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Thomas Carlyle

Mark Cumming and David R. Sorensen (eds), The French Revolution: A History in Three Volumes by Thomas Carlyle, Vol. 1: The Bastille

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13chapter ii.

14realised ideals.

  • 15Such a changed France have we; and a changed Louis. Changed, truly; and fur-
  • 16ther than thou yet seest!—To the eye of History many things, in that sick-room
  • 17of Louis, are now visible, which to the Courtiers there present were invisible.
  • Editor’s Note18For indeed it is well said, 'in every object there is inexhaustible meaning; the
  • Editor’s Note19eye sees in it what the eye brings means of seeing.' To Newton and to Newton's
  • 20Dog Diamond, what a different pair of Universes; while the painting on the
  • 21optical retina of both was, most likely, the same! Let the Reader here, in this
  • 22sick-room of Louis, endeavour to look with the mind too.
  • 23Time was when men could (so to speak) of a given man, by nourishing and
  • 24decorating him with fit appliances, to the due pitch, make themselves a King,
  • 25almost as the Bees do; and, what was still more to the purpose, loyally obey him
  • 26when made. The man so nourished and decorated, thenceforth named royal, does
  • Editor’s Note27verily bear rule; and is said, and even thought, to be, for example, 'prosecuting
  • 28conquests in Flanders,' when he lets himself like luggage be carried thither: and
  • 29no light luggage; covering miles of road. For he has his unblushing Châteauroux,
  • 30with her bandboxes and rouge-pots, at his side; so that, at every new station,
  • 31a wooden gallery must be run up between their lodgings. He has not only his
  • Editor’s Note32Maison-Bouche, and Valetaille without end, but his very Troop of Players, with
  • Editor’s Note33their pasteboard coulisses, thunder-barrels, their kettles, fiddles, stage-wardrobes,
  • 34portable larders (and chaffering and quarreling enough); all mounted in wagons,
  • Editor’s Note35tumbrils, second-hand chaises,—sufficient not to conquer Flanders, but the
  • pg 71patience of the world. With such a flood of loud jingling appurtenances does
  • 2he lumber along, prosecuting his conquests in Flanders: wonderful to behold.
  • 3So nevertheless it was and had been: to some solitary thinker it might seem
  • 4strange; but even to him, inevitable, not unnatural.
  • Editor’s Note5For ours is a most fictile world; and man is the most fingent plastic of crea-
  • Editor’s Note6tures. A world not fixable; not fathomable! An unfathomable Somewhat, which
  • 7is Not we; which we can work with, and live amidst,—and model, miraculously
  • 8in our miraculous Being, and name World.—But if the very Rocks and Rivers
  • 9(as Metaphysic teaches) are, in strict language, made by those Outward Senses of
  • 10ours, how much more, by the Inward Sense, are all Phenomena of the spiritual
  • Editor’s Note11kind: Dignities, Authorities, Holies, Unholies! Which inward sense, moreover,
  • 12is not permanent like the outward ones, but forever growing and changing. Does
  • Editor’s Note13not the black African take of Sticks and Old Clothes (say, exported Monmouth-
  • 14Street cast-clothes) what will suffice; and of these, cunningly combining them,
  • Editor’s Note15fabricate for himself an Eidolon (Idol, or Thing Seen), and name it Mumbo-Jumbo;
  • 16which he can thenceforth pray to, with upturned awestruck eye, not without
  • 17hope? The white European mocks; but ought rather to consider; and see whether
  • 18he, at home, could not do the like a little more wisely.
  • 19So it was, we say, in those conquests of Flanders, thirty years ago: but so it
  • 20no longer is. Alas, much more lies sick than poor Louis: not the French King
  • 21only, but the French Kingship; this too, after long rough tear and wear, is break-
  • 22ing down. The world is all so changed; so much that seemed vigorous has sunk
  • 23decrepit, so much that was not is beginning to be!—Borne over the Atlantic,
  • 24to the closing ear of Louis, King by the Grace of God, what sounds are these;
  • Editor’s Note25muffled-ominous, new in our centuries? Boston Harbour is black with unex-
  • Editor’s Note26pected Tea: behold a Pennsylvanian Congress gather; and ere long, on Bunker
  • 27Hill, Democracy announcing, in rifle-volleys death-winged, under her Star
  • 28Banner, to the tune of Yankee-doodle-doo, that she is born, and, whirlwind-like,
  • 29will envelope the whole world!
  • Editor’s Note30Sovereigns die and Sovereignties: how all dies, and is for a Time only; is a
  • Editor’s Note31'Time-phantasm, yet reckons itself real!' The Merovingian Kings, slowly wend-
  • 32ing on their bullock-carts, through the streets of Paris, with their long hair
  • Editor’s Note33flowing, have all wended slowly on,—into Eternity. Charlemagne sleeps at
  • 34Salzburg, with truncheon grounded; only Fable expecting that he will awaken.
  • Editor’s Note35Charles the Hammer, Pepin Bow-legged, where now is their eye of menace,
  • Editor’s Note36their voice of command? Rollo and his shaggy North-men cover not the Seine
  • Editor’s Note37with ships; but have sailed off, on a longer voyage. The hair of Towhead (Tête-
  • pg 8Editor’s Note1d'étoupes) now needs no combing; Iron-cutter (Taillefer) cannot cut a cobweb;
  • Editor’s Note2shrill Fredegonda, shrill Brunhilda have had out their hot life-scold, and lie
  • Editor’s Note3silent, their hot life-frenzy cooled. Neither from that black Tower de Nesle,
  • 4descends now darkling the doomed gallant, in his sack, to the Seine waters;
  • Editor’s Note5plunging into Night: for Dame de Nesle now cares not for this world's gallantry,
  • 6heeds not this world's scandal; Dame de Nesle is herself gone into Night. They
  • 7all are gone; sunk,—down, down, with the tumult they made; and the rolling
  • Editor’s Note8and the trampling of ever new generations passes over them; and they hear it
  • 9not any more forever.
  • 10And yet withal has there not been realised somewhat? Consider (to go no
  • Editor’s Note11further) these strong Stone-edifices, and what they hold! Mud-Town of the
  • 12Borderers (Lutetia Parisiorum or Barisiorum) has paved itself, has spread over
  • Editor’s Note13all the Seine Islands, and far and wide on each bank, and become City of Paris,
  • 14sometimes boasting to be 'Athens of Europe,' and even 'Capital of the Universe.'
