase occurs elsewhere in either poet; for such precise imitation see 2. 69 n.
Editor’s Note
9. non iniussa cano: modelled on the old ablative iniussu (Ter. Hec. 562 'iniussu meo', Cato, De agr. 5.3 'iniussu domini'), iniussus is first attested in Horace, Epod. 16.49 'illic iniussae ueniunt ad mulctra capellae', Serm. 1. 3. 3 'iniussi' (opposed to 'rogati'). V. uses the word three times: G. 1.55–6 'iniussa uirescunt / gramina', where it means 'unbidden', A. 6. 375 'ripamue iniussus adibis', where it means 'forbidden', and here. Here Heyne and others take non with iniussa as a kind of litotes; but then tamen has no force (see below). V. will not sing of what Apollo has forbidden, of kings and battles, high heroic themes—yet he ventures to hope (note the graceful diffidence of 'si quis …, si quis') that some reader may be captivated by his pastoral song. Non must therefore be taken with cano; so Voss, Conington, O. Skutsch 193, Elder 110. Similarly, Apollo scolds Propertius for having attempted an epic in the style of Ennius, 3.3.15–16 'quis te / carminis heroi tangere iussit opus?'
Editor’s Note
si quis …, si quis: repetition of a word, for si quis counts rhythmically as a word, with, as usually in V., a shift of the ictus.
Editor’s Note
tamen: goes with what follows: see Housman on Juv. 6. 640 'facinus tamen ipsa peregi', and his note on p. l, where he cites this passage ('where editors try to refer tamen to what precedes').
Critical Apparatus
10 legat d, Prisc. xviii 87
Editor’s Note
10. captus amore: cf. G. 3. 285 'singula dum capti circumuectamur amore' ('capti harum rerum studio', Heyne). 'The address to Varus is eminently beautiful' (Samuel Johnson, The Adventurer, No. 92, 22 Sept. 1753).
Critical Apparatus
12 perscripsit fγ‎
Editor’s Note
13. Pierides: 3. 85 n.
Editor’s Note
Chromis: from Theocr. 1. 24 ὡς ὅκα τὸν Λιβύαθε ποτὶ Χρόμιν ᾆσας ἐρίσδων‎, 'as once you sang in a match with Chromis from Libya'. Chromis appears in Homer, together with Ennomos, as a chief of the Mysians (Il. 2. 858); and Theocritus qualified him for pastoral employment with the addition τὸν Λιβύαθε‎. The pastoral renown of Libya, where lambs were horned from birth, is as old as Homer (Od. 4. 85–9); see Mynors on G. 3. 339 'pastores Libyae'.
Editor’s Note
Mnasyllos: 'Rarae in hominum nominibus Graecae formae' (Wagner, Quaest. Virg. 4). Mnasyllos is a real name and in the feminine occurs in a poem V. had probably read: Perses 7. 1 G.–P. (= AP 7. 730) Μνάσυλλα‎. The epigram is one of nine by Perses included in Meleager's Garland; see Meleager 1. 26 G.–P. (= AP 4.1). The first of these concerns three marvellous pairs of antlers dedicated to Apollo (cf. 7. 29–30)—antlers of bucks taken on Mt. Maenalus in Arcadia, the landscape of V.'s pastoral imagination in its latter development; see 8. 22 n. The Greek form of the name may have been determined by the character of the line: four of the words in it are 'Greek'.
Editor’s Note
14. pueri: shepherds, pastores, like Tityrus (4) and Linus (67), as V. indicates at the end (85). Nymphs will consort with shepherds—'Nymphs and Shepherds, dance no more …'—in spite of scholiasts: 'isti pueri satyri sunt' (Serv.); for modern scholiasts see C. Segal, AJP 92 (1971), 56–61.
Editor’s Note
somno … iacentem: again in G. 4. 404, of Proteus; a phrase derived ultimately from Enn. Ann. 288 'nunc hostes uino domiti somnoque sepulti', where see Skutsch. Cf. also A. 4. 527 'somno positae', Ov. Am. 1.4.53 'si bene compositus somno uinoque iacebit'.
Editor’s Note
iacentem: 16 iacebant; Housman, Lucan, p. xxxiii: 'Horace was as sensitive to iteration as any modern … Virgil was less sensitive, Ovid much less; Lucan was almost insensible'. Cf. above, 5 dicere, 6 dicere, below, 84 referunt, 85 referre, and see Norden on A. 6. 423, Austin on A. 2. 505, Fordyce on A. 7. 491.
Editor’s Note
15. inflatum … uenas: cf. Lucr. 3. 476–7 'hominem cum uini uis penetrauit / acris et in uenas discessit diditus ardor', Hor. Serm. 2. 4. 25–6 'quoniam uacuis committere uenis / nil nisi lene decet', Mart. 5. 4. 4 'rubentem prominentibus uenis'. For the construction see 1. 54 n.
Editor’s Note
Iaccho: 'uino, a Libero patre, qui etiam Iacchus uocatur' (Serv.). This metonym, modelled on Bacchus, does not occur in Greek poetry, nor in Latin poetry before V. Iacchus seems to have been a minor Eleusinian deity or daimon who became confused with Bacchus by the middle of the fifth century bc, if not earlier; see RE ix. 613–22, OCD s.v., F. Graf, Eleusis und die orphische Dichtung Athens in vorhellenistischer Zeit (Berlin, 1974), 51–8. For the Latin poets he is hardly more than a metrical convenience, as in Catull. 64. 251, here, and in 7. 61 (but not in G. 1. 166). Metonymy of this kind, that is, the name of the deity put for the element or activity with which the deity was intimately associated or identified (see Dodds on Eur. Bacch. 274–85), is as old as Homer, and no doubt much older, e.g. Il. 2. 426, 440, Od. 22. 444—Hephaestus, Ares, Aphrodite, but not Bacchus, because the wine-god was unknown to Homer. Bacchus as a metonym first occurs in Euripides (IT 164, IA 1061); thereafter in Hellenistic poetry, e.g. Antipater of Sidon 15. 7 G.–P. ( = AP 7. 27), 27. 5–6 G.–P. ( =AP 7. 353), Philodemus, AP 11. 34. 7; and frequently in Latin poetry, beginning with Lucr. 3.221 'Bacchi cum flos euanuit', where Lucretius might have written uini instead of Bacchi (cf. Plaut. Curc. 96 'flos ueteris uini') since he had criticized such metonymies, 2. 655–7 'hic si quis mare Neptunum Cereremque uocare / constituet fruges et Bacchi nomine abuti / mauult'. For Lucretius the genitive of Liber—the name 'abused' by earlier poets—was metrically impossible; cf. Liv. Andr. trag. 30 R3 'florem anculabant Liberi ex carchesiis', Plaut. Cas. 640 'flore Liberi', Cist. 127 'flore Liberi' (in Plautus Liber is always a metonym). See O. Gross, De metonymiis sermonis Latini a deorum nominibus petitis (Diss. Philol. Halenses, 19; Halle, 1911), 342–9, Fordyce on A. 7. 113, Pease on Cic. De nat. deor. 2. 60, Wackernagel ii. 62–3. See also 10. 5 n.
Editor’s Note
16. procul: with iacebant, 'his garlands lay close by just fallen from his head' (T. E. Page). Procul signifies separation without regard to distance, which may be small, as here, or great, as in Ov. Trist. 4. 2. 17 'nos procul expulsos'.
Editor’s Note
tantum capiti delapsa: 'intulit …, ut ostenderet non longius prouolutam coronam' (Serv.). Wearing a garland was associated with drunkenness, e.g. Plaut. Amph. 999 'capiam coronam mi in caput, adsimulabo me esse ebrium', Pseud. 1287 'cum corona ebrium', Hor. Serm. 2. 3. 255–6 'potus ut ille / dicitur ex collo furtim carpsisse coronas'.
Editor’s Note
capiti: an archaic ablative in long i, of which there are a number (but not capiti) in Lucretius; see Munro on Lucr. 1. 978. Capiti is found occasionally in later poetry where, as here, it is convenient: Prop. 2. 30. 39, Ov. Ars 1. 582, 2. 528, Met. 15. 610, Silius 16. 434–5; in all these places the reference is to a garland. Cf. also Catull. 68. 124 'suscitat a cano uolturium capiti'.
Editor’s Note
17. pendebat: 'manibus non emissum significat' (DServ.); 'he is too drunk to sustain it, and too fond of it, even in this almost senseless condition, to let it go out of his hand' (Martyn).
Editor’s Note
cantharus: a deep two-handled drinking-cup, here with well-worn handles, 'frequenti scilicet potu' (Serv.). In Greek and Roman comedy the cantharus (κάνθαρος‎) is simply an article of everyday use; see Athenaeus 11. 473 d–474 d, TLL s.v. 280. 71. But from the sixth century bc onward it was associated with Dionysus, and no doubt that is the suggestion here (Macrob. Sat. 5. 21. 14 'aptissime proprium Liberi patris poculum adsignat Sileno'); see T. H. Carpenter, Dionysian Imagery in Archaic Greek Art (Oxford, 1986), 117–23 and pls. 2, 9a, 14a and b, 17, 20b, 21, 24a and b, 25, in all of which Dionysus is shown holding the cantharus by one of its handles. It is reported of Gaius Marius that, in the insolence of victory, he would drink from a cantharus: Val. Max. 3. 6. 6 'iam C. Marii paene insolens factum. nam post Iugurthinum Cimbricumque et Teutonicum triumphum cantharo semper potauit, quod Liber pater Indicum ex Asia deducens triumphum hoc usus poculi genere ferebatur, ut inter ipsum haustum uini uictoriae eius suas uictorias compararet'. See also Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 20. 2.
