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pg 3ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΟϒΣ‎

ΤΩΝ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΑ ΦϒΣΙΚΑ Ζ‎

  • 1 1028aEditor’s Note Link 10Τὸ ὂν λέγεται πολλαχῶς, καθάπερ διειλόμεθα πρό-
  • Editor’s Note11τερον ἐν τοῖς περὶ τοῦ ποσαχῶς· σημαίνει γὰρ τὸ μὲν τί
  • Critical Apparatus12ἐστι καὶ τόδε τι, τὸ δὲ ποιὸν ἢ ποσὸν ἢ τῶν ἄλλων ἕκαστον
  • Link 13τῶν οὕτω κατηγορουμένων. τοσαυταχῶς δὲ λεγομένου τοῦ
  • Link 14ὄντος φανερὸν ὅτι τούτων πρῶτον ὂν τὸ τί ἐστιν, ὅπερ σημαί-
  • 15νει τὴν οὐσίαν (ὅταν μὲν γὰρ εἴπωμεν ποῖόν τι τόδε, ἢ ἀγα-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus16θὸν λέγομεν ἢ κακόν, ἀλλ' οὐ τρίπηχυ ἢ ἄνθρωπον· ὅταν δὲ
  • 17τί ἐστιν, οὐ λευκὸν οὐδὲ θερμὸν οὐδὲ τρίπηχυ, ἀλλὰ ἄνθρωπον
  • Link 18ἢ θεόν), τὰ δ' ἄλλα λέγεται ὄντα τῷ τοῦ οὕτως ὄντος τὰ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 19μὲν ποσότητες εἶναι, τὰ δὲ ποιότητες, τὰ δὲ πάθη, τὰ δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 20ἄλλο τι. διὸ κἂν ἀπορήσειέ τις πότερον τὸ βαδίζειν καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21τὸ ὑγιαίνειν καὶ τὸ καθῆσθαι ἕκαστον αὐτῶν ὂν σημαίνει,
  • Link 22ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁτουοῦν τῶν τοιούτων· οὐδὲν
  • 23γὰρ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν οὔτε καθ' αὑτὸ πεφυκὸς οὔτε χωρίζεσθαι
  • Editor’s Note Link 24δυνατὸν τῆς οὐσίας, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον, εἴπερ, τὸ βαδίζον
  • Critical Apparatus Link 25τῶν ὄντων καὶ τὸ καθήμενον καὶ τὸ ὑγιαῖνον. ταῦτα δὲ
  • Editor’s Note26μᾶλλον φαίνεται ὄντα, διότι ἔστι τι τὸ ὑποκείμενον αὐτοῖς
  • 27ὡρισμένον (τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶν ἡ οὐσία καὶ τὸ καθ' ἕκαστον), ὅπερ
  • Editor’s Note Link 28ἐμφαίνεται ἐν τῇ κατηγορίᾳ τῇ τοιαύτῃ· τὸ ἀγαθὸν γὰρ ἢ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29τὸ καθήμενον οὐκ ἄνευ τούτου λέγεται. δῆλον οὖν ὅτι διὰ
  • Editor’s Note Link 30ταύτην κἀκείνων ἕκαστον ἔστιν, ὥστε τὸ πρώτως ὂν καὶ οὐ τὶ
  • Link 31ὂν ἀλλ' ὂν ἁπλῶς ἡ οὐσία ἂν εἴη. πολλαχῶς μὲν οὖν λέγε-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 32ται τὸ πρῶτον· ὅμως δὲ πάντως ἡ οὐσία πρῶτον, καὶ λόγῳ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 33καὶ γνώσει καὶ χρόνῳ. τῶν μὲν γὰρ ἄλλων κατηγορημά-
  • pg 4Editor’s Note Link 34των οὐθὲν χωριστόν, αὕτη δὲ μόνη· καὶ τῷ λόγῳ δὲ τοῦτο
  • Critical Apparatus Link 35πρῶτον (ἀνάγκη γὰρ ἐν τῷ ἑκάστου λόγῳ τὸν τῆς οὐσίας ἐνυ-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 36πάρχειν)· καὶ εἰδέναι δὲ τότ' οἰόμεθα ἕκαστον μάλιστα, ὅταν
  • 37τί ἐστιν ὁ ἄνθρωπος γνῶμεν ἢ τὸ πῦρ, μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ ποιὸν ἢ τὸ
  • 1028b Link 1ποσὸν ἢ τὸ πού, ἐπεὶ καὶ αὐτῶν τούτων τότε ἕκαστον ἴσμεν,
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2ὅταν τί ἐστι τὸ ποσὸν ἢ τὸ ποιὸν γνῶμεν. καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ
  • 3πάλαι τε καὶ νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ ζητούμενον καὶ ἀεὶ ἀπορούμενον,
  • Editor’s Note4τί τὸ ὄν, τοῦτό ἐστι τίς ἡ οὐσία (τοῦτο γὰρ οἱ μὲν ἓν εἶναί
  • Editor’s Note5φασιν οἱ δὲ πλείω ἢ ἕν, καὶ οἱ μὲν πεπερασμένα οἱ δὲ
  • Link 6ἄπειρα), διὸ καὶ ἡμῖν καὶ μάλιστα καὶ πρῶτον καὶ μόνον
  • Link 7ὡς εἰπεῖν περὶ τοῦ οὕτως ὄντος θεωρητέον τί ἐστιν.
  • 2 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 8Δοκεῖ δ' ἡ οὐσία ὑπάρχειν φανερώτατα μὲν τοῖς σώ-
  • Link 9μασιν (διὸ τά τε ζῷα καὶ τὰ φυτὰ καὶ τὰ μόρια αὐτῶν
  • 10οὐσίας εἶναί φαμεν, καὶ τὰ φυσικὰ σώματα, οἷον πῦρ καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11ὕδωρ καὶ γῆν καὶ τῶν τοιούτων ἕκαστον, καὶ ὅσα ἢ μόρια
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus12τούτων ἢ ἐκ τούτων ἐστίν, ἢ μορίων ἢ πάντων, οἷον ὅ τε οὐρα-
  • 13νὸς καὶ τὰ μόρια αὐτοῦ, ἄστρα καὶ σελήνη καὶ ἥλιος)· πό-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus14τερον δὲ αὗται μόναι οὐσίαι εἰσὶν ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι, ἢ τούτων τινὲς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 15ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι, ἢ τούτων μὲν οὐθὲν ἕτεραι δέ τινες, σκεπτέον.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus16δοκεῖ δέ τισι τὰ τοῦ σώματος πέρατα, οἷον ἐπιφάνεια καὶ γραμμὴ
  • 17καὶ στιγμὴ καὶ μονάς, εἶναι οὐσίαι, καὶ μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ σῶμα καὶ
  • Editor’s Note Link 18τὸ στερεόν. ἔτι παρὰ τὰ αἰσθητὰ οἱ μὲν οὐκ οἴονται εἶναι οὐδὲν
  • Editor’s Note Link 19τοιοῦτον, οἱ δὲ πλείω καὶ μᾶλλον ὄντα ἀΐδια, ὥσπερ Πλά-
  • Link 20των τά τε εἴδη καὶ τὰ μαθηματικὰ δύο οὐσίας, τρίτην δὲ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 21τὴν τῶν αἰσθητῶν σωμάτων οὐσίαν, Σπεύσιππος δὲ καὶ
  • Link 22πλείους οὐσίας ἀπὸ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀρξάμενος, καὶ ἀρχὰς ἑκάστης
  • Link 23οὐσίας, ἄλλην μὲν ἀριθμῶν ἄλλην δὲ μεγεθῶν, ἔπειτα ψυ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 24χῆς· καὶ τοῦτον δὴ τὸν τρόπον ἐπεκτείνει τὰς οὐσίας. ἔνιοι δὲ
  • Link 25τὰ μὲν εἴδη καὶ τοὺς ἀριθμοὺς τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχειν φασὶ φύσιν,
  • Editor’s Note26τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἐχόμενα, γραμμὰς καὶ ἐπίπεδα, μέχρι πρὸς
  • 27τὴν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ οὐσίαν καὶ τὰ αἰσθητά. περὶ δὴ τούτων τί
  • pg 5Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 28λέγεται καλῶς ἢ μὴ καλῶς, καὶ τίνες εἰσὶν οὐσίαι, καὶ πότε-
  • 29ρον εἰσί τινες παρὰ τὰς αἰσθητὰς ἢ οὐκ εἰσί, καὶ αὗται πῶς
  • 30εἰσί, καὶ πότερον ἔστι τις χωριστὴ οὐσία, καὶ διὰ τί καὶ πῶς,
  • Link 31ἢ οὐδεμία, παρὰ τὰς αἰσθητάς, σκεπτέον, ὑποτυπωσαμένοις
  • 32τὴν οὐσίαν πρῶτον τί ἐστιν.
  • 3 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 33Λέγεται δ' ἡ οὐσία, εἰ μὴ πλεοναχῶς, ἀλλ' ἐν τέτ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 34ταρσί γε μάλιστα· καὶ γὰρ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ τὸ καθόλου
  • 35καὶ τὸ γένος οὐσία δοκεῖ εἶναι ἑκάστου, καὶ τέταρτον τούτων
  • Editor’s Note Link 36τὸ ὑποκείμενον. τὸ δ' ὑποκείμενόν ἐστι καθ' οὗ τὰ ἄλλα λέ-
  • Link 37γεται, ἐκεῖνο δὲ αὐτὸ μηκέτι κατ' ἄλλου· διὸ πρῶτον περὶ τού-
  • 1029aEditor’s Note Link 1του διοριστέον· μάλιστα γὰρ δοκεῖ εἶναι οὐσία τὸ ὑποκείμενον
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 2πρῶτον. τοιοῦτον δὲ τρόπον μέν τινα ἡ ὕλη λέγεται, ἄλλον
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 3δὲ τρόπον ἡ μορφή, τρίτον δὲ τὸ ἐκ τούτων (λέγω δὲ τὴν
  • Link 4μὲν ὕλην οἷον τὸν χαλκόν, τὴν δὲ μορφὴν τὸ σχῆμα τῆς
  • Link 5ἰδέας, τὸ δ' ἐκ τούτων τὸν ἀνδριάντα τὸ σύνολον), ὥστε εἰ τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus6εἶδος τῆς ὕλης πρότερον καὶ μᾶλλον ὄν, καὶ τοῦ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν
  • Link 7πρότερον ἔσται διὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον. νῦν μὲν οὖν τύπῳ εἴρη-
  • Link 8ται τί ποτ' ἐστὶν ἡ οὐσία, ὅτι τὸ μὴ καθ' ὑποκειμένου ἀλλὰ
  • Link 9καθ' οὗ τὰ ἄλλα· δεῖ δὲ μὴ μόνον οὕτως· οὐ γὰρ ἱκανόν·
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 10αὐτὸ γὰρ τοῦτο ἄδηλον, καὶ ἔτι ἡ ὕλη οὐσία γίγνεται. εἰ
  • Critical Apparatus11γὰρ μὴ αὕτη οὐσία, τίς ἐστιν ἄλλη διαφεύγει· περιαιρουμέ-
  • Editor’s Note12νων γὰρ τῶν ἄλλων οὐ φαίνεται οὐδὲν ὑπομένον· τὰ μὲν
  • 13γὰρ ἄλλα τῶν σωμάτων πάθη καὶ ποιήματα καὶ δυνάμεις,
  • 14τὸ δὲ μῆκος καὶ πλάτος καὶ βάθος ποσότητές τινες ἀλλ'
  • 15οὐκ οὐσίαι (τὸ γὰρ ποσὸν οὐκ οὐσία), ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ᾧ ὑπάρ-
  • Critical Apparatus16χει ταῦτα πρώτῳ, ἐκεῖνό ἐστιν οὐσία. ἀλλὰ μὴν ἀφαι-
  • 17ρουμένου μήκους καὶ πλάτους καὶ βάθους οὐδὲν ὁρῶμεν ὑπολει-
  • 18πόμενον, πλὴν εἴ τί ἐστι τὸ ὁριζόμενον ὑπὸ τούτων, ὥστε τὴν
  • 19ὕλην ἀνάγκη φαίνεσθαι μόνην οὐσίαν οὕτω σκοπουμένοις.
  • Critical Apparatus Link 20λέγω δ' ὕλην ἣ καθ' αὑτὴν μήτε τὶ μήτε ποσὸν μήτε ἄλλο
  • Link 21μηδὲν λέγεται οἷς ὥρισται τὸ ὄν. ἔστι γάρ τι καθ' οὗ κατηγο-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22ρεῖται τούτων ἕκαστον, ᾧ τὸ εἶναι ἕτερον καὶ τῶν κατηγοριῶν
  • pg 6Critical Apparatus Link 23ἑκάστῃ (τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλα τῆς οὐσίας κατηγορεῖται, αὕτη
  • 24δὲ τῆς ὕλης), ὥστε τὸ ἔσχατον καθ' αὑτὸ οὔτε τὶ οὔτε ποσὸν
  • Editor’s Note25οὔτε ἄλλο οὐδέν ἐστιν· οὐδὲ δὴ αἱ ἀποφάσεις, καὶ γὰρ αὗται
  • Link 26ὑπάρξουσι κατὰ συμβεβηκός. ἐκ μὲν οὖν τούτων θεωροῦσι
  • Editor’s Note Link 27συμβαίνει οὐσίαν εἶναι τὴν ὕλην· ἀδύνατον δέ· καὶ γὰρ τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28χωριστὸν καὶ τὸ τόδε τι ὑπάρχειν δοκεῖ μάλιστα τῇ οὐσίᾳ,
  • Editor’s Note Link 29διὸ τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὸ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν οὐσία δόξειεν ἂν εἶναι μᾶλ-
  • Link 30λον τῆς ὕλης. τὴν μὲν τοίνυν ἐξ ἀμφοῖν οὐσίαν, λέγω δὲ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus31τὴν ἔκ τε τῆς ὕλης καὶ τῆς μορφῆς, ἀφετέον, ὑστέρα γὰρ
  • Editor’s Note Link 32καὶ δήλη· φανερὰ δέ πως καὶ ἡ ὕλη· περὶ δὲ τῆς τρίτης
  • Editor’s Note Link 33σκεπτέον, αὕτη γὰρ ἀπορωτάτη. ὁμολογοῦνται δ' οὐσίαι
  • 34εἶναι τῶν αἰσθητῶν τινές, ὥστε ἐν ταύταις ζητητέον πρῶτον.
  • 1029bEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 3πρὸ ἔργου γὰρ τὸ μεταβαίνειν εἰς τὸ γνωριμώτερον. ἡ γὰρ
  • 4μάθησις οὕτω γίγνεται πᾶσι διὰ τῶν ἧττον γνωρίμων φύσει
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 5εἰς τὰ γνώριμα μᾶλλον· καὶ τοῦτο ἔργον ἐστίν, ὥσπερ ἐν
  • 6ταῖς πράξεσι τὸ ποιῆσαι ἐκ τῶν ἑκάστῳ ἀγαθῶν τὰ ὅλως
  • Critical Apparatus7ἀγαθὰ ἑκάστῳ ἀγαθά, οὕτως ἐκ τῶν αὐτῷ γνωριμωτέρων τὰ
  • Critical Apparatus8τῇ φύσει γνώριμα αὐτῷ γνώριμα. τὰ δ' ἑκάστοις γνώριμα
  • Critical Apparatus Link 9καὶ πρῶτα πολλάκις ἠρέμα ἐστὶ γνώριμα, καὶ μικρὸν ἢ
  • Critical Apparatus10οὐθὲν ἔχει τοῦ ὄντος· ἀλλ' ὅμως ἐκ τῶν φαύλως μὲν γνω-
  • Critical Apparatus11στῶν αὐτῷ δὲ γνωστῶν τὰ ὅλως γνωστὰ γνῶναι πειρατέον,
  • Critical Apparatus12μεταβαίνοντας, ὥσπερ εἴρηται, διὰ τούτων αὐτῶν.
  • 4 Editor’s Note Link 1Ἐπεὶ δ' ἐν ἀρχῇ διειλόμεθα πόσοις ὁρίζομεν τὴν οὐσίαν,
  • Critical Apparatus2καὶ τούτων ἕν τι ἐδόκει εἶναι τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, θεωρητέον περὶ
  • Editor’s Note Link 13αὐτοῦ. καὶ πρῶτον εἴπωμεν ἔνια περὶ αὐτοῦ λογικῶς, ὅτι ἐστὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 14τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ἑκάστου ὃ λέγεται καθ' αὑτό. οὐ γάρ ἐστι τὸ σοὶ
  • Critical Apparatus15εἶναι τὸ μουσικῷ εἶναι· οὐ γὰρ κατὰ σαυτὸν εἶ μουσικός. ὃ ἄρα
  • Editor’s Note Link 16κατὰ σαυτόν. οὐδὲ δὴ τοῦτο πᾶν· οὐ γὰρ τὸ οὕτως καθ' αὑτὸ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17ὡς ἐπιφανείᾳ λευκόν, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι τὸ ἐπιφανείᾳ εἶναι τὸ
  • pg 7Critical Apparatus18λευκῷ εἶναι. ἀλλὰ μὴν οὐδὲ τὸ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν, τὸ ἐπιφανείᾳ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 19λευκῇ, ὅτι πρόσεστιν αὐτό. ἐν ᾧ ἄρα μὴ ἐνέσται λόγῳ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 20αὐτό, λέγοντι αὐτό, οὗτος ὁ λόγος τοῦ τί ἦν εἶναι ἑκάστῳ,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 21ὥστ' εἰ τὸ ἐπιφανείᾳ λευκῇ εἶναί ἐστι τὸ ἐπιφανείᾳ εἶναι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 22λείᾳ, τὸ λευκῷ καὶ λείῳ εἶναι τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ ἕν. ἐπεὶ δ'
  • 23ἔστι καὶ κατὰ τὰς ἄλλας κατηγορίας σύνθετα (ἔστι γάρ
  • Link 24τι ὑποκείμενον ἑκάστῳ, οἷον τῷ ποιῷ καὶ τῷ ποσῷ καὶ τῷ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus25ποτὲ καὶ τῷ ποὺ καὶ τῇ κινήσει), σκεπτέον ἆρ' ἔστι λόγος τοῦ
  • Critical Apparatus26τί ἦν εἶναι ἑκάστῳ αὐτῶν, καὶ ὑπάρχει καὶ τούτοις τὸ τί ἦν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 27εἶναι, οἷον λευκῷ ἀνθρώπῳ [τί ἦν λευκῷ ἀνθρώπῳ]. ἔστω δὴ
  • Editor’s Note Link 28ὄνομα αὐτῷ ἱμάτιον. τί ἐστι τὸ ἱματίῳ εἶναι; ἀλλὰ μὴν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29οὐδὲ τῶν καθ' αὑτὸ λεγομένων οὐδὲ τοῦτο. ἢ τὸ οὐ καθ' αὑτὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus30λέγεται διχῶς, καὶ τούτου ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ἐκ προσθέσεως τὸ δὲ
  • Editor’s Note31οὔ. τὸ μὲν γὰρ τῷ αὐτὸ ἄλλῳ προσκεῖσθαι λέγεται ὃ ὁρί-
  • 32ζεται, οἷον εἰ τὸ λευκῷ εἶναι ὁριζόμενος λέγοι λευκοῦ ἀν-
  • Critical Apparatus33θρώπου λόγον· τὸ δὲ τῷ ἄλλο αὐτῷ, οἷον εἰ σημαίνοι τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 34ἱμάτιον λευκὸν ἄνθρωπον, ὁ δὲ ὁρίζοιτο ἱμάτιον ὡς λευκόν. τὸ
  • 1030aEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 1δὴ λευκὸς ἄνθρωπος ἔστι μὲν λευκόν, οὐ μέντοι ⟨τὸ⟩ τί ἦν εἶναι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 2λευκῷ εἶναι.—ἀλλὰ τὸ ἱματίῳ εἶναι ἆρά ἐστι τί ἦν εἶναί τι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 3[ἢ] ὅλως; ἢ οὔ; ὅπερ γάρ τί ἐστι τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι· ὅταν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 4δ' ἄλλο κατ' ἄλλου λέγηται, οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπερ τόδε τι, οἷον ὁ
  • Critical Apparatus5λευκὸς ἄνθρωπος οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπερ τόδε τι, εἴπερ τὸ τόδε
  • Editor’s Note Link 6ταῖς οὐσίαις ὑπάρχει μόνον· ὥστε τὸ τί ἦν εἶναί ἐστιν ὅσων ὁ
  • Link 7λόγος ἐστὶν ὁρισμός. ὁρισμὸς δ' ἐστὶν οὐκ ἂν ὄνομα λόγῳ
  • Link 8ταὐτὸ σημαίνῃ (πάντες γὰρ ἂν εἶεν οἱ λόγοι ὅροι· ἔσται
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus9γὰρ ὄνομα ὁτῳοῦν λόγῳ, ὥστε καὶ ἡ Ἰλιὰς ὁρισμὸς ἔσται),
  • pg 8Critical Apparatus Link 10ἀλλ' ἐὰν πρώτου τινὸς ᾖ· τοιαῦτα δ' ἐστὶν ὅσα λέγεται
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 11μὴ τῷ ἄλλο κατ' ἄλλου λέγεσθαι. οὐκ ἔσται ἄρα οὐδενὶ
  • 12τῶν μὴ γένους εἰδῶν ὑπάρχον τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τούτοις
  • Link 13μόνον (ταῦτα γὰρ δοκεῖ οὐ κατὰ μετοχὴν λέγεσθαι καὶ
  • Link 14πάθος οὐδ' ὡς συμβεβηκός)· ἀλλὰ λόγος μὲν ἔσται ἑκάστου
  • 15καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τί σημαίνει, ἐὰν ᾖ ὄνομα, ὅτι τόδε τῷδε
  • Link 16ὑπάρχει, ἢ ἀντὶ λόγου ἁπλοῦ ἀκριβέστερος· ὁρισμὸς δ' οὐκ
  • Link 17ἔσται οὐδὲ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι. ἢ καὶ ὁ ὁρισμὸς ὥσπερ καὶ τὸ τί
  • Critical Apparatus18ἐστι πλεοναχῶς λέγεται; καὶ γὰρ τὸ τί ἐστιν ἕνα μὲν τρό-
  • 19πον σημαίνει τὴν οὐσίαν καὶ τὸ τόδε τι, ἄλλον δὲ ἕκαστον
  • 20τῶν κατηγορουμένων, ποσὸν ποιὸν καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα τοιαῦτα.