  • 15Stone towers frown aloft; long-lasting, grim with a thousand years. Cathedrals
  • 16are there, and a Creed (or memory of a Creed) in them; Palaces, and a State
  • 17and Law. Thou seest the Smoke-vapour; unextinguished Breath as of a thing
  • 18living. Labour's thousand hammers ring on her anvils: also a more miraculous
  • 19Labour works noiselessly, not with the Hand but with the Thought. How have
  • Editor’s Note20cunning workmen in all crafts, with their cunning head and right-hand, tamed
  • 21the Four Elements to be their ministers; yoking the Winds to their Sea-chariot,
  • 22making the very Stars their Nautical Timepiece;—and written and collected
  • Editor’s Note23a Bibliothѐque du Roi; among whose Books is the Hebrew Book! A wondrous
  • 24race of creatures: these have been realised, and what of Skill is in these: call not
  • 25the Past Time, with all its confused wretchednesses, a lost one.
  • 26Observe, however, that of man's whole terrestrial possessions and attainments,
  • 27unspeakably the noblest are his Symbols, divine or divine-seeming; under which
  • 28he marches and fights, with victorious assurance, in this life-battle: what we can
  • 29call his Realised Ideals. Of which realised Ideals, omitting the rest, consider only
  • 30these two: his Church, or spiritual Guidance; his Kingship, or temporal one. The
  • Editor’s Note31Church: what a word was there; richer than Golconda and the treasures of the
  • 32world! In the heart of the remotest mountains rises the little Kirk; the Dead all
  • Editor’s Note33slumbering round it, under their white memorial-stones, 'in hope of a happy
  • 34resurrection:' dull wert thou, O Reader, if never in any hour (say of moaning
  • 35midnight, when such Kirk hung spectral in the sky, and Being was as if swal-
  • 36lowed up of Darkness) it spoke to thee—things unspeakable, that went to thy soul's
  • 37soul. Strong was he that had a Church, what we can call a Church: he
  • Editor’s Note38stood thereby, though 'in the centre of Immensities in the conflux of Eternities,'
  • 39yet manlike towards God and man; the vague shoreless Universe had become
  • pg 9Critical Apparatus1for him a firm city, and dwelling which he knew. Such virtue was in Belief; in
  • 2these words, well spoken: I believe. Well might men prize their Credo, and raise
  • 3stateliest Temples for it, and reverend Hierarchies, and give it the tithe of their
  • 4substance; it was worth living for and dying for.
  • Editor’s Note5Neither was that an inconsiderable moment when wild armed men first
  • 6raised their Strongest aloft on the buckler-throne; and, with clanging armour
  • 7and hearts, said solemnly: Be thou our Acknowledged Strongest! In such Ac-
  • Editor’s Note8knowledged Strongest (well named King, Kӧn-ning, Can-ning, or Man that was
  • 9Able) what a Symbol shone now for them,—significant with the destinies of the
  • 10world! A Symbol of true Guidance in return for loving Obedience; properly, if
  • 11he knew it, the prime want of man. A Symbol which might be called sacred; for
  • 12is there not, in reverence for what is better than we, an indestructible sacredness?
  • 13On which ground too it was well said there lay in the Acknowledged Strongest
  • 14a divine right; as surely there might in the Strongest, whether Acknowledged
  • Critical Apparatus15or not,—considering who it was that made him strong. And so, in the midst
  • 16of confusions and unutterable incongruities (as all growth is confused), did
  • 17this of Royalty, with Loyalty environing it, spring up; and grow mysteriously,
  • 18subduing and assimilating (for a principle of Life was in it); till it also had
  • 19grown world-great, and was among the main Facts of our modern existence.
  • Editor’s Note20Such a Fact, that Louis XIV., for example, could answer the expostulatory
  • Critical Apparatus21Magistrate with his "L'Etat c'est moi (The State? I am the State);" and be replied
  • Editor’s Note22to by silence and abashed looks. So far had accident and forethought; had your
  • Editor’s Note23Louis Elevenths, with the leaden Virgin in their hat-band, and torture-wheels
  • Editor’s Note24and conical oubliettes (man-eating!) under their feet; your Henri Fourths, with
  • 25their prophesied social millennium 'when every peasant should have his fowl
  • 26in the pot;' and, on the whole, the fertility of this most fertile Existence (named
  • 27of Good and Evil),—brought it, in the matter of the Kingship. Wondrous!
  • 28Concerning which may we not again say, that in the huge mass of Evil, as it
  • 29rolls and swells, there is ever some Good working imprisoned; working towards
  • 30deliverance and triumph?
  • 31How such Ideals do realise themselves; and grow, wondrously, from amid the
  • 32incongruous ever-fluctuating chaos of the Actual: this is what World-History,
  • 33if it teach any thing, has to teach us. How they grow; and, after long stormy
  • 34growth, bloom out mature, supreme; then quickly (for the blossom is brief) fall
  • 35into decay; sorrowfully dwindle; and crumble down, or rush down, noisily or
  • 36noiselessly disappearing. The blossom is so brief; as of some centennial Cactus-
  • 37flower, which after a century of waiting shines out for hours! Thus from the day
  • Editor’s Note38when rough Clovis, in the Champ de Mars, in sight of his whole army, had to
  • 39cleave retributively the head of that rough Frank, with sudden battle-axe, and
  • pg 10Critical Apparatus1the fierce words, "It was thus thou clavest the vase" (St. Remi's and mine) "at
  • Critical Apparatus2Soissons," forward to Louis the Grand and his L'Etat c'est moi, we count some
  • 3twelve hundred years: and now this the very next Louis is dying, and so much
  • 4dying with him!—Nay, thus too if Catholicism, with and against Feudalism
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus5(but not against Nature and her bounty), gave us English a Shakspeare and
  • Critical Apparatus6Era of Shakspeare, and so produced a blossom of Catholicism,—it was not
  • 7till Catholicism itself, so far as Law could abolish it, had been abolished here.
  • 8But of those decadent ages in which no Ideal either grows or blossoms?
  • 9When Belief and Loyalty have passed away, and only the cant and false echo of
  • 10them remains; and all Solemnity has become Pageantry; and the Creed of per-
  • Editor’s Note11sons in authority has become one of two things: an Imbecility or a Machiavelism?
