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Editor’s NoteEditor’s Note61

  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus61       nil potest sine te Venus
  • Link 62       fama quod bona comprobet,
  • pg 33 Link 63       commodi capere, at potest
  • 64       te uolente. quis huic deo
  • Link 65          compararier ausit?
  • Link 71       quae tuis careat sacris,
  • Editor’s Note72       non queat dare praesides
  • 73       terra finibus: at queat
  • 74       te uolente. quis huic deo
  • 75       compararier ausit?
  •        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
  •        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
  • Editor’s Note Link 79       tardet ingenuus pudor,
  • Link 80       quem tamen magis audiens
  • Link 81(85)          flet quod ire necesse est.
  • Critical Apparatus Link 82       flere desine. non tibi, Au
  • 83       runculeia, periculum est
  • Editor’s Note Link 84       ne qua femina pulcrior
  • 85       clarum ab Oceano diem
  • 86(90)          uiderit uenientem.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus107       o cubile, quod omnibus
  •        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
  •        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
  •        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
  • Editor’s Note Link 108(115)          candido pede lecti.
  • Link 109       quae tuo ueniunt ero,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 110       quanta gaudia, quae uaga
  • 111       nocte, quae medio die
  • Link 112       gaudeat! sed abit dies:
  • 113(120)          prodeas noua nupta.
  • Editor’s Note Link 139       scimus haec tibi quae licent
  • 140       sola cognita, sed marito
  • 141       ista non eadem licent.
  • 142       io Hymen Hymenaee io,
  • Critical Apparatus143(150)          io Hymen Hymenaee.

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Notes

Editor’s Note
The marriage-song appears in Homer; it is a feature of the wedding on Achilles' Shield (Il. xviii. 493) and recurs in the same phrase (πολὺς δ‎ʼ ὑμέναιος ὀρώρει‎) in the fuller description in the Hesiodic Shield (273–9). There the ὑμέναιος‎ is the processional song; but the word is also used more generally to include the songs which accompanied the wedding-feast and the ἐπιθαλάμιος‎ (ὕμνος‎)—or ἐπιθαλάμιον‎ (μέλος‎)—which belonged to the final stage of the ceremony.1 Alcman wrote marriage-songs famous enough to justify the description ὑμνητὴρ ὑμεναίων‎ which Leonidas of Tarentum gives him (A.P. vii. 19), but the primacy belonged to Sappho, and the fragments of her hymenaeals, some lyric, some in hexameters, which were collected into one book, probably the ninth, by her Alexandrian editors,2 are the only surviving examples of the form from earlier Greek literature. In Attic literature the genre is reflected in drama—in Eur. Troades (307–40) and Phaethon (fr. 781 N.) and, by way of burlesque, in Arist. Birds (1725 ff.) and Peace (1333 ff.). Philoxenus and Telestes wrote dithyrambs, to which the title ὑμέναιος‎ is given, but the fragments of them are too meagre to show how they handled the theme. As an independent literary form the hymenaeal came to life again in the Alexandrian age, but of Alexandrian hymenaeals only Theocritus 18 survives; it represents a literary development of the form, a song for the marriage of legendary characters. In Latin two of Catullus' contemporaries, Ticidas and Calvus, wrote lyric hymenaeals (from each of them we have a single glyconic fragment), and Calvus seems to have written an epithalamium in hexameters also.
  Catullus' poem is clearly not a hymn to be sung on the actual occasion of the marriage which provides its theme. There is no ground for distributing the lines between two choruses, one of girls and one of boys, or for assigning the successive parts of the poem to successive stances, and attempts to synchronize the lines with the stages of the ceremony are quite unconvincing. It is a fantasy in which the traditional topics of the genre and Hellenistic formulae are combined with a vivid and colourful representation of some of the main features of a Roman wedding. The poet himself is the speaker throughout, acting as leader of an imaginary chorus and master of ceremonies, compère, as it were, and commentator on the scenes as they succeed one another before him, and as a poet he selects from his material; nothing is said of the marriage-feast, which both in Greece and in Rome was a regular part of the ceremony, and we hear nothing of some of the characteristic features of Roman practice—the sacrifices, the peculiarities of the bride's dress, the ritual acts performed by the bride at the door of her new home and by the bridegroom as soon as she entered it. The device of quasi-dramatic presentation by the mouth of the poet may have gone back to Sappho herself. Whether it did or not, Catullus could have found precedent for his method in Alexandrian poetry: Callimachus employs a similar technique in some of the Hymns.
  What particular use Catullus made of his Greek predecessors in this poem the meagre remains of Greek lyric do not help us to guess.1 But that he closely followed the traditional lines of the genre we know; for the λόγος ἐπιθαλάμιος‎ of later Greek rhetoric took over much of its content from the poetic epithalamium, and the Greek rhetoricians of the third, fourth, and fifth centuries a.d. provide precepts for composing it, analyses of the topics appropriate to it, and specimens of it. The praises of Hymenaeus as boni coniugator amoris, the picture of the blessings of marriage for the family and the race, the adjurations to bride and bridegroom, the encomium of the bride-groom's virtues and the bride's beauty (and even the floral comparisons), the prayer for children—everything in fact in Catullus' poem which is not specifically Roman appears among the set themes of epideictic rhetoric.1
  The bridegroom is a Manlius Torquatus; his bride is called both Junia (16) and Aurunculeia (82). Of the bridegroom's distinguished family the known person who best fits the occasion is L. Manlius Torquatus, a slightly older contemporary of Catullus who was praetor in 49 b.c. and was killed on service in Africa with the Pompeian forces in 47. He appears as one of the interlocutors, the champion of Epicureanism, in Cicero's De Finibus—in a letter to Atticus (xiii. 5. 1) Cicero calls the first book 'Torquatus' from his part in it—and both there and in his tribute to his memory in the Brutus Cicero bears witness to his distinction as scholar and speaker.2 To the identity of the bride we have no clue. Even her names are puzzling. If she was a Junia (as the manuscripts agree in calling her),3 her possession of a second gentilicium, Aurunculeia, is surprising. It is best explained by the assumption that she was an Aurunculeia by birth who had passed by adoption into the gens Junia. It is less likely that Junia was her father's gens, Aurunculeia her mother's; for though the metronymic style is not uncommon under the Empire (e.g. Julia Agrippina), there is no evidence for its use among free-born women in the republican period.4
  The invocation of Hymenaeus (1–45) and the encomium of him (46–75) both closely follow the traditional formulae of the hymn style, but Hymenaeus himself wears a Roman dress and his function is not merely that of the spirit of the wedding but that of the presiding genius of married life, the Γάμος‎ of the λόγος ἐπιθαλάμιος‎.5 In 76–113 the scene is in front of the bride's home, where the crowd is waiting for the deductio to begin; the hesitant bride is reassured by praise of her beauty. At 114 the bride appears, and to the jubilant io Hymen refrain the procession moves on its way to the bridegroom's house, with the traditional Roman accompaniments of the throwing of nuts and the ribald versus Fescennini, here sublimated, as it were, into the poet's homily to bridegroom and bride. At 174 the bride has reached her new home and passes to the thalamus: the poem closes with the epithalamium in the strict sense, the address to the wedded pair and the prayer for their happiness.
  The poem is written in strophes of four glyconics and a pherecratean, a system used by Anacreon (fr. 2 D.), and no doubt by others. In his handling of the metre Catullus follows Greek precedent. As in Anacreon, synaphea is observed—i.e. the stanza is regarded as a metrical unity: hiatus and syllaba anceps do not occur within the strophe (elision occurs between lines at 115, 135, 140, 184, 227) and a word may be divided between two lines (82, perhaps 46).1 The basis, as in Greek practice, is free, but the great preponderance of trochees over spondees in the first foot gives the rhythm of the poem its lightness and speed.2
  The ritual cry which Catullus uses as a refrain appears in various arrangements in Euripides (Phaethon fr. 781 N. ὑμὴν ὑμήν‎, Tro. 314 ὑμὴν ὦ ὑμέναι‎ʼ ἄναξ‎, 331 ὑμὴν ὦ ὑμέναι‎ʼ ὑμήν‎), Aristophanes (Birds 1743 ὑμὴν ὦ ὑμέναι‎ʼ ὦ‎, Peace 1332 ὑμὴν ὑμέναι‎ʼ ὦ‎), Theocritus 18. 58 (ὑμὴν ὦ ὑμέναιε‎) and Plautus (Cas. 800, 809 hymen hymenaee o hymen). ὑμήν‎ (whatever its etymology) was originally an interjection, and the personified Hymen does not begin his long career till Ovid (Her. 6. 44 'sertis tempora uinctus Hymen'): ὑμέναι‎ʼ ὦ‎ was a lengthened form of the cry (perhaps due, as Maas suggests, to rhythmical considerations) from which first the name of the marriage-song and later, when it had come to be interpreted as a vocative, the name of the god or demi-god Hymenaeus, arose.3 Fifteen stanzas end with the ritual cry as refrain (four with repeated o, eleven with io), and there are three other adonic refrains—compararier ausit (three times), concubine, nuces da (twice), and prodeas, noua nupta (three times).
2. cultor : 'dweller'. The noun is not common in this sense, but Plautus has caeli cultor of Jupiter (Amph. 1065) and Virgil cultor nemorum of Aristaeus (Georg. i. 14); cf. 64. 300 cultricem, 63. 72 siluicultrix.
  
Vraniae genus : Hymenaeus appears in mythology late: there is no trace of him in Homer. Later he is a young demi-god, son of Apollo and a Muse; so first in Pind. fr. 139 Snell, where Linus, Ialemus, and he are sons of Muses who died young. His Muse-mother is variously named—Calliope in Sch. Pind. Pyth. 4. 313, Clio in Apollodorus, Terpsichore in Alciphron:: she seems to have been Urania in Callimachus (fr. 2a. 42 Pf.).
  
genus : cf. 64. 23 deum genus.
3. rapis : there is no need to see reference here to the marriage by violence or capture, the raptus which left (or was believed to have left) traces in the Roman marriage ceremony: cf. 62. 21 auellere.
4 f. For the refrain see introd., p. 238. The quantity of the first vowel in hymen (as of that in ὑμήν‎) is variable. Catullus uses the short quantity in this poem, the long (which seems to have been an invention of Hellenistic poetry to make the use of the refrain in hexameters possible) in 62; Ovid also uses both quantities.
  