Editor’s Note
18. adgressi: V. imagines Silenus as a Proteus-like figure, an ancient wizard, reluctant and evasive; cf. G. 4. 402–4 'cum sitiunt herbae et pecori iam gratior umbra est [a reminiscence of 1. 11 'nec Phoebo gratior ulla est', the comparative of gratus not being found elsewhere in the E. and G.], / in secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis / se recipit, facile ut somno adgrediare iacentem'.
Editor’s Note
18–19. spe … / luserat: cf. A. 1. 352 'uana spe lusit'.
Editor’s Note
19. ipsis ex uincula sertis: see below, 33 n.
Editor’s Note
20–2. The shepherd boys are abashed at their own boldness, but the forward Nymph daubs the face of Silenus, now awake and watching, with mulberry juice; cf. A. 9. 345 'Rhoetum uigilantem et cuncta uidentem'. A common trick, as it must have been, described in graphic detail by Petronius 22. 1 'cum Ascyltos grauatus tot malis in somnum laberetur, illa quae iniuria depulsa fuerat ancilla totam faciem eius fuligine larga perfricuit et non sentientis labra umerosque sopionibus pinxit'; see Lindsay on Plaut. Capt. 656, B. Brotherton, The Vocabulary of Intrigue in Roman Comedy (Menasha, Wis., 1926), 85–9; W. M. Thackeray, The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq., ch. 19: 'We painted the parson's face black, when his reverence had arrived at his seventh bottle, and his usual insensible stage'. A scene of this sort might have been expected in Plautus, but there is only the faded metaphor os alicui sublinere 'to trick, cheat someone'; cf. Nonius p. 65 L. (on Plaut. Aul. 668) 'subleuit significant inlusit et pro ridiculo habuit, tractum a genere ludi, quo dormientibus ora pinguntur'. Plautus has the phrase thirteen times; but for the refined taste of Terence even the metaphor was too crude. In fact, only one writer after Plautus appears to have used the phrase, Symmachus, Epist. 4. 18. 1 'ne mihi os subleueris!' (La Cerda). Aegle daubs Silenus' face not with soot, of which, dramatically, there could be none to hand (and which, besides, would be inappropriate in a pastoral setting), but with the blood-red juice of the mulberry (Nicander, Alex. 69 μορέης‎ … φοινηέσσης‎). Line 22 is related to 10. 27 (Pan) 'sanguineis ebuli bacis minioque rubentem'. Gods of the countryside customarily had their faces raddled (see S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (Oxford, 1971), 68 n. 5), and rustic worshippers of Bacchus painted their own faces with vermilion for his holidays, Tib. 2.1.55 'agricola et minio suffusus, Bacche, rubenti'.
Editor’s Note
20. addit se sociam: cf. A. 2. 339 'addit se socios', 9. 149–50 'addant se … / … socios'.
Editor’s Note
addit se: Maas 515 n. 24 = 557 n. 24, observes that the second syllable of trochaic words (except those ending in -m) is seldom lengthened in the first foot of the hexameter. Here se is enclitic; in 2. 39, 7. 58, and 8. 83 proper names are involved.
Editor’s Note
Aegle: not a pastoral name; it may have been suggested by an episode in Ap. Rhod. 4. 1393–1431. The Argonauts, desperately thirsty after portaging the Argo across the Libyan desert, search for a spring; startled by their sudden arrival, the Hesperides turn into dust on the spot; Orpheus prays and is heard: Hespere becomes a poplar, Erytheis an elm, and Aegle a willow, and Aegle speaks to the Argonauts.
Editor’s Note
21. Aegle Naiadum pulcherrima: such repetition, or epanalepsis, which is as old as Homer, became a feature of Hellenistic poetry, and of pastoral especially; see Norden on A. 6. 164, McLennan on Callim. Hymn 1. 91, R. Gimm, De Vergilii stilo bucolico quaestiones selectae (diss. inaug. Leipzig, 1910), 87–8. Cf. 6. 33–4, 55–6, 9. 27–8, 47–8, 10. 72–3; somewhat different though not unrelated are 1. 27–9, 4. 55–7, 5. 51–2, 7. 2–3, 8. 55–6, 9. 64–5, 10. 31–3.
Editor’s Note
Naiadum: like the Pierides (3. 85 n.), the Naiades are confined to the E.; plural here and in 10. 10 (Naides), singular in 2. 46.
Editor’s Note
pulcherrima: here and in 7. 65 before a bucolic diaeresis, elsewhere, except A. 1. 72 'pulcherrima Deiopea', occupying the fifth foot of the line (once in the G., ten times in the A.).
Critical Apparatus
23 inridens P2
Editor’s Note
24. satis est potuisse uideri: 'ut uideamini me uincire potuisse' (Heyne). Forbiger compares A. 5. 231 'possunt, quia posse uidentur', and this seems to be the simplest interpretation of this rather cryptic remark.
Editor’s Note
25. carmina …; carmina uobis: the repetition and rhythm suggest a pastoral refrain; see 8. 68 n.
Editor’s Note
cognoscite: cf. Lucr. 1. 921 'nunc age quod superest cognosce et clarius audi'.
Editor’s Note
26. huic aliud mercedis erit: 'Nymphae minatur stuprum latenter, quod uerecunde dixit Vergilius' (Serv.); see 3. 8 n.
Editor’s Note
simul incipit ipse: cf. G. 4. 386 (Cyrene) 'sic incipit ipsa', A. 10. 5 (Jupiter) 'incipit ipse'.
Editor’s Note
27–8. Like Orpheus, Silenus charms the world of nature with his song. Description of its effect precedes the song itself, a late example of an 'archaic sequence' (West on Hes. Theog. 43).
Editor’s Note
27. tum uero: only here in the E. and only once in the G., 3.505, where again -o is elided; see Axelson 86–7.
Editor’s Note
in numerum: keeping time; cf. A. 8. 452–3, Lucr. 2. 630–1 (Curetes) 'inter se … / ludunt in numerumque exsultant'.
Editor’s Note
Faunos: Skutsch on Enn. Ann. 207: 'Faunus, divinity of the woods, to whom the mysterious voices of the forest are ascribed … exists properly only in the singular … a pluralization is not unnatural and has certainly occurred, in the same way as probably that of Pan, and later that of Silvanus (Ov. Met. 1. 193), under the influence of the Satyrs'. Cf. Lucr. 4. 580–3 'haec loca capripedes Satyros Nymphasque tenere / finitimi fingunt et Faunos esse loquuntur / quorum noctiuago strepitu ludoque iocanti / adfirmant uulgo taciturna silentia rumpi', A. 8. 314 'haec nemora indigenae Fauni Nymphaeque tenebant', and see Mynors on G. 1. 10.
Editor’s Note
-que … -que: only here attached to successive nouns in the E.; cf. 8. 22, 10. 23. For a brief history of the idiom see Skutsch on Enn. Ann. 170. See below, 32 n.
Editor’s Note
28. rigidas … quercus: the tree obedient to Orpheus' lyre is usually the tough and unyielding oak; the manna-ash, below, 71 'rigidas … ornos', is simply a metrical convenience. The adjective is not found elsewhere in the E., nor is it elsewhere applied to the manna-ash (TLL s.v. ornus).
Editor’s Note
29–30. nec tantum … / nec tantum: Ursinus compares [Moschus], Epitaph. Bion. 89–90 οὐ τόσον‎ ʼΑλκαίω περιμύρατο Λέσβος ἐραννά‎, | οὐδὲ τόσον τὸν ἀοιδὸν ὀδύρατο Τήιον, ἄστυ‎, 'Not so much did lovely Lesbos mourn for Alcaeus, nor so much did Teos town grieve for her poet'.
Editor’s Note
29. Parnasia rupes: a neoteric phrase, modelled on Catull. 68. 53 'Trinacria rupes' and Theocr. 7. 148 Παρνάσιον αἶπος‎, 'the steep of Parnassus'. Like αἶπος‎, for which see Fraenkel on Aesch. Ag. 285, rupes is an old poetic word, first attested in Accius 505 R.3, then occurring in Lucretius, in the longer poems of Catullus, 61. 27–8 'Thespiae / rupis', 64.154, 68.53, and in Augustan poets, especially V. (30 times), though not in Tibullus; found in prose in Varro, Caesar, and Sallust. See Tränkle 13.
Critical Apparatus
30 miratur Pω‎ (cf A. ii 317): mirantur Rde, Rufin. 48. 5
Editor’s Note
30. Rhodope: a mountain-range in Thrace—'where Woods and Rocks had Ears / To rapture'—associated with Orpheus; cf. Ov. Met. 10. 11–12 'Rhodopeius … / … uates', with Bömer's note.
Editor’s Note
Ismarus: in Homer, a town of the Cicones, a Thracian tribe, sacked by Odysseus (Od. 9. 39–40); in V., as in other Latin poets, a mountain in Thrace, G. 2. 37–8 'iuuat Ismara Baccho / conserere', Prop. 3. 12. 25 'Ciconum mons Ismara'. (The town still existed in V.'s day: Strabo 7, fr. 43, says that it is now called Ismara.) Lucretius seems to have been—but can he have been?—the first poet after Homer to mention Ismarus, 5.31 'Ismara propter'. The neuter plural is the usual form in Latin poetry: Ismarus here is unique. This variation in the form of place-names, Greek in origin, was elaborated by the Latin poets as a metrical convenience, e.g. 8. 22, 10. 15 Maenalus but 10. 55, G. 1. 17 Maenala (cf. Theocr. 1. 124 μέγα Μαίναλον‎, 'mighty Maenalus', Theocritus' only reference to this mountain haunt of Pan); A. 6. 577 Tartarus but elsewhere in V. Tartara; G. 3. 44 Taygeti but G. 2. 488 Taygeta.