  • 12Alas, of these ages World-History can take no notice; they have to become
  • 13compressed more and more, and finally suppressed in the Annals of Mankind;
  • 14blotted out as spurious,—which indeed they are. Hapless ages: wherein, if ever
  • 15in any, it is an unhappiness to be born. To be born; and to learn only, by every
  • Editor’s Note16tradition and example, that God's Universe is Belial's and a Lie; and 'the Su-
  • 17preme Quack' the hierarch of men! In which mournfullest faith, nevertheless,
  • 18do we not see whole generations (two, and sometimes even three successively)
  • 19live, what they call living; and vanish,—without chance of reappearance?
  • 20In such a decadent age, or one fast verging that way, had our poor Louis
  • 21been born. Grant also that if the French Kingship had not, by course of Nature,
  • Critical Apparatus22long to live, he of all men was the man to accelerate Nature. The Blossom of
  • 23French Royalty, cactus-like, has accordingly made an astonishing progress. In
  • 24those Metz days, it was still standing with all its petals, though bedimmed by
  • Editor’s Note25Orléans Regents and Roué Ministers and Cardinals; but now, in 1774, we behold
  • 26it bald, and the virtue nigh gone out of it.
  • 27Disastrous indeed does it look with those same 'realised Ideals,' one and all!
  • Editor’s Note28The Church, which, in its palmy season, seven hundred years ago, could make
  • 29an Emperor wait barefoot, in penance-shift, three days, in the snow, has for
  • 30centuries seen itself decaying; reduced even to forget old purposes and enmities,
  • 31and join interest with the Kingship: on this younger strength it would fain stay
  • Editor’s Note32its decrepitude; and these two will henceforth stand and fall together. Alas, the
  • 33Sorbonne still sits there, in its old mansion; but mumbles only jargon of dotage,
  • Editor’s Note34and no longer leads the consciences of men: not the Sorbonne; it is Encyclopédies,
  • 35Philosophie, and who knows what nameless innumerable multitude of ready
  • 36Writers, profane Singers, Romancers, Players, Disputators, and Pamphleteers,
  • 37that now form the Spiritual Guidance of the world. The world's Practical Guid-
  • 38ance too is lost, or has glided into the same miscellaneous hands. Who is it that
  • 39the King (Able-man, named also Roi, Rex, or Director) now guides? His own
  • pg 11Editor’s Note1huntsmen and prickers: when there is to be no hunt, it is well said, Le Roi ne fera
  • Critical Apparatus2rien (Today his Majesty will do nothing).'1 He lives and lingers there because he
  • 3is living there, and none has yet laid hands on him.
  • 4The Nobles, in like manner, have nearly ceased either to guide or misguide;
  • 5and are now, as their master is, little more than ornamental figures. It is long
  • 6that they have done with butchering one another or their king: the Workers,
  • 7protected, encouraged by Majesty, have ages ago built walled towns, and there
  • Editor’s Note8ply their crafts; will permit no Robber Baron to 'live by the saddle,' but main-
  • Editor’s Note9tain a gallows to prevent it. Ever since that period of the Fronde, the Noble has
  • 10changed his fighting sword into a court rapier; and now loyally attends his
  • 11King as ministering satellite; divides the spoil, not now by violence and murder,
  • 12but by soliciting and finesse. These men call themselves supports of the throne:
  • Editor’s Note13singular gilt-pasteboard caryatides in that singular edifice! For the rest, their
  • Editor’s Note14privileges every way are now much curtailed. That Law authorising a Seigneur,
  • 15as he returned from hunting, to kill not more than two Serfs, and refresh his
  • 16feet in their warm blood and bowels, has fallen into perfect desuetude,—and
  • 17even into incredibility; for if Deputy Lapoule can believe in it, and call for the
  • Editor’s Note18abrogation of it, so cannot we.2 No Charolois, for these last fifty years, though
  • 19never so fond of shooting, has been in use to bring down slaters and plumbers,
  • 20and see them roll from their roofs;3 but contents himself with partridges and
  • 21grouse. Close-viewed, their industry and function is that of dressing gracefully
  • 22and eating sumptuously. As for their debauchery and depravity, it is perhaps
  • Editor’s Note23unexampled since the era of Tiberius and Commodus. Nevertheless, one has
  • Editor’s Note24still partly a feeling with the lady Maréchale: "Depend upon it, Sir, God thinks
  • 25twice before damning a man of that quality."4 These people, of old, surely had
  • 26virtues, uses; or they could not have been there. Nay one virtue they are still
  • 27required to have (for mortal man cannot live without a conscience): the virtue
  • 28of perfect readiness to fight duels.
  • 29Such are the shepherds of the people: and now how fares it with the flock?
  • 30With the flock, as is inevitable, it fares ill, and ever worse. They are not tended,
  • 31they are only regularly shorn. They are sent for, to do statute-labour, to pay
  • Editor’s Note32statute-taxes; to fatten battle-fields (named Bed of Honour) with their
  • 33bodies, in quarrels which are not theirs; their hand and toil is in every
  • Editor’s Note34possession of man; but for themselves they have little or no possession.
  • pg 12Critical Apparatus1Untaught, uncomforted, unfed; to pine stagnantly in thick obscuration, in
  • 2squalid destitution and obstruction: this is the lot of the millions; peuple taill-
  • Editor’s Note3able et corvéable à merci et miséricorde. In Brittany they once rose in revolt at the
  • 4first introduction of Pendulum Clocks; thinking it had something to do with
  • Critical Apparatus5the Gabelle. Paris requires to be cleared out periodically by the Police; and the
  • 6horde of hunger-stricken vagabonds to be sent wandering again over space—
  • Editor’s Note7for a time. 'During one such periodical clearance,' says Lacretelle, 'in May, 1750,
  • 8the Police had presumed withal to carry off some reputable people's children,
  • Editor’s Note9in the hope of extorting ransoms for them. The mothers fill the public places
  • 10with cries of despair; crowds gather, get excited; so many women in distraction
  • Editor’s Note11run about exaggerating the alarm: an absurd and horrid fable rises among the
  • 12people; it is said that the Doctors have ordered a Great Person to take baths of
  • Editor’s Note13young human blood for the restoration of his own, all spoiled by debaucheries.