The second line cannot be established with certainty from the confusion of the manuscript reading (which repeats the first), but o hymen hymenaee, with trochaic first foot, seems preferable to hymen o hymenaee.
6 ff. cinge … soccum : Hymen is dressed like the bride herself, with the flammeum and the yellow shoes: she too wore a chaplet of flowers under her veil (Paul. Fest. 56 L. 'corollam noua nupta de floribus uerbenis herbisque a se lectis sub amiculo ferebat'). He is similarly represented in [Ovid], Her. 21. 165–8 (Hymenaeus will not grace Cydippe's forced marrage): 'proicit ipse sua deductas fronte coronas, / spissaque de nitidis tergit amoma comis; / et pudet in tristi laetum consurgere turba, / quique erat in palla, transit in ora rubor'.
7. amaraci : the fragrant red marjoram, origanum majorana, an African relative of thyme and mint: cf. Virg. Aen. i. 693 'mollis amaracus illum / floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra', Col. x. 296 'odoratas praetexit amaracus umbras'.
8. flammeum : the bride's veil of orange-yellow, taking its name from its colour, which covered the bride from head to foot but left her face exposed: the word for the wearing of it, nubere, gave its name to the whole ceremony, nuptiae.
9 f. niueo … luteum : on the picturesque use of colour-contrast (within a limited range and often amounting to little or nothing more than conventional cliché) in Latin poetry see J. André, Étude sur les termes de couleur dans la langue latine (Paris, 1949), pp. 345–51, who classifies the examples of the device. See also 187, 64. 309.
10. luteum … soccum : the loose shoe which women wore: for the bride it is orange-yellow like the veil (cf. 160 aureolos pedes). luteum, which is regularly used of the bridal colour (cf. Plin. N.H. xxi. 46 'lutei uideo honorem antiquissimum, in nuptialibus flammeis totum feminis concessum'; Lucan ii. 361 'lutea demissos uelarunt flammea uultus') is a reddish yellow (or yellowish red): Gellius (ii. 26. 8) classes it among the reds and Nemesianus (Cyn. 319) writes rubescere luto.
13. tinnula : the high-pitched voice of a boy or a woman: cf. Pomponius, fr. 57 R. 'uocem deducas oportet ut uideantur mulieris / uerba.—iube modo adferatur munus: ego uocem dabo / tenuem et tinnulam'.
15. pineam … taedam : the pine-torch at the marriage ceremony is a familiar symbol (Aen. vii. 397, Ov. Fast. ii. 558, &c.: hence the use of taedae for nuptiae, first in Catullus—64. 25, 302—and thereafter common); Hymenaeus is represented as carrying it in a fresco from the house of Meleager at Pompeii (Daremberg–Saglio iii. 335). But a special feature of the Roman marriage was the torch of whitethorn; the bride was escorted (Fest. 282 L.) by three pueri praetextati patrimi et matrimi, one of whom walked in front carrying facem ex spina alba while the other two walked on either side of her. Hence Parthenius proposed, unnecessarily, to read spineam here.
16. On Junia and Manlius see introd., p. 237.
17 ff. The bride's beauty is compared to that of Venus when she appeared before Paris.
  
Idalium : see on 36. 12.
  
iudicem : so Horace calls him 'fatalis incestusque iudex', Od. iii. 3. 19.
19. bona cum bona : for similar emphatic repetition of the same word in different forms (traductio) cf. 44 bonae … boni, 179 f. bonae … bene, 195–7 bona … bonum.
20. alite : the taking of auspices was a regular part of Roman marriage ritual, but by this time it was a mere formality (Cic. de Diu. i. 28 'nihil fere quondam maioris rei nisi auspicato ne priuatim quidem gerebatur, quod etiamnunc nuptiarum auspices declarant qui re omissa nomen tantum tenent') and though the presence of the auspex was essential to a proper marriage (Cic. Clu. 14), he had become merely a witness to the marriage settlement. The reference here is no more particular than in Horace's 'mala ducis aui domum' (Od. i. 15. 5) or Ovid's 'hac aue coniuncti Procne Tereusque' (Met. vi. 433).
21. The comparison with flowers is one of the rhetorical commonplaces of the marriage-hymn: cf. Rohde, Griech. Roman2, pp. 161–4. The connexion of the myrtle with Venus gives it special point here; the same comparison is used for Ariadne in 64. 89. Ancient taste admits trees and shrubs in such comparisons more freely than ours: so Nausicaa is like a palm-tree in Homer (Od. vi. 163), Helen like a cypress in Theocritus (18. 30).
22. Asia : elsewhere Āsius refers to the coastal region of Lydia at the mouth of the Maeander, the Ἄσιος λείμων‎ of Il. ii. 461, the Āsia prata, Āsia palus of Virg. Georg. i. 383, Aen. vii. 701. (Cf. Serv. ad G. i. 383 'de palude Asia a longa est; nam de prouincia corripit a'.) Here the reference is probably the same: for the myrtle thrives in a marshy habitat and may well be associated with the Cayster here as with the Eurotas in 64. 89. In the wider reference 'de prouincia', though Asis has ā in Ovid, following Alexandrian precedent, the adjective Asius and the noun Asia always have ă: so in Catullus 46. 6, 66. 36, 68. 89.
23 ff. quos … nutriunt : 'which the wood-nymphs feed with dew-drops to be their plaything'; the phrase was perhaps suggested by παἰγνιον‎ or ἄθυρμα‎. Sappho wrote of the gardens of the Nymphs (Demetr. de Eloc. 132); for a treatment of the garden-motif in lyric poetry see H. Fränkel in Gött. Nachrichten, 1924, 2, p. 67.
24. roscido : the rosido of the manuscripts is an impossible form. Catullus used the usual adjective roscido; the much rarer (though more regularly formed) roridus appears first in Propertius.
25. nutriunt umore : the substitution of spondee for dactyl in the pherecratean is without parallel in Catullus' glyconics in this poem or in poem 34. The similar substitution in the second foot of the hendecasyllabics of poem 55 is not analogous: for that poem is a metrical experiment in which 'spondaic' lines are more or less evenly distributed among 'dactylic', whereas here the spondee is an isolated exception, and its effect seems to be out of harmony with the lightness of movement which is characteristic of the metre. (In one of his glyconic odes, Oedipus 882–914, Seneca substitutes spondee for dactyl in this position in 20 lines out of 32; in the three others, H.F. 875–94, H.O. 1031–1130, Thy. 336–43, he does not repeat the experiment.) Maehly's nutriuntur honore neatly restores the dactyl with the archaic deponent form (used by Virgil in Georg. ii. 425); but there is no reason to suspect roscido umore (Pliny has the same phrase, N.H. ix. 38 'roscido, ut creditur, umore uiuentes') and Wilamowitz (Hell. Dicht. ii. 280, n. 1) may be right in explaining the irregular spondee as due to misunderstanding of apparent analogies in Greek glyconics: in Anacreon's συρίγγων κοϊλώτερα‎ (fr. 11 D.) the dactylic second foot looked like a spondee.
26. aditum ferens : cf. 43 aditum ferat, 63. 47 reditum tetulit, 79 reditum ferat, 66. 35 reditum tetulisset; the solemn periphrasis is revived by Apuleius.
27. perge linquere : 'set about leaving'; the phrase 'throws more circumstance into the act' (Ellis).
27 f. Thespiae rupis : Helicon, at the foot of which Thespiae lay; Hymenaeus shares the home of the Muses. Helicon was not in Aonia, but that old name of the region round Thebes and the Ismenus provides Latin verse with a convenient synonym, used first here and often by later poets, for Boeot(i)us; cf. Virg. Ecl. 10. 12 'Aonie Aganippe', Georg. iii. 11 'Aonio rediens deducam uertice Musas'.
29. nympha : the fountain is personified as its immanent nymph: the spring feeds the river Tecmessus and she is Tecmessus' daughter.
30. frigerans : though refrigero is in common use from Cato onwards, the simple verb occurs only here in classical Latin; its next appearance is in the fifth-century medical treatise of Caelius Aurelianus.
31. domum dominam : the bride is about to become the domina of her husband's domus: domus and dominus or domina are often thus placed in emphatic correlation: so Cic. Fin. i. 58 'neque … beata esse potest … in discordia dominorum domus', Phil. xiii. 19 'cum … minaretur dominis, notaret domos', Ov. Tr. iii. 1. 58 'isdem sub dominis aspiciare domus', Petr. 76. 'dominus in domo factus sum'. The correlatives appear together again at 68. 68 'isque domum nobis isque dedit dominam (?)', where text and interpretation are uncertain.
32. coniugis cupidam noui : cupidam is most naturally taken with dominam: 'summon the mistress to her new home, filled with desire for her husband' (and so overcoming her hesitation: cf. 81), 'binding her heart with love's ivy'. Wilamowitz (Hell. Dicht. ii. 285), following Bonnet, punctuates after uoca and takes cupidam with mentem, 'binding the bridegroom's impassioned heart': but the action of reuinciens is then entirely unrelated to that of uoca and this seems a dubious use of the participle.
34. tenax hedera : 'a common simile applied in an uncommon way' (Ellis). Usually it is the lover that is the clinging ivy (Hor. Od. i. 36. 20 'Damalis … lasciuis hederis ambitiosior', Epod. 15. 5): here it is love.
36. integrae : cf. 34. 2. par dies : i.e. the day of their own marriage.
38. in modum : 'in tune': the same 'modal' use of in is seen in in numerum (Virg. Ecl. 6. 27, &c.), in orbem, in ordinem, in versum.
42. citarier : Catullus has the archaic infinitive four times again in this poem (65, 70, 75 compararier, 68 nitier), probably also at 68. 141.
44. bonae Veneris : 'hoc dicit quia est et mala Venus' (Landi).
45. coniugator : the noun occurs only here: Cicero uses the verb (Off. i. 58).
46. quis deus : cf. 40. 3 'quis deus', 66. 31 'quis te mutauit tantus deus?', 62, 20 and 26. As Löfstedt points out (Synt. ii. 83), the distinction often drawn between quis as the substantival and qui as the adjectival form of the interrogative pronoun is without foundation: in many authors quis is the more frequent form in both uses and the evidence suggests that qui was a development from quis due to the nature of the following sound and that in both uses quis was the more literary form. Throughout Latin literature quis deus, not qui deus, is the normal expression; from the classical period Löfstedt cites 22 examples of quis against only one of qui. In the indefinite the same preference is clear: si quis deus is normal and there seems to be only one certain instance of si qui deus. On the other hand, (scire) qui sim (sis, sit) is universally preferred to quis sim; see on 17. 22.
46 f. magis est ama-/tis petendus amantibus : Bergk's transposition (for inversion of order in the manuscripts see 1. 8, 23. 13, 30. 8) neatly restores the metre, but the reading is not as convincing as it looks at first sight: for amant amantur and similar phrases quoted in support (see on 45. 20), in which reciprocity is expressed by active and passive in asyndeton, are not strictly parallel to this, and the use of amatis to take the place of a present participle is dubious. An adjective—perhaps anxiis, suggested by Haupt—may have been assimilated to the following amantibus.
51. tremulus : of the shakiness of age, as in 68. 142 (cf. 61. 154, 64. 307).
  
suis : 'on behalf of his children': cf. Plaut. Amph. 1061 'deos sibi inuocat'.
53. soluunt : for the prosody see on 2b. 13.
55. captat : 'strains to catch' the sound of the approaching procession. nouos maritus : 'the bridegroom'; cf. Ter. Ad. 938 'ego nouos maritus anno demum quinto et sexagesimo / fiam?' so 66. 20 'nouo … uiro'; similarly noua nupta, 'bride', in 91.
56. fero : of the ardor uiolentus of love, as Ellis says. There is no need to accept his further suggestion that the word contains a reference to the survivals of primitive marriage by violence. a gremio may contain a suggestion of the token removal of the bride from the arms (e gremio) of her mother or her next-of-kin which seems to have been the first act of the marriage ceremony (Fest. 364 L.), and in manus may carry a reminiscence of the old formula of marriage in manum. But a gremio is a natural phrase, which does not need that explanation, and the principle of marriage in manum was obsolescent or obsolete in Catullus' time, when the wife did not normally pass into the legal manus of her husband but remained in the potestas of her father or, if he was not alive, was sui iuris.
61. The three following stanzas present successively the blessings of marriage in the relation of man and woman, in the family, and in society. Ellis appositely cites Cic. Off. i. 54 'prima societas in ipso coniugio est, proxima in liberis, deinde una domus, communia omnia: id autem est principium urbis et quasi seminarium rei publicae'.
67. liberos dare : cf. 205 liberos date. dare does not occur in prose in this connexion, but the use of it here and elsewhere in verse suggests an old formula: so Virg. Aen. i. 274 'geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem', Ov. Her. 6. 122 'pignora Lucina bina fauente dedi', Hor. Od. iii. 6. 47 'mox daturos / progeniem uitiosiorem', Tib. ii. 5. 91 'fetus matrona dabit'.
  