  • Critical Apparatus21ὥσπερ γὰρ καὶ τὸ ἔστιν ὑπάρχει πᾶσιν, ἀλλ' οὐχ ὁμοίως
  • Editor’s Note22ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν πρώτως τοῖς δ' ἑπομένως, οὕτω καὶ τὸ τί ἐστιν
  • Critical Apparatus23ἁπλῶς μὲν τῇ οὐσίᾳ πὼς δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις· καὶ γὰρ τὸ ποιὸν
  • Critical Apparatus24ἐροίμεθ' ἂν τί ἐστιν, ὥστε καὶ τὸ ποιὸν τῶν τί ἐστιν, ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s Note Link 25οὐχ ἁπλῶς, ἀλλ' ὥσπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος λογικῶς φασί
  • Editor’s Note26τινες εἶναι τὸ μὴ ὄν, οὐχ ἁπλῶς ἀλλὰ μὴ ὄν, οὕτω καὶ τὸ
  • Editor’s Note Link 27ποιόν. —δεῖ μὲν οὖν σκοπεῖν καὶ τὸ πῶς δεῖ λέγειν περὶ ἕκα-
  • 28στον, οὐ μὴν μᾶλλόν γε ἢ τὸ πῶς ἔχει· διὸ καὶ νῦν ἐπεὶ τὸ
  • Editor’s Note29λεγόμενον φανερόν, καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ὁμοίως ὑπάρξει πρώ-
  • 30τως μὲν καὶ ἁπλῶς τῇ οὐσίᾳ, εἶτα καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις, ὥσπερ
  • 31καὶ τὸ τί ἐστιν, οὐχ ἁπλῶς τί ἦν εἶναι ἀλλὰ ποιῷ ἢ ποσῷ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus32τί ἦν εἶναι. δεῖ γὰρ ἢ ὁμωνύμως ταῦτα φάναι εἶναι ὄντα,
  • Link 33ἢ προστιθέντας καὶ ἀφαιροῦντας, ὥσπερ καὶ τὸ μὴ ἐπιστητὸν
  • Critical Apparatus34ἐπιστητόν, ἐπεὶ τό γε ὀρθόν ἐστι μήτε ὁμωνύμως φάναι
  • Editor’s Note35μήτε ὡσαύτως ἀλλ' ὥσπερ τὸ ἰατρικὸν τῷ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ
  • 1030b1μὲν καὶ ἕν, οὐ τὸ αὐτὸ δὲ καὶ ἕν, οὐ μέντοι οὐδὲ ὁμωνύμως·
  • Critical Apparatus2οὐδὲ γὰρ ἰατρικὸν σῶμα καὶ ἔργον καὶ σκεῦος λέγεται οὔτε
  • Critical Apparatus Link 3ὁμωνύμως οὔτε καθ' ἓν ἀλλὰ πρὸς ἕν. ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 4ὁποτέρως τις ἐθέλει λέγειν διαφέρει οὐδέν· ἐκεῖνο δὲ φανερὸν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5ὅτι ὁ πρώτως καὶ ἁπλῶς ὁρισμὸς καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι τῶν
  • Critical Apparatus6οὐσιῶν ἐστίν. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁμοίως ἐστί, πλὴν
  • pg 9 Link 7οὐ πρώτως. οὐ γὰρ ἀνάγκη, ἂν τοῦτο τιθῶμεν, τούτου ὁρισμὸν
  • Editor’s Note8εἶναι ὃ ἂν λόγῳ τὸ αὐτὸ σημαίνῃ, ἀλλὰ τινὶ λόγῳ· τοῦτο
  • Critical Apparatus9δὲ ἐὰν ἑνὸς ᾖ, μὴ τῷ συνεχεῖ ὥσπερ ἡ Ἰλιὰς ἢ ὅσα συν-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 10δέσμῳ, ἀλλ' ἐὰν ὁσαχῶς λέγεται τὸ ἕν· τὸ δ' ἓν λέγεται
  • Link 11ὥσπερ τὸ ὄν· τὸ δὲ ὂν τὸ μὲν τόδε τι τὸ δὲ ποσὸν τὸ δὲ
  • Editor’s Note Link 12ποιόν τι σημαίνει. διὸ καὶ λευκοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔσται λόγος καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus13ὁρισμός, ἄλλον δὲ τρόπον καὶ τοῦ λευκοῦ καὶ οὐσίας.
  • 5 Editor’s Note Link 14Ἔχει δ' ἀπορίαν, ἐάν τις μὴ φῇ ὁρισμὸν εἶναι τὸν ἐκ
  • Critical Apparatus15προσθέσεως λόγον, τίνος ἔσται ὁρισμὸς τῶν οὐχ ἁπλῶν ἀλλὰ
  • Link 16συνδεδυασμένων· ἐκ προσθέσεως γὰρ ἀνάγκη δηλοῦν. λέγω
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17δὲ οἷον ἔστι ῥὶς καὶ κοιλότης, καὶ σιμότης τὸ ἐκ τῶν δυοῖν
  • Critical Apparatus18λεγόμενον τῷ τόδε ἐν τῷδε, καὶ οὐ κατὰ συμβεβηκός γε
  • Critical Apparatus19οὔθ' ἡ κοιλότης οὔθ' ἡ σιμότης πάθος τῆς ῥινός, ἀλλὰ καθ'
  • Link 20αὑτήν· οὐδ' ὡς τὸ λευκὸν Καλλίᾳ, ἢ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὅτι Καλλίας
  • 21λευκὸς ᾧ συμβέβηκεν ἀνθρώπῳ εἶναι, ἀλλ' ὡς τὸ ἄρρεν τῷ
  • 22ζῴῳ καὶ τὸ ἴσον τῷ ποσῷ καὶ πάντα ὅσα λέγεται καθ'
  • Link 23αὑτὰ ὑπάρχειν. ταῦτα δ' ἐστὶν ἐν ὅσοις ὑπάρχει ἢ ὁ λόγος ἢ
  • Editor’s Note24τοὔνομα οὗ ἐστὶ τοῦτο τὸ πάθος, καὶ μὴ ἐνδέχεται δηλῶσαι
  • 25χωρίς, ὥσπερ τὸ λευκὸν ἄνευ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐνδέχεται ἀλλ'
  • Critical Apparatus Link 26οὐ τὸ θῆλυ ἄνευ τοῦ ζῴου· ὥστε τούτων τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus27ὁρισμὸς ἢ οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδενὸς ἤ, εἰ ἔστιν, ἄλλως, καθάπερ εἰρήκα-
  • Link 28μεν. ἔστι δὲ ἀπορία καὶ ἑτέρα περὶ αὐτῶν. εἰ μὲν γὰρ τὸ αὐτό
  • Link 29ἐστι σιμὴ ῥὶς καὶ κοίλη ῥίς, τὸ αὐτὸ ἔσται τὸ σιμὸν καὶ τὸ
  • Link 30κοῖλον· εἰ δὲ μή, διὰ τὸ ἀδύνατον εἶναι εἰπεῖν τὸ σιμὸν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 31ἄνευ τοῦ πράγματος οὗ ἐστὶ πάθος καθ' αὑτό (ἔστι γὰρ τὸ σι-
  • 32μὸν κοιλότης ἐν ῥινί), τὸ ῥῖνα σιμὴν εἰπεῖν ἢ οὐκ ἔστιν ἢ δὶς
  • Critical Apparatus33τὸ αὐτὸ ἔσται εἰρημένον, ῥὶς ῥὶς κοίλη (ἡ γὰρ ῥὶς ἡ σιμὴ ῥὶς
  • 34ῥὶς κοίλη ἔσται), διὸ ἄτοπον τὸ ὑπάρχειν τοῖς τοιούτοις τὸ τί
  • Critical Apparatus35ἦν εἶναι· εἰ δὲ μή, εἰς ἄπειρον εἶσιν· ῥινὶ γὰρ ῥινὶ σιμῇ ἔτι
  • 1031aEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 1ἄλλο ἐνέσται. δῆλον τοίνυν ὅτι μόνης τῆς οὐσίας ἐστὶν ὁ
  • Link 2ὁρισμός. εἰ γὰρ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων κατηγοριῶν, ἀνάγκη ἐκ προσ-
  • pg 10Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus3θέσεως εἶναι, οἷον τοῦ †ποιοῦ† καὶ περιττοῦ· οὐ γὰρ ἄνευ ἀριθ-
  • Critical Apparatus4μοῦ, οὐδὲ τὸ θῆλυ ἄνευ ζῴου (τὸ δὲ ἐκ προσθέσεως λέγω ἐν οἷς
  • Link 5συμβαίνει δὶς τὸ αὐτὸ λέγειν ὥσπερ ἐν τούτοις). εἰ δὲ τοῦτο
  • Link 6ἀληθές, οὐδὲ συνδυαζομένων ἔσται, οἷον ἀριθμοῦ περιττοῦ·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 7ἀλλὰ λανθάνει ὅτι οὐκ ἀκριβῶς λέγονται οἱ λόγοι. εἰ δ'
  • Editor’s Note8εἰσὶ καὶ τούτων ὅροι, ἤτοι ἄλλον τρόπον εἰσὶν ἢ καθάπερ
  • Link 9ἐλέχθη πολλαχῶς λεκτέον εἶναι τὸν ὁρισμὸν καὶ τὸ τί ἦν
  • 10εἶναι, ὥστε ὡδὶ μὲν οὐδενὸς ἔσται ὁρισμὸς οὐδὲ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι
  • Link 11οὐδενὶ ὑπάρξει πλὴν ταῖς οὐσίαις, ὡδὶ δ' ἔσται. ὅτι μὲν οὖν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 12ἐστὶν ὁ ὁρισμὸς ὁ τοῦ τί ἦν εἶναι λόγος, καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ἢ
  • Critical Apparatus13μόνων τῶν οὐσιῶν ἐστὶν ἢ μάλιστα καὶ πρώτως καὶ ἁπλῶς,
  • 14δῆλον.
  • 6 Editor’s Note Link 15Πότερον δὲ ταὐτόν ἐστιν ἢ ἕτερον τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ
  • 16ἕκαστον, σκεπτέον. ἔστι γάρ τι πρὸ ἔργου πρὸς τὴν περὶ τῆς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17οὐσίας σκέψιν· ἕκαστόν τε γὰρ οὐκ ἄλλο δοκεῖ εἶναι τῆς
  • Link 18ἑαυτοῦ οὐσίας, καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι λέγεται εἶναι ἡ ἑκάστου οὐσία.
  • Link 19ἐπὶ μὲν δὴ τῶν λεγομένων κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς δόξειεν ἂν
  • 20ἕτερον εἶναι, οἷον λευκὸς ἄνθρωπος ἕτερον καὶ τὸ λευκῷ ἀν-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 21θρώπῳ εἶναι (εἰ γὰρ τὸ αὐτό, καὶ τὸ ἀνθρώπῳ εἶναι καὶ τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus22λευκῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ αὐτό· τὸ αὐτὸ γὰρ ἄνθρωπος καὶ λευ-
  • Critical Apparatus23κὸς ἄνθρωπος, ὡς φασίν, ὥστε καὶ τὸ λευκῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 24τὸ ἀνθρώπῳ· ἢ οὐκ ἀνάγκη ὅσα κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς εἶναι
  • Critical Apparatus25ταὐτά, οὐ γὰρ ὡσαύτως τὰ ἄκρα γίγνεται ταὐτά· ἀλλ'
  • Critical Apparatus26ἴσως γε ἐκεῖνο δόξειεν ἂν συμβαίνειν, τὰ ἄκρα γίγνεσθαι
  • Critical Apparatus Link 27ταὐτὰ τὰ κατὰ συμβεβηκός, οἷον τὸ λευκῷ εἶναι καὶ τὸ μου-
  • Link 28σικῷ· δοκεῖ δὲ οὔ)· ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν καθ' αὑτὰ λεγομένων
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 29ἆρ' ἀνάγκη ταὐτὸ εἶναι, οἷον εἴ τινες εἰσὶν οὐσίαι ὧν ἕτεραι
  • Critical Apparatus30μὴ εἰσὶν οὐσίαι μηδὲ φύσεις ἕτεραι πρότεραι, οἵας φασὶ τὰς
  • Link 31ἰδέας εἶναί τινες; εἰ γὰρ ἔσται ἕτερον αὐτὸ τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ
  • pg 11Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 32τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι, καὶ ζῷον καὶ τὸ ζῴῳ, καὶ τὸ ὄντι καὶ τὸ
  • 1031b Link 1ὄν, ἔσονται ἄλλαι τε οὐσίαι καὶ φύσεις καὶ ἰδέαι παρὰ τὰς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2λεγομένας, καὶ πρότεραι οὐσίαι ἐκεῖναι, εἰ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 3οὐσία ἐστίν. καὶ εἰ μὲν ἀπολελυμέναι ἀλλήλων, τῶν μὲν
  • Editor’s Note4οὐκ ἔσται ἐπιστήμη τὰ δ' οὐκ ἔσται ὄντα (λέγω δὲ τὸ ἀπο-
  • 5λελύσθαι εἰ μήτε τῷ ἀγαθῷ αὐτῷ ὑπάρχει τὸ εἶναι ἀγαθῷ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 6μήτε τούτῳ τὸ εἶναι ἀγαθόν)· ἐπιστήμη τε γὰρ ἑκάστου ἔστιν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 7ὅταν τὸ τί ἦν ἐκείνῳ εἶναι γνῶμεν, καὶ ἐπὶ ἀγαθοῦ καὶ τῶν
  • Critical Apparatus8ἄλλων ὁμοίως ἔχει, ὥστε εἰ μηδὲ τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι ἀγαθόν, οὐδὲ
  • Critical Apparatus9τὸ ὄντι ὂν οὐδὲ τὸ ἑνὶ ἕν· ὁμοίως δὲ πάντα ἔστιν ἢ οὐθὲν τὰ
  • Editor’s Note10τί ἦν εἶναι, ὥστ' εἰ μηδὲ τὸ ὄντι ὄν, οὐδὲ τῶν ἄλλων οὐδέν.
  • Editor’s Note Link 11ἔτι ᾧ μὴ ὑπάρχει ἀγαθῷ εἶναι, οὐκ ἀγαθόν. ἀνάγκη ἄρα
  • Critical Apparatus12ἓν εἶναι τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι καὶ καλὸν καὶ καλῷ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus13εἶναι, ⟨καὶ⟩ ὅσα μὴ κατ' ἄλλο λέγεται, ἀλλὰ καθ' αὑτὰ καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 14πρῶτα· καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο ἱκανὸν ἂν ὑπάρχῃ, κἂν μὴ ᾖ εἴδη,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus15μᾶλλον δ' ἴσως κἂν ᾖ εἴδη (ἅμα δὲ δῆλον καὶ ὅτι εἴπερ
  • Editor’s Note16εἰσὶν αἱ ἰδέαι οἵας τινές φασιν, οὐκ ἔσται τὸ ὑποκείμενον
  • Critical Apparatus17οὐσία· ταύτας γὰρ οὐσίας μὲν ἀναγκαῖον εἶναι, μὴ καθ'
  • Editor’s Note Link 18ὑποκειμένου δέ· ἔσονται γὰρ κατὰ μέθεξιν).—ἔκ τε δὴ τούτων
  • Link 19τῶν λόγων ἓν καὶ ταὐτὸ οὐ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς αὐτὸ ἕκαστον
  • Critical Apparatus20καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, καὶ ὅτι γε τὸ ἐπίστασθαι ἕκαστον τοῦτό
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21ἐστι, τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ἐπίστασθαι, ὥστε καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἔκθεσιν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 22ἀνάγκη ἕν τι εἶναι ἄμφω (τὸ δὲ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς λεγό-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 23μενον, οἷον τὸ μουσικὸν ἢ λευκόν, διὰ τὸ διττὸν σημαίνειν
  • 24οὐκ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν ὡς ταὐτὸ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ αὐτό· καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus25γὰρ ᾧ συμβέβηκε λευκὸν καὶ τὸ συμβεβηκός, ὥστ' ἔστι
  • 26μὲν ὡς ταὐτόν, ἔστι δὲ ὡς οὐ ταὐτὸ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ αὐτό·
  • pg 12Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus27τῷ μὲν γὰρ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ τῷ λευκῷ ἀνθρώπῳ οὐ ταὐτό, τῷ
  • Link 28πάθει δὲ ταὐτό). ἄτοπον δ' ἂν φανείη κἂν εἴ τις ἑκάστῳ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29ὄνομα θεῖτο τῶν τί ἦν εἶναι· ἔσται γὰρ καὶ παρ' ἐκεῖνο
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 30ἄλλο, οἷον τῷ τί ἦν εἶναι ἵππῳ τί ἦν εἶναι [ἵππῳ] ἕτερον.