  • 14Some of the rioters,' adds Lacretelle, quite coolly, 'were hanged on the follow-
  • Editor’s Note15ing days:' the Police went on.1 O ye poor naked wretches! and this then is your
  • Editor’s Note16inarticulate cry to Heaven, as of a dumb tortured animal, crying from uttermost
  • Editor’s Note17depths of pain and debasement? Do these azure skies, like a dead crystalline
  • 18vault, only reverberate the echo of it on you? Respond to it only by 'hanging
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus19on the following days'?—Not so: not forever! Ye are heard in Heaven. And the
  • Editor’s Note20answer too will come,—in a horror of great darkness, and shakings of the world,
  • Editor’s Note21and a cup of trembling which all the nations shall drink.
  • 22Remark, meanwhile, how from amid the wrecks and dust of this universal
  • 23Decay new Powers are fashioning themselves, adapted to the new time, and its
  • 24destinies. Besides the old Noblesse, originally of Fighters, there is a new rec-
  • 25ognised Noblesse of Lawyers; whose gala-day and proud battle-day even now
  • 26is. An unrecognised Noblesse of Commerce; powerful enough, with money
  • 27in its pocket. Lastly, powerfullest of all, least recognised of all, a Noblesse of
  • 28Literature; without steel on their thigh, without gold in their purse, but with the
  • Editor’s Note29'grand thaumaturgic faculty of Thought' in their head. French Philosophism
  • 30has arisen; in which little word how much do we include! Here, indeed, lies
  • 31properly the cardinal symptom of the whole wide-spread malady. Faith is gone
  • 32out; Scepticism is come in. Evil abounds and accumulates; no man has Faith
  • 33to withstand it, to amend it, to begin by amending himself: it must even go on
  • 34accumulating. While hollow languor and vacuity is the lot of the Upper, and
  • Critical Apparatus35want and stagnation of the Lower, and universal misery is very certain, what
  • 36other thing is certain? That a Lie cannot be believed! Philosophism knows only
  • pg 131this: her other Belief is mainly that, in spiritual supersensual matters, no Belief
  • 2is possible. Unhappy! Nay, as yet the Contradiction of a Lie is some kind of
  • 3Belief; but the Lie with its Contradiction once swept away, what will remain?
  • 4The five unsatiated Senses will remain, the sixth insatiable Sense (of Vanity);
  • 5the whole dæmonic nature of man will remain,—hurled forth to rage blindly
  • 6without rule or rein; savage itself, yet with all the tools and weapons of civilisa-
  • 7tion: a spectacle new in History.
  • 8In such a France, as in a Powder-tower, where fire unquenched and now
  • 9unquenchable is smoking and smouldering all round, has Louis XV. lain down
  • 10to die. With Pompadourism and Dubarryism, his Fleur-de-lis has been shame-
  • Editor’s Note11fully struck down in all lands and on all seas; Poverty invades even the royal
  • Editor’s Note12exchequer, and Tax-farming can squeeze out no more; there is a quarrel of
  • Critical Apparatus13twenty-five years' standing with the Parlement; everywhere Want, Dishonesty,
  • Editor’s Note14Unbelief, and hot-brained Sciolists for state-physicians: it is a portentous hour.
  • 15Such things can the eye of History see in this sick-room of King Louis, which
  • 16were invisible to the Courtiers there. It is twenty years, gone Christmas-day
  • Editor’s Note17since Lord Chesterfield, summing up what he had noted of this same France,
  • 18wrote, and sent off by post, the following words, that have become memorable:
  • Editor’s Note19'In short, all the symptoms which I have ever met with in History, previous to
  • 20great Changes and Revolutions in Government, now exist and daily increase
  • 21in France.'1


1 Mémoires sur la Vie privée de Marie Antoinette, par Madame Campan (Paris, 1826), i. 12.

2 Histoire de la Révolution Française, par Deux Amis de la Liberté (Paris, 1792), ii. 212.

3 Lacretelle: Histoire de France pendant le 18me Siѐcle (Paris, 1819), i. 271.

4 Dulaure, vii. 261.

1 Lacretelle: iii. 175.

1 Chesterfield's Letters: December 25th, 1753.

Notes Settings


Editor’s Note
6.18. For indeed it is well said, 'in every object there is inexhaustible meaning; the eye sees in it what the eye brings means of seeing': See "Count Cagliostro," Historical Essays 82: "But the moral lesson? Where is the moral lesson? Foolish reader, in every Reality … there lie a hundred such, or a million such, according as thou hast the eye to read them!"
Editor’s Note
6.19. Newton: The English physicist Isaac Newton (1642–1727).
Editor’s Note
6.19. Newton's Dog Diamond: Who was reported to have upset a candle on his master's desk, destroying several years' work.
Editor’s Note
6.27. 'prosecuting conquests in Flanders': See note 3.7: "ses conquêtes de Flandres."
Editor’s Note
6.32. Maison-Bouche: The members of the king's household staff who were charged with the preparation and serving of his meals. See, for example, Carlyle's translation of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter's Life of Quintus Fixlein, Works 22:202: "It may truly be a subject of wonder how a man who has not, like the King of France, four hundred and forty-eight persons (the hundred and sixty-one Garçons de la Maison-bouche I do not reckon) in his kitchen … can eat with any satisfaction."
Editor’s Note
6.32. Valetaille: A dismissive term for the king's servants. See Mercier, Tableau de Paris 4:10: "On se perd dans le nombreux domestique de la maison des princes. Quelle valetaille sous tant de noms divers, & qui cherchent à parer leur servitude!"
Editor’s Note
6.33. coulisses: Theatrical sets.
Editor’s Note
6.35. tumbrils: Two-wheeled carts, later used to transport victims to the guillotine.
Editor’s Note
7.5. fingent: "Given to fashioning or moulding." OED offers this instance as its only citation for the word.
Editor’s Note
7.6. An unfathomable Somewhat, which is Not we: Echoing Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814), whose idealism is discussed in "Novalis," Essays 2:25. See also Sartor Resartus 128.
Editor’s Note
7.11. Holies, Unholies!: Leviticus 10:10: "And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean."
Editor’s Note
7.13. Monmouth-Street: Center of the used clothing trade in London. See Sartor Resartus 178.
Editor’s Note
7.15. Mumbo-Jumbo: An African idol or bugbear. See Francis Moore, Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa (1738) 116: "On the 6th of May, at Night, I was visited by a Mumbo Jumbo, an Idol, which is among the Mundingoes a kind of cunning Mystery. It is dressed in a long Coat made of the Bark of Trees, with a Tuft of fine Straw on the Top of it, and when the Person wears it, it is about eight or nine Foot high. This is a Thing invented by the Men to keep their Wives in awe."