Editor’s Note
Orphea: a synizesis, here first in Latin poetry and extremely rare; cf. G. 1. 279 Typhoea, whence Ov. Met. 3. 303 Typhoea and Silius 8. 540 Typhoea, and see Leumann, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre2, 120.
Editor’s Note
31. namque canebat uti: here, as in A. 1. 466 'namque uidebat uti', namque gives the reason, there for Aeneas' tears, here for the effect produced on the natural world. The archaic form uti, frequent in Lucretius, is not found elsewhere in the E.
Editor’s Note
magnum per inane: a Lucretian phrase (1. 1018, 1103, 2. 65, 105, 109).
Editor’s Note
31–2. coacta / semina: cf. Lucr. 2. 1059–60 'semina rerum / … coacta'. Semina is the commonest term for atoms in Lucretius.
Editor’s Note
32. terrarum: 'earth', often plural in Lucretius, especially in the genitive, accusative, and ablative cases; see Munro on 1. 3 'terras frugiferentis' and cf. 5. 446 'a terris altum secernere caelum'.
Editor’s Note
-que … -que … -que: cf. 4. 51; a sequence not found elsewhere in the E.
Editor’s Note
animae: 'air'; cf. Lucr. 1. 714–15 (referring to Empedocles) 'et qui quattuor ex rebus posse omnia rentur / ex igni terra atque anima procrescere et imbri'.
Critical Apparatus
33 ex omnia (cf. Lucr. i 61) P: exordia Rω‎, Macrob. vi 2. 22
Editor’s Note
33. liquidi … ignis: Macrob. Sat. 6. 5. 4 'illud audaciae maximae uideri possit quod ait in Bucolicis "et liquidi simul ignis" pro puro uel lucido seu pro effuso et abundanti, nisi prior hoc epitheto Lucretius usus fuisset in sexto [205] "deuolet in terram liquidi color aureus ignis" '. The last item in the enumeration is carried over into the next line and weighted with an adjective; cf. Lucr. 6. 529–30 (next note), 5. 68–9 'terram caelum mare sidera solem / lunaique globum', A.6.724–5 'caelum ac terras camposque liquentis / lucentemque globum lunae', Milton, Paradise Lost 4. 721–3 (Adam and Eve) 'and under op'n Sky ador'd / The God that made both Sky, Air, Earth and Heav'n / Which they beheld, the Moon's resplendent globe'. Stewart 184 notes that 'the slight distinction given to fire' is Empedoclean.
Editor’s Note
his ex omnia primis: of the two ancient MSS which contain this line, P has ex omnia, R exordia; the latter being the vulgate, for exordia is found in DServ., Macrob. Sat. 6. 2. 22, and in every medieval MS that has been examined. EXOMNIA, the lectio difficilior, was altered, whether by accident or design, to EXORDIA, a fairly frequent Lucretian term for atoms (2. 333, 1062, 3. 31, 380, 4. 45, 114, 5. 430, 471, 677). The reading of P was discovered by Ribbeck, Prolegomena critica ad P. Vergili Maronis opera maiora (Leipzig, 1856), 225, and published in the apparatus criticus of his first edition (1859); shortly thereafter Peerlkamp, who apparently had not seen Ribbeck's edition, published ex omnia as a conjecture (Mnemosyne, 10 = ns 1 (1861), 23–4). Since Ribbeck retained exordia in the text of both his first and second (1894) editions, it was left for Sabbadini (1937) to restore ex omnia to V. The word-order is distinctively Lucretian; cf. Lucr. 2. 731–2 'albis ex alba rearis / principiis', 3. 10 'tuisque ex inclute chartis', 4. 829 'ualidis ex apta lacertis', 6. 788 'terris ex omnia surgunt', and see Munro on Lucr. 1. 841. By 'his … primis' V. must mean the four elements, each composed of its proper atoms (semina), thus using a Lucretian term in an un-Lucretian sense; cf. Lucr. 1. 61 (the atoms) 'corpora prima, quod ex illis sunt omnia primis'. Finally, the epanalepsis 'omnia primis, / omnia', frequent in Hellenistic poetry (see above, 21 n.), is also Lucretian, 2. 955–6 'uincere saepe, / uincere', 6. 528–30 'et quae concrescunt in nubibus, omnia prorsum, / omnia, nix uenti grando gelidaeque pruinae / et uis magna geli' (for the punctuation see G. B. Townend, CQ, ns 19 (1969), 337).
Critical Apparatus
34 omnisa P1
Editor’s Note
34. ipse tener mundi … orbis: the upper sky, the bright cloudless ether (so Voss, Conington, Munro on Lucr. 5. 468); cf. Lucr. 5. 498–9 'inde mare, inde aer, inde aether ignifer ipse / corporibus liquidis sunt omnia pura relicta', 510 'magnus caeli … orbis'.
Editor’s Note
tener: 'recens factus' (DServ.), and here contrasted with the earth, 35 'tum durare solum'.
Editor’s Note
concreuerit: a Lucretian verb (18 times), here agreeing with its nearer subject. A. Ernout, Philologica (Paris, 1946), 93, notes that this is the first instance of concreui (again in A. 12. 905); Cicero uses only concretus sum.
Editor’s Note
35. tum: with coeperit, not, like tum in 11. 61 and 64, introducing another part of Silenus' song.
Editor’s Note
durare: intransitive; cf. Aetna 497 'flumina … frigore durant' and see TLL s.v. 2296. 17; also, for verbs ordinarily transitive used intransitively, Fordyce on A. 7. 27. The spongy earth, natal wet, begins to exhale its moisture and grow hard.
Editor’s Note
discludere: Macrob. Sat. 6.4.11 'ferit aures nostras hoc uerbum discludere ut nouum, sed prior Lucretius in quinto [437–8] "diffugere inde loci partes coepere paresque / cum paribus iungi res et discludere mundum" '.
Editor’s Note
Nerea ponto: to shut off the sea-god in the sea. Neoteric wit? Nereus was the eldest child of Pontos, Hes. Theog. 233 Νηρέα δ‎ʼ ἀψευδέα καὶ ἀληθέα γείνατο Πόντος‎, 'Pontos begat undeceitful and truthful Nereus'. 'Sed video in Virgilio quid peculiare. Nereus ab Hesiodo in Theog. signate dicitur filius Ponti, non maris, aut aequoris. Itaque coniungitur filius cum patre' (La Cerda).
Editor’s Note
ponto: local ablative unmodified, as in G. 1. 372, A. 1. 40, 70. Πόντος‎ was Latinized by Ennius, Ann. 217 Skutsch 'urserat huc nauim compulsam fluctibus pontus', and remained exclusively poetic. See Skutsch ad loc., Tränkle 40.
Editor’s Note
36. paulatim: a Lucretian adverb (23 times).
Editor’s Note
37. stupeant: earth stands in awe of the sun, now rising for the first time ever. The natural world is imagined as animate and capable of emotion; cf. 29 'gaudet', 30 'miratur', 40 'ignaros', 82 'beatus'. Stupeo first occurs here with an accusative and infinitive (Hofmann–Szantyr 358).
Editor’s Note
lucescere solem: an innovation, since the verb is impersonal before V., e.g. Plaut. Amph. 533 'prius quam lucescat', or virtually so, Plaut. Amph. 543 'lucescit hoc iam' (TLL s.v. 1703. 5, 21). But the compound verbs inlucesco and dilucesco furnished an analogy, e.g. Plaut. Persa 712 'hic tibi dies inluxit lucrificabilis', G. 2. 337 'inluxisse dies', Lucr. 5. 176 'donec diluxit rerum genitalis origo'.
Editor’s Note
38. altius atque: several editors put a comma after altius, for the reason that 'atque is never second word in a clause in Virgil' (T. E. Page); but, taken with lucescere, altius makes little or no sense. The new sun—new, strange, never before seen, nouum is emphasized by its separation from solem—now begins to shine, and rain falls from the clouds because the earth's moisture has moved higher up and no longer clings to it like a mist. Altius belongs to summotis, 'nubibus in altum leuatis' (Serv.; so also F. Skutsch (1901), 46); cf. Luc. 3. 401 'alte summotis solibus'—or rather, to both summotis and cadant; cf. 1. 83 'maioresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae'. That a very confident young poet should have employed a verbal sophistication which he afterwards avoided is hardly surprising; thus atque is postponed four times in the first book of Horace's Sermones, 5. 4, 6. 111, 131, 7. 12, a book published at about the same time as V.'s book of E., but nowhere in his later hexameters.
Editor’s Note
39. cum … cumque: reproducing the sound, if not the sense, of Lucr. 2. 114 'cum solis lumina cumque'.
Critical Apparatus
40 ignaros R: ignotos Pω‎
Editor’s Note
40. rara per ignaros errent animalia montis: cf. Lucr. 2. 532 'nam quod rara uides magis esse animalia quaedam'. If, as Conington suggests, V. was thinking of Lucr. 5. 823–4 (terra) 'animal prope certo tempore fudit / omne quod in magnis bacchatur montibus passim', he imagines a very different scene: his lonely animals roam over the mountains unknowing and unknown. Cf. A. 10. 706 'ignarum Laurens habet ora Mimanta', quoted by Gellius 9. 12. 20, with the comment: 'ignarus aeque utroqueuersum dicitur non tantum qui ignorat sed et qui ignoratur'. It is unusual for a true reading to be preserved in R alone; P (M is defective here) and the Carolingian MSS have ignotos, inharmonious and banal (cf. Livy 29. 32. 5, 31. 42. 8, 36. 19. 10, 38. 2. 14, 39. 45. 6), a lectio facilior.