  • Editor’s Note Link 31καίτοι τί κωλύει καὶ νῦν εἶναι ἔνια εὐθὺς τί ἦν εἶναι, εἴπερ
  • 32οὐσία τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι; ἀλλὰ μὴν οὐ μόνον ἕν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ
  • 1032a1λόγος ὁ αὐτὸς αὐτῶν, ὡς δῆλον καὶ ἐκ τῶν εἰρημένων· οὐ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2γὰρ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς ἓν τὸ ἑνὶ εἶναι καὶ ἕν. ἔτι εἰ ἄλλο
  • Critical Apparatus3ἔσται, εἰς ἄπειρον εἶσιν· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἔσται τί ἦν εἶναι τοῦ ἑνὸς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus4τὸ δὲ τὸ ἕν, ὥστε καὶ ἐπ' ἐκείνων ὁ αὐτὸς ἔσται λόγος. ὅτι
  • Link 5μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τῶν πρώτων καὶ καθ' αὑτὰ λεγομένων τὸ ἑκάστῳ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 6εἶναι καὶ ἕκαστον τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ ἕν ἐστι, δῆλον· οἱ δὲ σοφιστι-
  • Editor’s Note Link 7κοὶ ἔλεγχοι πρὸς τὴν θέσιν ταύτην φανερὸν ὅτι τῇ αὐτῇ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 8λύονται λύσει καὶ εἰ ταὐτὸ Σωκράτης καὶ Σωκράτει εἶναι·
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus9οὐδὲν γὰρ διαφέρει οὔτε ἐξ ὧν ἐρωτήσειεν ἄν τις οὔτε ἐξ ὧν
  • 10λύων ἐπιτύχοι. πῶς μὲν οὖν τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ταὐτὸν καὶ πῶς
  • 11οὐ ταὐτὸν ἑκάστῳ, εἴρηται.
  • 7 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 12Τῶν δὲ γιγνομένων τὰ μὲν φύσει γίγνεται τὰ δὲ
  • Link 13τέχνῃ τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου, πάντα δὲ τὰ γιγνόμενα ὑπό
  • Editor’s Note14τέ τινος γίγνεται καὶ ἔκ τινος καὶ τί· τὸ δὲ τὶ λέγω καθ'
  • Critical Apparatus15ἑκάστην κατηγορίαν· ἢ γὰρ τόδε ἢ ποσὸν ἢ ποιὸν ἢ πού. αἱ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus16δὲ γενέσεις αἱ μὲν φυσικαὶ αὗταί εἰσιν ὧν ἡ γένεσις ἐκ
  • 17φύσεώς ἐστιν, τὸ δ' ἐξ οὗ γίγνεται, ἣν λέγομεν ὕλην, τὸ δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 18ὑφ' οὗ τῶν φύσει τι ὄντων, τὸ δὲ τὶ ἄνθρωπος ἢ φυτὸν
  • Link 19ἢ ἄλλο τι τῶν τοιούτων, ἃ δὴ μάλιστα λέγομεν οὐσίας εἶναι
  • Editor’s Note Link 20—ἅπαντα δὲ τὰ γιγνόμενα ἢ φύσει ἢ τέχνῃ ἔχει ὕλην· δυ-
  • 21νατὸν γὰρ καὶ εἶναι καὶ μὴ εἶναι ἕκαστον αὐτῶν, τοῦτο δ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 22ἐστὶν ἡ ἐν ἑκάστῳ ὕλη—καθόλου δὲ καὶ ἐξ οὗ φύσις καὶ καθ'
  • Editor’s Note23ὃ φύσις (τὸ γὰρ γιγνόμενον ἔχει φύσιν, οἷον φυτὸν ἢ ζῷον)
  • pg 13Editor’s Note24καὶ ὑφ' οὗ ἡ κατὰ τὸ εἶδος λεγομένη φύσις ἡ ὁμοειδής
  • Link 25(αὕτη δὲ ἐν ἄλλῳ)· ἄνθρωπος γὰρ ἄνθρωπον γεννᾷ·—οὕτω μὲν
  • 26οὖν γίγνεται τὰ γιγνόμενα διὰ τὴν φύσιν, αἱ δ' ἄλλαι γε-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus27νέσεις λέγονται ποιήσεις. πᾶσαι δὲ εἰσὶν αἱ ποιήσεις ἢ ἀπὸ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28τέχνης ἢ ἀπὸ δυνάμεως ἢ ἀπὸ διανοίας. τούτων δέ τινες
  • Editor’s Note29γίγνονται καὶ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου καὶ ἀπὸ τύχης παραπλη-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus30σίως ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς ἀπὸ φύσεως γιγνομένοις· ἔνια γὰρ
  • 31κἀκεῖ ταὐτὰ καὶ ἐκ σπέρματος γίγνεται καὶ ἄνευ σπέρ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 32ματος. περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων ὕστερον ἐπισκεπτέον, ἀπὸ τέχνης
  • 1032b Link 1δὲ γίγνεται ὅσων τὸ εἶδος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ (εἶδος δὲ λέγω τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 2τί ἦν εἶναι ἑκάστου καὶ τὴν πρώτην οὐσίαν)· καὶ γὰρ τῶν ἐναν-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 3τίων τρόπον τινὰ τὸ αὐτὸ εἶδος· τῆς γὰρ στερήσεως οὐσία ἡ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus4οὐσία ἡ ἀντικειμένη, οἷον ὑγίεια νόσου, ἐκείνης γὰρ ἀπουσία
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5ἡ νόσος, ἡ δὲ ὑγίεια ὁ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ λόγος καὶ ἡ ἐπι-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 6στήμη. γίγνεται δὲ τὸ ὑγιὲς νοήσαντος οὕτως· ἐπειδὴ τοδὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 7ὑγίεια, ἀνάγκη εἰ ὑγιὲς ἔσται τοδὶ ὑπάρξαι, οἷον ὁμα-
  • 8λότητα, εἰ δὲ τοῦτο, θερμότητα· καὶ οὕτως ἀεὶ νοεῖ, ἕως ἂν
  • Critical Apparatus9ἀγάγῃ εἰς τοῦτο ὃ αὐτὸς δύναται ἔσχατον ποιεῖν. εἶτα ἤδη
  • 10ἡ ἀπὸ τούτου κίνησις ποίησις καλεῖται, ἡ ἐπὶ τὸ ὑγιαίνειν.
  • Critical Apparatus Link 11ὥστε συμβαίνει τρόπον τινὰ τὴν ὑγίειαν ἐξ ὑγιείας γίγνεσθαι
  • Link 12καὶ τὴν οἰκίαν ἐξ οἰκίας, τῆς ἄνευ ὕλης τὴν ἔχουσαν ὕλην·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 13ἡ γὰρ ἰατρική ἐστι καὶ ἡ οἰκοδομικὴ τὸ εἶδος τῆς ὑγιείας
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 14καὶ τῆς οἰκίας, λέγω δὲ οὐσίαν ἄνευ ὕλης τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 15Τῶν δὴ γενέσεων καὶ κινήσεων ἡ μὲν νόησις καλεῖται ἡ δὲ
  • 16ποίησις, ἡ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς καὶ τοῦ εἴδους νόησις ἡ δ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus17ἀπὸ τοῦ τελευταίου τῆς νοήσεως ποίησις. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τῶν
  • Critical Apparatus18ἄλλων τῶν μεταξὺ ἕκαστον γίγνεται. λέγω δ' οἷον εἰ ὑγια-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 19νεῖ, δέοι ἂν ὁμαλυνθῆναι. τί οὖν ἐστὶ τὸ ὁμαλυνθῆναι; τοδί,
  • pg 14Critical Apparatus20τοῦτο δ' ἔσται εἰ θερμανθήσεται. τοῦτο δὲ τί ἐστι; τοδί. ὑπάρ-
  • Critical Apparatus21χει δὲ τοδὶ δυνάμει· τοῦτο δὲ ἤδη ἐπ' αὐτῷ. τὸ δὴ ποιοῦν
  • Critical Apparatus22καὶ ὅθεν ἄρχεται ἡ κίνησις τοῦ ὑγιαίνειν, ἂν μὲν ἀπὸ
  • Link 23τέχνης, τὸ εἶδός ἐστι τὸ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ, ἐὰν δ' ἀπὸ ταὐτο-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 24μάτου, ἀπὸ τούτου ὅ ποτε τοῦ ποιεῖν ἄρχει τῷ ποιοῦντι ἀπὸ
  • 25τέχνης, ὥσπερ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἰατρεύειν ἴσως ἀπὸ τοῦ θερμαίνειν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus26ἡ ἀρχή (τοῦτο δὲ ποιεῖ τῇ τρίψε)· ἡ θερμότης τοίνυν ἡ ἐν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus27τῷ σώματι ἢ μέρος τῆς ὑγιείας ἢ ἕπεταί τι αὐτῇ τοιοῦτον
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus28ὅ ἐστι μέρος τῆς ὑγιείας, ἢ διὰ πλειόνων· τοῦτο δ' ἔσχα-
  • Critical Apparatus29τόν ἐστι, τὸ ποιοῦν τὸ μέρος τῆς ὑγιείας,—καὶ τῆς οἰκίας
  • Editor’s Note Link 30(οἷον οἱ λίθοι) καὶ τῶν ἄλλων· ὥστε, καθάπερ λέγεται, ἀδύ-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 31νατον γενέσθαι εἰ μηδὲν προϋπάρχοι. ὅτι μὲν οὖν τι μέρος
  • Editor’s Note32ἐξ ἀνάγκης ὑπάρξει φανερόν· ἡ γὰρ ὕλη μέρος (ἐνυπάρ-
  • 1033aEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 1χει γὰρ καὶ γίγνεται αὕτη)· ἀλλ' ἆρα καὶ τῶν ἐν τῷ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 2λόγῳ; ἀμφοτέρως δὴ λέγομεν τοὺς χαλκοῦς κύκλους τί εἰσι,
  • Critical Apparatus Link 3καὶ τὴν ὕλην λέγοντες ὅτι χαλκός, καὶ τὸ εἶδος ὅτι σχῆμα
  • Critical Apparatus4τοιόνδε, καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ γένος εἰς ὃ πρῶτον τίθεται. ὁ δὴ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 5χαλκοῦς κύκλος ἔχει ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τὴν ὕλην.—ἐξ οὗ δὲ ὡς
  • 6ὕλης γίγνεται ἔνια λέγεται, ὅταν γένηται, οὐκ ἐκεῖνο ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus7ἐκείνινον, οἷον ὁ ἀνδριὰς οὐ λίθος ἀλλὰ λίθινος, ὁ δὲ ἄνθρω-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus8πος ὁ ὑγιαίνων οὐ λέγεται ἐκεῖνο ἐξ οὗ· αἴτιον δὲ ὅτι γίγνε-
  • 9ται ἐκ τῆς στερήσεως καὶ τοῦ ὑποκειμένου, ὃ λέγομεν τὴν
  • 10ὕλην. (οἷον καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ ὁ κάμνων γίγνεται ὑγιης),
  • Critical Apparatus11μᾶλλον μέντοι λέγεται γίγνεσθαι ἐκ τῆς στερήσεως, οἷον ἐκ
  • Critical Apparatus12κάμνοντος ὑγιὴς ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπου, διὸ κάμνων μὲν ὁ ὑγιὴς οὐ
  • Critical Apparatus13λέγεται, ἄνθρωπος δέ, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὑγιής· ὧν δ' ἡ στέρησις
  • pg 15Critical Apparatus14ἄδηλος καὶ ἀνώνυμος, οἷον ἐν χαλκῷ σχήματος ὁποιουοῦν ἢ
  • Editor’s Note15ἐν πλίνθοις καὶ ξύλοις οἰκίας, ἐκ τούτων δοκεῖ γίγνεσθαι ὡς
  • Link 16ἐκεῖ ἐκ κάμνοντος· διὸ ὥσπερ οὐδ' ἐκεῖ ἐξ οὗ τοῦτο, ἐκεῖνο οὐ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17λέγεται, οὐδ' ἐνταῦθα ὁ ἀνδριὰς ξύλον, ἀλλὰ παράγεται
  • Critical Apparatus18ξύλινος, [οὐ ξύλον,] καὶ χαλκοῦς ἀλλ' οὐ χαλκός, καὶ λίθινος
  • 19ἀλλ' οὐ λίθος, καὶ ἡ οἰκία πλινθίνη ἀλλ' οὐ πλίνθοι, ἐπεὶ οὐδὲ
  • 20ὡς ἐκ ξύλου γίγνεται ἀνδριὰς ἢ ἐκ πλίνθων οἰκία, ἐάν τις
  • Critical Apparatus21ἐπιβλέπῃ σφόδρα, οὐκ ἂν ἁπλῶς εἴπειεν, διὰ τὸ δεῖν μετα-
  • 22βάλλοντος γίγνεσθαι ἐξ οὗ, ἀλλ' οὐχ ὑπομένοντος. διὰ μὲν
  • 23οὖν τοῦτο οὕτως λέγεται.
  • 8 Editor’s Note Link 24Ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑπό τινός τε γίγνεται τὸ γιγνόμενον (τοῦτο δὲ
  • 25λέγω ὅθεν ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς γενέσεώς ἐστι) καὶ ἔκ τινος (ἔστω δὲ
  • Editor’s Note26μὴ ἡ στέρησις τοῦτο ἀλλ' ἡ ὕλη· ἤδη γὰρ διώρισται ὃν τρό-
  • Critical Apparatus27πον τοῦτο λέγομεν) καὶ τὶ γίγνεται (τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶν ἢ σφαῖρα
  • Link 28ἢ κύκλος ἢ ὅ τι ἔτυχε τῶν ἄλλων), ὥσπερ οὐδὲ τὸ ὑποκεί-
  • 29μενον ποιεῖ, τὸν χαλκόν, οὕτως οὐδὲ τὴν σφαῖραν, εἰ μὴ
  • 30κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς ὅτι ἡ χαλκῆ σφαῖρα σφαῖρά ἐστιν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 31ἐκείνην δὲ ποιεῖ. τὸ γὰρ τόδε τι ποιεῖν ἐκ τοῦ ὅλως ὑποκει-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus32μένου τόδε τι ποιεῖν ἐστίν (λέγω δ' ὅτι τὸν χαλκὸν στρογγύ-
  • Critical Apparatus33λον ποιεῖν ἐστὶν οὐ τὸ στρογγύλον ἢ τὴν σφαῖραν ποιεῖν ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s Note34ἕτερόν τι, οἷον τὸ εἶδος τοῦτο ἐν ἄλλῳ· εἰ γὰρ ποιεῖ, ἔκ
  • 1033bEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus1τινος ἂν ποιοίη ἄλλου, τοῦτο γὰρ ὑπέκειτο· οἷον ποιεῖ χαλ-
  • 2κῆν σφαῖραν, τοῦτο δὲ οὕτως ὅτι ἐκ τουδί, ὅ ἐστι χαλκός,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus3τοδὶ ποιεῖ, ὅ ἐστι σφαῖρα)· εἰ οὖν καὶ τοῦτο ποιεῖ αὐτό, δῆλον
  • 4ὅτι ὡσαύτως ποιήσει, καὶ βαδιοῦνται αἱ γενέσεις εἰς ἄπει-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 5ρον. φανερὸν ἄρα ὅτι οὐδὲ τὸ εἶδος, ἢ ὁτιδήποτε χρὴ καλεῖν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus6τὴν ἐν τῷ αἰσθητῷ μορφήν, οὐ γίγνεται, οὐδ' ἔστιν αὐτοῦ γένε-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus7σις, οὐδὲ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι (τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν ὃ ἐν ἄλλῳ γίγνεται
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus8ἢ ὑπὸ τέχνης ἢ ὑπὸ φύσεως ἢ δυνάμεως). τὸ δὲ χαλκῆν
  • Critical Apparatus9σφαῖραν εἶναι ποιεῖ· ποιεῖ γὰρ ἐκ χαλκοῦ καὶ σφαίρας·
  • Critical Apparatus10εἰς τοδὶ γὰρ τὸ εἶδος ποιεῖ, καὶ ἔστι τοῦτο σφαῖρα χαλκῆ.
  • pg 16Critical Apparatus11τοῦ δὲ σφαίρᾳ εἶναι ὅλως εἰ ἔσται γένεσις, ἔκ τινος τὶ ἔσται.
  • Critical Apparatus12δεήσει γὰρ διαιρετὸν εἶναι ἀεὶ τὸ γιγνόμενον, καὶ εἶναι τὸ
  • 13μὲν τόδε τὸ δὲ τόδε, λέγω δ' ὅτι τὸ μὲν ὕλην τὸ δὲ εἶδος.
  • Editor’s Note14εἰ δή ἐστι σφαῖρα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ μέσου σχῆμα ἴσον, τούτου τὸ μὲν
  • Critical Apparatus15ἐν ᾧ ἔσται ὃ ποιεῖ, τὸ δ' ἐν ἐκείνῳ, τὸ δὲ ἅπαν τὸ γεγονός,
  • Editor’s Note16οἷον ἡ χαλκῆ σφαῖρα. φανερὸν δὴ ἐκ τῶν εἰρημένων ὅτι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus17τὸ μὲν ὡς εἶδος ἢ οὐσία λεγόμενον οὐ γίγνεται, ἡ δὲ σύνολος
  • Critical Apparatus18ἡ κατὰ ταύτην λεγομένη γίγνεται, καὶ ὅτι ἐν παντὶ τῷ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 19γεννωμένῳ ὕλη ἔνεστι, καὶ ἔστι τὸ μὲν τόδε τὸ δὲ τόδε.—πότε-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 20ρον οὖν ἔστι τις σφαῖρα παρὰ τάσδε ἢ οἰκία παρὰ τὰς πλίν-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21θους; ἢ οὐδ' ἄν ποτε ἐγίγνετο, εἰ οὕτως ἦν, τόδε τι, ἀλλὰ τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus22τοιόνδε σημαίνει, τόδε δὲ καὶ ὡρισμένον οὐκ ἔστιν, ἀλλὰ ποιεῖ
  • 23καὶ γεννᾷ ἐκ τοῦδε τοιόνδε, καὶ ὅταν γεννηθῇ, ἔστι τόδε
  • Editor’s Note Link 24τοιόνδε; τὸ δὲ ἅπαν τόδε, Καλλίας ἢ Σωκράτης, ἐστὶν ὥσπερ
  • 25ἡ σφαῖρα ἡ χαλκῆ ἡδί, ὁ δ' ἄνθρωπος καὶ τὸ ζῷον ὥσπερ
  • Editor’s Note Link 26σφαῖρα χαλκῆ ὅλως. φανερὸν ἄρα ὅτι ἡ τῶν εἰδῶν αἰτία,
  • 27ὡς εἰώθασί τινες λέγειν τὰ εἴδη, εἰ ἔστιν ἄττα παρὰ τὰ καθ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus28ἕκαστα, πρός γε τὰς γενέσεις καὶ τὰς οὐσίας οὐθὲν χρησίμη·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29οὐδ' ἂν εἶεν διά γε ταῦτα οὐσίαι καθ' αὑτάς. ἐπὶ μὲν δή
  • Critical Apparatus30τινων καὶ φανερὸν ὅτι τὸ γεννῶν τοιοῦτον μὲν οἷον τὸ γεννώ-
  • Critical Apparatus31μενον, οὐ μέντοι τὸ αὐτό γε, οὐδὲ ἓν τῷ ἀριθμῷ ἀλλὰ τῷ
  • Link 32εἴδει, οἷον ἐν τοῖς φυσικοῖς—ἄνθρωπος γὰρ ἄνθρωπον γεννᾷ—
  • Editor’s Note Link 33ἂν μή τι παρὰ φύσιν γένηται, οἷον ἵππος ἡμίονον (καὶ
  • 34ταῦτα δὲ ὁμοίως· ὃ γὰρ ἂν κοινὸν εἴη ἐφ' ἵππου καὶ ὄνου
  • 1034aEditor’s Note1οὐκ ὠνόμασται, τὸ ἐγγύτατα γένος, εἴη δ' ἂν ἄμφω ἴσως,
  • 2οἷον ἡμίονος). ὥστε φανερὸν ὅτι οὐθὲν δεῖ ὡς παράδειγμα εἶδος
  • Editor’s Note Link 3κατασκευάζειν (μάλιστα γὰρ ἂν ἐν τούτοις ἐπεζητοῦντο·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 4οὐσίαι γὰρ αἱ μάλιστα αὗται) ἀλλὰ ἱκανὸν τὸ γεννῶν ποιῆ-
  • Link 5σαι καὶ τοῦ εἴδους αἴτιον εἶναι ἐν τῇ ὕλῃ. τὸ δ' ἅπαν ἤδη,
  • pg 176τὸ τοιόνδε εἶδος ἐν ταῖσδε ταῖς σαρξὶ καὶ ὀστοῖς, Καλλίας
  • 7καὶ Σωκράτης· καὶ ἕτερον μὲν διὰ τὴν ὕλην (ἑτέρα γάρ),
  • Critical Apparatus8ταὐτὸ δὲ τῷ εἴδει (ἄτομον γὰρ τὸ εἶδος).