Editor’s Note
7.25. Boston Harbour is black with unexpected Tea: After the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773.
Editor’s Note
7.26. Pennsylvanian Congress: The Continental Congress, a meeting of delegates from the thirteen colonies, first convened in Philadelphia in 1774.
Editor’s Note
7.26. Bunker Hill: Near Boston, site of a British defeat in the American Revolutionary War (June 17, 1775).
Editor’s Note
7.30. Sovereigns die and Sovereignties: See the words of the bishop and historian Jacques Bénigne Bossuet (1627–1704), addressed to Louis XIV, as quoted in Mercier, Le Nouveau Paris 4:27: "Les royaumes meurent, Sire, comme les rois" (Kingdoms die, your Majesty, just as kings do).
Editor’s Note
7.31. a 'Time-phantasm, yet reckons itself real!': A favorite Transcendentalist doctrine of Carlyle's. Compare Sartor Resartus 187, where he describes time and space as "two quite mysterious, world-embracing Phantasms."
Editor’s Note
7.31. The Merovingian Kings: The first dynasty of the Frankish kingdom, reigning from the period of Childeric I (c.440–c.481) to the deposition of Childeric III (c.715–c.754) in March 751.
Editor’s Note
7.33. Charlemagne sleeps at Salzburg, with truncheon grounded; only Fable expecting that he will awaken: Charlemagne (742–814), king of France and Holy Roman emperor, was actually buried at Aix-la-Chapelle. In Frederick the Great, Carlyle links the "Fable" to Frederick Barbarossa (1:83–84). See The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Paul Harvey and Dorothy Eagle, 4th edn. (1967), who observe that the legend of the sleeping king "appears to have been transferred from Charlemagne to Barbarossa" (65).
Editor’s Note
7.35. Charles the Hammer: Charles Martel (c. 688–741), mayor of the palace for the last Merovingian kings of the Franks and grandfather of Charlemagne. He led the French to victory over an invading Muslim army at the battle of Tours on October 10, 732.
Editor’s Note
7.35. Pepin Bow-legged: Probably a reference to Pepin III (c. 714–768), the son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, known as Pepin le Bref or Pepin the Short. He was chosen king of the Franks after the deposition of Childeric, the last of the Merovingians.
Editor’s Note
7.36. Rollo and his shaggy North-men: Rollo (c.860–c.932) was a Scandinavian adventurer who founded the duchy of Normandy.
Editor’s Note
7.37. Towhead (Tête-d'étoupes): Guillaume III, duc d'Aquitaine (915–963), a loyal supporter of Louis IV. His nickname derived from his light-colored hair (the color of "tow" or flax).
Editor’s Note
8.1. Iron-cutter (Taillefer): A Norman troubadour who died while heroically leading William the Conqueror's troops into battle at Hastings in 1066.
Editor’s Note
8.2. shrill Fredegonda, shrill Brunhilda: Fredegonda (died 597) and Brunhilda (died 613) were rival queens of France.
Editor’s Note
8.3. that black Tower de Nesle: La Tour de Nesle, a tall guard tower on the banks of the Seine, attached to the Hôtel de Nesle. See the following note.
Editor’s Note
8.5. Dame de Nesle: According to legend, a queen of France living in the Hôtel de Nesle, a residence on the banks of the Seine in Paris, summoned men to be her lovers and, after satisfying herself, had them thrown into the river and drowned. See Dulaure, Histoire physique 3:239–42. Dulaure tentatively identifies her as Jeanne II de Bourgogne (1292–1330), wife of Philippe V le Long (c.1292–1322), and reports that she lived in the Hôtel de Nesle for eight years after her husband's death. See 3:239: "Les dames de la cour, en matière de galanterie, n'étaient pas plus édifiantes. On voit trois princesses, qui furent reines, se livrer à la débauche, attirer à leurs amans le plus horrible des supplices. Une d'elles, que l'on croit être cette Jeanne de Bourgogne, épouse de Philippe-le-Long, était accusée d'appeler les jeunes gens qui passaient sous ses fenêtres, et, après avoir assouvi sa luxure effrénée, de les fair arrears and aristocrats e jeter du haut de la tour de Nesle dans la Seine." See also 3:242: "La reine coupable de tels excès était … Jeanne de Bourgogne, … qui, pendant les huits années de son veuvage, séjourna à l'hôtel de Nesle, hôtel qui lui appartenait."
Editor’s Note
8.8. and they hear it not any more forever: Exodus 14:13: "For the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever."
Editor’s Note
8.11. Mud-town of the Borderers (Lutetia Parisiorum or Barisiorum): Lutetia, one of the early Roman names for Paris, was sometimes said to be derived from the Latin lutum (mud) and was therefore translated as "ville de boue" (city of mud). Dulaure conjectured that Parisii (one of the names given to the early residents of Paris) and the related word Barisii signified border-dwellers ("habitans de frontières"). See Dulaure, Histoire physique 1:66.
Editor’s Note
8.13. Paris, sometimes boasting to be 'Athens of Europe,' and even 'Capital of the Universe': Mercier, Tableau de Paris 1:29–30: "Paris représente l'ancienne Athènes: on vouloit être loué des Athéniens; on ambitionne aujourd'hui le suffrage de la capitale de France. Alexandre, au moment qu'il combattoit Porus, s'écririoit: que des fatigues pour être loué de vous, ô Athéniens! Quel peuple étoit-ce donc que ces Athéniens, qui imprimoient au fond de l'Asie le désir de les interesser? ou Alexandre étoit un fou d'une vanité outrée, ou Athènes étoit la première ville de l'univers."
Editor’s Note
8.20. cunning workmen in all crafts: 1 Chronicles 22:15: "Moreover there are workmen with thee in abundance, hewers and workers of stone and timber, and all manner of cunning men for every manner of work."
Editor’s Note
8.23. a Bibliothèque du Roi; among whose Books is the Hebrew Book!: The "King's Library," later the national library, or Bibliothèque Nationale. Carlyle sarcastically expresses surprise that the "Hebrew Book," the Bible, could be found in the morally degenerate France of Louis XV.