Editor’s Note
41–4: brief, allusive references in the Alexandrian manner to well-known stories. The lack of chronology was noted in antiquity; 'quod autem dicit "Saturnia regna", fabularum ordinem uertit' (Serv.). But Silenus is offering a history of the world in brief: first the creation of man, symbolized by Pyrrha, because the Ancients, having no Adam and Eve, referred their legendary origin to Deucalion and Pyrrha; then the Golden Age, the end of which is marked by the introduction of technology, symbolized by Prometheus' theft of fire, while the new art of navigation, auspicated by the Argonauts, is symbolized by Hylas (Mynors).
Editor’s Note
41. lapides Pyrrhae iactos: here, as La Cerda remarks, Pyrrha is mentioned without her husband, but in G. 1.62 'Deucalion uacuum lapides iactauit in orbem' Deucalion without his wife. Pyrrhae is dative of agent. The story is told in Ov. Met. 1. 313–415.
Editor’s Note
Saturnia regna: 4. 6 n.
Editor’s Note
42. Caucasias … uolucris: cf. Ap. Rhod. 3. 851–3 καταστάξαντος ἔραζε‎ | αἰετοῦ ὠμηστέω κνημοῖς ἐνὶ Καυκασίοισιν‎ | αἱματόεντ‎ʼ ἰχῶρα Προμηθῆος μογεροῖο‎, 'when the ravenous eagle let fall to earth on the slopes of the Caucasus the bloody ichor of wretched Prometheus'; also 2. 1247–50. Caucasius is first attested here in Latin. The tradition before V. is unanimous: it was a single bird, an eagle, that came daily to feed on Prometheus' liver. There may be some contamination with the story of Tityos, Od. 11. 578 γῦπε δέ μιν ἑκάτερθε παρημένω ἧπαρ ἔκειρον‎, 'and two vultures sat, one on either side, tearing his liver', Lucr. 3. 984 'nec Tityon uolucres ineunt Acherunte iacentem', A. 6. 595–8 'nec non et Tityon … / … per tota nouem cui iugera corpus / porrigitur, rostroque immanis uultur obunco / immortale iecur tondens'. See K. F. Smith on Tib. 1. 3. 75–6 'porrectusque nouem Tityos per iugera terrae / adsiduas atro uiscere pascit aues'.
Editor’s Note
Promethei: the genitive -ei of Greek proper names in -eus is monosyllabic in V.: cf. below, 78 Terei, A. 1. 41 Oilei, 120 Ilionei (also 9. 501), 8. 383 Nerei, 11. 262 Protei, 265 Idomenei, and see Leumann, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre2, 120.
Editor’s Note
43–4: an allusion to the story of Hylas, a minor episode of the voyage to Colchis. The Argonauts bivouac on the shore of the Propontis and Hylas, the beautiful boy, the beloved of Heracles, goes looking for water. He finds a spring, reaches down, and (the enamoured Nymphs clasp his hand) disappears into the dark water. Wild with grief, Heracles searches for him, shouting his name three times, to which the lost boy, as though from far away, faintly answers (Theocr. 13. 58–60). Unlike the stories alluded to in 41–2, the Hylas story—a local legend given literary form by Apollonius 1. 1207–72 and Theocritus 13—is Hellenistic and must therefore have seemed, to V. and his readers, relatively modern. Hylas became popular as a subject of poetry (and art: LIMC v/1. 574–9, v/2. 396–9)—too popular in V.'s opinion, G. 3. 6 'cui non dictus Hylas puer?' The story had an unmistakable literary connotation, however, and here serves to introduce (45 'et fortunatam') Pasiphae, whose story V. conceives as an epyllion; see below, 45–60 n.
Editor’s Note
43. quo fonte: Ap. Rhod. 1. 1221–2 αἶψα δ‎ʼ ὅ γε κρήνην μετεκίαθεν ἣν καλέουσι‎ | Πηγὰς ἀγχίγυοι περιναιέται‎, 'Hylas soon came to the spring which the inhabitants near by call the Streams', whence Prop. 1.20.33 'hic erat Arganthi Pege sub uertice montis'; profusely described but not named in Theocr. 13. 40–2. No doubt Apollonius' naming of the spring was controversial; see F. Skutsch (1901), 96 n. 2. What song did the Sirens sing? In which hand was Aphrodite wounded by Diomedes? What was the name of Proteus' father? of Hecuba's mother? of Anchises' nurse? Such fantastic literary questions, ζητήματα‎, were attributed to the followers of Callimachus, 'super-Callimachuses', by Philip (61 Gow–Page, The Garland of Philip (Cambridge, 1968) = AP 11. 347). See Courtney on Juv. 7. 234.
Editor’s Note
44. clamassent: there is no reference here to a treble calling or last conclamation; see Gow on Theocr. 13. 58.
Editor’s Note
Hyla, Hyla: for the prosody see 3. 79 n.
Editor’s Note
45–60. V.'s miniature of an epyllion: 45–6 elliptical narrative, assuming the familiar story; 47 the poet's sympathetic apostrophe; 48–51 Proetus' daughters—a story within the story, as in Callimachus' Hecale (Erichthonius), Moschus' Europa (Io), Catullus 64 (Ariadne); 52 repetition of the apostrophe to frame the inner story; 52–5 the poet's feeling comment; 55–60 the heroine's lovely, sad, and disproportioned speech.
Editor’s Note
45. fortunatam, si: cf. G. 2. 458 'O fortunatos nimium, … si', A. 4. 657 'felix, heu nimium felix, si'.
Editor’s Note
46. Pasiphaen … solatur amore: when Minos failed to sacrifice the beautiful bull that Poseidon sent him from the sea, keeping it for himself and sacrificing another bull instead, the angry sea-god visited Minos' wife, Pasiphae, with a monstrous passion for the animal. The poet—here Silenus—is said to do what he describes being done, a well-attested form of expression; cf. below, 62 and 63, 9. 19–20, G. 3. 386–7, [Moschus], Epitaph. Bion. 82 (the poet Bion) σύριγγας ἔτευχε καὶ ἁδέα πόρτιν ἄμελγε‎, 'fashioned pipes and milked the sweet heifer', Hor. Serm. 1. 10. 36 'turgidus Alpinus iugulat dum Memnona', Carm. 2. 1. 17–18 'iam nunc minaci murmure cornuum / perstringis auris', Ov. Am. 3. 12. 25 (we poets) 'per spatium Tityon porreximus ingens', Trist. 2. 439 'is quoque, Phasiacas Argon qui duxit in undas', and see R. Kassel, RhM 109 (1966), 8–10. Cf. also Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 68 n. 59 (differing accounts of the death of Constantine Palaeologus): 'Ducas kills him with two blows of Turkish soldiers; Chalcocondyles wounds him in the shoulder, and then tramples him in the gate'.
For the rhythm of this line—strong caesura in the third foot, weak in the fourth—see Norden 427–9 and cf. 10. 10.
Editor’s Note
niuei: precedes, as niueum (53) follows, 'a, uirgo infelix' (47, 52), to heighten the symmetrical effect.
Editor’s Note
47. a, uirgo infelix: 'Caluus in Io "a, uirgo infelix, herbis pasceris amaris" ' (DServ. = FPL fr. 9 Büchner). For the exclamation see 10. 47 n.; for the sympathetic apostrophe, Norden on A. 6. 14 ff. Twice below, as if thinking of 'herbis pasceris amaris', V. uses the adjective amarus (62, 68). Cf. Ovid's exuberant yet precise imitation, Met. 1. 632–4 'frondibus arboreis et amara pascitur herba, / proque toro terrae non semper gramen habenti / incubat infelix'.
Editor’s Note
uirgo: apart from this repeated quotation of Calvus and a reference to the constellation (4. 6), uirgo does not appear in the E. Even the chaste Atalanta is called, like the provocative Galatea in 3. 64, puella (below, 61). Three times in the G., forty-three times in the A., uirgo belongs to the higher style of poetry; see Axelson 58, P. Watson, 'Puella and Virgo', Glotta, 61 (1983), 119–43.
Editor’s Note
quae te dementia cepit: Corydon's self-reproach; see 2. 69 n.
Editor’s Note
48. Proetides: daughters of Proetus, king of Argos, who were afflicted with madness by Hera, according to one tradition, because they had mocked her wooden image; fancying themselves to be transformed into cows, they wandered about the countryside until cured of their hallucination by the seer Melampus; see G. Radke, RE xxiii. 117–25, Maehler on Bacchyl. 11 (pp. 196–202). Since 1962 they have been happily reunited in a euphonious line of the Hesiodic Catalogue fr. 129. 24 M.–W.3 [Λυσίππην τε καὶ‎ ʼΙφι‎]νόην καὶ Ἰφιάνασσαν‎; cf. 'Lysippe, Iphinoe, Iphianassa' (DServ.). Did Calvus somehow involve Proetus' daughters in his Io? V. implies as much, and Calvus had before him the example of Moschus' Europa with the story of Io (like Io, Proetus' daughters had offended Hera) worked in gold on Europa's golden flower-basket (44–9).
Editor’s Note
falsis mugitibus: 'their imitated lowings' (Dryden).
Critical Apparatus
49 secuta MP: secuta est Rω‎, Macrob. iv 6. 3
Critical Apparatus
50 timuissent R
Editor’s Note
50. concubitus: used only of animals by V. (TLL. s.v. 100. 63). The hysterical girls imagined themselves cows; they did not, however, behave like cows.