  • 9 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus9Ἀπορήσειε δ' ἄν τις διὰ τί τὰ μὲν γίγνεται καὶ τέχνῃ
  • 10καὶ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου, οἷον ὑγίεια, τὰ δ' οὔ, οἷον οἰκία. αἴτιον
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11δὲ ὅτι τῶν μὲν ἡ ὕλη ἡ ἄρχουσα τῆς γενέσεως ἐν τῷ ποιεῖν
  • Editor’s Note12καὶ γίγνεσθαί τι τῶν ἀπὸ τέχνης, ἐν ᾗ ὑπάρχει τι μέρος
  • Editor’s Note13τοῦ πράγματος,—ἡ μὲν τοιαύτη ἐστὶν οἵα κινεῖσθαι ὑφ' αὑτῆς
  • Critical Apparatus14ἡ δ' οὔ, καὶ ταύτης ἡ μὲν ὡδὶ οἵα τε ἡ δὲ ἀδύνατος· πολλὰ
  • Critical Apparatus15γὰρ δυνατὰ μὲν ὑφ' αὑτῶν κινεῖσθαι ἀλλ' οὐχ ὡδί, οἷον
  • Critical Apparatus16ὀρχήσασθαι. ὅσων οὖν τοιαύτη ἡ ὕλη, οἷον οἱ λίθοι, ἀδύνα-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus17τον ὡδὶ κινηθῆναι εἰ μὴ ὑπ' ἄλλου, ὡδὶ μέντοι ναί—καὶ τὸ
  • Editor’s Note18πῦρ. διὰ τοῦτο τὰ μὲν οὐκ ἔσται ἄνευ τοῦ ἔχοντος τὴν τέχνην
  • Editor’s Note19τὰ δὲ ἔσται· ὑπὸ γὰρ τούτων κινηθήσεται τῶν οὐκ ἐχόντων
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus20τὴν τέχνην, κινεῖσθαι δὲ δυναμένων αὐτῶν ὑπ' ἄλλων
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21οὐκ ἐχόντων τὴν τέχνην ἢ ἐκ μέρους. δῆλον δ' ἐκ τῶν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22εἰρημένων καὶ ὅτι τρόπον τινὰ πάντα γίγνεται ἐξ ὁμωνύμου,
  • Critical Apparatus23ὥσπερ τὰ φύσει, ἢ ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου (οἷον ἡ οἰκία ἐξ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus24οἰκίας, ᾗ ὑπὸ νοῦ· ἡ γὰρ τέχνη τὸ εἶδος) [ἢ ἐκ μέρους] ἢ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus25ἔχοντός τι μέρος,—ἐὰν μὴ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς γίγνηται· τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus26γὰρ αἴτιον τοῦ ποιεῖν πρῶτον καθ' αὑτὸ μέρος. θερμότης γὰρ
  • 27ἡ ἐν τῇ κινήσει θερμότητα ἐν τῷ σώματι ἐποίησεν· αὕτη
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus28δὲ ἐστὶν ἢ ὑγίεια ἢ μέρος, ἢ ἀκολουθεῖ αὐτῇ μέρος τι τῆς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus29ὑγιείας ἢ αὐτὴ ἡ ὑγίεια· διὸ καὶ λέγεται ποιεῖν, ὅτι ἐκεῖνο
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 30ποιεῖ [τὴν ὑγίειαν] ᾧ ἀκολουθεῖ καὶ συμβέβηκε [θερμότης]. ὥστε,
  • 31ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς συλλογισμοῖς, πάντων ἀρχὴ ἡ οὐσία· ἐκ γὰρ
  • 32τοῦ τί ἐστιν οἱ συλλογισμοί εἰσιν, ἐνταῦθα δὲ αἱ γενέσεις.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 33ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὰ φύσει συνιστάμενα τούτοις ἔχει. τὸ μὲν
  • pg 18Critical Apparatus34γὰρ σπέρμα ποιεῖ ὥσπερ τὰ ἀπὸ τέχνης (ἔχει γὰρ δυνά-
  • 1034bCritical Apparatus1μει τὸ εἶδος, καὶ ἀφ' οὗ τὸ σπέρμα, ἐστί πως ὁμώνυμον—οὐ
  • 2γὰρ πάντα οὕτω δεῖ ζητεῖν ὡς ἐξ ἀνθρώπου ἄνθρωπος· καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus3γὰρ γυνὴ ἐξ ἀνδρός—ἐὰν μὴ πήρωμα ᾖ· διὸ ἡμίονος οὐκ
  • Editor’s Note Link 4ἐξ ἡμιόνου)· ὅσα δὲ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου ὥσπερ ἐκεῖ γίγνε-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5ται, ὅσων ἡ ὕλη δύναται καὶ ὑφ' αὑτῆς κινεῖσθαι ταύτην
  • 6τὴν κίνησιν ἣν τὸ σπέρμα κινεῖ· ὅσων δὲ μή, ταῦτα ἀδύ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 7νατα γίγνεσθαι ἄλλως πως ἢ ἐξ αὐτῶν.—οὐ μόνον δὲ περὶ
  • Link 8τῆς οὐσίας ὁ λόγος δηλοῖ τὸ μὴ γίγνεσθαι τὸ εἶδος, ἀλλὰ
  • Editor’s Note9περὶ πάντων ὁμοίως τῶν πρώτων κοινὸς ὁ λόγος, οἷον ποσοῦ
  • 10ποιοῦ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων κατηγοριῶν. γίγνεται γὰρ ὥσπερ ἡ
  • Editor’s Note11χαλκῆ σφαῖρα ἀλλ' οὐ σφαῖρα οὐδὲ χαλκός, καὶ ἐπὶ
  • Critical Apparatus12χαλκοῦ, εἰ γίγνεται (ἀεὶ γὰρ δεῖ προϋπάρχειν τὴν ὕλην
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus13καὶ τὸ εἶδος), οὕτως καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ τί ἐστι καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ ποιοῦ καὶ
  • 14ποσοῦ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁμοίως κατηγοριῶν· οὐ γὰρ γίγνεται
  • 15τὸ ποιὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ποιὸν ξύλον, οὐδὲ τὸ ποσὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ πο-
  • Editor’s Note Link 16σὸν ξύλον ἢ ζῷον. ἀλλ' ἴδιον τῆς οὐσίας ἐκ τούτων λαβεῖν
  • Critical Apparatus17ἔστιν ὅτι ἀναγκαῖον προϋπάρχειν ἑτέραν οὐσίαν ἐντελεχείᾳ
  • Critical Apparatus18οὖσαν ἣ ποιεῖ, οἷον ζῷον εἰ γίγνεται ζῷον· ποιὸν δ' ἢ ποσὸν
  • Critical Apparatus19οὐκ ἀνάγκη ἀλλ' ἢ δυνάμει μόνον.
  • 10 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 20Ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ ὁρισμὸς λόγος ἐστί, πᾶς δὲ λόγος μέρη ἔχει,
  • Critical Apparatus21ὡς δὲ ὁ λόγος πρὸς τὸ πρᾶγμα, καὶ τὸ μέρος τοῦ λόγου πρὸς
  • Link 22τὸ μέρος τοῦ πράγματος ὁμοίως ἔχει, ἀπορεῖται ἤδη πότερον
  • Link 23δεῖ τὸν τῶν μερῶν λόγον ἐνυπάρχειν ἐν τῷ τοῦ ὅλου λόγῳ
  • Critical Apparatus24ἢ οὔ. ἐπ' ἐνίων μὲν γὰρ φαίνονται ἐνόντες ἐνίων δ' οὔ. τοῦ μὲν
  • Critical Apparatus25γὰρ κύκλου ὁ λόγος οὐκ ἔχει τὸν τῶν τμημάτων, ὁ δὲ τῆς
  • Critical Apparatus26συλλαβῆς ἔχει τὸν τῶν στοιχείων· καίτοι διαιρεῖται καὶ ὁ
  • 27κύκλος εἰς τὰ τμήματα ὥσπερ καὶ ἡ συλλαβὴ εἰς τὰ στοι-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28χεῖα. ἔτι δὲ εἰ πρότερα τὰ μέρη τοῦ ὅλου, τῆς δὲ ὀρθῆς ἡ
  • pg 19Critical Apparatus29ὀξεῖα μέρος καὶ ὁ δάκτυλος τοῦ ζῴου, πρότερον ἂν εἴη ἡ ὀξεῖα
  • Link 30τῆς ὀρθῆς καὶ ὁ δάκτυλος τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. δοκεῖ δ' ἐκεῖνα εἶναι
  • Editor’s Note31πρότερα· τῷ λόγῳ γὰρ λέγονται ἐξ ἐκείνων, καὶ τῷ εἶναι
  • Link 32δὲ ἄνευ ἀλλήλων πρότερα.—ἢ πολλαχῶς λέγεται τὸ μέρος,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus33ὧν εἷς μὲν τρόπος τὸ μετροῦν κατὰ τὸ ποσόν—ἀλλὰ τοῦτο
  • 34μὲν ἀφείσθω· ἐξ ὧν δὲ ἡ οὐσία ὡς μερῶν, τοῦτο σκεπτέον.
  • 1035a Link 1εἰ οὖν ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ὕλη τὸ δὲ εἶδος τὸ δ' ἐκ τούτων, καὶ
  • 2οὐσία ἥ τε ὕλη καὶ τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὸ ἐκ τούτων, ἔστι μὲν ὡς
  • 3καὶ ἡ ὕλη μέρος τινὸς λέγεται, ἔστι δ' ὡς οὔ, ἀλλ' ἐξ ὧν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 4ὁ τοῦ εἴδους λόγος. οἷον τῆς μὲν κοιλότητος οὐκ ἔστι μέρος
  • Critical Apparatus5ἡ σάρξ (αὕτη γὰρ ἡ ὕλη ἐφ' ἧς γίγνεται), τῆς δὲ σιμό-
  • Critical Apparatus6τητος μέρος· καὶ τοῦ μὲν συνόλου ἀνδριάντος μέρος ὁ χαλ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 7κὸς τοῦ δ' ὡς εἴδους λεγομένου ἀνδριάντος οὔ (λεκτέον γὰρ
  • 8τὸ εἶδος καὶ ᾗ εἶδος ἔχει ἕκαστον, τὸ δ' ὑλικὸν οὐδέποτε
  • Link 9καθ' αὑτὸ λεκτέον)· διὸ ὁ μὲν τοῦ κύκλου λόγος οὐκ ἔχει
  • Critical Apparatus10τὸν τῶν τμημάτων, ὁ δὲ τῆς συλλαβῆς ἔχει τὸν τῶν στοιχείων·
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11τὰ μὲν γὰρ στοιχεῖα τοῦ λόγου μέρη τοῦ εἴδους καὶ οὐχ ὕλη,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus12τὰ δὲ τμήματα οὕτως μέρη ὡς ὕλη ἐφ' ἧς ἐπιγίγνεται·
  • Editor’s Note13ἐγγυτέρω μέντοι τοῦ εἴδους ἢ ὁ χαλκὸς ὅταν ἐν χαλκῷ ἡ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 14στρογγυλότης ἐγγένηται. ἔστι δ' ὡς, οὐδὲ τὰ στοιχεῖα πάντα
  • Critical Apparatus15τῆς συλλαβῆς ἐν τῷ λόγῳ ἐνέσται, οἷον ταδὶ τὰ κήρινα
  • Editor’s Note16ἢ τὰ ἐν τῷ ἀέρι· ἤδη γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα μέρος τῆς συλλα-
  • Link 17βῆς ὡς ὕλη αἰσθητή. καὶ γὰρ ἡ γραμμὴ οὐκ εἰ διαιρου-
  • Link 18μένη εἰς τὰ ἡμίση φθείρεται, ἢ ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς τὰ ὀστᾶ
  • Critical Apparatus19καὶ νεῦρα καὶ σάρκας, διὰ τοῦτο καὶ εἰσὶν ἐκ τούτων οὕτως
  • Editor’s Note20ὡς ὄντων τῆς οὐσίας μερῶν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐξ ὕλης, καὶ τοῦ μὲν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21συνόλου μέρη, τοῦ εἴδους δὲ καὶ οὗ ὁ λόγος οὐκέτι· διόπερ οὐδ'
  • Critical Apparatus22ἐν τοῖς λόγοις. τῷ μὲν οὖν ἐνέσται ὁ τῶν τοιούτων μερῶν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 23λόγος, τῷ δ' οὐ δεῖ ἐνεῖναι, ἂν μὴ ᾖ τοῦ συνειλημμένου·
  • pg 2024διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο ἔνια μὲν ἐκ τούτων ὡς ἀρχῶν ἐστὶν εἰς ἃ
  • Critical Apparatus25φθείρονται, ἔνια δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν. ὅσα μὲν οὖν συνειλημμένα τὸ
  • 26εἶδος καὶ ἡ ὕλη ἐστίν, οἷον τὸ σιμὸν ἢ ὁ χαλκοῦς κύκλος,
  • 27ταῦτα μὲν φθείρεται εἰς ταῦτα καὶ μέρος αὐτῶν ἡ ὕλη·
  • Critical Apparatus28ὅσα δὲ μὴ συνείληπται τῇ ὕλῃ ἀλλὰ ἄνευ ὕλης, ὧν οἱ
  • Editor’s Note29λόγοι τοῦ εἴδους μόνον, ταῦτα δ' οὐ φθείρεται, ἢ ὅλως ἢ
  • Critical Apparatus30οὔτοι οὕτω γε· ὥστ' ἐκείνων μὲν ἀρχαὶ καὶ μέρη ταῦτα
  • Critical Apparatus31τοῦ δὲ εἴδους οὔτε μέρη οὔτε ἀρχαί. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 32φθείρεται ὁ πήλινος ἀνδριὰς εἰς πηλὸν καὶ ἡ σφαῖρα
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus33εἰς χαλκὸν καὶ ὁ Καλλίας εἰς σάρκα καὶ ὀστᾶ, ἔτι δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus34ὁ κύκλος εἰς τὰ τμήματα· ἔστι γάρ τις ὃς συνείληπται τῇ
  • 1035b Link 1ὕλῃ· ὁμωνύμως γὰρ λέγεται κύκλος ὅ τε ἁπλῶς λεγό-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus2μενος καὶ ὁ καθ' ἕκαστα διὰ τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἴδιον ὄνομα τοῖς
  • Link 3καθ' ἕκαστον.—εἴρηται μὲν οὖν καὶ νῦν τὸ ἀληθές, ὅμως δ' ἔτι
  • Link 4σαφέστερον εἴπωμεν ἐπαναλαβόντες. ὅσα μὲν γὰρ τοῦ λόγου
  • Editor’s Note Link 5μέρη καὶ εἰς ἃ διαιρεῖται ὁ λόγος, ταῦτα πρότερα ἢ
  • 6πάντα ἢ ἔνια· ὁ δὲ τῆς ὀρθῆς λόγος οὐ διαιρεῖται εἰς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus7ὀξείας λόγον, ἀλλ' ⟨ὁ⟩ τῆς ὀξείας εἰς ὀρθήν· χρῆται γὰρ ὁ
  • Link 8ὁριζόμενος τὴν ὀξεῖαν τῇ ὀρθῇ· "ἐλάττων" γὰρ "ὀρθῆς" ἡ ὀξεῖα.