Editor’s Note
8.31. Golconda: An ancient fortress and diamond repository in southern India. See Letters 2:486 (Carlyle to John A. Carlyle, December 16, 1823): "I would not give the love of my people in exchange for all the diamonds of Golconda."
Editor’s Note
8.33. 'in hope of a happy resurrection': According to the service for the "Burial of the Dead" in the Book of Common Prayer, believers die "in sure and certain hope of the Resurrection unto eternal life."
Editor’s Note
8.38. 'in the centre of Immensities in the conflux of Eternities': This phrase from Jean Paul Friedrich Richter's Blumen-Frucht-und Dorenstücke (1796–97) conceives the present moment as the conjunction of the infinite past and the infinite future. See "Signs of the Times," Essays 2:59, and Sartor Resartus 50.
Critical Apparatus
9.1                  for him a firm city] 48; a firm city for him
Editor’s Note
9.5. when wild armed men first raised their Strongest aloft on the buckler-throne; and, with clanging armour and hearts, said solemnly: Be thou our Acknowledged Strongest!: From book 2, chapter 40, Gregory of Tours: "When they heard what he had to say, they clashed their shields and shouted their approval. Then they raised Clovis up on a shield and made him their ruler" (156). For a similar form of election, see Tacitus (56–120), Historiæ 4.15.
Editor’s Note
9.8. King, Kön-ning, Can-ning, or Man that was Able: A doubtful etymology of which Carlyle was fond. See Tarr's note in Sartor Resartus 420.
Critical Apparatus
9.15                it was that] 48;
Editor’s Note
9.20. Louis XIV., for example, could answer the expostulatory Magistrate with his "L'Etat c'est moi (The State? I am the State);" and be replied to by silence and abashed looks: Louis XIV (1638–1715), the "Sun King" (Roi Soleil), who reigned from 1643 until his death. On April 13, 1655, he paid an unannounced visit to the Parlement of Paris, which had refused to register his financial edicts. Carlyle refers to this episode at 70.36. When one of the magistrates delivered a speech that referred to the king and the state as separate entities, Louis XIV allegedly interrupted him by announcing that he was the state. See Dulaure, Histoire physique 6:306: "Louis XIV, élevé à l'école du despotisme sous Mazarin, ne pouvait supporter rien de contraire à ce régime: il interrompit un magistrat qui, dans un discours, prononça ces mots: le roi et l'État, en lui disant avec hauteur: l'Etat, c'est moi."
Critical Apparatus
9.21                "L'Etat] 42; '~
Critical Apparatus
9.21                State);"] 42; ~);'
Editor’s Note
9.22. your Louis Elevenths, with the leaden Virgin in their hat-band: Louis XI (1423–1483), king of France, was known for his cruelty and devotion to the Virgin Mary. In chapter 2 of Quentin Durward (1823), Walter Scott (1771–1832) remarks that Louis XI's "cap, … was ornamented with a paltry image of the Virgin, in lead, such as the poorer sort of pilgrims bring from Loretto."
Editor’s Note
9.23. with … torture-wheels and conical oubliettes … under their feet: Deux Amis 1:374, referring to the "fanatique et cruel Louis XI": "Ce fut ce roi féroce … qui fut, dit-on, le barbare inventeur des oubliettes de la Bastille." Oubliettes (from oublier, "to forget") were secret dungeons where prisoners were put away and forgotten. See, for example, Dulaure, Histoire physique 4:321: "Les oubliettes étaient des cachots humides, obscurs, où mouraient, sans aucune consolation, ceux qu'on y plongeait."
Editor’s Note
9.24. your Henri Fourths, with their prophesied social millennium 'when every peasant should have his fowl in the pot': Henri IV (1553–1610), king of France, who promised to restore peace and prosperity to the country after forty years of continual civil war. See Young, Travels 1:42, from the entry for August 12, 1787: "We are now in Bearne, within a few miles of the cradle of Henry IV. Do they inherit these blessings from that good prince? The benignant genius of that good monarch, seems to reign still over the country; each peasant has the fowl in the pot."
Editor’s Note
9.38. rough Clovis: A Merovingian king who died in 511. The episode Carlyle relates comes from book 2, chapter 27, Gregory of Tours: Clovis, having plundered a church, proceeded to Soissons to divide the booty. He asked his fellow looters if he might have a particularly fine ewer above his normal share, and, while most of them agreed to his proposal, one angrily struck the ewer with his battle-axe. Later, during an inspection of the troops, Clovis exacted his brutal revenge: "He seized the man's axe and threw it on the ground. As the soldier bent forward to pick up his weapon, King Clovis raised his own battle-axe in the air and split his skull with it. 'That is what you did to my ewer in Soissons,' he shouted. The man fell dead. Clovis ordered the others to dismiss. They were filled with mighty dread at what he had done" (140). Clovis subsequently converted to Christianity and was baptized in 496 by St. Remigius, a patron saint of France.
Editor’s Note
9.38. the Champ de Mars: Under the Merovingian kings, this field in Paris was the scene of a great public assembly, where troops were reviewed and battle plans were made. Some sources report that, before 755, the assembly was usually held in March and was therefore known as the "Champ de Mars." After 755, it is said, it was usually held in May and was generally known as the "Champ de Mai." Other sources derive the name of this field from Mars, the Roman god of war, and from the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in Rome. Carlyle, who alludes to the Campus Martius in Sartor Resartus 71, associates the Champ de Mars with the war-god, not the month of March. See, for example, ii.42.29: "that Field of Mars."
Critical Apparatus
10.1                "It] 42; '~
Critical Apparatus
10.1                vase"] 42; ~'
Critical Apparatus
10.1                "at] 42; '~
Critical Apparatus
10.2                Soissons,"] 42; ~,'
Critical Apparatus
10.5                Shakspeare] 70; Shakespeare
Editor’s Note
10.5. Shakspeare: Carlyle deeply admired William Shakespeare (1564–1616) and discussed his importance at length in his 1840 lecture "The Hero as Poet" (On Heroes 67–97). Carlyle's preference for the spelling of "Shakspeare" seems to date from the writing of On Heroes, in which it appears consistently. The convention was imposed intermittently in later editions of his earlier works (see, for example, Sartor Resartus cxv–cxvi), but it was not used in The French Revolution until the Library Edition of 1869–71.