It is true that children born without iustae nuptiae were legally not liberi (Gaius i. 64), but the contrast here implied is not between spurii and legitimi but between children and childlessness. 'C. will eben nicht als Statistiker sondern als Hochzeitsdichter verstanden sein' (Riese).
68. stirpe nitier : the metaphor of the family as prop or stay is common: cf. Cic. Cael. 79 'qui hoc … filio nititur': similarly fulcire, Prop. iv. 11. 69 'serie fulcite genus', Plin. Ep. iv. 21. 3 'nunc unus … domum pluribus adminiculis paulo ante fundatam fulcit ac sustinet', Sen. Contr. ii. 1. 7 'non tibi per multos fulta liberos domus est'.
72. praesides : the sense of 'defender', which is normal in praesidium, is rare in praeses: but cf. Cic. Sest. 137 'senatum rei publicae custodem praesidem propugnatorem', Livy vi. 16. 2 'uestrum (i.e. deorum) militem ac praesidem', xxiii. 48. 7 'praesides prouinciarum exercitus'.
77. adest : that is, she has left the women's quarters and is in the hall of her house, ready to join the procession, though she is still shyly hesitating inside. There is no need to change to ades, which anyhow is too peremptory a command for this context; contrast the respectful prodeas of ll. 87–113.
77 f. uiden ut … quatiunt : cf. 62. 8 'uiden ut perniciter exsiluere'. The quasi-parenthetical use of uiden (= uidesne) with an exclamatory phrase (like voici or voilà) is a regular colloquial idiom (e.g. Plaut. Curc. 311 'uiden ut expalluit', Most. 1172 'uiden ut astat furcifer'), which seems to have been adopted by the neoterici: in classical poetry it is confined to Catullus and Virgil.1 Both use uiden, the colloquial origin of which is revealed by the 'iambic shortening' (see on 10. 27) of the second syllable (Aen. vi. 779 'uiden ut geminae stant uertice cristae'), and both have the similar use of aspic(it)e (62. 12 'aspicite ut … requirunt', Ecl. 5. 6 'aspice ut antrum / silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis', Aen. vi. 855, viii. 190); Virgil has also the variant nonne uides (Georg. i. 56). In 94 below uiden? is similarly used without ut, which has been wrongly inserted in the manuscripts to conform to this line.
78. quatiunt comas : the torches are being swung to fan the flame: cf. Prop. i. 3. 10 'et quaterent sera nocte facem pueri', Plin. Ep. iv. 9. 11 'ut ignem faces assidua concussione custodiunt'. The metaphor is as old as Aeschylus (P.V. 1044 πυρὸς ἀμφήκης βόστρυχος‎): cf. Sen. Oed. 309 'ignis … summam in auras fusus explicuit comam'.
79. The general sense of the missing lines is clear: there is a last-minute conflict in the bride's mind between her restraining pudor on the one hand and the promptings of love (or of the waiting crowd's cries?) on the other, and she is tempted to listen (magis audiens) to the voice of pudor: the next words reassure her. Since the subjunctive tardet may well have been governed by the construction of the missing lines, there is no need to assume that Catullus used an intransitive tardeo which, unlike the analogous lenteo, is nowhere found.
79. ingenuus pudor : the delicacy of feeling which comes from birth and breeding; cf. Sen. Dial. ii. 15. 1, Plin. N.H. praef. 21 (for a list of instances from later literature see D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Propertiana, p. 112). Similarly Cic. de Or. ii. 10 'pudore a dicendo et timiditate ingenua quadam refugisti'.
80. audiens : 'listening to' i.e. paying attention to: cf. Cic. Fam. ii. 7. 1 'numquam labere si te audies', Fin. i. 42 'si Epicurum audire uoluerint', Virg. Georg. i. 514 'neque audit currus habenas'.
84 ff. ne qua … uenientem : 'that any woman more beautiful has ever seen the bright day coming from ocean': a variation on the commoner formula of, e.g., Eur. Hec. 635 τὰν καλλίσταν ὁ χρυσοφαἠς Ἅλιος αὐγάζει‎. A more homely assurance is given to a bride in a togata of Titinius (fr. 106 R.), 'accede ad sponsum audacter: uirgo nulla est talis Setiae'.
87. uario : 'many-coloured': a favourite word in Latin poetry, with its fondness for suggestions of bright colour-contrast (see on 10 and 187): cf. Virg. Aen. iv. 202 'uariis florentia limina sertis', vi. 708 'floribus insidunt uariis', Ecl. 9. 40 'uarios hic flumina circum / fundit humus flores', Tib. i. 7. 45.
88–89. diuitis … hyacinthinus : there may be a verbal echo of two Homeric phrases, Od. vi. 231 οὔλας ἧκε κόμας ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας‎ and Il. xi. 68 ἀνδρὸς μάκαρος κατ‎ʼ ἄρουραν‎. diuitis is not otiose; for the flower-garden is the privilege of means. Sappho (fr. 105 (c) L.-P.) had compared the unwanted girl, perhaps, to the wild ὑάκινθος‎ trampled underfoot (see p. 254): Grimal's suggestion (Les jardins romains, p. 401) that Catullus' words are a deliberate inversion of that figure is fanciful, but he has some good remarks on the 'topiary' quality of Catullus' references to flowers.
89. hyacinthinus : the first appearance of the hyacinthus in Latin. What plant the Romans—and the Greeks—meant by the name, and whether they always meant the same one, cannot be said with certainty. But all the plants with which hyacinthus has been identified (martagon, larkspur, cornflag) stant, i.e. rise erect on tall stems.
91. noua nupta : the ordinary term for 'bride'; cf. 66. 15, Ter. Ad. 751. Similarly nouus maritus in 54 f.
92 f. si iam uidetur : iam adds a touch of impatience to the normal polite formula.
94 f. uiden … comas : see on 77.
97. leuis : of fickleness in love: so Prop. ii. 24. 18 'tam te formosam non pudet esse leuem'.
  
in mala : For the use of in, 'over', of the object of interest or affection, see on 64. 98. With deditus the only other classical examples are in Lucr. iii. 647 'in pugnae studio quod dedita mens est', iv. 815 'quibus est in rebus deditus ipse'.
102. lenta : see on 64. 183.
  
adsitas : 'planted beside them', a technical term of viticulture: Cato 32. 3 'arbores facito ut bene maritae sint uitesque uti satis multae adserantur', Varro, R.R. i. 16. 6 'uitis adsita ad holus facere solet'.
103. implicat : Catullus varies the usual metaphor (so commonplace that it appears even in the technical prose of Cato and Columella: see on 62. 54 'ulmo coniuncta marito'), which makes the tree husband the vine.
107. o cubile : a fragment of a glyconic epithalamium of Ticidas (see Introd., p. xix) has a similar apostrophe: 'felix lectule talibus / sole amoribus'.
108. candido : i.e. of ivory.
110 ff. gaudia, quae … gaudeat : 'what pleasures for him to enjoy in the night or in the daytime': for the cognate accusative cf. Ter. And. 964 'hunc scio mea solide solum gauisurum gaudia', Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. viii. 2. 1 'ut suum gaudium gauderemus'.
  
uaga nocte : 'ranging', not 'fleeting', as some translations have it; the proper reference of vagus is to range of movement, not to speed: see on 64. 271. Night is thought of as ranging the sky in her chariot, as in Enn. scaen. 112 V. '(Nox) quae caua caeli / signitenentibus conficis bigis', Virg. Aen. v. 721 'Nox atra polum bigis subuecta tenebat', viii. 407 'medio iam noctis abactae / curriculo'.
  
medio die : cf. Ov. Am. i. 5. 1, 26.
117. io Hymen Hymenaee io : if the text is sound, io must be monosyllabic, as it is in Martial xi. 2. 5 (in another ritual cry) 'clamant ecce mei "io Saturnalia" uersus', and probably in a fragment of trochaic dialogue from an Atellana (Ribbeck, p. 332) 'io bucco!—quis me iubilat?—uicinus tuus antiquus'.
120. Fescennina iocatio : the singing of ribald extempore lines was a regular accompaniment of the Roman marriage ceremony. (Seneca anachronistically makes a chorus of Corinthians refer to it, Medea 107, 113.) Of the two ancient derivations (Fest. p. 76 L.) of their name of uersus Fescennini, one (offered also by Servius on Aen. vii. 695), from the Faliscan town of Fescennium, may be mere popular etymology; the other, from fascinum, the evil eye, may be true. For the custom represents a familiar form of primitive superstition, the attempt, at moments of human happiness, to cheat the power of the evil eye, of inuidia (see on 5. 12), by 'taking down' the fortunate person. The abusive lines sung by the troops at a victorious general's triumph were of the same sort and had the same purpose: in Pliny's striking phrase (N.H. xxviii. 39), they were addressed to 'Fortuna gloriae carnifex'. At weddings the tradition lasted into the late Empire; Claudian writes literary Fescennina on the marriage of Honorius and Ausonius' hymenaeal cento has its Fescennine passage (p. 216 Peiper).
121. nuces : walnuts were scattered among the crowd during the singing of the Fescennini: cf. Plin. N.H. xv. 86 'nuces iuglandes nuptialium Fescenninorum comites'. Virgil's 'sparge, marite, nuces' (Ecl. 8. 30) may mean either that the bridegroom throws them himself or that he has them thrown; here they are scattered by the concubinus. The ancient explanations of the custom cannot be taken seriously: Festus can only offer the vague suggestion 'ut nouae nuptae intranti domum noui mariti secundum fiat auspicium', and Servius the fantastic one 'quod proiectae in terram tripudium solistimum faciunt'.
  