  • Critical Apparatus Link 9ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ὁ κύκλος καὶ τὸ ἡμικύκλιον ἔχουσιν· τὸ
  • Link 10γὰρ ἡμικύκλιον τῷ κύκλῳ ὁρίζεται καὶ ὁ δάκτυλος τῷ
  • Link 11ὅλῳ· "τὸ" γὰρ "τοιόνδε μέρος ἀνθρώπου" δάκτυλος. ὤσθ' ὅσα
  • Critical Apparatus12μὲν μέρη ὡς ὕλη καὶ εἰς ἃ διαιρεῖται ὡς ὕλην, ὕστερα·
  • Link 13ὅσα δὲ ὡς τοῦ λόγου καὶ τῆς οὐσίας τῆς κατὰ τὸν λόγον,
  • Editor’s Note Link 14πρότερα ἢ πάντα ἢ ἔνια. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ τῶν ζῴων ψυχή
  • 15(τοῦτο γὰρ οὐσία τοῦ ἐμψύχου) ἡ κατὰ τὸν λόγον οὐσία καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 16τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι τῷ τοιῷδε σώματι (ἕκαστον
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17γοῦν τὸ μέρος ἐὰν ὁρίζηται καλῶς, οὐκ ἄνευ τοῦ ἔργου ὁριεῖ-
  • Editor’s Note Link 18ται, ὃ οὐχ ὑπάρξει ἄνευ αἰσθήσεως), ὥστε τὰ ταύτης μέρη
  • pg 21Editor’s Note19πρότερα ἢ πάντα ἢ ἔνια τοῦ συνόλου ζῴου, καὶ καθ' ἕκα-
  • 20στον δὴ ὁμοίως, τὸ δὲ σῶμα καὶ τὰ τούτου μόρια ὕστερα
  • Critical Apparatus Link 21ταύτης τῆς οὐσίας, καὶ διαιρεῖται εἰς ταῦτα ὡς εἰς ὕλην
  • Critical Apparatus22οὐχ ἡ οὐσία ἀλλὰ τὸ σύνολον,—τοῦ μὲν οὖν συνόλου πρότερα
  • Editor’s Note Link 23ταῦτ' ἔστιν ὥς, ἔστι δ' ὡς οὔ (οὐδὲ γὰρ εἶναι δύναται χωρι-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 24ζόμενα· οὐ γὰρ ὁ πάντως ἔχων δάκτυλος ζῴου, ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 25ὁμώνυμος ὁ τεθνεώς)· ἔνια δὲ ἅμα, ὅσα κύρια καὶ ἐν ᾧ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus26πρώτῳ ὁ λόγος καὶ ἡ οὐσία, οἷον εἰ τοῦτο καρδία ἢ ἐγκέ-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 27φαλος· διαφέρει γὰρ οὐθὲν πότερον τοιοῦτον. ὁ δ' ἄνθρωπος
  • Critical Apparatus28καὶ ὁ ἵππος καὶ τὰ οὕτως ἐπὶ τῶν καθ' ἕκαστα, καθόλου δέ,
  • Editor’s Note29οὐκ ἔστιν οὐσία ἀλλὰ σύνολόν τι ἐκ τουδὶ τοῦ λόγου καὶ τησδὶ
  • Editor’s Note Link 30τῆς ὕλης ὡς καθόλου· καθ' ἕκαστον δ' ἐκ τῆς ἐσχάτης ὕλης ὁ
  • Link 31Σωκράτης ἤδη ἐστίν, καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁμοίως.—μέρος μὲν οὖν
  • Link 32ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ εἴδους (εἶδος δὲ λέγω τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι) καὶ τοῦ συνόλου
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 33τοῦ ἐκ τοῦ εἴδους καὶ τῆς ὕλης ⟨καὶ τῆς ὕλης⟩ αὐτῆς. ἀλλὰ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 34τοῦ λόγου μέρη τὰ τοῦ εἴδους μόνον ἐστίν, ὁ δὲ λόγος ἐστὶ τοῦ
  • 1036a Link 1καθόλου· τὸ γὰρ κύκλῳ εἶναι καὶ κύκλος καὶ ψυχῇ εἶναι
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2καὶ ψυχὴ ταὐτό. τοῦ δὲ συνόλου ἤδη, οἷον κύκλου τουδὶ
  • Critical Apparatus3καὶ τῶν καθ' ἕκαστά τινος ἢ αἰσθητοῦ ἢ νοητοῦ—λέγω δὲ νοητοὺς
  • Editor’s Note4μὲν οἷον τοὺς μαθηματικούς, αἰσθητοὺς δὲ οἷον τοὺς χαλκοῦς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus5καὶ τοὺς ξυλίνους—τούτων δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν ὁρισμός, ἀλλὰ μετὰ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus6νοήσεως ἢ αἰσθήσεως γνωρίζονται, ἀπελθόντες δὲ ἐκ τῆς
  • Critical Apparatus7ἐντελεχείας οὐ δῆλον πότερον εἰσὶν ἢ οὐκ εἰσίν· ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s Note Link 8ἀεὶ λέγονται καὶ γνωρίζονται τῷ καθόλου λόγῳ. ἡ δ' ὕλη
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 9ἄγνωστος καθ' αὑτήν. ὕλη δὲ ἡ μὲν αἰσθητή ἐστιν ἡ δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus10νοητή, αἰσθητὴ μὲν οἷον χαλκὸς καὶ ξύλον καὶ ὅση κινητὴ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11ὕλη, νοητὴ δὲ ἡ ἐν τοῖς αἰσθητοῖς ὑπάρχουσα μὴ ᾗ αἰσθητά,
  • Critical Apparatus12οἷον τὰ μαθηματικά. πῶς μὲν οὖν ἔχει περὶ ὅλου καὶ μέ-
  • pg 2213ρους καὶ περὶ τοῦ προτέρου καὶ ὑστέρου, εἴρηται· πρὸς δὲ τὴν
  • 14ἐρώτησιν ἀνάγκη ἀπαντᾶν, ὅταν τις ἔρηται πότερον ἡ ὀρθὴ
  • Critical Apparatus15καὶ ὁ κύκλος καὶ τὸ ζῷον πρότερον ἢ εἰς ἃ διαιροῦνται
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus16καὶ ἐξ ὧν εἰσί, τὰ μέρη, ὅτι οὐχ ἁπλῶς. εἰ μὲν γάρ ἐστι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus17καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ ζῷον ἢ ἔμψυχον, ἢ ἕκαστον ἡ ἑκάστου, καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus18κύκλος τὸ κύκλῳ εἶναι, καὶ ὀρθὴ τὸ ὀρθῇ εἶναι καὶ ἡ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus19οὐσία ἡ τῆς ὀρθῆς, τὶ μὲν καὶ τινὸς φατέον ὕστερον, οἷον
  • Critical Apparatus20τῶν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ καὶ τινὸς ὀρθῆς (καὶ γὰρ ἡ μετὰ τῆς
  • Critical Apparatus21ὕλης, ἡ χαλκῆ ὀρθή, καὶ ἡ ἐν ταῖς γραμμαῖς ταῖς καθ'
  • Critical Apparatus Link 22ἕκαστα), ἡ δ' ἄνευ ὕλης τῶν μὲν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ ὑστέρα τῶν
  • 23δ' ἐν τῷ καθ' ἕκαστα μορίων προτέρα, ἁπλῶς δ' οὐ φατέον·
  • 24εἰ δ' ἑτέρα καὶ μὴ ἔστιν ἡ ψυχὴ ζῷον, καὶ οὕτω τὰ μὲν
  • 25φατέον τὰ δ' οὐ φατέον, ὥσπερ εἴρηται.
  • 11 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 26Ἀπορεῖται δὲ εἰκότως καὶ ποῖα τοῦ εἴδους μέρη καὶ
  • Link 27ποῖα οὔ, ἀλλὰ τοῦ συνειλημμένου. καίτοι τούτου μὴ δήλου
  • Link 28ὄντος οὐκ ἔστιν ὁρίσασθαι ἕκαστον· τοῦ γὰρ καθόλου καὶ τοῦ
  • Critical Apparatus29εἴδους ὁ ὁρισμός· ποῖα οὖν ἐστὶ τῶν μερῶν ὡς ὕλη καὶ ποῖα
  • Critical Apparatus30οὔ, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ φανερά, οὐδὲ ὁ λόγος ἔσται φανερὸς ὁ τοῦ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 31πράγματος. ὅσα μὲν οὖν φαίνεται ἐπιγιγνόμενα ἐφ' ἑτέ-
  • Critical Apparatus32ρων τῷ εἴδει, οἷον κύκλος ἐν χαλκῷ καὶ λίθῳ καὶ ξύλῳ,
  • Critical Apparatus33ταῦτα μὲν δῆλα εἶναι δοκεῖ ὅτι οὐδὲν τῆς τοῦ κύκλου οὐσίας
  • Critical Apparatus34ὁ χαλκὸς οὐδ' ὁ λίθος διὰ τὸ χωρίζεσθαι αὐτῶν· ὅσα δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus35μὴ ὁρᾶται χωριζόμενα, οὐδὲν μὲν κωλύει ὁμοίως ἔχειν
  • 1036bCritical Apparatus1τούτοις, ὥσπερ κἂν εἰ οἱ κύκλοι πάντες ἑωρῶντο χαλκοῖ·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2οὐδὲν γὰρ ἂν ἧττον ἦν ὁ χαλκὸς οὐδὲν τοῦ εἴδους· χαλεπὸν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus3δὲ ἀφελεῖν τοῦτον τῇ διανοίᾳ. οἷον τὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἶδος
  • 4ἀεὶ ἐν σαρξὶ φαίνεται καὶ ὀστοῖς καὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις μέρεσιν·
  • Critical Apparatus5ἆρ' οὖν καὶ ἐστὶ ταῦτα μέρη τοῦ εἴδους καὶ τοῦ λόγου; ἢ οὔ,
  • 6ἀλλ' ὕλη, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ μὴ καὶ ἐπ' ἄλλων ἐπιγίγνεσθαι
  • 7ἀδυνατοῦμεν χωρίσαι; ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῦτο δοκεῖ μὲν ἐνδέχεσθαι
  • Editor’s Note8ἄδηλον δὲ πότε, ἀποροῦσί τινες ἤδη καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ κύκλου καὶ
  • pg 23 Link 9τοῦ τριγώνου ὡς οὐ προσῆκον γραμμαῖς ὁρίζεσθαι καὶ τῷ
  • 10συνεχεῖ, ἀλλὰ πάντα καὶ ταῦτα ὁμοίως λέγεσθαι ὡσανεὶ
  • 11σάρκες καὶ ὀστᾶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ χαλκὸς καὶ λίθος τοῦ ἀν-
  • 12δριάντος· καὶ ἀνάγουσι πάντα εἰς τοὺς ἀριθμούς, καὶ γραμ-
  • Editor’s Note13μῆς τὸν λόγον τὸν τῶν δύο εἶναί φασιν. καὶ τῶν τὰς
  • 14ἰδέας λεγόντων οἱ μὲν αὐτογραμμὴν τὴν δυάδα, οἱ δὲ τὸ
  • 15εἶδος τῆς γραμμῆς, ἔνια μὲν γὰρ εἶναι τὸ αὐτὸ τὸ εἶδος
  • 16καὶ οὗ τὸ εἶδος (οἷον δυάδα καὶ τὸ εἶδος δυάδος), ἐπὶ
  • Link 17γραμμῆς δὲ οὐκέτι. συμβαίνει δὴ ἕν τε πολλῶν εἶδος
  • Editor’s Note18εἶναι ὧν τὸ εἶδος φαίνεται ἕτερον (ὅπερ καὶ τοῖς Πυθα-
  • Editor’s Note19γορείοις συνέβαινεν), καὶ ἐνδέχεται ἓν πάντων ποιεῖν αὐτὸ
  • Editor’s Note20εἶδος, τὰ δ' ἄλλα μὴ εἴδη· καίτοι οὕτως ἓν πάντα ἔσται.
  • Link 21Ὅτι μὲν οὖν ἔχει τινὰ ἀπορίαν τὰ περὶ τοὺς ὁρισμούς, καὶ
  • Link 22διὰ τίν' αἰτίαν, εἴρηται· διὸ καὶ τὸ πάντα ἀνάγειν οὕτω καὶ
  • 23ἀφαιρεῖν τὴν ὕλην περίεργον· ἔνια γὰρ ἴσως τόδ' ἐν τῷδ'
  • Editor’s Note Link 24ἐστὶν ἢ ὡδὶ ταδὶ ἔχοντα. καὶ ἡ παραβολὴ ἡ ἐπὶ τοῦ ζῴου,
  • Editor’s Note25ἣν εἰώθει λέγειν Σωκράτης ὁ νεώτερος, οὐ καλῶς ἔχει·
  • 26ἀπάγει γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀληθοῦς, καὶ ποιεῖ ὑπολαμβάνειν ὡς
  • 27ἐνδεχόμενον εἶναι τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἄνευ τῶν μερῶν, ὥσπερ
  • Link 28ἄνευ τοῦ χαλκοῦ τὸν κύκλον. τὸ δ' οὐχ ὅμοιον· αἰσθητὸν
  • Link 29γάρ τι τὸ ζῷον, καὶ ἄνευ κινήσεως οὐκ ἔστιν ὁρίσασθαι, διὸ
  • Editor’s Note Link 30οὐδ' ἄνευ τῶν μερῶν ἐχόντων πώς. οὐ γὰρ πάντως τοῦ ἀν-
  • Editor’s Note31θρώπου μέρος ἡ χείρ, ἀλλ' ἢ δυναμένη τὸ ἔργον ἀποτελεῖν,
  • Editor’s Note32ὥστε ἔμψυχος οὖσα· μὴ ἔμψυχος δὲ οὐ μέρος. περὶ δὲ τὰ
  • 33μαθηματικὰ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσὶ μέρη οἱ λόγοι τῶν λόγων,
  • 34οἷον τοῦ κύκλου τὰ ἡμικύκλια; οὐ γάρ ἐστιν αἰσθητὰ ταῦτα.
  • Editor’s Note35ἤ οὐθὲν διαφέρει; ἔσται γὰρ ὕλη ἐνίων καὶ μὴ αἰσθητῶν·
  • 1037aEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus1καὶ παντὸς γὰρ ὕλη τις ἔστιν ὃ μὴ ἔστι τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ
  • pg 24Critical Apparatus2εἶδος αὐτὸ καθ' αὑτὸ ἀλλὰ τόδε τι. κύκλου μὲν οὖν οὐκ
  • 3ἔσται τοῦ καθόλου, τῶν δὲ καθ' ἕκαστα ἔσται μέρη ταῦτα,
  • Critical Apparatus Link 4ὥσπερ εἴρηται πρότερον· ἔστι γὰρ ὕλη ἡ μὲν αἰσθητὴ ἡ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5δὲ νοητή. δῆλον δὲ καὶ ὅτι ἡ μὲν ψυχὴ οὐσία ἡ πρώτη,
  • Link 6τὸ δὲ σῶμα ὕλη, ὁ δ' ἄνθρωπος ἢ τὸ ζῷον τὸ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 7ὡς καθόλου· Σωκράτης δὲ καὶ Κορίσκος, εἰ μὲν καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ
  • Critical Apparatus8Σωκράτης, διττόν (οἱ μὲν γὰρ ὡς ψυχὴν οἱ δ' ὡς τὸ σύνολον),
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 9εἰ δ' ἁπλῶς ἡ ψυχὴ ἥδε καὶ ⟨τὸ⟩ σῶμα τόδε, ὥσπερ τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 10καθόλου [τε] καὶ τὸ καθ' ἕκαστον. πότερον δὲ ἔστι παρὰ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11τὴν ὕλην τῶν τοιούτων οὐσιῶν τις ἄλλη, καὶ δεῖ ζητεῖν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus12οὐσίαν ἑτέραν τινὰ οἷον ἀριθμοὺς ἤ τι τοιοῦτον, σκεπτέον
  • Editor’s Note13ὕστερον. τούτου γὰρ χάριν καὶ περὶ τῶν αἰσθητῶν οὐσιῶν
  • Critical Apparatus14πειρώμεθα διορίζειν, ἐπεὶ τρόπον τινὰ τῆς φυσικῆς καὶ
  • 15δευτέρας φιλοσοφίας ἔργον ἡ περὶ τὰς αἰσθητὰς οὐσίας
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus16θεωρία· οὐ γὰρ μόνον περὶ τῆς ὕλης δεῖ γνωρίζειν τὸν φυ-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 17σικὸν ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς κατὰ τὸν λόγον, καὶ μᾶλλον. ἐπὶ
  • 18δὲ τῶν ὁρισμῶν πῶς μέρη τὰ ἐν τῷ λόγῳ, καὶ διὰ τί εἷς
  • Critical Apparatus19λόγος ὁ ὁρισμός (δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἕν, τὸ δὲ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus20πρᾶγμα τίνι ἕν, μέρη γε ἔχον;), σκεπτέον ὕστερον.
  • Editor’s Note Link 21Τί μὲν οὖν ἐστὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ πῶς αὐτὸ καθ'
  • Critical Apparatus22αὑτό, καθόλου περὶ παντὸς εἴρηται, καὶ διὰ τί τῶν μὲν ὁ
  • Critical Apparatus23λόγος ὁ τοῦ τί ἦν εἶναι ἔχει τὰ μόρια τοῦ ὁριζομένου τῶν
  • Link 24δ' οὔ, καὶ ὅτι ἐν μὲν τῷ τῆς οὐσίας λόγῳ τὰ οὕτω μόρια
  • 25ὡς ὕλη οὐκ ἐνέσται—οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐκείνης μόρια τῆς οὐσίας
  • Critical Apparatus Link 26ἀλλὰ τῆς συνόλου, ταύτης δέ γ' ἔστι πως λόγος καὶ οὐκ
  • Editor’s Note Link 27ἔστιν· μετὰ μὲν γὰρ τῆς ὕλης οὐκ ἔστιν (ἀόριστον γάρ),
  • Link 28κατὰ τὴν πρώτην δ' οὐσίαν ἔστιν, οἷον ἀνθρώπου ὁ τῆς ψυχῆς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29λόγος· ἡ γὰρ οὐσία ἐστὶ τὸ εἶδος τὸ ἐνόν, ἐξ οὗ καὶ τῆς
  • pg 25Critical Apparatus30ὕλης ἡ σύνολος λέγεται οὐσία, οἷον ἡ κοιλότης (ἐκ γὰρ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus31ταύτης καὶ τῆς ῥινὸς σιμὴ ῥὶς καὶ ἡ σιμότης ἐστί [δὶς γὰρ
  • 32ἐν τούτοις ὑπάρξει ἡ ῥίς])—ἐν δὲ τῇ συνόλῳ οὐσίᾳ, οἷον ῥινὶ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 33σιμῇ ἢ Καλλίᾳ, ἐνέσται καὶ ἡ ὕλη· καὶ ὅτι τὸ τί ἦν
  • 1037bCritical Apparatus Link 1εἶναι καὶ ἕκαστον ἐπὶ τινῶν μὲν ταὐτό, ὥσπερ ἐπὶ τῶν πρώ-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2των οὐσιῶν, οἷον καμπυλότης καὶ καμπυλότητι εἶναι, εἰ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 3πρώτη ἐστίν (λέγω δὲ πρώτην ἣ μὴ λέγεται τῷ ἄλλο ἐν
  • Critical Apparatus4ἄλλῳ εἶναι καὶ ὑποκειμένῳ ὡς ὕλῃ), ὅσα δὲ ὡς ὕλη ἢ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus5ὡς συνειλημμένα τῇ ὕλῃ, οὐ ταὐτό, οὐδ' ⟨εἰ⟩ κατὰ συμβεβη-
  • Critical Apparatus6κὸς ἕν, οἷον Σωκράτης καὶ τὸ μουσικόν· ταῦτα γὰρ ταὐτὰ
  • Critical Apparatus7κατὰ συμβεβηκός.
  • 12 Editor’s Note8Νῦν δὲ λέγωμεν πρῶτον ἐφ' ὅσον ἐν τοῖς ἀναλυτι-
  • Editor’s Note9κοῖς περὶ ὁρισμοῦ μὴ εἴρηται· ἡ γὰρ ἐν ἐκείνοις ἀπορία
  • Critical Apparatus10λεχθεῖσα πρὸ ἔργου τοῖς περὶ τῆς οὐσίας ἐστὶ λόγοις. λέγω
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11δὲ ταύτην τὴν ἀπορίαν, διὰ τί ποτε ἕν ἐστιν οὗ τὸν λόγον
  • Critical Apparatus12ὁρισμὸν εἶναί φαμεν, οἷον τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ζῷον δίπουν·
  • Link 13ἔστω γὰρ οὗτος αὐτοῦ λόγος. διὰ τί δὴ τοῦτο ἕν ἐστιν ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s Note14οὐ πολλά, ζῷον καὶ δίπουν; ἐπὶ μὲν γὰρ τοῦ ἄνθρωπος
  • 15καὶ λευκὸν πολλὰ μέν ἐστιν ὅταν μὴ ὑπάρχῃ θατέρῳ
  • Critical Apparatus16θάτερον, ἓν δὲ ὅταν ὑπάρχῃ καὶ πάθῃ τι τὸ ὑποκείμενον,
  • 17ὁ ἄνθρωπος (τότε γὰρ ἓν γίγνεται καὶ ἔστιν ὁ λευκὸς ἄν-
  • Link 18θρωπος)· ἐνταῦθα δ' οὐ μετέχει θατέρου θάτερον· τὸ γὰρ
  • Critical Apparatus19γένος οὐ δοκεῖ μετέχειν τῶν διαφορῶν (ἅμα γὰρ ἂν τῶν
  • 20ἐναντίων τὸ αὐτὸ μετεῖχεν· αἱ γὰρ διαφοραὶ ἐναντίαι αἷς
  • Editor’s Note21διαφέρει τὸ γένος). εἰ δὲ καὶ μετέχει, ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος, εἴ-
  • Critical Apparatus22περ εἰσὶν αἱ διαφοραὶ πλείους, οἷον πεζὸν δίπουν ἄπτερον.