Critical Apparatus
10.6                Shakspeare] 70; Shakespeare
Editor’s Note
10.11. a Machiavelism: Deliberate deceit for political advantage, after the political philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), author of The Prince (1513).
Editor’s Note
10.16. God's Universe is Belial's and a Lie: In Paradise Lost 2.108–18, Belial is the "graceful and humane" devil, whose pleasing words are "false and hollow."
Editor’s Note
10.16. 'the Supreme Quack': Satan.
Critical Apparatus
10.22              Blossom] 57; blossom
Editor’s Note
10.25. Orléans Regents: Carlyle alludes to Philippe II, duc d'Orléans (1674–1723), who served as regent during the early years of Louis XV's reign, from 1715 to 1723.
Editor’s Note
10.25. Roué: A rake or debauchee.
Editor’s Note
10.28. The Church … could make an Emperor wait barefoot, in penance-shift, three days, in the snow: At Canossa in 1077, when the excommunicated German emperor Henry IV (1056–1106), dressed in the garb of a penitent, did penance before Pope Gregory VII (1015–1085).
Editor’s Note
10.32. Alas, the Sorbonne still sits there, in its old mansion, but mumbles only jargon of dotage: The Sorbonne was the faculty of theology in the University of Paris, founded in 1252 by Robert de Sorbon (1201–1274) as an institution of theology, science, and literature. Here, as in "Diderot," Carlyle depicts it as a decrepit institution, without moral authority, locked in combat with the new ideas of the philosophes. See Essays on Literature 226, 250, and 272.
Editor’s Note
10.34. Encyclopédies: In "Diderot," Carlyle sarcastically refers to the Encyclopédie (1751–52) as the "world's wonder of the eighteenth century," a book that challenged the obsolete theology of the Roman Catholic Church but bore no positive fruit of its own (Essays on Literature 271).
Editor’s Note
11.1. prickers: Riders who assist in the hunt.
Editor’s Note
11.1. 'Le Roi ne fera rien (Today his Majesty will do nothing)': Campan (1826) 1:12: "Le roi ne pensait qu'au plaisir de la chasse; on aurait pu croire que les courtisans se permettaient une épigramme, quand on leur entendait dire sérieusement, les jours où Louis XV ne chassait pas, le roi ne fait rien aujourd'hui."
Critical Apparatus
11.2                Today] 48; To-day
Editor’s Note
11.footnote 1. Mémoires sur la Vie privée de Marie Antoinette, par Madame Campan: Jeanne Louise Henriette Genest Campan (1752–1822), Marie-Antoinette's lady-in-waiting, defended the Queen in her memoirs (1823). Carlyle questions the accuracy of Campan's memoirs, but uses them extensively.
Editor’s Note
11.8. to 'live by the saddle': A euphemism for living "by highway robbery," as Carlyle explains in Frederick the Great 1:162.
Editor’s Note
11.9. the Fronde: A rebellion of nobles against the court in 1648–53, early in the reign of Louis XIV. It was named for the fronde or slingshot used by the people of Paris.
Editor’s Note
11.13. caryatides: In architecture, a caryatid is "a female figure used as a column to support an entablature" (OED). The plural is usually given in Latin form as "caryatides."
Editor’s Note
11.14. That Law authorising a Seigneur, as he returned from hunting, to kill not more than two Serfs, and refresh his feet in their warm blood and bowels, has fallen into perfect desuetude,—and even into incredibility; for if Deputy Lapoule can believe in it, and call for the abrogation of it, so cannot we: On August 4, 1789, Jean Louis Lapoule (1738–1795), a deputy from Besançon in eastern France, spoke in the National Assembly against alleged atrocities committed by feudal lords against their serfs. See Deux Amis 2:212: "Mais lorsque M. la Poule parla de la mainmorte, tant réelle que personnelle, de l'obligation imposée à quelques vassaux de nourrir les chiens de leurs seigneurs, et de cet horrible droit relégué sans doute depuis des siècles dans les poudreux monumens de la barbarie de nos pères, par lequel le seigneur étoit autorisé dans certains cantons à faire éventrer deux de ses vassaux à son retour de la chasse, pour se délasser en mettant ses pieds dans le corps sanglant de ces malheureux..… un cri d'indignation et d'horreur ne permit pas à ce député d'achever cette affreuse peinture."
Editor’s Note
11.18. No Charolois, for these last fifty years, … has been in use to bring down slaters and plumbers, and see them roll from their roofs: Charles de Bourbon, comte de Charolois (1700–1760), was accused of having shot human beings for sport. See Lacretelle, Histoire de France (5th edn.) 1:271, referring to the comte de Charolois: "La plupart des Mémoires de ce temps font un portrait odieux de ce prince, et le représentent comme sujet à des emportemens qui allaient jusqu'à la férocité. Dans quelques-un, on prétend même qu'il commettait des meurtres sans intérêt, sans vengeance et sans colère. Il tirait, dit-on, sur des courvreurs, afin d'avoir le barbare plaisir de les voir précipités du haut des toits."
Editor’s Note
11.footnote 3. Lacretelle: The journalist and historian Jean Charles Dominique de Lacretelle (1766–1855).
Editor’s Note
11.23. Tiberius and Commodus: Tiberius (42 bce–37 ce) and Commodus (161–192), early emperors of Rome, both notorious for their depravity.
Editor’s Note
11.24. the lady Maréchale: Marie Olympe de la Porte Mazarin, maréchale de la Porte de La Mailleraye (1665–1754), who made her remark about a "man of that quality" after the death of the debauched prince Philippe de Savoie (1659–1693), on September 27, 1693.
Editor’s Note
11.24. "Depend upon it, Sir, God thinks twice before damning a man of that quality": Dulaure, Histoire physique 7:261: "Je vous assure, dit la maréchale fort sérieusement, qu'à des gens de cette qualité-là, Dieu y regarde bien à deux fois pour les damner."
Editor’s Note
11.32. to fatten battle-fields (named Bed of Honour) with their bodies, in quarrels which were not theirs: Soldiers killed while serving their country were said to die on the bed of honor ("mourir au lit d'honneur").