Editor’s Note
quamuis: with the pluperfect subjunctive first in Cicero, e.g. Pro Mil. 21 'multa etiam alia uidit, sed illud maxime, quamuis atrociter ipse tulisset'; again in A. 8. 379–80.
Editor’s Note
collo: dative; cf. A. 2. 130, 729.
Critical Apparatus
51 quesissent P
Editor’s Note
51. leui … fronte: 'humana scilicet' (DServ.), and perhaps that is all the humane V. wished his reader to understand here; cf. Ov. Ars. 1. 308 (Pasiphae) 'quam cuperes fronti cornua nata tuae'. But V. certainly knew that Proetus' daughters had been described as losing their hair—a symptom of their morbidly excited condition—in the Hesiodic Catalogue fr. 1. 33. 4–5 M.–W.3 αἱ δέ νυ χαῖται‎ | ἔρρεον ἐκ κεφαλέων, ψίλωτο δὲ καλὰ κάρηνα‎, 'now the hair was falling from their heads, and their lovely heads became bald'. Similarly, the lovesick Simaetha loses her hair, Theocr. 2. 89 ἔρρευν δ‎ʼ ἐκ κεφαλᾶς πᾶσαι τρίχες‎, 'and all the hair was falling from my head'.
Editor’s Note
52. in montibus erras: like a grazing animal, e.g. 2. 21 'errant in montibus agnae', G. 4. 11 'errans bucula campo', or possibly a distracted lover. Wandering aimlessly is a symptom of passion in Hellenistic poetry; see 10. 55–6 n.
Editor’s Note
53. latus … fultus: 1. 54 n.
Editor’s Note
niueum: in contrast with the dark green foliage of the ilex beneath which he lies, hardly with 'the deep purple of the hyacinths' (T. E. Page); 'molli … hyacintho', a delicious soft bed merely. Niueus first occurs in Cic. Progn. fr. 3. 3 Soubiran, then eight times in Catullus, with the exception of 58b. 4—an apparent exception only, for the first four lines of this poem are a parody of the Alexandrian style—in his long poems: 61. 9–10 'niueo gerens / luteum pede soccum' ('niueo luteum, der seit hellenistischer Zeit beliebte Farbenkontrast', Kroll), 63. 8, 64. 240, 303, 309 'at roseae niueo residebant uertice uittae', 364, 68. 125. See Clausen 103–4.
Editor’s Note
molli … hyacintho: 2. 50 n.
Editor’s Note
fultus hyacintho: DServius compares Lucil. 138 M. 'et puluino fultus' and A. 7. 94–5 'atque harum effultus tergo stratisque iacebat / uelleribus'. For the prosody cf. Catull. 66. 11 'auctus hymenaeo' and see Norden 451, Fordyce on A. 7. 398.
Editor’s Note
54. pallentis ruminat herbas: pallentis presumably represents χλωρός‎, pale greenish-yellow, as grass becomes during the Mediterranean summer; Longus 1. 17. 4 χλωρότερον τὸ πρόσωπον ἦν πόας θερινῆς‎, 'his face was paler than summer grass' (cf. Sappho fr. 31. 14–15 L.-P.). Used of violets (2. 47, where see note), ivy (3. 39, G. 4. 124), and the olive tree (5. 16), pallens is, as Conington observes, 'an unusual epithet of grass'; it is, in fact, unique (TLL s.v. herba 2620. 78). This being so, the interpretation of Servius should not, perhaps, be excluded: 'reuomit ac denuo consumit … pallentis autem … quae uentris calore propria uiriditate caruerunt'. Cf. [Ov.] Am. 3. 5. 17–18 'dum iacet et lente reuocatas ruminat herbas / atque iterum pasto pascitur ante cibo' (the pentameter is quoted by DServ. here), [Ov.] Hal. 119 'ut Scarus, epastas solus qui ruminat escas', Calp. Sic. 3. 17 (taurus) 'matutinas reuocat palearibus herbas'. Is pallentis a touch of Hellenistic realism?
Editor’s Note
ruminat: here first in its literal sense. Four earlier instances are cited by Nonius, all deponent and all metaphorical, 'to turn over in the mind, recall', the earliest from Livius Andronicus (p. 245 L.), the other three from Varro (pp. 245, 770 L.). The word had not ceased to be used in its literal sense (cf. Columella 6. 6. 1 'bos neque ruminat', Pliny, NH 9. 62, 11. 161); it was simply too uncouth for literary use. But why so exquisite a coarseness here? Is V. again imitating Calvus?
Editor’s Note
55. Pasiphae's speech begins after a bucolic diaeresis, pauses, then continues (58 'forsitan' …) after a bucolic diaeresis.
Editor’s Note
55–6. Nymphae, / Dictaeae Nymphae: Νύμφαι‎, | Δικταῖαι Νύμφαι‎. Cf. Theocr. 13. 43–4, ὕδατι δ‎ʼ ἐν μέσσῳ Νύμφαι χορὸν ἀρτίζοντο‎, | Νύμφαι ἀκοίμητοι‎, 'And in the water Nymphs were arraying the dance, the sleepless Nymphs' (Gow), Nonnus, Dionys. 17. 310–11 Νύμφαι‎, | Νύμφαι Ἁμαδρυάδες‎, 'Nymphs, Hamadryad Nymphs'.
Editor’s Note
56. nemorum iam claudite saltus: Enn. Ann. 580 Skutsch 'siluarum saltus', with no apparent distinction of meaning; cf. 10. 9, G. 1. 16, 3. 40, 4. 53, A. 4. 72. Legally defined, saltus is pasturage among trees; Festus, p. 392 L. 'saltus est, ubi siluae et pastiones sunt'. Sometimes (a favourite word in Livy) it is a defile or narrow valley with a clear bottom and wooded sides; cf. A. 11. 904–5 'Aeneas saltus ingressus apertos / exsuperatque iugum siluaque euadit opaca' (Mynors). The bull will be found in the upland pastures, but only by ringing them with Nymphs playing the part of huntsmen; cf. 10. 56–7, G. 1. 140, A. 4. 121 'dum trepidant alae saltusque indagine cingunt'.
Editor’s Note
57. si qua forte: 'if by some chance'; cf. Livy 6. 3. 7 'si qua forte se in agros eicere possent', 1. 4. 4 'forte quadam diuinitus super ripas Tiberis effusus', A. 1. 377 (nos) 'forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris', 2. 94 'fors si qua tulisset', and see TLL s.v. fors 1128. 36, 1130.45.
Editor’s Note
58: errabunda … uestigia: cf. Catull. 64. 113 (Theseus in the Labyrinth) 'errabunda regens tenui uestigia filo'; errabundus is found elsewhere in poetry only in Lucr. 4. 692 (sonitus) 'errabundus enim tarde uenit'. In general, poets avoid such adjectives when formed on verbs of the first conjugation; cf. M. Zicàri, 'Moribunda ab sede Pisauri', Studia Oliveriana, 3 (1955), 63–4 = Scritti Catulliani (Urbino, 1978), 193–4: 'L'aggettivo appartiene all'esiguo manipolo di deverbali in i/ebundus accolti dalla poesia, mentre il solo Lucrezio usò versabundus (6, 438; 6, 582), ed errabundus non si trova in poeti dopo Verg. ecl. 6, 58. Questa limitazione, oltre che negli epici e in Ovidio, si osserva anche in Cicerone, che peraltro non influisce sui prosatori posteriori, nei quali o il tipo manca del tutto, o spesseggiano proprio le forme in abundus'. For a list of such adjectives see P. Langlois, REL 39 (1961), 128–34, and E. Pianezzola, Gli aggettivi verbali in -bundus (Florence, 1965), 239–40. V. was careful to avoid errabundus in A. 6. 30 'caeca regens filo uestigia', while retaining the bucolic diaeresis; see Clausen 113–14.
Editor’s Note
60. Gortynia: the topographical reference is (as so often) to a place in a poem: Catull. 64. 75 'Gortynia templa'. Minos' capital was at Cnossus. See 9. 13 n.
Editor’s Note
61. puellam: Atalanta, in this sophisticated poetry denied 'the simplicity of her own name'—so Ross (1975), 62, on Prop. 1. 1. 15 'ergo uelocem potuit domuisse puellam' (a different version of the story, but with this fleeting reference to V. and the commoner version; see Gow on Theocr. 3. 40). There is also a metrical reason for Atalanta's anonymity; see Norden on A. 6. 28. The story of Atalanta and the deadly footrace is as old as the Hesiodic Catalogue (frs. 74–6 M.–W.3). The golden apples Hippomenes cast in her way were given to him by Aphrodite—apples from the garden of the Hesperides; see Bömer on Ov. Met. 10. 644. Cf. Lucr. 5. 32 'aureaque Hesperidum … fulgentia mala'.
Editor’s Note
62. Phaethontiadas: Phaethon's sisters; a curious use of the patronymic form, though Meleager's sisters were called Meleagrides after being turned into guinea-fowl; see RE xv. 445–6, Bömer on Ov. Met. 8. 533–46, Coleman here, and J. Huyck, HSCP 91 (1987), 217–28.
Editor’s Note
circumdat: 'mira autem est canentis laus, ut quasi non factam rem cantare, sed ipse eam cantando facere uideatur' (Serv.); see above, 46 n.
Editor’s Note
62–3. amarae / corticis: 'epitheton naturale' (DServ.); perhaps, but see above, 47 n. Cortex is feminine in Lucr. 4. 51, but elsewhere in V., where its gender can be determined, masculine: G. 2. 74, A. 7. 742, 9. 743. See 5. 38 n.