Nuts were used as playthings in children's games—Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 171, Suet. Aug. 83 '(Augustus) modo talis aut ocellatis nucibusque ludebat cum pueris minutis'—and nuces ponere or relinquere is to put away childish things (Mart. xiv. 185. 2 'ne nucibus positis "arma uirumque" legas', Pers. 1. 10 'nucibus facimus quaecumque relictis'). Hence the point of 125–6; the pampered favourite now has to grow up.
122 f. desertum … amorem : 'realizing from what he hears that his master's love for him is forsaken'.
127. Talasio or Talassio was a ritual cry at the deductio, of unknown origin. The ancients knew two accounts of it, an historical one explaining it as the dative of a proper noun and connecting it with the rape of the Sabine women (Livy i. 9, Plut. Q.R. 31, Rom. 15), and an etymological one connecting it with τάλαρος‎, and interpreting it as an indication that the bride was passing to the duty of lanificium in her husband's house (Varro ap. Fest. 478 L.). Whatever its origin, a marriage-god was made out of it—Talas(s)ius (or Talassus, Mart. xii. 42. 4), a Roman counterpart of Hymenaeus. Here Talasio must be dative: 'your master now chooses to take Talasius as his master'.
129. sordebant … uilicae : the pampered and privileged city-bred delicatus thought himself too good for the homely bailiffs' wives on the country estate: cf. Virg. Ecl. 2. 44 'sordent tibi munera nostra', Plin. N.H. xxxv. 88 '(Protagenes) sordebat suis', 'was not good enough for his own countrymen'.
130. hodie atque heri : 'the other day'. The phrase occurs only here in this form but Plautus has hodie aut heri (Most. 953) and heri aut hodie (St. 152) in the same sense.
132. tondet : now his long hair is on the point of being cut off by the barber; cf. Hor. Od. iv. 10. 2 cum … / … quae nunc humeris inuolitant deciderint comae', Stat. Silv. iii. 4 (on the dedication of the capilli of the Emperor's favourite Earinus). The cinerarius is properly the hair-dresser, so called because his curling-irons were heated in cinere (Varro, L.L. v. 129) or because he used powder as a hair-dye: now he is to cut off the boy's hair instead of curling it. Martial, with these lines in mind, makes the bride see to it herself: xi. 78. 3 'flammea texuntur sponsae: iam uirgo paratur: / tondebit pueros iam noua nupta tuos'.
134 ff. male … abstinere : 'have difficulty in keeping off': cf. Virg. Geo. i. 360 'a curuis male temperat unda carinis', Ov. Am. i. 14. 51 'lacrimas male continet'.
139. licent : a pronominal subject with licet is not uncommon (e.g. Cic. Cael. 48—with a similar reference—'quando denique fuit ut quod licet non liceret?'), but the plural is rare before the silver age: Ov. Met. x. 329 'felices quibus ista licent', Sen. Contr. ix. 25. 17 'quaedam quae licent tempore et loco mutato non licent' seem to be the earliest examples.
145 f. ne neges, ni … eat : and ni (reduced from earlier nei, formed from and deictic -i) were originally simple negative particles without subordinating function. Relics of their original use survive in (a) nē … quidem, nēquaquam, nēquiquam, and the combinations ut ne, dum ne, quomodo ne, &c., (b) nimirum, quidni. Both became subordinating conjunctions and they were differentiated in function. ni has already acquired its specialized use in conditional clauses in the Twelve Tables: in Plautus it is interchangeable with nisi, which later supplanted it except in certain fixed phrases (such as quod ni ita sit) and in poetic diction, in which it provided a convenient alternative. But sporadic traces survive of the earlier use of ni in final clauses, in which later convention required ne. It occurs twice in Lucretius (iii. 286, 734, where niue corresponds to a preceding ne), twice in Virgil (Aen. vi. 353, attested by Rufinianus, iii. 686, attested by Donatus and Servius) and once in Propertius (ii. 7. 3). Catullus has final ni only here, where it may be due to desire to avoid having two ne-clauses depending on the same verb; he has final ne ten times.
149 f. potens et beata : both adjectives refer to material prosperity: for potens cf. Ter. Eun. 353 'quis is est tam potens cum tanto munere hoc?', Phaedrus i. 24. 1 'inops potentem dum uult imitari perit'; for beata 51. 15 'beatas urbes', Hor. Od. iii. 7. 3 'Thyna merce beatum', Ep. i. 2. 44 'beata uxor'.
152. The refrain interrupts a sentence here only.
155. anilitas is not found elsewhere: but puerilitas and iuuenilitas are both used by Varro.
156. adnuit : the shaking head looks like a continuous 'Yes': Ovid makes a similar point, Her. 19. 45 'adnuit illa fere non nostra quod oscula curet / sed mouet obrepens somnus anile caput'.
159 f. transfer … limen … pedes : the double accusative occurs with transferre elsewhere only in Bell. Alex. 60. 5 ('castra Baetim transfert') but is common with traicere and traducere.
160. aureolos : see on 2b. 12.
161. forem : the singular is not uncommon in Plautus and is found in prose: Cic. Tusc. v. 59 'cum forem cubiculi clauserat', Livy vi. 34. 6 'forem uirga percuteret'.
  
rasilem : may refer to the polished wood—or metal (cf. rasilis fibula Ov. Met. viii. 318, rasile argentum Vell. ii. 56. 2)—of the door itself; more probably foris is being used of the doorway and rasilis refers to its worn threshold, the tritum limen of 68. 71.
  