Editor’s Note
11.34. Untaught, uncomforted, unfed; to pine stagnantly in thick obscuration, in squalid destitution and obstruction: this is the lot of the millions; peuple taillable et corvéable à merci et miséricorde: Staël-Holstein 1:131: "Les impôts qui ont pesé exclusivement sur le peuple, l'ont réduit à la pauvreté sans espoir. Un jurisconsulte françois, il y a cinquante ans, appeloit encore, selon l'usage, le tiers état, la gent corvéable et taillable à merci et miséricorde." See also Lady Sydney Morgan, France (1817), 1:135–36: "In 1781 the contrôleur-général of France, under Louis XVI. Monsieur Joli de Fleuri, defined 'the people' of France, to be 'peuple serf, corvéable, et taillable, à merci et miséricorde.' It was the misery of this 'peuple serf,' that urged the cause of the revolution; it was this 'peuple corvéable et taillable, à merci et miséricorde' who showed no mercy for their heartless oppressors. It was this race of slaves, degraded, trodden on, broken down, strangers to liberty, to morals, and to religion, who were urged to commit those horrors, for which they are so unjustly upbraided."
Critical Apparatus
12.1                stagnantly] 48; dully
Editor’s Note
12.3. In Brittany they once rose in revolt at the first introduction of Pendulum Clocks; thinking it had something to do with the Gabelle: This incident is recorded in a letter of madame de Sévigné, dated July 24, 1675: "M. de Boucherat told me the other day, that a curate having received a clock that had been sent him from France, as they call this part of the country, in the sight of some of his parishioners, they immediately cried out in their language, that it was a new tax, they were sure of it, they saw it plainly. The good curate, with great presence of mind, and without seeming at all confused, said to them, 'My children, you are mistaken, you know not what you are talking of; it is an indulgence.' This brought them all immediately upon their knees" (Sévigné 3:76). The gabelle du sel was an unpopular government salt monopoly, established in the fifteenth century, which required every subject to buy a certain quantity of salt a year only from the royal government. Many members of the nobility and clergy were exempt from the tax, which was abolished by the Constituent Assembly in March 1790 but reinstated by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804.
Critical Apparatus
12.5                to be] 48;
Editor’s Note
12.7. 'During one such periodical clearance,' says Lacretelle, 'in May, 1750, the Police had presumed withal to carry off some reputable people's children, in the hope of extorting ransoms for them': Lacretelle, Histoire de France (4th edn.) 3:176: "Au mois du mai 1750, la police procédait avec beaucoup de violence à un de ces enlèvemens périodiques. Quelques-uns de ses agens enlevèrent des enfans qui tenaient à des familles un peu aisées, dans l'espoir d'obtenir des rançons de leurs parens."
Editor’s Note
12.9. 'The mothers fill the public places with cries of despair; crowds gather, get excited; so many women in distraction run about exaggerat-ing the alarm': Lacretelle, Histoire de France (4th edn.) 3:176: "Les mères remplissaient les places publiques des cris du désespoir. On s'attroupe, on s'excite; partout s'offrent des femmes désolées qui s'exagèrent le sujet de leurs alarmes. Les unes rapportaient que les agens de la police leur avaient demandé de l'or pour leur rendre leurs enfans; les autres s'exerçaient en conjectures sur le sort qui leur était réservé."
Editor’s Note
12.11. 'an absurd and horrid fable rises among the people; it is said that the Doctors have ordered a Great Person to take baths of young human blood for the restoration of his own, all spoiled by debaucheries': In some versions of this "fable," the "Great Person" was Louis XV himself. See Lacretelle, Histoire de France (4th edn.) 3:176–77: "Une fable absurde et odieuse circula dans le peuple, toujours porté à recevoir ce qui ébranle vivement son imagination. On prétendit que des médecins avaient conseillé à un grand personnage de prendre des bains de sang humain pour réparer son sang altéré par des débauches. Les uns désignaient un prince; les autres, le roi même."
Editor’s Note
12.13. 'Some of the rioters,' adds Lacretelle quite coolly, 'were hanged on the following days': Lacretelle, Histoire de France (4th edn.) 3:177: "Quelques mutins furent pendus les jours suivans."
Editor’s Note
12.15. poor naked wretches: King Lear 3.4.28.
Editor’s Note
12.16. crying from uttermost depths of pain and debasement: Psalms 130:1: "Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Lord."
Editor’s Note
12.17. Do these azure skies, like a dead crystalline vault, only reverberate the echo of it on you?: Sartor Resartus 122: "Thus has the bewildered Wanderer to stand … shouting question after question into the Sibyl-cave of Destiny, and receive no Answer but an Echo."
Critical Apparatus
12.19              days'?] 70; ~?'
Critical Apparatus
12.19              forever] 48; for ever
Critical Apparatus
12.19              And the answer too] 48; Also the answer
Editor’s Note
12.19. Ye are heard in Heaven: 2 Chronicles 30:27: "Then the priests the Levites arose and blessed the people: and their voice was heard, and their prayer came up to his holy dwelling place, even unto heaven." See also Nehemiah 9:27: "In the time of their trouble, when they cried unto thee, thou heardest them from heaven."
Editor’s Note
12.20. a horror of great darkness: Genesis 15:12.
Editor’s Note
12.20. shakings of the world: Haggai 2:6–7.
Editor’s Note
12.20. a cup of trembling: Zechariah 12:2.
Editor’s Note
12.21. which all the nations shall drink: Jeremiah 25:15: "For thus saith the Lord God of Israel unto me; Take the wine cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it."
Editor’s Note
12.29. the 'grand thaumaturgic faculty of Thought': Sartor Resartus 91: "The grand thaumaturgic [miracle-working] art of Thought! Thaumaturgic I name it; for hitherto all Miracles have been wrought thereby, and henceforth innumerable will be wrought."
Critical Apparatus
12.35              very certain] 48; certain enough
Editor’s Note
13.11. in all lands: Genesis 41:54 and 41:57.
Editor’s Note
13.12. Tax-farming: The collection of taxes by the farmers-general (fermiers généraux).
Critical Apparatus
13.13              everywhere] 48; every where
Editor’s Note
13.14. Sciolists: Pretenders to knowledge.
Editor’s Note
13.17. Lord Chesterfield: Philip Dormer Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield (1694–1773), a British statesman.
Editor’s Note
13.19. 'In short, all the symptoms … now exist and daily increase in France': Chesterfield, Letters 2:318, December 25, 1753: "All the symptoms, which I have ever met with in history previous to great changes and revolutions in government, now exist, and daily increase in France."
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