Editor’s Note
63. proceras … alnos: the phrase has a faint literary resonance: Catull. 64. 289–91 'proceras stipite laurus / non sine nutanti platano lentaque sorore / flammati Phaethontis'. In all other accounts, Phaethon's sisters, weeping over their brother's charred remains on the banks of the Eridanus, are turned into poplars distilling tears of amber. Ancient readers, understandably, were puzzled: 'quidam alnos poetica consuetudine pro populis accipiunt' (DServ.). But V. remembered the alder-fringed Po, the mythical Eridanus, of his youth, G. 2. 451–2 'nec non et torrentem undam leuis innatat alnus / missa Pado'. It is rare for a Latin poet to prefer personal experience to literary tradition, and V. may have regretted his youthful originality, for he later took pains to 'correct' it, A. 10. 189–91 'namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amati / populeas inter frondes umbramque sororum / dum canit et maestum Musa solatur amorem'. See Clausen 148 n. 61.
Editor’s Note
64. tum canit, errantem Permessi ad flumina: thus, unobtrusively, before he can quite be identified, Gallus is introduced into the world of pastoral fantasy. He wanders by a river, as shepherds do with their flocks, e.g. Ap. Rhod. 2. 502–3 (Cyrene) ʼΑπόλλων‎ | τὴν γ̓ ἀνερειψάμενος ποταμῷ ἔπι ποιμαίνουσαν‎, 'Apollo snatched her up while she was tending her flock by the river', E. 10. 18 'ouis ad flumina pauit Adonis', and as might a disconsolate lover, like Antimachus by the Pactolus (Hermesianax fr. 7. 41–2 Powell) or Orpheus 'deserti ad Strymonis undam' (G. 4. 508). But the Permessus is no vulgar stream; it has a Hesiodic, a Callimachean resonance, and only a poet-shepherd would be found wandering along its banks.
  Owing to Pfeiffer's patient research, the topography of Callimachean Helicon is much less obscure than it once was. Callimachus distinguishes two springs as sources of poetry:
  (i) Hippocrene, the Horse's Spring, near the summit, where the Muses met Hesiod, Aet. fr. 2. 1–2 Pf. Ποιμένι μῆλα νέμοντι παρ‎ʼ ἴχνιον ὀξέος ἵππον‎ | Ἡσιόδῳ Μουσέων ἑσμὸς ὅτ‎ʼ ἠντίασεν‎, 'when a bevy of Muses met the shepherd Hesiod tending his flock by the hoof-print of the fiery horse'. Hesiod himself is less precise; he places his encounter with the Muses 'under holy Helicon', Theog. 23 Ἑλικῶνος ὕπο ζαθέοιο‎, and assigns no symbolic value to the Permessus or to Hippocrene.
  •       Μουσάων Ἑλικωνιάδων ἀρχώμεθ‎ʼ ἀείδειν‎,
  •       αἵ θ‎ʼ Ἑλικῶνος ἔχουσιν ὄρος μέγα τε ζάθεόν τε‎,
  •       καί τε περὶ κρήνην ἰοειδέα πόσσ‎ʼ ἁπαλοῖσιν‎
  •       ὀρχεῦνται καὶ βωμὸν ἐρισθενέος Κρονίωνος‎·
  •       καί τε λοεσσάμεναι τέρενα χρόα Περμησσοῖο‎
  •       ἢ Ἵππου κρήνης ἢ Ὀλμειοῦ ζαθέοιο‎
  •       ἀκροτάτῳ Ἑλικῶνι χοροὺς ἐνεποιήσαντο‎. (Theog. 1–7)
  •       Let us begin our song from the Heliconian Muses,
  •       who inhabit Helicon, the great and holy mountain,
  •       and dance soft-footed around the dark spring
  •       and the altar of the mighty son of Cronus;
  •       and, with tender bodies bathed in the Permessus
  •       or Hippocrene or the Olmeius, holy stream,
  •       on the very top of Helicon make their dances.
Evidently Callimachus has remodelled Helicon to suit himself, imposing upon the antique poet; see CHCL ii. 183.
  (ii) Aganippe, about which nothing is known before Callimachus (Pfeiffer on fr. 696), although Gow–Page on the epigrammatist Alcaeus 12. 5–6 (= AP 7. 55) remark that Hesiod's κρήνην ἰοειδέα‎ is 'probably Aganippe'. Aganippe derives its origin from the Permessus and is therefore the daughter of the Permessus, 'filia Permessi … per Musarum vallem fluentis' (see Pfeiffer, ii. 102–3, on fr. 2a. 16–19, 20–5); Campbell on Soph. Trach. 14: 'The well-springs in the neighbourhood of a river were regarded in Greek mythology as the offspring of the river. Thus Callirhoë is the daughter of Scamander, and Achelöus too has a daughter Callirhoë'. Cf. Callim. Hymn. 4. 76–7 Δίρκη τε Στροφίη τε μελαμψήφιδος ἒχουσαι‎ | ʼΙσμήνου χέρα πατρός‎, 'Dirce and Strophie, holding the hand of their father, black-pebbled Ismenus'.
  The only interpretation which V.'s lines (64–73) will bear is the obvious one: Gallus quits the valley (Permessus–Aganippe) for the mountain; he rises, so to speak, from a lower to a higher level of poetry (Hippocrene), from love-elegy and Lycoris to aetiology and the Grynean Grove. Both R. Reitzenstein, Hermes, 31 (1896), 194–5, and F. Skutsch (1901), 34 find in these lines a direct reference to Gallus' epyllion—to the proem, that is, in which, presumably, Gallus described his poetic initiation on Helicon.
  V. seems to have been the only poet well acquainted with the Callimachean topography, or rather, hydrography, of Helicon; the only poet, at any rate, concerned to represent it accurately. Certainly Nicander was not; see below, 70 n. Propertius understood the significance of Aganippe, 2. 3. 20 (Cynthia) 'par Aganippaeae ludere docta lyrae', 10. 25–6 'nondum etiam Ascraeos norunt mea carmina fontis, / sed modo Permessi flumine lauit Amor'; but he erred strangely, or wilfully, with regard to Hippocrene, which he imagines in 2. 10. 25 and, with considerable detail, in 3. 3. 1–16 as the source of epic poetry. The self-styled 'Roman Callimachus' may have been misled by the proem to G. 3 (much of his erudition is borrowed from V.), in which Ennian and Callimachean references are so curiously mingled; see Clausen 13–14. Within a generation of Propertius' death the significance of Callimachus' two springs had been thoroughly confused: Ov. Fast. 5. 7 'Aganippidos Hippocrenes'—a confusion, however, for which Ovid is the sole evidence, and which A. Barchiesi, 'Discordant Muses', PCPS 37 (1991), 18 n. 5, suggests is intentional.
  For the topography of Helicon and the valley that lies below it see P. W. Wallace, 'Hesiod and the Valley of the Muses', GRBS 15 (1974), 5–24, bearing in mind that Callimachus had never seen Helicon or the Valley of the Muses; his experience was entirely literary.
Editor’s Note
Gallum: for his life and poetry see E. 10, Introduction.
Editor’s Note
65. Aonas in montis: 'th'Aonian Mount'; cf. Lucr. 6. 786 'magnis Heliconis montibus'.
Editor’s Note
Aonas: a barbarian people anciently inhabiting Boeotia (Strabo 9. 401), whose name, however, is not certainly attested before Callimachus (Pfeiffer on fr. 572). The adjectival use of Aones must represent a Hellenistic development of such quasi-appositional phrases in older poetry as Hom. Il. 1. 594 Σίντιες ἄνδρες‎, 'Sintian men', Eur. Andr. 592 ἀνδρὸς φρυγός‎; 'a Phrygian man'; cf. Nonnus, Dionys. 5. 37 Ἄονι‎ … λαῷ‎, 'Aonian people', 286 Ἄονες αὐλοι‎́‎, 'Aonian pipes', and see Schwyzer–Debrunner, Griech. Gramm. ii. 614. Pertinent also is an epigram by Antipater of Thessalonica, a poet nearly contemporary with V., addressed to a cupbearer named Helicon, who pours 'Ausonian Bacchus', Αὔσονα Βάκχον‎ (3.3 Gow–Page, The Garland of Philip (Cambridge, 1968) = AP 11. 24). As an adjective, Αὔσων‎ is rare; the regular adjective Αὐσόνιος‎ is, like Ἀόνιος‎, Hellenistic (Gow–Page ibid., Hollis on Callim. Hec. fr. 18. 14) and was destined to have a long success 'in Ausonian land' (Milton); see TLL s.v. For Aonius see 10. 12 n.
Editor’s Note
una sororum: for the phrase cf. Hom. Il. 14. 267 Χαρίτων μίαν ὁπλοτεράων‎, 'one of the younger Graces', Eur. Bacch. 917 Κάδμου θυγατέρων‎ … μιᾷ‎, 'one of the daughters of Cadmus', Ap. Rhod. 4. 896 Τερψιχόρη, Μουσέων μία‎, 'Terpsichore, one of the Muses', Enn. Scen. 71 V.2= 49 J. 'Furiarum una'. The Muse so indicated must be Calliope, mother of Orpheus (4. 56–7) and eldest of the nine (Hes. Theog. 79)—as Propertius inferred, 3. 3. 37–8 'e quarum numero me contigit una dearum / (ut reor a facie, Calliopea fuit)'. In Longus 3. 27. 2, the eldest Nymph speaks for the group.