The bride has now reached her new home. There by custom she was lifted over the threshold by her attendants, whether that rite was a formal relic of marriage by capture and the abduction of an unwilling bride (an explanation given among others by Plutarch, Q.R. 29; for reasons against believing that it is the true one see H. J. Rose, Plutarch's Roman Questions, pp. 103 ff.) or was intended to avoid the possibility of stumbling and consequent bad luck. Transfer is not inconsistent with her being lifted across, but perhaps she steps across unaided circumspectly as the bride is enjoined to do in Plautus, Cas. 815: 'sensim supera limen tolle pedes, mea noua nupta; / sospes iter incipe hoc'.
164. The bridegroom, awaiting the bride's arrival, is seen through the doorway. accubare is normally used of reclining at table, but that can hardly be implied here; the marriage feast was held in the bride's home before the deductio began. Nor can torus be the marriage-couch; as ll. 184–5 show, it was in an inner room. Pasquali (Stud. It. i [1920], 5 ff.) thinks that the torus is the lectus genialis which stood in the atrium of the Roman house; but in classical times at any rate it was not meant for occupation by a human wedded pair but was a symbolic sacred object tenanted by the genius and the juno of the pair. [The lect(ul)us aduersus (facing the door) seems to have been the solemn seat of the materfamilias (Ascon. in Mil. p. 38 K., Laberius ap. Gell. xvi. 9. 4), but the identification of it with the lectus genialis is doubtful.] It may be best to suppose that the bridegroom is merely pictured as lying on a couch, while he waits for the bride's procession to arrive, as his modern counterpart would sit on a chair. By Roman custom he would admit her formally to share his home (aqua et igni accipere) on her arrival: that ceremony Catullus passes over. unus in the sense of 'unaccompanied' can perhaps be supported by Lucan v. 806, 'uiduo tum primum frigida lecto / atque insueta quies uni, nudumque marito / non haerente latus' but Statius' intus is probable.
166. totus immineat : 'he is entirely intent on you': for imminere of mental direction cf. Culex 90 f. 'huc imminet, omnis / dirigit huc sensus', Ov. Met. i. 146 'imminet exitio uir coniugis'.
169. non minus ac : the illogical use of ac after a comparative, by analogy from its use after similis, alius, aeque, secus, is rare except in Horace, who favours it.
170. uritur : uri is common of the lover's passion (cf. 83. 6 uritur, Virg. Aen. iv. 68, Hor. Od. i. 13. 9, &c.): but this use with flamma, not the person or the thing heated, as the subject, is unparalleled.
171. penite : the adverb penitus (a formation from penus parallel to funditus, medullitus, radicitus) has already become an adjective in Plautus (e.g. Asin. 41 'ex penitis faucibus', Pers. 541 'ex Arabia penitissima', Cist. 63 'pectore penitissimo'), and the use was later revived by the archaizers (e.g. Apul. Met. xi. 6 'penita mente conditum'). The secondary adverbial formation penite occurs only here.
174. The bride's escort leaves her at the door of the bridechamber. There is no difficulty in the singular praetextate: the command is addressed to each of her supporting praetextati, one on either side, at the same time, and there is no need to suppose that on the threshold they had handed her over to the torchbearer.
179 f. uos … feminae : addressed to the pronubae, the matronae uniuirae (Fest. 282 L., Serv. ad Aen. iv. 166) who prepared the bride.
  senibus … cognitae bene : long and happily mated to one husband. For cognitae in this sense cf. Prop. ii. 29. 33 'sat erit mihi cognitus unus'.
Editor’s Note
1 In Latin only the neuter form epithalamium is used. For a full discussion of the usage of ὑμέναιος‎ and ἐπιθαλάμιος‎ see R. Muth, Wiener Studien lxvii (1954), 5–45.
Editor’s Note
2 See Page, Sappho and Alcaeus, 112, 119–22.
Editor’s Note
1 The only considerable fragments of Sappho's lyric hymenaeals are frr. (L.-P.) 110a and 111 (badinage of door-keeper and bridegroom), 112 and 115 (the bridegroom's good fortune and his looks).
Editor’s Note
1 See A. L. Wheeler, 'Tradition in the Epithalamium', A.J.P. li. 205 ff.: the sources are the Τέχνη ῥητορική‎ of Ps.-Dionysius, the treatise of Menander περὶ ἐπιδεικτικῶν‎ (3rd cent.), the orations of Himerius, Choricius, Aphthonius, and Libanius, and Gregory Nazianzen.
Editor’s Note
2 Brut. 265 'erant in eo plurimae litterae nec eae uulgares sed interiores quaedam et reconditae; diuina memoria, summa uerborum et grauitas et elegantia; atque haec omnia uitae decorabat dignitas et integritas'.
Editor’s Note
3 Or a Vinia: that less common gentile name might well have been corrupted into the common Iunia.
Editor’s Note
4 R. Syme's suggestion that Iunia conceals Vibia, a known Oscan praenomen, would give the bride connexions with Central Italy.
Editor’s Note
5 Γάμος‎ was addressed in Philoxenus' dithyrambic hymenaeal: Γάμε, θεῶν λαμπρότατε‎ (fr. 9 B.) is the only surviving fragment.
Editor’s Note
1 The manuscripts show breach of synaphea at two places, 184–5 (hiatus) and 216 (syllaba anceps). It is highly unlikely that a rule which is otherwise observed throughout the poem (the more noticeably since at the end of stanzas hiatus and syllaba anceps are frequent) should be broken twice: see notes on these lines.
Editor’s Note
2 Horace in his glyconics does not observe synaphea and makes the basis rigidly spondaic.
Editor’s Note
3 On the origin and development of the cry see P. Maas. Philol. lxvi (1907), 590 ff., lxix (1910), 447.
Editor’s Note
1 Tibullus has uidĕn ut once (ii. 1. 25), but with the subjunctive.
Critical Apparatus
61. 1 bellicon iei O, eliconei X
Editor’s Note
2. cultor : 'dweller'. The noun is not common in this sense, but Plautus has caeli cultor of Jupiter (Amph. 1065) and Virgil cultor nemorum of Aristaeus (Georg. i. 14); cf. 64. 300 cultricem, 63. 72 siluicultrix.
Editor’s Note
Vraniae genus : Hymenaeus appears in mythology late: there is no trace of him in Homer. Later he is a young demi-god, son of Apollo and a Muse; so first in Pind. fr. 139 Snell, where Linus, Ialemus, and he are sons of Muses who died young. His Muse-mother is variously named—Calliope in Sch. Pind. Pyth. 4. 313, Clio in Apollodorus, Terpsichore in Alciphron:: she seems to have been Urania in Callimachus (fr. 2a. 42 Pf.).
Editor’s Note
genus : cf. 64. 23 deum genus.
Editor’s Note
3. rapis : there is no need to see reference here to the marriage by violence or capture, the raptus which left (or was believed to have left) traces in the Roman marriage ceremony: cf. 62. 21 auellere.
Critical Apparatus
4 hymen om. V: add. Gr
Editor’s Note
4 f. For the refrain see introd., p. 238. The quantity of the first vowel in hymen (as of that in ὑμήν‎) is variable. Catullus uses the short quantity in this poem, the long (which seems to have been an invention of Hellenistic poetry to make the use of the refrain in hexameters possible) in 62; Ovid also uses both quantities.
Editor’s Note
The second line cannot be established with certainty from the confusion of the manuscript reading (which repeats the first), but o hymen hymenaee, with trochaic first foot, seems preferable to hymen o hymenaee.
Critical Apparatus
5 hymen (om. G) o hymenee hymen V: corr. Aldina (Hymen o alii)
Editor’s Note
6 ff. cinge … soccum : Hymen is dressed like the bride herself, with the flammeum and the yellow shoes: she too wore a chaplet of flowers under her veil (Paul. Fest. 56 L. 'corollam noua nupta de floribus uerbenis herbisque a se lectis sub amiculo ferebat'). He is similarly represented in [Ovid], Her. 21. 165–8 (Hymenaeus will not grace Cydippe's forced marrage): 'proicit ipse sua deductas fronte coronas, / spissaque de nitidis tergit amoma comis; / et pudet in tristi laetum consurgere turba, / quique erat in palla, transit in ora rubor'.
Critical Apparatus
7 amarici V: corr. O
Editor’s Note
7. amaraci : the fragrant red marjoram, origanum majorana, an African relative of thyme and mint: cf. Virg. Aen. i. 693 'mollis amaracus illum / floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra', Col. x. 296 'odoratas praetexit amaracus umbras'.
Editor’s Note
8. flammeum : the bride's veil of orange-yellow, taking its name from its colour, which covered the bride from head to foot but left her face exposed: the word for the wearing of it, nubere, gave its name to the whole ceremony, nuptiae.
Editor’s Note
9 f. niueo … luteum : on the picturesque use of colour-contrast (within a limited range and often amounting to little or nothing more than conventional cliché) in Latin poetry see J. André, Étude sur les termes de couleur dans la langue latine (Paris, 1949), pp. 345–51, who classifies the examples of the device. See also 187, 64. 309.
Editor’s Note
10. luteum … soccum : the loose shoe which women wore: for the bride it is orange-yellow like the veil (cf. 160 aureolos pedes). luteum, which is regularly used of the bridal colour (cf. Plin. N.H. xxi. 46 'lutei uideo honorem antiquissimum, in nuptialibus flammeis totum feminis concessum'; Lucan ii. 361 'lutea demissos uelarunt flammea uultus') is a reddish yellow (or yellowish red): Gellius (ii. 26. 8) classes it among the reds and Nemesianus (Cyn. 319) writes rubescere luto.
Critical Apparatus
12 continens V, concines r
Critical Apparatus
13 tinnuula V: corr. gr
Editor’s Note
13. tinnula : the high-pitched voice of a boy or a woman: cf. Pomponius, fr. 57 R. 'uocem deducas oportet ut uideantur mulieris / uerba.—iube modo adferatur munus: ego uocem dabo / tenuem et tinnulam'.
Critical Apparatus
15 spineam Parth.
Editor’s Note
15. pineam … taedam : the pine-torch at the marriage ceremony is a familiar symbol (Aen. vii. 397, Ov. Fast. ii. 558, &c.: hence the use of taedae for nuptiae, first in Catullus—64. 25, 302—and thereafter common); Hymenaeus is represented as carrying it in a fresco from the house of Meleager at Pompeii (Daremberg–Saglio iii. 335). But a special feature of the Roman marriage was the torch of whitethorn; the bride was escorted (Fest. 282 L.) by three pueri praetextati patrimi et matrimi, one of whom walked in front carrying facem ex spina alba while the other two walked on either side of her. Hence Parthenius proposed, unnecessarily, to read spineam here.
Critical Apparatus
16 iunia V: Vibia Syme
Critical Apparatus
manlio θ‎: mallio V
Editor’s Note
16. On Junia and Manlius see introd., p. 237.
Editor’s Note
17 ff. The bride's beauty is compared to that of Venus when she appeared before Paris.
Editor’s Note
Idalium : see on 36. 12.
Editor’s Note
iudicem : so Horace calls him 'fatalis incestusque iudex', Od. iii. 3. 19.
Editor’s Note
19. bona cum bona : for similar emphatic repetition of the same word in different forms (traductio) cf. 44 bonae … boni, 179 f. bonae … bene, 195–7 bona … bonum.
Editor’s Note
20. alite : the taking of auspices was a regular part of Roman marriage ritual, but by this time it was a mere formality (Cic. de Diu. i. 28 'nihil fere quondam maioris rei nisi auspicato ne priuatim quidem gerebatur, quod etiamnunc nuptiarum auspices declarant qui re omissa nomen tantum tenent') and though the presence of the auspex was essential to a proper marriage (Cic. Clu. 14), he had become merely a witness to the marriage settlement. The reference here is no more particular than in Horace's 'mala ducis aui domum' (Od. i. 15. 5) or Ovid's 'hac aue coniuncti Procne Tereusque' (Met. vi. 433).
Critical Apparatus
21 uelut] uult O (cf. uu. 102, 187)
Editor’s Note
21. The comparison with flowers is one of the rhetorical commonplaces of the marriage-hymn: cf. Rohde, Griech. Roman2, pp. 161–4. The connexion of the myrtle with Venus gives it special point here; the same comparison is used for Ariadne in 64. 89. Ancient taste admits trees and shrubs in such comparisons more freely than ours: so Nausicaa is like a palm-tree in Homer (Od. vi. 163), Helen like a cypress in Theocritus (18. 30).
Editor’s Note
22. Asia : elsewhere Āsius refers to the coastal region of Lydia at the mouth of the Maeander, the Ἄσιος λείμων‎ of Il. ii. 461, the Āsia prata, Āsia palus of Virg. Georg. i. 383, Aen. vii. 701. (Cf. Serv. ad G. i. 383 'de palude Asia a longa est; nam de prouincia corripit a'.) Here the reference is probably the same: for the myrtle thrives in a marshy habitat and may well be associated with the Cayster here as with the Eurotas in 64. 89. In the wider reference 'de prouincia', though Asis has ā in Ovid, following Alexandrian precedent, the adjective Asius and the noun Asia always have ă: so in Catullus 46. 6, 66. 36, 68. 89.