  • 23διὰ τί γὰρ ταῦθ' ἓν ἀλλ' οὐ πολλά; οὐ γὰρ ὅτι ἐνυπάρ-
  • Editor’s Note24χει· οὕτω μὲν γὰρ ἐξ ἁπάντων ἔσται ἕν. δεῖ δέ γε ἓν
  • Link 25εἶναι ὅσα ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ· ὁ γὰρ ὁρισμὸς λόγος τίς ἐστιν
  • pg 26Critical Apparatus26εἷς καὶ οὐσίας, ὥστε ἑνός τινος δεῖ αὐτὸν εἶναι λόγον· καὶ
  • Editor’s Note27γὰρ ἡ οὐσία ἕν τι καὶ τόδε τι σημαίνει, ὡς φαμέν.—δεῖ
  • 28δὲ ἐπισκοπεῖν πρῶτον περὶ τῶν κατὰ τὰς διαιρέσεις ὁρι-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29σμῶν. οὐδὲν γὰρ ἕτερόν ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ πλὴν τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus30πρῶτον λεγόμενον γένος καὶ αἱ διαφοραί· τὰ δ' ἄλλα
  • 31γένη ἐστὶ τό τε πρῶτον καὶ μετὰ τούτου αἱ συλλαμβανό-
  • 32μεναι διαφοραί, οἷον τὸ πρῶτον ζῷον, τὸ δὲ ἐχόμενον
  • Link 33ζῷον δίπουν, καὶ πάλιν ζῷον δίπουν ἄπτερον· ὁμοίως δὲ
  • 1038a1κἂν διὰ πλειόνων λέγηται. ὅλως δ' οὐδὲν διαφέρει διὰ
  • Critical Apparatus2πολλῶν ἢ δι' ὀλίγων λέγεσθαι, ὥστ' οὐδὲ δι' ὀλίγων ἢ
  • 3διὰ δυοῖν· τοῖν δυοῖν δὲ τὸ μὲν διαφορὰ τὸ δὲ γένος, οἷον
  • Critical Apparatus4τοῦ ζῷον δίπουν τὸ μὲν ζῷον γένος διαφορὰ δὲ θάτερον.
  • Editor’s Note Link 5εἰ οὖν τὸ γένος ἁπλῶς μὴ ἔστι παρὰ τὰ ὡς γένους εἴδη,
  • 6ἢ εἰ ἔστι μὲν ὡς ὕλη δ' ἐστίν (ἡ μὲν γὰρ φωνὴ γένος καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus7ὕλη, αἱ δὲ διαφοραὶ τὰ εἴδη καὶ τὰ στοιχεῖα ἐκ ταύτης
  • 8ποιοῦσιν), φανερὸν ὅτι ὁ ὁρισμός ἐστιν ὁ ἐκ τῶν διαφορῶν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 9λόγος. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ δεῖ γε διαιρεῖσθαι τῇ τῆς διαφο-
  • 10ρᾶς διαφορᾷ, οἷον ζῴου διαφορὰ τὸ ὑπόπουν· πάλιν τοῦ
  • Critical Apparatus11ζῴου τοῦ ὑπόποδος τὴν διαφορὰν δεῖ εἶναι ᾗ ὑπόπουν,
  • Link 12ὥστ' οὐ λεκτέον τοῦ ὑπόποδος τὸ μὲν πτερωτὸν τὸ δὲ ἄπτε-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 13ρον, ἐάνπερ λέγῃ καλῶς (ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸ ἀδυνατεῖν ποιήσει
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus14τοῦτο), ἀλλ' ἢ τὸ μὲν σχιζόπουν τὸ δ' ἄσχιστον· αὗται
  • 15γὰρ διαφοραὶ ποδός· ἡ γὰρ σχιζοποδία ποδότης τις. καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus16οὕτως ἀεὶ βούλεται βαδίζειν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ εἰς τὰ ἀδιάφορα·
  • Editor’s Note17τότε δ' ἔσονται τοσαῦτα εἴδη ποδὸς ὅσαιπερ αἱ διαφοραί,
  • Link 18καὶ τὰ ὑπόποδα ζῷα ἴσα ταῖς διαφοραῖς. εἰ δὴ ταῦτα
  • Editor’s Note Link 19οὕτως ἔχει, φανερὸν ὅτι ἡ τελευταία διαφορὰ ἡ οὐσία τοῦ
  • 20πράγματος ἔσται καὶ ὁ ὁρισμός, εἴπερ μὴ δεῖ πολλάκις
  • Critical Apparatus21ταὐτὰ λέγειν ἐν τοῖς ὅροις· περίεργον γάρ. συμβαίνει δέ
  • 22γε τοῦτο· ὅταν γὰρ εἴπῃ ζῷον ὑπόπουν δίπουν, οὐδὲν ἄλλο
  • Critical Apparatus Link 23εἴρηκεν ἢ ζῷον πόδας ἔχον, δύο πόδας ἔχον· κἂν τοῦτο
  • 24διαιρῇ τῇ οἰκείᾳ διαιρέσει, πλεονάκις ἐρεῖ καὶ ἰσάκις ταῖς
  • pg 27 Link 25διαφοραῖς. ἐὰν μὲν δὴ διαφορᾶς διαφορὰ γίγνηται, μία
  • Link 26ἔσται ἡ τελευταία τὸ εἶδος καὶ ἡ οὐσία· ἐὰν δὲ κατὰ συμ-
  • Critical Apparatus27βεβηκός, οἷον εἰ διαιροῖ τοῦ ὑπόποδος τὸ μὲν λευκὸν τὸ δὲ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28μέλαν, τοσαῦται ὅσαι ἂν αἱ τομαὶ ὦσιν. ὥστε φανερὸν ὅτι
  • 29ὁ ὁρισμὸς λόγος ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν διαφορῶν, καὶ τούτων τῆς τε-
  • Editor’s Note30λευταίας κατά γε τὸ ὀρθόν. δῆλον δ' ἂν εἴη, εἴ τις μετατά-
  • 31ξειε τοὺς τοιούτους ὁρισμούς, οἷον τὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, λέγων ζῷον
  • 32δίπουν ὑπόπουν· περίεργον γὰρ τὸ ὑπόπουν εἰρημένου τοῦ δί-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 33ποδος. τάξις δ' οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν τῇ οὐσίᾳ· πῶς γὰρ δεῖ νοῆσαι τὸ
  • 34μὲν ὕστερον τὸ δὲ πρότερον; περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν κατὰ τὰς διαιρέ-
  • Editor’s Note35σεις ὁρισμῶν τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω τὴν πρώτην, ποῖοί τινές εἰσιν.
  • 3 1038bEditor’s Note Link 1Ἐπεὶ δὲ περὶ τῆς οὐσίας ἡ σκέψις ἐστί, πάλιν ἐπαν-
  • Editor’s Note Link 2έλθωμεν. λέγεται δ' ὥσπερ τὸ ὑποκείμενον οὐσία εἶναι καὶ
  • 3τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ τὸ ἐκ τούτων, καὶ τὸ καθόλου. περὶ μὲν
  • Editor’s Note Link 4οὖν τοῖν δυοῖν εἴρηται (καὶ γὰρ περὶ τοῦ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ τοῦ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus5ὑποκειμένου, ὅτι διχῶς ὑπόκειται, ἢ τόδε τι ὄν, ὥσπερ τὸ
  • Link 6ζῷον τοῖς πάθεσιν, ἢ ὡς ἡ ὕλη τῇ ἐντελεχείᾳ), δοκεῖ δὲ
  • Editor’s Note Link 7καὶ τὸ καθόλου αἴτιόν τισιν εἶναι μάλιστα, καὶ εἶναι ἀρχὴ
  • Link 8τὸ καθόλου· διὸ ἐπέλθωμεν καὶ περὶ τούτου. ἔοικε γὰρ ἀδύ-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 9νατον εἶναι οὐσίαν εἶναι ὁτιοῦν τῶν καθόλου λεγομένων. πρῶτον
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 10μὲν γὰρ οὐσία ἑκάστου ἡ ἴδιος ἑκάστῳ, ἣ οὐχ ὑπάρχει ἄλλῳ,
  • Link 11τὸ δὲ καθόλου κοινόν· τοῦτο γὰρ λέγεται καθόλου ὃ πλείοσιν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 12ὑπάρχειν πέφυκεν. τίνος οὖν οὐσία τοῦτ' ἔσται; ἢ γὰρ πάν-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus13των ἢ οὐδενός, πάντων δ' οὐχ οἷόν τε· ἑνὸς δ' εἰ ἔσται, καὶ
  • Link 14τἆλλα τοῦτ' ἔσται· ὧν γὰρ μία ἡ οὐσία καὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι
  • Link 15ἕν, καὶ αὐτὰ ἕν. ἔτι οὐσία λέγεται τὸ μὴ καθ' ὑποκειμένου,
  • Link 16τὸ δὲ καθόλου καθ' ὑποκειμένου τινὸς λέγεται ἀεί. ἀλλ'
  • Critical Apparatus Link 17ἆρα οὕτω μὲν οὐκ ἐνδέχεται ὡς τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, ἐν τούτῳ δὲ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 18ἐνυπάρχειν, οἷον τὸ ζῷον ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ ἵππῳ; οὐκοῦν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 19δῆλον ὅτι ἔστι τις αὐτοῦ λόγος. διαφέρει δ' οὐθὲν οὐδ' εἰ μὴ
  • pg 28 Link 20πάντων λόγος ἔστι τῶν ἐν τῇ οὐσίᾳ· οὐδὲν γὰρ ἧττον οὐσία
  • 21τοῦτ' ἔσται τινός, ὡς ὁ ἄνθρωπος τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν ᾧ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22ὑπάρχει, ὥστε τὸ αὐτὸ συμβήσεται πάλιν· ἔσται γὰρ ἐκείνου
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 23οὐσία, οἷον τὸ ζῷον, ἐν ᾧ ὡς ἴδιον ὑπάρχει. ἔτι δὲ καὶ
  • Link 24ἀδύνατον καὶ ἄτοπον τὸ τόδε καὶ οὐσίαν, εἰ ἔστιν ἔκ τινων,
  • Link 25μὴ ἐξ οὐσιῶν εἶναι μηδ' ἐκ τοῦ τόδε τι ἀλλ' ἐκ ποιοῦ·
  • Critical Apparatus Link 26πρότερον γὰρ ἔσται μὴ οὐσία τε καὶ τὸ ποιὸν οὐσίας τε καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 27τοῦ τόδε. ὅπερ ἀδύνατον· οὔτε λόγῳ γὰρ οὔτε χρόνῳ οὔτε
  • Critical Apparatus28γενέσει οἷόν τε τὰ πάθη τῆς οὐσίας εἶναι πρότερα· ἔσται
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 29γὰρ καὶ χωριστά. ἔτι τῷ Σωκράτει ἐνυπάρξει οὐσία οὐσίᾳ,
  • Editor’s Note Link 30ὥστε δυοῖν ἔσται οὐσία. ὅλως δὲ συμβαίνει, εἰ ἔστιν οὐσία
  • Link 31ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ ὅσα οὕτω λέγεται, μηθὲν τῶν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ
  • Editor’s Note Link 32εἶναι μηδενὸς οὐσίαν μηδὲ χωρὶς ὑπάρχειν αὐτῶν μηδ' ἐν
  • Editor’s Note33ἄλλῳ, λέγω δ' οἷον οὐκ εἶναί τι ζῷον παρὰ τὰ τινά, οὐδ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 34ἄλλο τῶν ἐν τοῖς λόγοις οὐδέν. ἔκ τε δὴ τούτων θεωροῦσι
  • Link 35φανερὸν ὅτι οὐδὲν τῶν καθόλου ὑπαρχόντων οὐσία ἐστί, καὶ
  • 1039a Link 1ὅτι οὐδὲν σημαίνει τῶν κοινῇ κατηγορουμένων τόδε τι, ἀλλὰ
  • Editor’s Note Link 2τοιόνδε. εἰ δὲ μή, ἄλλα τε πολλὰ συμβαίνει καὶ ὁ τρί-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 3τος ἄνθρωπος. ἔτι δὲ καὶ ὧδε δῆλον. ἀδύνατον γὰρ οὐσίαν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 4ἐξ οὐσιῶν εἶναι ἐνυπαρχουσῶν ὡς ἐντελεχείᾳ· τὰ γὰρ δύο
  • Critical Apparatus5οὕτως ἐντελεχείᾳ οὐδέποτε ἓν ἐντελεχείᾳ, ἀλλ' ἐὰν δυνάμει
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 6δύο ᾖ, ἔσται ἕν (οἷον ἡ διπλασία ἐκ δύο ἡμίσεων δυνάμει
  • Critical Apparatus Link 7γε· ἡ γὰρ ἐντελέχεια χωρίζει), ὥστ' εἰ ἡ οὐσία ἕν, οὐκ
  • Editor’s Note Link 8ἔσται ἐξ οὐσιῶν ἐνυπαρχουσῶν καὶ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον,
  • Critical Apparatus Link 9ὃν λέγει Δημόκριτος ὀρθῶς· ἀδύνατον γὰρ εἶναί φησιν ἐκ
  • Editor’s Note10δύο ἓν ἢ ἐξ ἑνὸς δύο γενέσθαι· τὰ γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ἄτομα
  • Link 11τὰς οὐσίας ποιεῖ. ὁμοίως τοίνυν δῆλον ὅτι καὶ ἐπ' ἀριθμοῦ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 12ἕξει, εἴπερ ἐστὶν ὁ ἀριθμὸς σύνθεσις μονάδων, ὥσπερ λέγε-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 13ται ὑπό τινων· ἢ γὰρ οὐχ ἓν ἡ δυὰς ἢ οὐκ ἔστι μονὰς ἐν
  • Link 14αὐτῇ ἐντελεχείᾳ.—ἔχει δὲ τὸ συμβαῖνον ἀπορίαν. εἰ γὰρ
  • pg 29Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus15μήτε ἐκ τῶν καθόλου οἷόν τ' εἶναι μηδεμίαν οὐσίαν διὰ τὸ
  • Link 16τοιόνδε ἀλλὰ μὴ τόδε τι σημαίνειν, μήτ' ἐξ οὐσιῶν ἐνδέ-
  • Critical Apparatus17χεται ἐντελεχείᾳ εἶναι μηδεμίαν οὐσίαν σύνθετον, ἀσύνθε-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 18τον ἂν εἴη οὐσία πᾶσα, ὥστ' οὐδὲ λόγος ἂν εἴη οὐδεμιᾶς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 19οὐσίας. ἀλλὰ μὴν δοκεῖ γε πᾶσι καὶ ἐλέχθη πάλαι ἢ
  • Critical Apparatus20μόνον οὐσίας εἶναι ὅρον ἢ μάλιστα· νῦν δ' οὐδὲ ταύτης.
  • Link 21οὐδενὸς ἄρ' ἔσται ὁρισμός· ἢ τρόπον μέν τινα ἔσται τρόπον
  • Editor’s Note Link 22δέ τινα οὔ. δῆλον δ' ἔσται τὸ λεγόμενον ἐκ τῶν ὕστερον
  • 23μᾶλλον.
  • 14 Editor’s Note Link 24Φανερὸν δ' ἐξ αὐτῶν τούτων τὸ συμβαῖνον καὶ τοῖς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 25τὰς ἰδέας λέγουσιν οὐσίας τε χωριστὰς εἶναι καὶ ἅμα
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 26τὸ εἶδος ἐκ τοῦ γένους ποιοῦσι καὶ τῶν διαφορῶν. εἰ γὰρ
  • Link 27ἔστι τὰ εἴδη, καὶ τὸ ζῷον ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ ἵππῳ, ἤτοι
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28ἓν καὶ ταὐτὸν τῷ ἀριθμῷ ἐστὶν ἢ ἕτερον· τῷ μὲν γὰρ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29λόγῳ δῆλον ὅτι ἕν· τὸν γὰρ αὐτὸν διέξεισι λόγον ὁ λέγων
  • Critical Apparatus Link 30ἐν ἑκατέρῳ. εἰ οὖν ἐστί τις ἄνθρωπος αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτὸν τόδε
  • 31τι καὶ κεχωρισμένον, ἀνάγκη καὶ ἐξ ὧν, οἷον τὸ ζῷον καὶ
  • 32τὸ δίπουν, τόδε τι σημαίνειν καὶ εἶναι χωριστὰ καὶ οὐσίας·
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 33ὥστε καὶ τὸ ζῷον. εἰ μὲν οὖν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ ἓν τὸ ἐν τῷ
  • Critical Apparatus34ἵππῳ καὶ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὥσπερ σὺ σαυτῷ, πῶς τὸ ἓν
  • 1039bEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 1ἐν τοῖς οὖσι χωρὶς ἓν ἔσται, καὶ διὰ τί οὐ καὶ χωρὶς αὑτοῦ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2ἔσται τὸ ζῷον τοῦτο; ἔπειτα εἰ μὲν μεθέξει τοῦ δίποδος καὶ
  • 3τοῦ πολύποδος, ἀδύνατόν τι συμβαίνει, τἀναντία γὰρ ἅμα
  • Critical Apparatus4ὑπάρξει αὐτῷ ἑνὶ καὶ τῷδέ τινι ὄντι· εἰ δὲ μή, τίς ὁ τρό-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5πος ὅταν εἴπῃ τις τὸ ζῷον εἶναι δίπουν ἢ πεζόν; ἀλλ' ἴσως
  • Link 6σύγκειται καὶ ἅπτεται ἢ μέμικται· ἀλλὰ πάντα ἄτοπα.
  • Editor’s Note Link 7ἀλλ' ἕτερον ἐν ἑκάστῳ· οὐκοῦν ἄπειρα ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν ἔσται
  • pg 30Critical Apparatus Link 8ὧν ἡ οὐσία ζῷον· οὐ γὰρ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς ἐκ ζῴου ἅν-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 9θρωπος. ἔτι πολλὰ ἔσται αὐτὸ τὸ ζῷον· οὐσία τε γὰρ τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus10ἐν ἑκάστῳ ζῷον (οὐ γὰρ κατ' ἄλλο λέγεται· εἰ δὲ μή, ἐξ
  • Link 11ἐκείνου ἔσται ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ γένος αὐτοῦ ἐκεῖνο), καὶ ἔτι
  • Critical Apparatus12ἰδέαι ἅπαντα ἐξ ὧν ὁ ἄνθρωπος· οὐκοῦν οὐκ ἄλλου μὲν ἰδέα
  • Critical Apparatus13ἔσται ἄλλου δ' οὐσία (ἀδύνατον γάρ)· αὐτὸ ἄρα ζῷον ἓν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 14ἕκαστον ἔσται τῶν ἐν τοῖς ζῴοις. ἔτι ἐκ τίνος τοῦτο, καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus15πῶς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ζῴου; ἢ πῶς οἷόν τε εἶναι τὸ ζῷον, ᾧ οὐσία
  • Editor’s Note Link 16τοῦτο αὐτό, παρ' αὐτὸ τὸ ζῷον; ἔτι δ' ἐπὶ τῶν αἰσθητῶν
  • Link 17ταῦτά τε συμβαίνει καὶ τούτων ἀτοπώτερα. εἰ δὴ ἀδύνα-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 18τον οὕτως ἔχειν, δῆλον ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν εἴδη αὐτῶν οὕτως ὥς
  • 19τινές φασιν.