Editor’s Note
sororum: cf. [Eur.] Rhesus 891 Μοῦσα, συγγόνων μία‎, 'a Muse, one of the Sisters', 976 ἀδελφαι‎́‎, 'Sisters'; Callim. Aet. fr. 43. 56–7 Pf. Κλειὼ‎ … | χεῖρ‎ʼ ἐπ‎ʼ ἀδελφειῆς ὦμον ἐρεισαμένη‎, 'Clio … resting a hand upon her sister's shoulder', Ov. Ars 1. 27–8 'nec mihi sunt uisae Clio Cliusque sorores / seruanti pecudes uallibus, Ascra, tuis', Naev. Bell. Poen. 1 Strz. 'Nouem Iouis concordes filiae sorores', Prop. 2. 30. 27, Ov. Met. 5. 255, Trist. 5. 12. 45, Stat. Theb. 9. 317, Mart. 4. 14. 1, 31. 5, 9. 42. 3. In classical Greek poetry, apart from the Rhesus, the Muses are called not sisters but daughters, daughters of Zeus (Hom. Il. 2. 491–2) or Zeus and Mnemosyne (see West on Hes. Theog. 54) or Uranos (see West on Hes. Theog. 78), or simply goddesses.
Editor’s Note
66. uiro Phoebi: a deliberate juxtaposition—man and god—emphasizing the respect shown to Gallus (for the juxtaposition see Richardson on Homeric Hymn to Demeter 111). The rhetorical effect may in part be regarded as the solution to a problem of technique, that is, the avoidance of an oblique case of the pronoun is; see Axelson 70–1, Norden on A. 6. 174 'inter saxa uirum spumosa immerserat unda', Housman on Luc. 1. 293 'accenditque ducem'.
Editor’s Note
chorus: here first of the Muses in Latin (TLL s.v. 1024. 54); V. was thinking of Hesiod, Theog. 7 ἀκροτάτῳ Ἑλικῶνι χοροὺς ἐνεποιήσαντο‎, 'make their dances on topmost Helicon'.
Editor’s Note
adsurrexerit: 'in honour rose', an unprecedented gesture of respect by the Muses. Cf. G. 2. 98 and see TLL s.v. assurgo 938. 3.
Editor’s Note
67. Linus … pastor: 'quaeritur cur pastor dixerit' (DServ.). The answer must be that Linus, like Gallus, has become a poet-shepherd, Alexandrian and vatic; see Ross (1975), 21–3.
Editor’s Note
diuino carmine: may be taken with pastor, 'shepherd of inspired song', (so T. E. Page and others) or with dixerit (so Heyne and others); cf. Catull. 64. 321 'talia diuino fuderunt carmine fata'.
Editor’s Note
68. floribus atque apio: cf. Lucr. 5. 1399–1400 'caput atque umeros plexis redimire coronis / floribus et foliis' (note 'agrestis … Musa' in l. 1398). Celery was used for garlands; see TLL s.v. apium 240. 22, Gow on Theocr. 3. 23, Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 36. 16. Amarus ('Vnde Epithetum?', La Cerda) is not elsewhere applied to apium; see above, 47 n.
Editor’s Note
crinis ornatus: 1. 54 n.
Editor’s Note
69–70. 'The Muses give you the pipes (come, take them), which they once gave to the old man of Ascra'. In fact, they gave him a laurel branch (Theog. 30), but giving the pipes of a dead singer to a worthy successor was a pastoral tradition (2. 38 n.).
Editor’s Note
69. en: here first with the imperative (TLL s.v. 547. 28).
Critical Apparatus
vi 70–86 MPR;
Editor’s Note
70. Ascraeo: not so much a local as a literary reference, to Callimachus and his conception of Hesiod; cf. G. 2. 176, Prop. 2. 10.25–6 (quoted above, 64 n.). The epithet first occurs in Nicander, Ther. 10–12 εἰ ἐτεόν περ‎ | ʼΑσκραῖος μυχάτοιο Μελισσήεντος ἐπ‎ʼ ὄχθαις‎ | Ἡσίοδος κατέλεξε παρ‎ʼ ὕδασι Περμησσοῖο‎, 'if indeed he spoke the truth, Ascraean Hesiod on the steeps of secluded Melisseeis by the waters of Permessus' (Scholfield). According to the scholiast, Melisseeis was the place where Hesiod received instruction from the Muses.
Editor’s Note
Ascraeo … seni: cf. Callim. Hymn 4. 304 Λυκίοιο γέροντος‎, 'the old man of Lycia', with Mineur's note, G. 4. 127 'Corycium … senem'.
Editor’s Note
71. cantando … deducere montibus ornos: 'Novum vero hoc, quod nunc Hesiodo tribuitur, id quod de Orpheo solenne est, silvas eius cantum esse sequutas' (Heyne). K. Ziegler, RE xviii. 1249 n. 1, suggests that V.'s innovation, as it appears to be, may be Hellenistic. It is perhaps of some importance that Hesiod was reputedly a descendant of Orpheus (RE viii. 1169–70); but V. also attributes an Orphean potency to the song of Silenus (above, 27–30) and to the songs of Damon and Alphesiboeus (8. 1–4).
Editor’s Note
72. Grynei nemoris … origo: a grove consecrated to Apollo 'a Gryno filio; uel a Grynio, Moesiae ciuitate, ubi est locus arboribus multis iucundus, gramine floribusque uariis omni tempore uestitus, abundans etiam fontibus' (DServ.; see Ross (1975), 79–80). 'In quo aliquando Calchas et Mopsus dicuntur de peritia diuinandi inter se habuisse certamen, et cum de pomorum arboris cuiusdam contenderent numero, stetit gloria Mopso, cuius rei dolore Calchas interiit [cf. Hes. fr. 278 M.–W.3]. hoc autem Euphorionis continent carmina, quae Gallus transtulit in sermonem Latinum, unde est illud in fine, ubi Gallus loquitur "ibo et Chalcidico quae sunt mihi condita uersu / carmina" [10. 50–1, where see note], nam Chalcis ciuitas est Euboeae, de qua fuerat Euphorion' (Serv.).
  The Grynean Grove may have been suggested to Gallus as a subject for an aetiological poem by his teacher Parthenius. Parthenius himself wrote a poem about a more celebrated cult-place of Apollo, Delos, which contained the phrase Γρύνειος‎ ʼΑπόλλων‎ (Suppl. Hell. 620); cf. A. 4. 345 'Gryneus Apollo' and see Clausen, GRBS 5 (1964), 192 = K. Quinn (ed.), Approaches to Catullus (Cambridge, 1972), 280. And Parthenius did make such suggestions; in his Ἐρωτικὰ παθήματα‎ he collected and summarized thirty-six stories for Gallus to use, as he writes in the preface, εἰς ἔπη καὶ ἐλεγίας‎—not 'for either epic or elegiac verse' (Gaselee in the Loeb Classical Library) but 'for either hexameter or elegiac verse', that is, epyllia or elegies. See F. Jacoby, 'Zur Entstehung der römischen Elegie', RhM 60 (1905), 69 n. 2.
Editor’s Note
73. ne quis sit lucus quo se plus iactet Apollo: an imitation of Callimachus' hymn to Delos, 4. 269–70 οὐδέ τις ἄλλη‎ | γαιάων τοσσόνδε θεῷ πεφιλήσεται ἄλλῳ‎, 'nor will any other land be so loved by another god' (Heyne).
Editor’s Note
quis: despite the sigmatism, quis must be right here (quis P: qui MR), for this is the only form of the indefinite used by V.; see Löfstedt ii. 87 n. 3.
Editor’s Note
iactet: cf. G. 1. 102–3 'nullo tantum se Mysia cultu / iactat', A. 6. 876–7 'nec Romula quondam / ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno' (TLL s.v. 61. 21).
Editor’s Note
74. Scyllam Nisi: cf. A.6. 36 'Deiphobe Glauci' and see Kühner–Stegmann i. 414. V. has deliberately conflated two stories, for he might have written Scyllam Phorci; cf. A. 5. 240, 824, 10. 328 and see Livrea on Ap. Rhod. 4. 828. It was Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys, who was transformed into a sea-monster. Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, betrayed the city of Megara to Minos by cutting off her father's magical lock of hair and was transformed into a sea-bird; see Hollis on Callim. Hec. fr. 90. Older commentators supposed that V. had simply made a mistake, e.g. Wagner, Quaest. Virg. 40. 3 ('Virgilius dormitans aliquando'). But V. was not 'nodding'; he was concerned, rather, to tell one of the Scylla-stories while reminding his reader of the other, as Propertius was later to do with the story of Atalanta (above, 61 n.). The manner is Alexandrian, consummately so.
  The story of Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, is found in its 'pure' form in G. 1. 404–9, Prop. 3. 19. 21–6, Ov. Met. 8. 1–151 (note, however, Scylla's curse, 120–1 'non genetrix Europa tibi est, sed inhospita Syrtis, / Armeniae tigres Austroque agitata Charybdis'; I owe this observation to J. Huyck), and the Ciris; the story of Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys, in Ov. Met. 13. 898–14. 74. The conflated story is briefly told in Prop. 4. 4. 39–40, Ov. Am. 3. 12. 21–2 'per nos (poetas) Scylla patri caros furata capillos / pube premit rabidos inguinibusque canes', and Ars 1. 331–2, and alluded to in Rem. 737 and Fast. 4. 500 'et uos, Nisei, naufraga monstra, canes'.
Editor’s Note
quam fama secuta est …: the poet appeals to tradition for the truth of what he says, a literary convention as old as Homer. For a discussion of such expressions in Greek and Latin poetry see Norden on A. 6. 14 'ut fama est'; also Austin on A. 6. 14, Nisbet–Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 1. 7. 23, N. Horsfall, Virgilio: l'epopea in alambicco (Naples, 1991), 117–33. Secuta is unparalleled and curious; had V. vaguely in mind the pursuit of Scylla by Nisus (G. 1. 408 'insequitur Nisus')?