Editor’s Note
23 ff. quos … nutriunt : 'which the wood-nymphs feed with dew-drops to be their plaything'; the phrase was perhaps suggested by παἰγνιον‎ or ἄθυρμα‎. Sappho wrote of the gardens of the Nymphs (Demetr. de Eloc. 132); for a treatment of the garden-motif in lyric poetry see H. Fränkel in Gött. Nachrichten, 1924, 2, p. 67.
Critical Apparatus
24 ludricum V: corr. R
Editor’s Note
24. roscido : the rosido of the manuscripts is an impossible form. Catullus used the usual adjective roscido; the much rarer (though more regularly formed) roridus appears first in Propertius.
Editor’s Note
25. nutriunt umore : the substitution of spondee for dactyl in the pherecratean is without parallel in Catullus' glyconics in this poem or in poem 34. The similar substitution in the second foot of the hendecasyllabics of poem 55 is not analogous: for that poem is a metrical experiment in which 'spondaic' lines are more or less evenly distributed among 'dactylic', whereas here the spondee is an isolated exception, and its effect seems to be out of harmony with the lightness of movement which is characteristic of the metre. (In one of his glyconic odes, Oedipus 882–914, Seneca substitutes spondee for dactyl in this position in 20 lines out of 32; in the three others, H.F. 875–94, H.O. 1031–1130, Thy. 336–43, he does not repeat the experiment.) Maehly's nutriuntur honore neatly restores the dactyl with the archaic deponent form (used by Virgil in Georg. ii. 425); but there is no reason to suspect roscido umore (Pliny has the same phrase, N.H. ix. 38 'roscido, ut creditur, umore uiuentes') and Wilamowitz (Hell. Dicht. ii. 280, n. 1) may be right in explaining the irregular spondee as due to misunderstanding of apparent analogies in Greek glyconics: in Anacreon's συρίγγων κοϊλώτερα‎ (fr. 11 D.) the dactylic second foot looked like a spondee.
Editor’s Note
26. aditum ferens : cf. 43 aditum ferat, 63. 47 reditum tetulit, 79 reditum ferat, 66. 35 reditum tetulisset; the solemn periphrasis is revived by Apuleius.
Editor’s Note
27. perge linquere : 'set about leaving'; the phrase 'throws more circumstance into the act' (Ellis).
Editor’s Note
27 f. Thespiae rupis : Helicon, at the foot of which Thespiae lay; Hymenaeus shares the home of the Muses. Helicon was not in Aonia, but that old name of the region round Thebes and the Ismenus provides Latin verse with a convenient synonym, used first here and often by later poets, for Boeot(i)us; cf. Virg. Ecl. 10. 12 'Aonie Aganippe', Georg. iii. 11 'Aonio rediens deducam uertice Musas'.
Editor’s Note
29. nympha : the fountain is personified as its immanent nymph: the spring feeds the river Tecmessus and she is Tecmessus' daughter.
Editor’s Note
30. frigerans : though refrigero is in common use from Cato onwards, the simple verb occurs only here in classical Latin; its next appearance is in the fifth-century medical treatise of Caelius Aurelianus.
Critical Apparatus
31 ac V: ad r
Editor’s Note
31. domum dominam : the bride is about to become the domina of her husband's domus: domus and dominus or domina are often thus placed in emphatic correlation: so Cic. Fin. i. 58 'neque … beata esse potest … in discordia dominorum domus', Phil. xiii. 19 'cum … minaretur dominis, notaret domos', Ov. Tr. iii. 1. 58 'isdem sub dominis aspiciare domus', Petr. 76. 'dominus in domo factus sum'. The correlatives appear together again at 68. 68 'isque domum nobis isque dedit dominam (?)', where text and interpretation are uncertain.
Editor’s Note
32. coniugis cupidam noui : cupidam is most naturally taken with dominam: 'summon the mistress to her new home, filled with desire for her husband' (and so overcoming her hesitation: cf. 81), 'binding her heart with love's ivy'. Wilamowitz (Hell. Dicht. ii. 285), following Bonnet, punctuates after uoca and takes cupidam with mentem, 'binding the bridegroom's impassioned heart': but the action of reuinciens is then entirely unrelated to that of uoca and this seems a dubious use of the participle.
Critical Apparatus
33 reuincens V: corr. ε‎
Critical Apparatus
34 hac et hac r
Editor’s Note
34. tenax hedera : 'a common simile applied in an uncommon way' (Ellis). Usually it is the lover that is the clinging ivy (Hor. Od. i. 36. 20 'Damalis … lasciuis hederis ambitiosior', Epod. 15. 5): here it is love.
Editor’s Note
36. integrae : cf. 34. 2. par dies : i.e. the day of their own marriage.
Critical Apparatus
38 in nodum V (al. in modum R)
Editor’s Note
38. in modum : 'in tune': the same 'modal' use of in is seen in in numerum (Virg. Ecl. 6. 27, &c.), in orbem, in ordinem, in versum.
Critical Apparatus
40 o hymenee (hymen o r) hymenee hymen V
Editor’s Note
42. citarier : Catullus has the archaic infinitive four times again in this poem (65, 70, 75 compararier, 68 nitier), probably also at 68. 141.
Editor’s Note
44. bonae Veneris : 'hoc dicit quia est et mala Venus' (Landi).
Editor’s Note
45. coniugator : the noun occurs only here: Cicero uses the verb (Off. i. 58).
Critical Apparatus
46/47 est ama-/tis Bergk, anxiis / est Haupt: amatis / est V
Editor’s Note
46. quis deus : cf. 40. 3 'quis deus', 66. 31 'quis te mutauit tantus deus?', 62, 20 and 26. As Löfstedt points out (Synt. ii. 83), the distinction often drawn between quis as the substantival and qui as the adjectival form of the interrogative pronoun is without foundation: in many authors quis is the more frequent form in both uses and the evidence suggests that qui was a development from quis due to the nature of the following sound and that in both uses quis was the more literary form. Throughout Latin literature quis deus, not qui deus, is the normal expression; from the classical period Löfstedt cites 22 examples of quis against only one of qui. In the indefinite the same preference is clear: si quis deus is normal and there seems to be only one certain instance of si qui deus. On the other hand, (scire) qui sim (sis, sit) is universally preferred to quis sim; see on 17. 22.
Editor’s Note
46 f. magis est ama-/tis petendus amantibus : Bergk's transposition (for inversion of order in the manuscripts see 1. 8, 23. 13, 30. 8) neatly restores the metre, but the reading is not as convincing as it looks at first sight: for amant amantur and similar phrases quoted in support (see on 45. 20), in which reciprocity is expressed by active and passive in asyndeton, are not strictly parallel to this, and the use of amatis to take the place of a present participle is dubious. An adjective—perhaps anxiis, suggested by Haupt—may have been assimilated to the following amantibus.
Critical Apparatus
Inter 49 et 50 exhibuit V comperarier (conperaries O) ausit (cf. uu. 65, 70, 75): del. r
Critical Apparatus
50 o hymen (hymen o r) hymenee hymen V
Critical Apparatus
51 suis tremulus η‎: sui si remulus V (suis remulus r, sui si remus al. remulus m, al. remus add. g)
Editor’s Note
51. tremulus : of the shakiness of age, as in 68. 142 (cf. 61. 154, 64. 307).
Editor’s Note
suis : 'on behalf of his children': cf. Plaut. Amph. 1061 'deos sibi inuocat'.
Editor’s Note
53. soluunt : for the prosody see on 2b. 13.
Critical Apparatus
55 maritos V: corr. Muretus
Editor’s Note
55. captat : 'strains to catch' the sound of the approaching procession. nouos maritus : 'the bridegroom'; cf. Ter. Ad. 938 'ego nouos maritus anno demum quinto et sexagesimo / fiam?' so 66. 20 'nouo … uiro'; similarly noua nupta, 'bride', in 91.
Editor’s Note
56. fero : of the ardor uiolentus of love, as Ellis says. There is no need to accept his further suggestion that the word contains a reference to the survivals of primitive marriage by violence. a gremio may contain a suggestion of the token removal of the bride from the arms (e gremio) of her mother or her next-of-kin which seems to have been the first act of the marriage ceremony (Fest. 364 L.), and in manus may carry a reminiscence of the old formula of marriage in manum. But a gremio is a natural phrase, which does not need that explanation, and the principle of marriage in manum was obsolescent or obsolete in Catullus' time, when the wife did not normally pass into the legal manus of her husband but remained in the potestas of her father or, if he was not alive, was sui iuris.
Critical Apparatus
58–60 dedis a g. s. matris / o hymenee hymen hymenee (o hymenee mg) V
Critical Apparatus
61 nil rmg: nichil V
Editor’s Note
61. The three following stanzas present successively the blessings of marriage in the relation of man and woman, in the family, and in society. Ellis appositely cites Cic. Off. i. 54 'prima societas in ipso coniugio est, proxima in liberis, deinde una domus, communia omnia: id autem est principium urbis et quasi seminarium rei publicae'.
Editor’s Note
67. liberos dare : cf. 205 liberos date. dare does not occur in prose in this connexion, but the use of it here and elsewhere in verse suggests an old formula: so Virg. Aen. i. 274 'geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem', Ov. Her. 6. 122 'pignora Lucina bina fauente dedi', Hor. Od. iii. 6. 47 'mox daturos / progeniem uitiosiorem', Tib. ii. 5. 91 'fetus matrona dabit'.
Editor’s Note
It is true that children born without iustae nuptiae were legally not liberi (Gaius i. 64), but the contrast here implied is not between spurii and legitimi but between children and childlessness. 'C. will eben nicht als Statistiker sondern als Hochzeitsdichter verstanden sein' (Riese).
Critical Apparatus
68 nitier β‎: uities, O, uicier X
Editor’s Note
68. stirpe nitier : the metaphor of the family as prop or stay is common: cf. Cic. Cael. 79 'qui hoc … filio nititur': similarly fulcire, Prop. iv. 11. 69 'serie fulcite genus', Plin. Ep. iv. 21. 3 'nunc unus … domum pluribus adminiculis paulo ante fundatam fulcit ac sustinet', Sen. Contr. ii. 1. 7 'non tibi per multos fulta liberos domus est'.
Editor’s Note
72. praesides : the sense of 'defender', which is normal in praesidium, is rare in praeses: but cf. Cic. Sest. 137 'senatum rei publicae custodem praesidem propugnatorem', Livy vi. 16. 2 'uestrum (i.e. deorum) militem ac praesidem', xxiii. 48. 7 'praesides prouinciarum exercitus'.
Critical Apparatus
77 ades Schrader
Editor’s Note
77. adest : that is, she has left the women's quarters and is in the hall of her house, ready to join the procession, though she is still shyly hesitating inside. There is no need to change to ades, which anyhow is too peremptory a command for this context; contrast the respectful prodeas of ll. 87–113.
Editor’s Note
77 f. uiden ut … quatiunt : cf. 62. 8 'uiden ut perniciter exsiluere'. The quasi-parenthetical use of uiden (= uidesne) with an exclamatory phrase (like voici or voilà) is a regular colloquial idiom (e.g. Plaut. Curc. 311 'uiden ut expalluit', Most. 1172 'uiden ut astat furcifer'), which seems to have been adopted by the neoterici: in classical poetry it is confined to Catullus and Virgil.1 Both use uiden, the colloquial origin of which is revealed by the 'iambic shortening' (see on 10. 27) of the second syllable (Aen. vi. 779 'uiden ut geminae stant uertice cristae'), and both have the similar use of aspic(it)e (62. 12 'aspicite ut … requirunt', Ecl. 5. 6 'aspice ut antrum / silvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis', Aen. vi. 855, viii. 190); Virgil has also the variant nonne uides (Georg. i. 56). In 94 below uiden? is similarly used without ut, which has been wrongly inserted in the manuscripts to conform to this line.
Editor’s Note
1 Tibullus has uidĕn ut once (ii. 1. 25), but with the subjunctive.
Critical Apparatus
Post u. 78 lacunam quattuor uersuum statuunt edd.
Editor’s Note
78. quatiunt comas : the torches are being swung to fan the flame: cf. Prop. i. 3. 10 'et quaterent sera nocte facem pueri', Plin. Ep. iv. 9. 11 'ut ignem faces assidua concussione custodiunt'. The metaphor is as old as Aeschylus (P.V. 1044 πυρὸς ἀμφήκης βόστρυχος‎): cf. Sen. Oed. 309 'ignis … summam in auras fusus explicuit comam'.
Editor’s Note