  • 15 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 20Ἐπεὶ δ' ἡ οὐσία ἑτέρα, τό τε σύνολον καὶ ὁ λόγος
  • 21(λέγω δ' ὅτι ἡ μὲν οὕτως ἐστὶν οὐσία, σὺν τῇ ὕλῃ συνειλημ-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22μένος ὁ λόγος, ἡ δ' ὁ λόγος ὅλως), ὅσαι μὲν οὖν οὕτω λέ-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 23γονται, τούτων μὲν ἔστι φθορά (καὶ γὰρ γένεσις), τοῦ δὲ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus24λόγου οὐκ ἔστιν οὕτως ὥστε φθείρεσθαι (οὐδὲ γὰρ γένεσις, οὐ
  • 25γὰρ γίγνεται τὸ οἰκίᾳ εἶναι ἀλλὰ τὸ τῇδε τῇ οἰκίᾳ), ἀλλ'
  • Editor’s Note26ἄνευ γενέσεως καὶ φθορᾶς εἰσὶ καὶ οὐκ εἰσίν· δέδεικται γὰρ
  • Link 27ὅτι οὐδεὶς ταῦτα γεννᾷ οὐδὲ ποιεῖ. διὰ τοῦτο δὲ καὶ τῶν
  • Editor’s Note Link 28οὐσιῶν τῶν αἰσθητῶν τῶν καθ' ἕκαστα οὔτε ὁρισμὸς οὔτε ἀπό-
  • Link 29δειξις ἔστιν, ὅτι ἔχουσιν ὕλην ἧς ἡ φύσις τοιαύτη ὥστ' ἐν-
  • Editor’s Note30δέχεσθαι καὶ εἶναι καὶ μή· διὸ φθαρτὰ πάντα τὰ καθ'
  • Editor’s Note Link 31ἕκαστα αὐτῶν. εἰ οὖν ἥ τ' ἀπόδειξις τῶν ἀναγκαίων καὶ ὁ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 32ὁρισμὸς ἐπιστημονικόν, καὶ οὐκ ἐνδέχεται, ὥσπερ οὐδ' ἐπιστή-
  • Critical Apparatus33μην ὁτὲ μὲν ἐπιστήμην ὁτὲ δ' ἄγνοιαν εἶναι, ἀλλὰ δόξα τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus34τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν, οὕτως οὐδ' ἀπόδειξιν οὐδ' ὁρισμόν, ἀλλὰ δόξα
  • 1040a Link 1ἐστὶ τοῦ ἐνδεχομένου ἄλλως ἔχειν, δῆλον ὅτι οὐκ ἂν εἴη
  • pg 31Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus2αὐτῶν οὔτε ὁρισμὸς οὔτε ἀπόδειξις. ἄδηλά τε γὰρ τὰ φθει-
  • 3ρόμενα τοῖς ἔχουσι τὴν ἐπιστήμην, ὅταν ἐκ τῆς αἰσθήσεως
  • 4ἀπέλθῃ, καὶ σωζομένων τῶν λόγων ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ τῶν
  • Link 5αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔσται οὔτε ὁρισμὸς ἔτι οὔτε ἀπόδειξις. διὸ δεῖ,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 6τῶν πρὸς ὅρον ὅταν τις ὁρίζηταί τι τῶν καθ' ἕκαστον, μὴ
  • Critical Apparatus7ἀγνοεῖν ὅτι ἀεὶ ἀναιρεῖν ἔστιν· οὐ γὰρ ἐνδέχεται ὁρίσασθαι.
  • Editor’s Note Link 8Οὐδὲ δὴ ἰδέαν οὐδεμίαν ἔστιν ὁρίσασθαι. τῶν γὰρ καθ' ἕκα-
  • 9στον ἡ ἰδέα, ὡς φασί, καὶ χωριστή· ἀναγκαῖον δὲ ἐξ ὀνο-
  • Link 10μάτων εἶναι τὸν λόγον, ὄνομα δ' οὐ ποιήσει ὁ ὁριζόμενος
  • Editor’s Note11(ἄγνωστον γὰρ ἔσται), τὰ δὲ κείμενα κοινὰ πᾶσιν· ἀνάγκη
  • Critical Apparatus12ἄρα ὑπάρχειν καὶ ἄλλῳ ταῦτα· οἷον εἴ τις σὲ ὁρίσαιτο,
  • Critical Apparatus13ζῷον ἐρεῖ ἰσχνὸν ἢ λευκὸν ἢ ἕτερόν τι ὃ καὶ ἄλλῳ ὑπάρ-
  • Editor’s Note14ξει. εἰ δέ τις φαίη μηδὲν κωλύειν χωρὶς μὲν πάντα πολ-
  • Critical Apparatus15λοῖς ἅμα δὲ μόνῳ τούτῳ ὑπάρχειν, λεκτέον πρῶτον μὲν
  • Critical Apparatus16ὅτι καὶ ἀμφοῖν, οἷον τὸ ζῷον δίπουν τῷ ζῴῳ καὶ τῷ δί-
  • Critical Apparatus17ποδι (καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν ἀϊδίων καὶ ἀνάγκη εἶναι,
  • Editor’s Note Link 18πρότερά γ' ὄντα καὶ μέρη τοῦ συνθέτου· ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ
  • 19χωριστά, εἴπερ τὸ ἄνθρωπος χωριστόν· ἢ γὰρ οὐθὲν ἢ ἄμφω·
  • Link 20εἰ μὲν οὖν μηθέν, οὐκ ἔσται τὸ γένος παρὰ τὰ εἴδη, εἰ δ'
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus21ἔσται, καὶ ἡ διαφορά)· εἶθ' ὅτι πρότερα τῷ εἶναι· ταῦτα
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22δὲ οὐκ ἀνταναιρεῖται. ἔπειτα εἰ ἐξ ἰδεῶν αἱ ἰδέαι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus23(ἀσυνθετώτερα γὰρ τὰ ἐξ ὧν), ἔτι ἐπὶ πολλῶν δεήσει
  • 24κἀκεῖνα κατηγορεῖσθαι ἐξ ὧν ἡ ἰδέα, οἷον τὸ ζῷον καὶ τὸ
  • Editor’s Note25δίπουν. εἰ δὲ μή, πῶς γνωρισθήσεται; ἔσται γὰρ ἰδέα τις
  • Critical Apparatus26ἣν ἀδύνατον ἐπὶ πλειόνων κατηγορῆσαι ἢ ἑνός. οὐ δοκεῖ
  • Editor’s Note Link 27δέ, ἀλλὰ πᾶσα ἰδέα εἶναι μεθεκτή. ὥσπερ οὖν εἴρηται,
  • Link 28λανθάνει ὅτι ἀδύνατον ὁρίσασθαι ἐν τοῖς ἀϊδίοις, μάλιστα
  • Critical Apparatus Link 29δὲ ὅσα μοναχά, οἷον ἥλιος ἢ σελήνη. οὐ μόνον γὰρ δια-
  • 30μαρτάνουσι τῷ προστιθέναι τοιαῦτα ὧν ἀφαιρουμένων ἔτι
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus31ἔσται ἥλιος, ὥσπερ τὸ περὶ γῆν ἰὸν ἢ νυκτικρυφές (ἂν γὰρ
  • pg 32Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus32στῇ ἢ φανῇ, οὐκέτι ἔσται ἥλιος· ἀλλ' ἄτοπον εἰ μή· ὁ γὰρ
  • 33ἥλιος οὐσίαν τινὰ σημαίνει)· ἔτι ὅσα ἐπ' ἄλλου ἐνδέχεται,
  • 34οἷον ἐὰν ἕτερος γένηται τοιοῦτος, δῆλον ὅτι ἥλιος ἔσται· κοι-
  • 1040bEditor’s Note Link 1νὸς ἄρα ὁ λόγος· ἀλλ' ἦν τῶν καθ' ἕκαστα ὁ ἥλιος, ὥσπερ
  • Editor’s Note Link 2Κλέων ἢ Σωκράτης· ἐπεὶ διὰ τί οὐδεὶς ὅρον ἐκφέρει αὐτῶν
  • Link 3ἰδέας; γένοιτο γὰρ ἂν δῆλον πειρωμένων ὅτι ἀληθὲς τὸ
  • 4νῦν εἰρημένον.
  • 16 Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 5Φανερὸν δὲ ὅτι καὶ τῶν δοκουσῶν εἶναι οὐσιῶν αἱ πλεῖ-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 6σται δυνάμεις εἰσί, τά τε μόρια τῶν ζῴων (οὐθὲν γὰρ κε-
  • Critical Apparatus7χωρισμένον αὐτῶν ἐστίν· ὅταν δὲ χωρισθῇ, καὶ τότε ὄντα
  • Editor’s Note Link 8ὡς ὕλη πάντα) καὶ γῆ καὶ πῦρ καὶ ἀήρ· οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 9ἕν ἐστιν, ἀλλ' οἷον σωρός, πρὶν ἢ πεφθῇ καὶ γένηταί τι
  • 10ἐξ αὐτῶν ἕν. μάλιστα δ' ἄν τις τὰ τῶν ἐμψύχων ὑπο-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus11λάβοι μόρια καὶ τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς πάρεγγυς ἄμφω γίγνε-
  • Editor’s Note12σθαι, ὄντα καὶ ἐντελεχείᾳ καὶ δυνάμει, τῷ ἀρχὰς ἔχειν
  • Editor’s Note13κινήσεως ἀπό τινος ἐν ταῖς καμπαῖς· διὸ ἔνια ζῷα διαι-
  • Link 14ρούμενα ζῇ. ἀλλ' ὅμως δυνάμει πάντ' ἔσται, ὅταν ᾖ ἓν καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus15συνεχὲς φύσει, ἀλλὰ μὴ βίᾳ ἢ συμφύσει· τὸ γὰρ
  • Editor’s Note Link 16τοιοῦτον πήρωσις. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ ἓν λέγεται ὥσπερ καὶ τὸ ὄν,
  • Link 17καὶ ἡ οὐσία ἡ τοῦ ἑνὸς μία, καὶ ὧν μία ἀριθμῷ ἓν ἀριθμῷ,
  • Link 18φανερὸν ὅτι οὔτε τὸ ἓν οὔτε τὸ ὂν ἐνδέχεται οὐσίαν εἶναι τῶν
  • Critical Apparatus19πραγμάτων, ὥσπερ οὐδὲ τὸ στοιχείῳ εἶναι ἢ ἀρχῇ· ἀλλὰ
  • 20ζητοῦμεν τίς οὖν ἡ ἀρχή, ἵνα εἰς γνωριμώτερον ἀναγάγω-
  • Editor’s Note Link 21μεν. μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν τούτων οὐσία τὸ ὂν καὶ ἓν ἢ ἥ τε
  • Link 22ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ στοιχεῖον καὶ τὸ αἴτιον, οὔπω δὲ οὐδὲ ταῦτα,
  • Link 23εἴπερ μηδ' ἄλλο κοινὸν μηδὲν οὐσία· οὐδενὶ γὰρ ὑπάρχει ἡ
  • Critical Apparatus24οὐσία ἀλλ' ἢ αὑτῇ τε καὶ τῷ ἔχοντι αὐτήν, οὗ ἐστὶν οὐσία.
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 25ἔτι τὸ ἓν πολλαχῇ οὐκ ἂν εἴη ἅμα, τὸ δὲ κοινὸν ἅμα
  • Link 26πολλαχῇ ὑπάρχει· ὥστε δῆλον ὅτι οὐδὲν τῶν καθόλου
  • Critical Apparatus Link 27ὑπάρχει παρὰ τὰ καθ' ἕκαστα χωρίς. ἀλλ' οἱ τὰ εἴδη
  • Critical Apparatus28λέγοντες τῇ μὲν ὀρθῶς λέγουσι χωρίζοντες αὐτά, εἴπερ
  • pg 3329οὐσίαι εἰσί, τῇ δ' οὐκ ὀρθῶς, ὅτι τὸ ἓν ἐπὶ πολλῶν εἶδος
  • Link 30λέγουσιν. αἴτιον δ' ὅτι οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἀποδοῦναι τίνες αἱ
  • Critical Apparatus31τοιαῦται οὐσίαι αἱ ἄφθαρτοι παρὰ τὰς καθ' ἕκαστα καὶ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 32αἰσθητάς· ποιοῦσιν οὖν τὰς αὐτὰς τῷ εἴδει τοῖς φθαρτοῖς
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus33(ταύτας γὰρ ἴσμεν), αὐτοάνθρωπον καὶ αὐτόϊππον, προστι-
  • Editor’s Note Link 34θέντες τοῖς αἰσθητοῖς τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ "αὐτό". καίτοι κἂν εἰ μὴ
  • 1041aEditor’s Note1ἑωράκειμεν τὰ ἄστρα, οὐδὲν ἂν ἧττον, οἶμαι, ἦσαν οὐσίαι
  • Critical Apparatus2ἀΐδιοι παρ' ἃς ἡμεῖς ᾔδειμεν· ὥστε καὶ νῦν εἰ μὴ ἔχομεν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 3τίνες εἰσίν, ἀλλ' εἶναί γέ τινας ἴσως ἀναγκαῖον. ὅτι μὲν
  • 4οὖν οὔτε τῶν καθόλου λεγομένων οὐδὲν οὐσία οὔτ' ἐστὶν οὐσία
  • Critical Apparatus Link 5οὐδεμία ἐξ οὐσιῶν, δῆλον.
  • 17 Editor’s Note Link 6Τί δὲ χρὴ λέγειν καὶ ὁποῖόν τι τὴν οὐσίαν, πάλιν
  • Link 7ἄλλην οἷον ἀρχὴν ποιησάμενοι λέγωμεν· ἴσως γὰρ ἐκ τού-
  • 8των ἔσται δῆλον καὶ περὶ ἐκείνης τῆς οὐσίας ἥτις ἐστὶ κεχω-
  • Link 9ρισμένη τῶν αἰσθητῶν οὐσιῶν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ οὐσία ἀρχὴ καὶ
  • Link 10αἰτία τις ἐστίν, ἐντεῦθεν μετιτέον. ζητεῖται δὲ τὸ διὰ τί
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 11ἀεὶ οὕτως, διὰ τί ἄλλο ἄλλῳ τινὶ ὑπάρχει. τὸ γὰρ ζη-
  • Critical Apparatus Link 12τεῖν διὰ τί ὁ μουσικὸς ἄνθρωπος μουσικὸς ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus13ἤτοι ἐστὶ τὸ εἰρημένον ζητεῖν, διὰ τί ὁ ἄνθρωπος μουσικός
  • Critical Apparatus Link 14ἐστιν, ἢ ἄλλο. τὸ μὲν οὖν διὰ τί αὐτό ἐστιν αὐτό, οὐδέν ἐστι
  • Editor’s Note Link 15ζητεῖν (δεῖ γὰρ τὸ ὅτι καὶ τὸ εἶναι ὑπάρχειν δῆλα ὄντα
  • Critical Apparatus16—λέγω δ' οἷον ὅτι ἡ σελήνη ἐκλείπει—, αὐτὸ δὲ ὅτι αὐτό,
  • Link 17εἷς λόγος καὶ μία αἰτία ἐπὶ πάντων, διὰ τί ὁ ἄνθρωπος
  • Critical Apparatus18ἄνθρωπος ἢ ὁ μουσικὸς μουσικός, πλὴν εἴ τις λέγοι ὅτι ἀδιαί-
  • Critical Apparatus19ρετον πρὸς αὑτὸ ἕκαστον, τοῦτο δ' ἦν τὸ ἑνὶ εἶναι· ἀλλὰ τοῦτο
  • Critical Apparatus Link 20κοινόν γε κατὰ πάντων καὶ σύντομον)· ζητήσειε δ' ἄν τις
  • Critical Apparatus Link 21διὰ τί ἅνθρωπός ἐστι ζῷον τοιονδί. τοῦτο μὲν τοίνυν
  • Critical Apparatus Link 22δῆλον, ὅτι οὐ ζητεῖ διὰ τί ὅς ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν·
  • 23τὶ ἄρα κατά τινος ζητεῖ διὰ τί ὑπάρχει (ὅτι δ' ὑπάρχει,
  • pg 34Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 24δεῖ δῆλον εἶναι· εἰ γὰρ μὴ οὕτως, οὐδὲν ζητεῖ), οἷον διὰ τί
  • Critical Apparatus25βροντᾷ; διὰ τί ψόφος γίγνεται ἐν τοῖς νέφεσιν; ἄλλο γὰρ
  • Critical Apparatus26οὕτω κατ' ἄλλου ἐστὶ τὸ ζητούμενον. καὶ διὰ τί ταδί, οἷον
  • Critical Apparatus Link 27πλίνθοι καὶ λίθοι, οἰκία ἐστίν; φανερὸν τοίνυν ὅτι ζητεῖ τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 28αἴτιον· τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, ὡς εἰπεῖν λογικῶς, ὃ
  • Link 29ἐπ' ἐνίων μέν ἐστι τίνος ἕνεκα, οἷον ἴσως ἐπ' οἰκίας ἢ κλί-
  • 30νης, ἐπ' ἐνίων δὲ τί ἐκίνησε πρῶτον· αἴτιον γὰρ καὶ τοῦτο.