Editor’s Note
75. candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris: cf.
Lucr. 5. 892–3 'aut rabidis canibus succinctas semimarinis / corporibus Scyllas'.
Editor’s Note
candida … inguina: cf. Ov. Am. 2. 16. 23 'quae uirgineo portenta sub inguine latrant'.
Editor’s Note
succinctam … inguina: 1. 54 n.
Editor’s Note
76. Dulichias: the adjectival use of proper nouns in poetry is as old as Lucilius 676 M. 'Metello … munere'; cf. Lucr. 6. 738 'Auerna … loca', A. 4. 552 'cineri … Sychaeo', 6. 876–7 'Romula … / … tellus', 10. 273 'Sirius ardor', Prop. 1. 11. 30 'Baiae … aquae', 2. 1. 76 'esseda … Britanna', and see Hofmann–Szantyr 427. Odysseus was lord of Dulichium, Same, Zacynthus, and Ithaca (Od. 1. 246–7, where see S. West), but in Latin poetry he is especially associated with Dulichium; see TLL Onomast. s.v. 62.
Editor’s Note
uexasse: like that of its English derivative 'vex' (Milton, Paradise Lost, 1. 305–6 'when with fierce Winds Orion arm'd / Hath vext the Red-Sea Coast'), the force of uexo was weakened with the passage of time, and later readers found uexasse incongruous here, Gellius 2. 6. 2 'uexasse enim putant uerbum esse leue et tenuis ac parui incommodi nec tantae atrocitati congruere'. Wishing to defend uexasse, Gellius § 7 cites Cato, De Achaeis, fr. 187 M. 'cumque Hannibal terram Italiam laceraret atque uexaret', and Cic. 2 Verr. 4. 122 (Aedis Mineruae) 'quae ab isto sic spoliata atque direpta est, non ut ab hoste aliquo, qui tamen in bello religionem et consuetudinis iura retineret, sed ut a barbaris praedonibus uexata esse uideatur'. DServius, or rather Donatus, likewise cites Cato and Cicero here, adding 2 Verr. 4. 104 'di ablati, fana uexata, direptae (DServ., nudatae Cic.) urbes reperiuntur'. Cf. also Hor. Carm. 3. 2. 3–4 'Parthos ferocis / uexet eques'. See L. A. Holford-Strevens, Aulus Gellius (London, 1988), 150–1.
Editor’s Note
rates: poetic plural; Odysseus had only one ship left (Wagner).
Editor’s Note
gurgite: a poetic word, usually occupying the fifth foot of the hexameter (TLL s.v. 2360. 3). See Clausen, HSCP 90 (1986), 166.
Editor’s Note
78–81: an allusive summary of the old and horrible, yet ever popular, tale of Tereus king of Thrace, his wife Procne, her raped and mutilated sister, Philomela, and their transformation into birds; see D'A. W. Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford, 1936), 20–2, Ov. Met. 6. 424–674, with Bömer's note on 668–9. In Greek literature, Procne becomes a nightingale, Philomela a swallow; in Latin, however, their roles are usually reversed, and Philomela with her 'melodious pain' becomes a nightingale. Philomela is oddly ascendant in these lines, for rhetoric demands that she be the subject of pararit, petiuerit, and uolitauerit (so T. E. Page and Lee; Klingner 105 makes Tereus the subject of petiuerit and uolitauerit, Coleman of uolitauerit; Conington is uncertain). Line 81 'sua tecta' (although attachment to a dwelling, if not merely pathetic here, indicates a swallow) implies that Philomela, not the unnamed Procne, was Tereus' wife; or rather, as in the case of the two Scyllas, an ambiguous tradition permitted V. to conflate the roles of the two sisters.
Critical Apparatus
79 pararet Pdf
Editor’s Note
79–81. quas … dapes, quae dona … / quo cursu … quibus … / … alis: eccentric emphasis as above, 43 'quo fonte', a characteristic of Alexandrian narrative; see F. Skutsch (1901), 32–3, 42.
Editor’s Note
79. dona: 'quod satiato Tereo caput et pedes filii uxor intulerit' (DServ.).
Editor’s Note
80. quo cursu: 'by what route' (Lee); cf. A. 6. 194–5 'cursumque per auras / derigite in lucos'.
Editor’s Note
81. infelix: cf. Hor. Carm. 4. 12. 5–6 'nidum ponit Ityn flebiliter gemens / infelix auis'.
Editor’s Note
super uolitauerit: or superuolitauerit? The problem is an old one; see Thilo's app. crit. to Servius here. Recently R. O. A. M. Lyne, Ciris (Cambridge, 1978), 19 n. 1, has argued for the compound; and see now S. J. Harrison on A. 10. 384. But a weak caesura in the third foot unaccompanied by a strong caesura in the fourth ('infelix sua tecta superuolitauerit') would be abnormal: it occurs in only six lines of the E., 2. 24, 4. 16, 34, 5. 52, 9. 60, 10. 12, all of which contain Greek words; see Norden 431–2. Cf., for the rhythm, A. 5. 330 'fusus humum uiridisque super madefecerat herbas'. See 3. 38 n.
Editor’s Note
82–4. These lines have been understood in two different ways: (i) the song of Silenus is not his own composition but a song composed and sung by Apollo; or (ii) the song of Apollo is the last of the themes in the song composed and sung by Silenus. The second interpretation must be right, for, as F. Skutsch (1906), 133–8 observes, Apollo's song could not conceivably include Gallus' initiation on Helicon; 'ille canit' (84) therefore introduces a new theme, like 61 'tum canit', 64 'tum canit'. For a brief history of the question see Knox 185 n. 8.
  What, then, was the subject of Apollo's song? Why was Apollo singing by the Eurotas? And why did the Eurotas bid his laurels learn Apollo's song? Cf. DServius on 83: 'nam hunc fluuium Hyacinthi causa Apollo dicitur amasse', the name of the river being thus an allusion to the story of Apollo's love for Hyacinthus; cf. Nicander, Ther. 903–5 ὃν φοῖβος θρήνησεν ἐπεί ῥ‎ʼ ἀεκούσιος ἔκτα‎ | παῖδα βαλὼν προπάροιθεν‎ ʼΑμυκλαίου ποταμοῖο‎, | πρωθήβην Ὑάκινθον‎, 'over whom Phoebus wept, since without willing it, hard by the river of Amyclae he slew with a blow the boy Hyacinthus in the bloom of youth' (Scholfield). DServius' explanation no doubt represents an ancient consensus, and every modern commentator has accepted it. But Knox argues that V. is alluding not to Hyacinthus but to Daphne. No extant witness to the story of Apollo and Hyacinthus mentions a song, but Apollo's song of courtship to Daphne is attested, if barely, in literature; the main evidence is in art. Daphne's metamorphosis—and metamorphosis is a feature of Silenus' song—into a laurel-tree (δάφνη‎) accounts for the presence of laurel-trees by the Eurotas (see below, 83 n.), where their whispering leaves repeat Apollo's song, learned at the river's bidding. Further summary would only diminish the effect of Knox's elaborate and elegant argument, which should be studied in its entirety.
Editor’s Note
82. Phoebo … meditante: the reminiscence of l. 8 'agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam' is intentional. Apollo, too, is a votary of the slender Muse.
Editor’s Note
83. lauros: in Theocr. 18. 44, plane-trees grow by the Eurotas, as in fact they do (A. Lindsell, G&R 6 (1937), 81), but in Catull. 64. 89, myrtles; Wilamowitz, Hellenistische Dichtung (Berlin, 1924), ii. 284: 'Der Myrtenbusch … wächst 64, 89 am Eurotas: man sieht, welchen Wert der geographische Name hat'.
Editor’s Note
84. ille canit, pulsae …: the valleys reverberate Silenus' voice to the stars; cf. G. 4. 49–50 'ubi concaua pulsu / saxa sonant uocisque offensa resultat imago', A. 5. 149–50 'consonat omne nemus, uocemque inclusa uolutant / litora, pulsati colles clamore resultant', 7. 701–2 'sonat amnis et Asia longe / pulsa palus, 12. 334–5 'gemit ultima pulsa / Thraca pedum circumque …'. See also 1. 5 n. (Amaryllida siluas), 5. 62–3 n.
Editor’s Note
referunt: 'quo uerbo aliter in sequenti uersu utitur' (DServ.); see above 14 n.
Critical Apparatus
85 referri M2P2c
Editor’s Note
85. stabulis: dative, as so often in V. with verbs of motion. numerumque referre: cf. 3. 34, G. 4. 436 'numerumque recenset'.
Editor’s Note
86. iussit: the subject of the infinitive is to be supplied from the context; cf. 4. 32–3 and the passages collected by Forbiger here.
Editor’s Note
inuito: La Cerda compares Ov. Met. 1. 682–3 'euntem multa loquendo / detinuit sermone diem', Voss Hom. Il. 18. 239–40 ʼΗέλιον δ‎ʼ ἀκάμαντα βοῶπις πότνια Ἥρη‎ | πέμψεν ἐπ‎ʼ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοὰς‎ ἀέκοντα νέεσθαι‎, 'Queen Hera the ox-eyed sent the unwearied, unwilling sun to sink in the Ocean stream'.
Editor’s Note
processit: of a star coming into view; Cic. Arat. 391 'iam toto processit corpore Virgo'. Cf. 9. 47.
Editor’s Note
Vesper Olympo: Catull. 62. 1 'Vesper Olympo'; the same cadence in A. 1. 374, 8. 280. For Olympus denoting the sky see 5. 56 n.
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