79. The general sense of the missing lines is clear: there is a last-minute conflict in the bride's mind between her restraining pudor on the one hand and the promptings of love (or of the waiting crowd's cries?) on the other, and she is tempted to listen (magis audiens) to the voice of pudor: the next words reassure her. Since the subjunctive tardet may well have been governed by the construction of the missing lines, there is no need to assume that Catullus used an intransitive tardeo which, unlike the analogous lenteo, is nowhere found.
Editor’s Note
79. ingenuus pudor : the delicacy of feeling which comes from birth and breeding; cf. Sen. Dial. ii. 15. 1, Plin. N.H. praef. 21 (for a list of instances from later literature see D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Propertiana, p. 112). Similarly Cic. de Or. ii. 10 'pudore a dicendo et timiditate ingenua quadam refugisti'.
Critical Apparatus
82 arunculeia X
Editor’s Note
84 ff. ne qua … uenientem : 'that any woman more beautiful has ever seen the bright day coming from ocean': a variation on the commoner formula of, e.g., Eur. Hec. 635 τὰν καλλίσταν ὁ χρυσοφαἠς Ἅλιος αὐγάζει‎. A more homely assurance is given to a bride in a togata of Titinius (fr. 106 R.), 'accede ad sponsum audacter: uirgo nulla est talis Setiae'.
Editor’s Note
87. uario : 'many-coloured': a favourite word in Latin poetry, with its fondness for suggestions of bright colour-contrast (see on 10 and 187): cf. Virg. Aen. iv. 202 'uariis florentia limina sertis', vi. 708 'floribus insidunt uariis', Ecl. 9. 40 'uarios hic flumina circum / fundit humus flores', Tib. i. 7. 45.
Critical Apparatus
88 ortullo V (ortulo Rmg)
Editor’s Note
88–89. diuitis … hyacinthinus : there may be a verbal echo of two Homeric phrases, Od. vi. 231 οὔλας ἧκε κόμας ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας‎ and Il. xi. 68 ἀνδρὸς μάκαρος κατ‎ʼ ἄρουραν‎. diuitis is not otiose; for the flower-garden is the privilege of means. Sappho (fr. 105 (c) L.-P.) had compared the unwanted girl, perhaps, to the wild ὑάκινθος‎ trampled underfoot (see p. 254): Grimal's suggestion (Les jardins romains, p. 401) that Catullus' words are a deliberate inversion of that figure is fanciful, but he has some good remarks on the 'topiary' quality of Catullus' references to flowers.
Critical Apparatus
89 iactintinus O, iacintinus X
Editor’s Note
89. hyacinthinus : the first appearance of the hyacinthus in Latin. What plant the Romans—and the Greeks—meant by the name, and whether they always meant the same one, cannot be said with certainty. But all the plants with which hyacinthus has been identified (martagon, larkspur, cornflag) stant, i.e. rise erect on tall stems.
Critical Apparatus
90 (idem 105, 112) abiit V
Critical Apparatus
91 uersum om. V: add. Aldina
Editor’s Note
91. noua nupta : the ordinary term for 'bride'; cf. 66. 15, Ter. Ad. 751. Similarly nouus maritus in 54 f.
Editor’s Note
92 f. si iam uidetur : iam adds a touch of impatience to the normal polite formula.
Critical Apparatus
94 uiden θ‎, uide ut Parth.: uiden (uideri O) ut V
Editor’s Note
94 f. uiden … comas : see on 77.
Editor’s Note
97. leuis : of fickleness in love: so Prop. ii. 24. 18 'tam te formosam non pudet esse leuem'.
Editor’s Note
in mala : For the use of in, 'over', of the object of interest or affection, see on 64. 98. With deditus the only other classical examples are in Lucr. iii. 647 'in pugnae studio quod dedita mens est', iv. 815 'quibus est in rebus deditus ipse'.
Critical Apparatus
99 probra turpia Calph.: procatur pia V
Critical Apparatus
102 sed O, -que X: qui Aldina, quin Auantius3
Critical Apparatus
uelut] uult O Post
Editor’s Note
102. lenta : see on 64. 183.
Editor’s Note
adsitas : 'planted beside them', a technical term of viticulture: Cato 32. 3 'arbores facito ut bene maritae sint uitesque uti satis multae adserantur', Varro, R.R. i. 16. 6 'uitis adsita ad holus facere solet'.
Editor’s Note
103. implicat : Catullus varies the usual metaphor (so commonplace that it appears even in the technical prose of Cato and Columella: see on 62. 54 'ulmo coniuncta marito'), which makes the tree husband the vine.
Critical Apparatus
107 lacunam trium uersuum statuunt edd.
Editor’s Note
107. o cubile : a fragment of a glyconic epithalamium of Ticidas (see Introd., p. xix) has a similar apostrophe: 'felix lectule talibus / sole amoribus'.
Editor’s Note
108. candido : i.e. of ivory.
Critical Apparatus
110, 111 quae r: -que V
Editor’s Note
110 ff. gaudia, quae … gaudeat : 'what pleasures for him to enjoy in the night or in the daytime': for the cognate accusative cf. Ter. And. 964 'hunc scio mea solide solum gauisurum gaudia', Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. viii. 2. 1 'ut suum gaudium gauderemus'.
Editor’s Note
uaga nocte : 'ranging', not 'fleeting', as some translations have it; the proper reference of vagus is to range of movement, not to speed: see on 64. 271. Night is thought of as ranging the sky in her chariot, as in Enn. scaen. 112 V. '(Nox) quae caua caeli / signitenentibus conficis bigis', Virg. Aen. v. 721 'Nox atra polum bigis subuecta tenebat', viii. 407 'medio iam noctis abactae / curriculo'.
Editor’s Note
medio die : cf. Ov. Am. i. 5. 1, 26.
Critical Apparatus
114 o add. r
Critical Apparatus
115 flamineum V (flammineum O)
Critical Apparatus
117, 118, 116 hoc ordine X;
Critical Apparatus
117, 116 omisso uersu 118 O
Editor’s Note
117. io Hymen Hymenaee io : if the text is sound, io must be monosyllabic, as it is in Martial xi. 2. 5 (in another ritual cry) 'clamant ecce mei "io Saturnalia" uersus', and probably in a fragment of trochaic dialogue from an Atellana (Ribbeck, p. 332) 'io bucco!—quis me iubilat?—uicinus tuus antiquus'.
Critical Apparatus
118 (idem semper in sequentibus) io in fine add. V
Critical Apparatus
119 taceat r: taceatis V
Critical Apparatus
120 fosceninna O
Critical Apparatus
iocatio Heinsius: locatio V (locutio m, al. locutio add. g)
Editor’s Note
120. Fescennina iocatio : the singing of ribald extempore lines was a regular accompaniment of the Roman marriage ceremony. (Seneca anachronistically makes a chorus of Corinthians refer to it, Medea 107, 113.) Of the two ancient derivations (Fest. p. 76 L.) of their name of uersus Fescennini, one (offered also by Servius on Aen. vii. 695), from the Faliscan town of Fescennium, may be mere popular etymology; the other, from fascinum, the evil eye, may be true. For the custom represents a familiar form of primitive superstition, the attempt, at moments of human happiness, to cheat the power of the evil eye, of inuidia (see on 5. 12), by 'taking down' the fortunate person. The abusive lines sung by the troops at a victorious general's triumph were of the same sort and had the same purpose: in Pliny's striking phrase (N.H. xxviii. 39), they were addressed to 'Fortuna gloriae carnifex'. At weddings the tradition lasted into the late Empire; Claudian writes literary Fescennina on the marriage of Honorius and Ausonius' hymenaeal cento has its Fescennine passage (p. 216 Peiper).
Editor’s Note
121. nuces : walnuts were scattered among the crowd during the singing of the Fescennini: cf. Plin. N.H. xv. 86 'nuces iuglandes nuptialium Fescenninorum comites'. Virgil's 'sparge, marite, nuces' (Ecl. 8. 30) may mean either that the bridegroom throws them himself or that he has them thrown; here they are scattered by the concubinus. The ancient explanations of the custom cannot be taken seriously: Festus can only offer the vague suggestion 'ut nouae nuptae intranti domum noui mariti secundum fiat auspicium', and Servius the fantastic one 'quod proiectae in terram tripudium solistimum faciunt'.
Editor’s Note
Nuts were used as playthings in children's games—Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 171, Suet. Aug. 83 '(Augustus) modo talis aut ocellatis nucibusque ludebat cum pueris minutis'—and nuces ponere or relinquere is to put away childish things (Mart. xiv. 185. 2 'ne nucibus positis "arma uirumque" legas', Pers. 1. 10 'nucibus facimus quaecumque relictis'). Hence the point of 125–6; the pampered favourite now has to grow up.
Editor’s Note
122 f. desertum … amorem : 'realizing from what he hears that his master's love for him is forsaken'.
Critical Apparatus
125 diu] domini O
Critical Apparatus
127 iam] nam O
Editor’s Note
127. Talasio or Talassio was a ritual cry at the deductio, of unknown origin. The ancients knew two accounts of it, an historical one explaining it as the dative of a proper noun and connecting it with the rape of the Sabine women (Livy i. 9, Plut. Q.R. 31, Rom. 15), and an etymological one connecting it with τάλαρος‎, and interpreting it as an indication that the bride was passing to the duty of lanificium in her husband's house (Varro ap. Fest. 478 L.). Whatever its origin, a marriage-god was made out of it—Talas(s)ius (or Talassus, Mart. xii. 42. 4), a Roman counterpart of Hymenaeus. Here Talasio must be dative: 'your master now chooses to take Talasius as his master'.
Critical Apparatus
129 iulice O, uillice X
Editor’s Note
129. sordebant … uilicae : the pampered and privileged city-bred delicatus thought himself too good for the homely bailiffs' wives on the country estate: cf. Virg. Ecl. 2. 44 'sordent tibi munera nostra', Plin. N.H. xxxv. 88 '(Protagenes) sordebat suis', 'was not good enough for his own countrymen'.
Editor’s Note
130. hodie atque heri : 'the other day'. The phrase occurs only here in this form but Plautus has hodie aut heri (Most. 953) and heri aut hodie (St. 152) in the same sense.
Critical Apparatus
132 miser a] misera O, miser ah X
Editor’s Note
132. tondet : now his long hair is on the point of being cut off by the barber; cf. Hor. Od. iv. 10. 2 cum … / … quae nunc humeris inuolitant deciderint comae', Stat. Silv. iii. 4 (on the dedication of the capilli of the Emperor's favourite Earinus). The cinerarius is properly the hair-dresser, so called because his curling-irons were heated in cinere (Varro, L.L. v. 129) or because he used powder as a hair-dye: now he is to cut off the boy's hair instead of curling it. Martial, with these lines in mind, makes the bride see to it herself: xi. 78. 3 'flammea texuntur sponsae: iam uirgo paratur: / tondebit pueros iam noua nupta tuos'.
Critical Apparatus
134 diceris 1473: diceres V
Critical Apparatus
male Gr, malle ORmg
Editor’s Note
134 ff. male … abstinere : 'have difficulty in keeping off': cf. Virg. Geo. i. 360 'a curuis male temperat unda carinis', Ov. Am. i. 14. 51 'lacrimas male continet'.
Critical Apparatus
138 add. β‎
Editor’s Note
139. licent : a pronominal subject with licet is not uncommon (e.g. Cic. Cael. 48—with a similar reference—'quando denique fuit ut quod licet non liceret?'), but the plural is rare before the silver age: Ov. Met. x. 329 'felices quibus ista licent', Sen. Contr. ix. 25. 17 'quaedam quae licent tempore et loco mutato non licent' seem to be the earliest examples.
Editor’s Note
145 f. ne neges, ni … eat : and ni (reduced from earlier nei, formed from and deictic -i) were originally simple negative particles without subordinating function. Relics of their original use survive in (a) nē … quidem, nēquaquam, nēquiquam, and the combinations ut ne, dum ne, quomodo ne, &c., (b) nimirum, quidni. Both became subordinating conjunctions and they were differentiated in function. ni has already acquired its specialized use in conditional clauses in the Twelve Tables: in Plautus it is interchangeable with nisi, which later supplanted it except in certain fixed phrases (such as quod ni ita sit) and in poetic diction, in which it provided a convenient alternative. But sporadic traces survive of the earlier use of ni in final clauses, in which later convention required ne. It occurs twice in Lucretius (iii. 286, 734, where niue corresponds to a preceding ne), twice in Virgil (Aen. vi. 353, attested by Rufinianus, iii. 686, attested by Donatus and Servius) and once in Propertius (ii. 7. 3). Catullus has final ni only here, where it may be due to desire to avoid having two ne-clauses depending on the same verb; he has final ne ten times.
Critical Apparatus
146 ni V (ne R in margine)
Critical Apparatus
148 om. V: add. Rmg
Editor’s Note
149 f. potens et beata : both adjectives refer to material prosperity: for potens cf. Ter. Eun. 353 'quis is est tam potens cum tanto munere hoc?', Phaedrus i. 24. 1 'inops potentem dum uult imitari perit'; for beata 51. 15 'beatas urbes', Hor. Od. iii. 7. 3 'Thyna merce beatum', Ep. i. 2. 44 'beata uxor'.
Critical Apparatus
151 seruiat Parth.: seruit V (fine seruit r)
Editor’s Note
152. The refrain interrupts a sentence here only.
Critical Apparatus
153 (et 158, 163) om. O
Critical Apparatus
155 anilitas η‎: anilis (ann- X) etas V
Editor’s Note
155. anilitas is not found elsewhere: but puerilitas and iuuenilitas are both used by Varro.
Editor’s Note
156. adnuit : the shaking head looks like a continuous 'Yes': Ovid makes a similar point, Her. 19. 45 'adnuit illa fere non nostra quod oscula curet / sed mouet obrepens somnus anile caput'.
Editor’s Note
159 f. transfer … limen … pedes : the double accusative occurs with transferre elsewhere only in Bell. Alex. 60. 5 ('castra Baetim transfert') but is common with traicere and traducere.
Editor’s Note
160. aureolos : see on 2b. 12.
Critical Apparatus
161 nassilemque O, rass- X: corr. rmg
Critical Apparatus
subi r: sibi V
Editor’s Note
161. forem : the singular is not uncommon in Plautus and is found in prose: Cic. Tusc. v. 59 'cum forem cubiculi clauserat', Livy vi. 34. 6 'forem uirga percuteret'.
Editor’s Note
rasilem : may refer to the polished wood—or metal (cf. rasilis fibula Ov. Met. viii. 318, rasile argentum Vell. ii. 56. 2)—of the door itself; more probably foris is being used of the doorway and rasilis refers to its worn threshold, the tritum limen of 68. 71.
Editor’s Note
The bride has now reached her new home. There by custom she was lifted over the threshold by her attendants, whether that rite was a formal relic of marriage by capture and the abduction of an unwilling bride (an explanation given among others by Plutarch, Q.R. 29; for reasons against believing that it is the true one see H. J. Rose, Plutarch's Roman Questions, pp. 103 ff.) or was intended to avoid the possibility of stumbling and consequent bad luck. Transfer is not inconsistent with her being lifted across, but perhaps she steps across unaided circumspectly as the bride is enjoined to do in Plautus, Cas. 815: 'sensim supera limen tolle pedes, mea noua nupta; / sospes iter incipe hoc'.
Critical Apparatus
164 intus Statius: unus V
Editor’s Note
164. The bridegroom, awaiting the bride's arrival, is seen through the doorway. accubare is normally used of reclining at table, but that can hardly be implied here; the marriage feast was held in the bride's home before the deductio began. Nor can torus be the marriage-couch; as ll. 184–5 show, it was in an inner room. Pasquali (Stud. It. i [1920], 5 ff.) thinks that the torus is the lectus genialis which stood in the atrium of the Roman house; but in classical times at any rate it was not meant for occupation by a human wedded pair but was a symbolic sacred object tenanted by the genius and the juno of the pair. [The lect(ul)us aduersus (facing the door) seems to have been the solemn seat of the materfamilias (Ascon. in Mil. p. 38 K., Laberius ap. Gell. xvi. 9. 4), but the identification of it with the lectus genialis is doubtful.] It may be best to suppose that the bridegroom is merely pictured as lying on a couch, while he waits for the bride's procession to arrive, as his modern counterpart would sit on a chair. By Roman custom he would admit her formally to share his home (aqua et igni accipere) on her arrival: that ceremony Catullus passes over. unus in the sense of 'unaccompanied' can perhaps be supported by Lucan v. 806, 'uiduo tum primum frigida lecto / atque insueta quies uni, nudumque marito / non haerente latus' but Statius' intus is probable.
Editor’s Note
166. totus immineat : 'he is entirely intent on you': for imminere of mental direction cf. Culex 90 f. 'huc imminet, omnis / dirigit huc sensus', Ov. Met. i. 146 'imminet exitio uir coniugis'.
Critical Apparatus
169 ac R: hac V
Editor’s Note
169. non minus ac : the illogical use of ac after a comparative, by analogy from its use after similis, alius, aeque, secus, is rare except in Horace, who favours it.
Critical Apparatus
170 uritur V (urimur Rm, al. urimur add. g)
Editor’s Note
170. uritur : uri is common of the lover's passion (cf. 83. 6 uritur, Virg. Aen. iv. 68, Hor. Od. i. 13. 9, &c.): but this use with flamma, not the person or the thing heated, as the subject, is unparalleled.
Editor’s Note
171. penite : the adverb penitus (a formation from penus parallel to funditus, medullitus, radicitus) has already become an adjective in Plautus (e.g. Asin. 41 'ex penitis faucibus', Pers. 541 'ex Arabia penitissima', Cist. 63 'pectore penitissimo'), and the use was later revived by the archaizers (e.g. Apul. Met. xi. 6 'penita mente conditum'). The secondary adverbial formation penite occurs only here.
Editor’s Note
174. The bride's escort leaves her at the door of the bridechamber. There is no difficulty in the singular praetextate: the command is addressed to each of her supporting praetextati, one on either side, at the same time, and there is no need to suppose that on the threshold they had handed her over to the torchbearer.
Critical Apparatus
175 puellule η‎: puelle V
Critical Apparatus
176 adeant X
Critical Apparatus
179 uos add. Auantius uiris cod. Leidensis anni mccccliii: unis V
Editor’s Note
179 f. uos … feminae : addressed to the pronubae, the matronae uniuirae (Fest. 282 L., Serv. ad Aen. iv. 166) who prepared the bride.
Editor’s Note
bonae … bene : cf. 19 n., 44, 195–7.
Critical Apparatus
180 bene Calph. (beue iam ed. Rom.): berue V
Critical Apparatus
181 puellulam η‎: puellam V
Editor’s Note
181. collocate : the technical term, as Donatus notes on Ter. Eun. 593 'deinde eam in lecto conlocarunt'.
Editor’s Note
184. The bridegroom is summoned from the atrium to join the bride; the epithalamium proper, addressed to the wedded pair, follows.
Critical Apparatus
185 tibi est Bentley: est tibi V
Editor’s Note
185. tibi est : Bentley's transposition removes the hiatus: for inversion in the manuscripts cf. 46.
Critical Apparatus
187 uelut β‎: uult O, uultu X (al. uult g)
Editor’s Note
187. parthenice : presumably the white camomile which Pliny (N.H. xxi. 176) calls parthenium; the poppy is luteum, i.e. red (see on 10). Virgil similarly describes a white-and-red complexion, Aen. xii. 67–69 'Indum sanguineo ueluti uiolauerit ostro / si quis ebur, aut mixta rubent ubi lilia multa / alba rosa, tales uirgo dabat ore colores': cf. [Tib.] iii. 4. 30 ff. 'color in niueo corpore purpureus, / ut iuueni primum uirgo deducta marito / inficitur teneras ore rubente genas, / et cum contexunt amarantis alba puellae / lilia et autumno candida mala rubent', Prop. ii. 3. 11 ff. 'ut Maeotica nix minio si certet Hibero / utque rosae puro lacte natant folia'. The cliché is a favourite one in Latin verse; a long list of examples from Ennius to Claudian is given by H. Blümner, Philol. xlviii (1889), pp. 157–8. For other examples of colour contrast see 10 and 64. 308–9.
Critical Apparatus
189–93 post u. 198 V: huc reuocauit Scaliger
Critical Apparatus
189 ad maritum tamen iuuenem V: corr. Scaliger
Editor’s Note
189. at : turning to the bridegroom: at marks another transition at 225.
Editor’s Note
189 f. ita me iuuent caelites : cf. 66.18 'ita me diui … iuerint'; 97. 1 'ita me di ament'.
Critical Apparatus
191 pulcher es 'alii' apud Robortellum: pulcre res V
Critical Apparatus
neque θ‎: nec V
Critical Apparatus
193 rememorare X
Editor’s Note
193. ne remorare : the same archaism at 62. 59, 67. 18.
Critical Apparatus
194 remoratus Calph.: remota O, remorata X
Critical Apparatus
196 iuuerit θ‎: inuenerit V
Editor’s Note
196 f. palam quod cupis cupis : for the juxtaposition cf. Plaut. Epid. 196 'age si quid agis', Lucr. iv. 723 'quae ueniunt, ueniant'.
Critical Apparatus
197 cupis cupis OR(V?), cupis capis Gr
Critical Apparatus
198 abscondas V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Critical Apparatus
199 africi Heinsius (-cei Lachmann): ericei V
Editor’s Note
199 f. pulueris … siderum : cf. 7. 3–8.
Editor’s Note
201. subducat : either jussive ('let him first reckon up the number of the sands') or potential ('the man who wants to count your pleasures would sooner count the sands').
Critical Apparatus
202 uestri β‎ (uostri Itali): nostri V uult Calph.: uolunt V
Critical Apparatus
203 ludi ed. Rom. (ludei Scaliger): ludere V
Editor’s Note
203. multa milia ludi : cf. 16. 12 'milia multa basiorum': the sing. ludi is used collectively. For ludus in this context cf. Livy xxvi. 50. 5 'si frui liceret ludo aetatis praesertim in recto et legitimo amore et non res publica animum nostrum occupasset'.
Critical Apparatus
204 ludite ut Parth. (ut iam Calph.): et ludite et V (et 2º del. r)
Editor’s Note
204. ludite ut lubet : cf. 17. 17.
Critical Apparatus
208 ingenerati O
Editor’s Note
208. ingenerari : 'but be constantly inbred from the same source'—i.e. without resort to adoption.
Critical Apparatus
209 torcutus O
Editor’s Note
209 ff. paruulus … similis patri : Virgil remembered these lines and repeated paruulus with a new pathos in Dido's words, Aen. iv. 328–9, 'si quis mihi paruulus aula / luderet Aeneas qui te tamen ore referret, / non equidem omnino capta ac deserta uiderer'.
Editor’s Note
uolŏ : see on 10. 27.
Editor’s Note
212. rideat ad patrem : 'smile to greet his father': cf. Virg. Ecl. 4. 60 'incipe, parue puer, risu cognoscere matrem'. For the use of ad cf. 3. 10, Ov. Met. iii. 245 'ad nomen caput ille refert'.
Critical Apparatus
213 semihiante Scaliger: sed mihi ante V
Editor’s Note
213. semihiante : the compound appears first in Catullus (as do semimortuus 50. 15, semirasus 59. 5, semilautus 54. 2) and not again till Apuleius, who repeats the phrase (Flor. 2. 15 semihiantibus labellis). For the prosody (–ᴗ–ᴗ, the first i having consonantal value) cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 194 semihominis Caci, poet. ap. Gell. xix. 11. 4 semihiulco sauio.
Critical Apparatus
215 maulio O, manlio X: mallio δ‎
Critical Apparatus
insciis r (-ieis Lachmann): insciens V
Critical Apparatus
215/16 omnibus / nosc. ab insciis Dawes
Critical Apparatus
215/16 omnibus / nosc. ab insciis Dawes
Critical Apparatus
insciis r (-ieis Lachmann): insciens V
Critical Apparatus
215/16 omnibus / nosc. ab insciis Dawes
Critical Apparatus
insciis r (-ieis Lachmann): insciens V
Critical Apparatus
215/16 omnibus / nosc. ab insciis Dawes
Editor’s Note
215 f. insciis … omnibus : V's insciens has been defended but the only sense it can give ('may he be readily recognized, though he is unconscious of it, by everyone') is quite pointless. insciis must mean 'those who do not know the facts (of his relationship)', not 'who do not know him', omnibus / et breaks the rule of synaphea elsewhere invariable in this poem and Dawes's transposition of insciis and omnibus or Pleitner's obuiis (for the corruption cf. 64. 109) should be accepted.
Critical Apparatus
217 suae Calph., suo r: suam V
Critical Apparatus
insciis r (-ieis Lachmann): insciens V
Editor’s Note
217 f. pudicitiam … ore : i.e. his resemblance to his father will prove his mother's faithfulness: for the idea cf. Hor. Od. iv. 5. 23 'laudantur simili prole puerperae', Mart. vi. 27. 3 (a reminiscence of this passage) 'est tibi, quae patria signatur imagine uoltus, / testis maternae nata pudicitiae'. [In Ov. Tr. iv. 5. 31, Pont. ii. 8. 32, the reference is to moral resemblance: a son's virtues show him to be his father's son.]
Critical Apparatus
219/20 bona matre / laus V
Editor’s Note
219. talis : 'may he have a good name inherited from a good mother to establish his descent, like the matchless reputation derived from his mother that rests on Telemachus'. The comparison is awkwardly expressed, but the point is clear; the good name which he owes to his mother will prove him his mother's son.
Critical Apparatus
221 ab om. O
Critical Apparatus
222 thelamacho O, theleamaco X
Critical Apparatus
223 penolopeo X
Editor’s Note
223. Penelopeo : the personal adjective (see on 44. 10, 64. 368) emphatically closes the stanza. For the orthography of the adjective see on 68. 109.
Critical Apparatus
224 hostia V
Critical Apparatus
225 at boni ζ‎η‎: ad bonlei O, ad bolnei X (al. bonei Rmg)
Critical Apparatus
226 bene uiuite r: bone uite V
Critical Apparatus
227 assiduo ζ‎η‎: assidue V
Editor’s Note
227. munere : for the erotic sense cf. Petr. 87. 8 'et non plane iam molestum erat munus'; similarly officium, Prop. ii. 22. 24, ii. 25. 39, Ov. Am. iii. 7. 24.
Critical Apparatus
228 exercere O
Editor’s Note
228. exercete : 'give play to': cf. Phaedr. App. 10. 4 'exercebat feruidam adulescentiam', Calp. Sic. 5. 11 'gnauam exercere iuuentam'.
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