  • Editor’s Note Link 31ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν τοιοῦτον αἴτιον ἐπὶ τοῦ γίγνεσθαι ζητεῖται καὶ
  • Link 32φθείρεσθαι, θάτερον δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ εἶναι. λανθάνει δὲ μά-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus33λιστα τὸ ζητούμενον ἐν τοῖς μὴ κατ' ἀλλήλων λεγομένοις,
  • 1041bEditor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 1οἷον ἄνθρωπος τί ἐστι ζητεῖται διὰ τὸ ἁπλῶς λέγεσθαι
  • Critical Apparatus Link 2ἀλλὰ μὴ διορίζειν ὅτι τάδε τόδε. ἀλλὰ δεῖ διαρθρώ-
  • Critical Apparatus3σαντας ζητεῖν· εἰ δὲ μή, κοινὸν τοῦ μηθὲν ζητεῖν καὶ τοῦ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 4ζητεῖν τι γίγνεται. ἐπεὶ δὲ δεῖ ἔχειν τε καὶ ὑπάρχειν τὸ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 5εἶναι, δῆλον δὴ ὅτι τὴν ὕλην ζητεῖ διὰ τί ⟨τί⟩ἐστιν· οἷον
  • Critical Apparatus Link 6οἰκία ταδὶ διὰ τί; ὅτι ὑπάρχει ὃ ἦν οἰκίᾳ εἶναι. καὶ ἄν-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 7θρωπος τοδί, ἢ τὸ σῶμα τοῦτο τοδὶ ἔχον. ὥστε τὸ αἴτιον
  • Critical Apparatus8ζητεῖται τῆς ὕλης (τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶ τὸ εἶδος) ᾧ τί ἐστιν· τοῦτο
  • Editor’s Note9δ' ἡ οὐσία. φανερὸν τοίνυν ὅτι ἐπὶ τῶν ἁπλῶν οὐκ ἔστι ζήτη-
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus10σις οὐδὲ δίδαξις, ἀλλ' ἕτερος τρόπος τῆς ζητήσεως τῶν τοιού-
  • Editor’s Note Link 11των.—ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ ἔκ τινος σύνθετον οὕτως ὥστε ἓν εἶναι τὸ πᾶν,
  • Critical Apparatus Link 12[ἂν] μὴ ὡς σωρὸς ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ συλλαβή—ἡ δὲ συλλαβὴ
  • Critical Apparatus13οὐκ ἔστι τὰ στοιχεῖα, οὐδὲ τῷβ̅ α̅‎ ταὐτὸ τὸβ̅‎ καὶα̅‎ , οὐδʼ
  • pg 35Critical Apparatus14ἡ σὰρξ πῦρ καὶ γῆ (διαλυθέντων γὰρ τὰ μὲν οὐκέτι ἔστιν,
  • Critical Apparatus15οἷον ἡ σὰρξ καὶ ἡ συλλαβή, τὰ δὲ στοιχεῖα ἔστι, καὶ τὸ
  • Critical Apparatus Link 16πῦρ καὶ ἡ γῆ)· ἔστιν ἄρα τι ἡ συλλαβή, οὐ μόνον τὰ στοι-
  • Editor’s Note Link 17χεῖα τὸ φωνῆεν καὶ ἄφωνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἕτερόν τι, καὶ ἡ
  • 18σὰρξ οὐ μόνον πῦρ καὶ γῆ ἢ τὸ θερμὸν καὶ ψυχρὸν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 19ἀλλὰ καὶ ἕτερόν τι—εἰ τοίνυν ἀνάγκη κἀκεῖνο ἢ στοιχεῖον
  • Critical Apparatus20ἢ ἐκ στοιχείων εἶναι, εἰ μὲν στοιχεῖον, πάλιν ὁ αὐτὸς ἔσται
  • 21λόγος (ἐκ τούτου γὰρ καὶ πυρὸς καὶ γῆς ἔσται ἡ σὰρξ καὶ
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus22ἔτι ἄλλου, ὥστ' εἰς ἄπειρον βαδιεῖται)· εἰ δὲ ἐκ στοιχείου,
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus23δῆλον ὅτι οὐχ ἑνὸς ἀλλὰ πλειόνων, ἢ ἐκεῖνο αὐτὸ ἔσται,
  • Critical Apparatus24ὥστε πάλιν ἐπὶ τούτου τὸν αὐτὸν ἐροῦμεν λόγον καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς
  • Critical Apparatus Link 25σαρκὸς ἢ συλλαβῆς. δόξειε δ' ἂν εἶναι τὶ τοῦτο καὶ οὐ
  • 26στοιχεῖον, καὶ αἴτιόν γε τοῦ εἶναι τοδὶ μὲν σάρκα τοδὶ δὲ
  • Link 27συλλαβήν· ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων. οὐσία δὲ ἑκάστου
  • Critical Apparatus Link 28μὲν τοῦτο (τοῦτο γὰρ αἴτιον πρῶτον τοῦ εἶναι)—ἐπεὶ δ' ἔνια
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus29οὐκ οὐσίαι τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀλλ' ὅσαι οὐσίαι, κατὰ φύσιν
  • Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus Link 30καὶ φύσει συνεστήκασι, φανείη ἂν [καὶ] αὕτη ἡ φύσις οὐσία,
  • Link 31ἥ ἐστιν οὐ στοιχεῖον ἀλλ' ἀρχή—· στοιχεῖον δ' ἐστὶν εἰς ὃ
  • 32διαιρεῖται ἐνυπάρχον ὡς ὕλην, οἷον τῆς συλλαβῆς τὸ α̅
  • Critical Apparatus33καὶ τὸ β̅.

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
1028a 10. While 'is' has the various senses distinguished in Δ‎. 7, what 'is' in the primary sense is substance (i. e. 'what a thing is'—e. g. man, god, as opposed to 'good', 'three cubits high'—or a 'this').
18. Other things are said to 'be' by virtue of being quantities, &c., of this.
20. Hence one might doubt whether 'walking' and the like are existent; no such thing can exist apart from substance.
24. 'That which walks' more truly is, because it has an individual substance as substratum.
30. Substance is primary in definition, in knowledge, and in time; in time because it alone among the categories can exist apart; in definition because the definition of a substance is involved in the definition of anything else; in knowledge because we know a thing better when we know 'what it is' than when we know its quality, &c.; we know even a quantity or a quality only when we know what it is.
b 2. The eternal question 'what is being' really means 'what is substance' (it is substance that was said by various thinkers to be one or many, and if many, finite or infinite in number), and so this is our chief and first and practically our only subject.
 
Editor’s Note
1028a 10. καθάπερ διειλόμεθα πρότερον, Δ‎. 7.
Editor’s Note
11. τί ἐστι καὶ τόδε τι‎. The two phrases indicate the two sides there are to Aristotle's doctrine of substance. A τί ἐστι‎ is the τί ἐστι‎ of something, the answer to the question 'what is it?'; and whether this something be an individual or a universal, its essence can only be stated as a universal or a combination of universals. τί ἐστι‎ in fact points to the distinction between essential and accidental predication. A τόδε τι‎ on the other hand is not the τόδε τι‎ of anything; it is simply an individual; the term τόδε τι‎ points not to the distinction of essential from accidental but to that of substance from attribute. The fact is that οὐσία‎ means initially for Aristotle nothing more definite than 'that which most truly or fully is'. He sometimes thinks of it as that in things which most truly is—τί ἐστι‎ or essence; and sometimes as that which most truly is because it is not in anything but exists by itself—τόδε τι‎ or the individual. The same ambiguity occurs in the Categories, where πρώτη οὐσία‎, answers to τόδε τι‎ and δευτέρα οὐσία‎ to τί ἐστι‎.
Critical Apparatus
1028a 12 δὲ‎ Ab Al.: δὲ ὅτι‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
16 κακόν‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.: καλόν‎ Ab Al.
τρίπηχυ ἢ‎ codd. Γ‎ Al. et at vid. Asc.: θεὸν ἢ‎ Shute: secl. Susemihl
Editor’s Note
16. Aristotle's object being to distinguish quality from substance, not from the other categories, τρίπηχυ ἤ‎ is irrelevant, and was suspected by Bz. It was, however, read by Alexander, and apparently by Asclepius, and Aristotle is not incapable of such irrelevancies, especially in a clause which like the μέν‎ clause here is unemphasized. Cf. Θ‎. 1047a 10 n.
Critical Apparatus
19 ποσότητες … ποιότητες‎ Ab Al.: ποσότητας … ποιότητας‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
19. I have restored from Ab Al. the grammatically correct ποσότητες, ποιότητες‎, instead of the accusatives.
Critical Apparatus
20 τι] τι τοιοῦτον‎ EJΓ‎
κἂν] καὶ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
21 σημαίνει] ἢ μὴ ὄν‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.
Editor’s Note
21. Ab's reading σημαίνει‎ seems to be required, instead of ἢ μὴ ὄν‎, to explain the grammar of ἕκαστον αὐτῶν‎. 'Whether the words "to walk", &c., imply that each of these things is existent' Cf. L. and S. σημαίνω‎ III. 1.
Editor’s Note
24. Aristotle does not mean that τὸ βαδίζον‎ unlike τὸ βαδίζειν‎ can exist apart from substance, but that τὸ βαδίζον‎, since it is a substance (though referred to only as the possessor of an activity), can exist apart, while τὸ βαδίζειν‎, since it is only an activity (though it implies a substance as the possessor of the activity), cannot exist apart.
Critical Apparatus
25 καὶ‎ pr. Ab Al.c: τι καὶ‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
26–27. διότι‎ … ὡρισμένον‎. I.e., when we say τὸ βαδίζον‎, we think of some definite man or animal that is walking; when we say τὸ βαδίζειν‎ we imply that there is a subject but do not think of any definite one.
Editor’s Note
28. ἐμφοίνεται‎ … τοιαύτῃ‎, 'is plainly implied in the use of such a designation'.
Critical Apparatus
29 τοῦτο‎ J
Editor’s Note
30. τὸ πρώτως ὂν καὶ οὐ τὶ ὂν ἀλλʼ ὂν ἁπλῶς‎, 'that which is primarily, i. e. not in a qualified sense, but without qualification'.
Critical Apparatus
32 πάντως‎ Ab γρ‎. E: πάντων‎ EJΓ‎ Al.l Asc.
καὶ] καὶ φύσει καὶ‎ Asc.c
Editor’s Note
32. καὶ λόγῳ καὶ γνώσει καὶ χρόνῳ‎. Alexander takes τῶν … μόνη‎ ll. 33, 34 to be explanatory of χρόνῳ‎. Substance is prior to the attributes it successively possesses, as a jar is prior to the wines that successively fill it. What Aristotle says, however, is 'for none of the other categories can exist apart; substance alone can'. Priority in this sense is elsewhere distinguished from priority in time (Cat. 14a 26–35, Phys. 260b 18) and is described in distinction from it as priority κατὰ φύσιν καὶ οὐσίαν‎ (Δ‎. 1018b 14, 1019a 2). The reading of the lemma in Asc. (καὶ φύσει καὶ λόγῳ καὶ χρόνῳ καὶ γνώσει‎) and that of Bessarion and the Aldine edition (καὶ λόγῳ καὶ γνώσει καὶ χρόνῳ καὶ φύσει‎) are no doubt corrections designed to meet this difficulty, and do not mend matters, since they leave χρόνῳ‎ unexplained. Aristotle is by no means careful to preserve the same appellations for the various senses of 'prior'; thus 'prior in φύσις‎' in Cat. 14b 5, Phys. 261a 14, 265a 22, P. A. 646a 26, A. 989a 16, 'prior in οὐσία‎' in Phys. 260b 19, 261a 19, G. A. 742a 22, Θ‎. 1050a 4, M. 1077a 19, Rhet. 1392a 20 are used in a different sense from that which they bear in the passages already mentioned. It seems best to suppose with Alexander that the next words (ll. 33 f.) are meant to explain χρόνῳ‎. That which can exist without other things while they cannot exist without it may naturally be said to exist before other things.
Priority λόγῳ‎ and priority γνώσει‎ are not elsewhere distinguished. In 1038b 27 we have priority λόγῳ, χρόνῳ, γενέσει‎; in Θ‎. 1049b 11 λόγῳ, οὐσίᾳ, χρόνῳ‎; in Phys. 265a 22 φύσει, λόγῳ, χρόνῳ‎. In Δ‎. 1018b 31 priority κατὰ τὸν λόγον‎ is one form of priority τῇ γνώσει‎; in Θ‎. 1049b 16 f. the two are identified. But here they seem to be distinguished from each other; as καί‎ before χρόνῳ‎ means 'and', it is difficult to suppose that καί‎ before γνώσει‎ means 'i. e.' Alexander is probably right in supposing that ll. 34–36 refer to λόγῳ‎ and ll. 36–b 2 to γνώσει‎.
Critical Apparatus
33 χρόνῳ] χρόνῳ καὶ φύσει‎ ia
Editor’s Note
34. Aristotle here says that substance is πρῶτον λόγῳ‎ as compared with the other categories. In M. 1077b 6 he says τὸ λευκόν‎ is prior in λόγος‎ to ὁ λευκὸς ἄνθρωπος‎ (cf. Δ‎. 1018b 34). The two statements are quite compatible. 'White' is prior to 'white man' because you can define white without including the definition of white man, and cannot define white man without including the definition of white. But body is prior to white because you can define it without including the definition of white, and cannot define white without including the definition of surface nor surface without including the definition of body. All attributes involve in the end substances and cannot be defined without including their definition. The passages are to be reconciled, then, not as Bz. seems to hold by interpreting λόγος‎ differently, but by observing that white man is posterior to white simply because man is not the substance to which white belongs per se.
Critical Apparatus
a 35 οὐσίας] οὐσίας λόγον‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
36 δὲ‎ et 37 τὸ‎ pr. om. Ab
Editor’s Note
36–b 2. Bz. points out that it is not substance as distinct from attributes, but the essence of a thing as distinct from its other attributes, that is here shown to be primary in γνῶσις‎. The fact is that in the notion of the first category these two notions are somewhat unsatisfactorily blended. This has been already noticed in l. 11 n., and becomes increasingly apparent throughout the book. In b 1, 2 Aristotle points out that even things in categories other than substance have a τί ἐστι‎, a quasi-substance, which is to them as the substance of man is to man. This notion is developed in 1030a 17–27.
Critical Apparatus
b 2 ἐστι‎ AbΓ‎ Asc.: ἐστιν ἢ‎ EJ
γνῶμεν‎ Ab Al. Asc.: εἰδῶμεν‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
b 4. οἱ μὲν ἕν‎, the schools of Miletus and Elea.
Editor’s Note
5. οἱ μὲν πεπερασμένα‎, the Pythagoreans, and Empedocles and his followers; οἱ δὲ ἄπειρα‎, Anaxagoras and the atomists.
Critical Apparatus
8 ἡ … μὲν] κυρίως ὂν εἶναι ἢ οὐσία, φανερώτατα μὲν ἐν‎ ut vid. Al.
Editor’s Note
1028b 8. (1) Substance is thought to belong most evidently to bodies—animals and plants and their parts, the elements and their parts and what is composed of them, e. g. the physical universe and the stars.
16. (2) Some think the limits of body—surface, line, point, and unit—are more truly substances.
19. (3) Some think there are eternal things more numerous and more real than the sensibles, e. g. (a) Plato thinks Forms and mathematical objects are two other kinds of substance.
21. (b) Speusippus thinks there are many kinds of substance, each with its own first principles—numbers, spatial magnitudes, soul, &c.
24. (c) Some think that Forms and numbers are of the same kind, but that there are other kinds dependent on this—lines, planes, &c., ending with the class of sensibles.
27. These views we must examine, after first outlining the nature of substance.
 
Critical Apparatus
11 ἢ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c: δὴ‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
1028b 11. καὶ τῶν τοιούτων ἕκαστον‎. For the probable meaning cf. H. 1042a 8 n.
Critical Apparatus
12 μορίων‎ codd. Γ‎ Al.: τινῶν‎ vel ἐνίων‎ ci. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
12–13. ἢ μορίων‎ … αὐτοῦ‎. The physical universe (for this sense of οὐρανός‎ cf. Bz. Index 541b 56–542a 17) is composed of the totality of natural bodies or elements (De Caelo 278b 21); its parts are composed of parts of this totality.
Bz. conjectures τινῶν‎ or ἐνίων‎ for μορίων‎. But this suggestion is not, as he supposes, supported by Alexander, who evidently read μορίων‎ (462. 6).
Critical Apparatus
14 αὗται‎ AbΓ‎ Al. Asc.lc: αὐταὶ‎ EJ
ἢ‎ alt.…
Editor’s Note
14. I have inserted here, from T, ἢ τούτων τινὲς ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι‎. EJ Asc. have ἢ τούτων τινὲς ἢ καὶ ἄλλων‎, Ab ἢ τούτων τινὲς καὶ ἄλλων‎, where ἄλλων‎ (sc. τινές‎) would be difficult to defend. With ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι ἢ τούτων τινὲς ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι ἢ τούτων‎ before them, it is natural that the writers of the inferior manuscripts should have passed from the first ἄλλαι‎ to the second, instead of the first, ἢ τούτων‎. The possibilities stated by Aristotle are that the complete list of substances should include—
  1. (1) only those already named,

  2. (2) those and others,

  3. (3) only some of those already named,

  4. (4) some of those already named and some others (ἢ καὶ ἄλλαι‎),

  5. (5) only certain others.

Critical Apparatus
15 ἄλλαι‎ T: ἢ … ἄλλων‎ EJ Asc.: ἢ τούτων τινὲς καὶ ἄλλων‎ Ab: om. Γ‎ Al.
Critical Apparatus
16 δέ] δή‎ Bywater
Editor’s Note
16. τισι‎, sc. Pythagoreans. The Platonic view is given as distinct from this in l. 19. The Pythagorean belief that planes, lines, points, and units are substances contained in bodies is distinguished from the Platonic view that there are substances apart from bodies. For the former view cf. B. 1002a 4.
Editor’s Note
18. οἱ μέν‎, the pre-Socratics, cf. B. 1002a 8.
Editor’s Note
19. οἱ δὲ … ἀΐδια.‎ πλείω‎ may mean (1) more numerous than sensible substances (cf. A. 990b 4) or (2) of more than one kind. Again we may translate (1) 'eternal entities more in number and more real', or (2), with a comma after μᾶλλον‎, 'entities more in number and more truly substances, being eternal'. The first alternative in each case seems preferable. μᾶλλον‎ must not be taken with ἀΐδια‎, for eternality is not a matter of degree.
Critical Apparatus
21 καὶ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
21. Speusippus' doctrine is referred to in M. 1076a 21, 1080b 14, 1085a 31, N. 1091a 34. It is this doctrine that makes the nature of things 'episodic, like a bad tragedy' (Λ‎. 1076a 1, N. 1090b 19). The ἀρχαί‎ of numbers were unity and plurality (M. 1085b 5, 1087b 6, 8, 27, 30, N. 1091b 31, 1092a 35); the ἀρχαί‎ of magnitudes were the point and 'a matter akin to plurality but distinct from it' (M. 1085a 32). E. Frank, in Plato u. d. sogenannten Pythagoreer, 245–251, holds that Speusippus recognized ten stages in the structure of the universe, viz. (1) absolute unity, (2) absolute plurality, (3) number, (4) spatial magnitudes, (5) perceptible bodies, (6) the soul, (7) reason, (8) desire, (9) movement, (10) the good. This view is, however, largely conjectural.
Editor’s Note
24. ἔνιοι δέ‎. This is the school of Xenocrates (so Asc.); for the evidence of this cf. M. 1076a 20 n. Other references to the view are found in Λ‎. 1069a 35, M. 1080b 22, 28, 1086a 5, N. 1090b 28, 31; it is in M. 1083b 2 called the worst of the Platonic views about numbers.
Editor’s Note
26–27. μέχρι‎ … αἰσθητά‎. Theophr. fr. xii. 12 gives Xenocrates credit for carrying out his explanation of the universe more thoroughly than Plato and Speusippus; οὗτος γὰρ ἅπαντά πως περιτίθησι περὶ τὸν κόσμον, ὁμοίως αἰσθητὰ καὶ νοητὰ καὶ μαθηματικὰ καὶ ἔτι δὴ τὰ θεῖα‎. According to Sextus Empiricus (Adv. Math. vii. 147) he distinguished τὴν αἰσθητὴν οὐσίαν‎ (τὴν ἐντὸς οὐρανοῦ‎), τὴν νοητήν‎ (τῶν ἐκτὸς οὐρανοῦ‎), τὴν σύνθετον καὶ δοξαστήν‎ (τὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ‎).
Critical Apparatus
b 28 τίνες‎ EJΓ‎ Al.l: τίνων‎ Ab Asc.
Editor’s Note
28–31. The question whether there are any substances παρὰ τὰς αἰσθητάς‎ is distinguished from the question whether there is a χωριστὴ οὐσία παρὰ τὰς αἰσθητάς‎. The first is the question whether there are any substances besides sensible substances—e. g. forms of sensible substances; the second is the question whether there is any substance capable of separate existence besides the sensible substances, i. e. any pure substantial form.
Critical Apparatus
33 ἡ οὐσία, εἰ μὴ‎ EJΓ‎ Al.: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
1028b 33. At least four things are said to be substance:
  1. (A) essence,

  2. (B) the universal,

  3. (C) the genus,

  4. (D) the substratum.

Editor’s Note
1028b 34–36. τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is examined in chs. 4–6, 10–12; τὸ καθόλου‎ in chs. 13, 14; τὸ ὑποκείμενον‎ in ch. 3. τὸ γένος‎ is nowhere separately examined in Z. At the beginning of ch. 13 Aristotle says that, as he has examined the essence and the substratum, it remains to examine the claim of the universal to be substance. From this it appears that the genus has dropped out of view. But in fact chs. 13, 14 serve as an examination of genus as well as of the universal. Every genus is a universal (though the converse is not true, differentiae and properties being also included among universals), and if the universal cannot be substance, genus cannot be so.
Editor’s Note
36. (D) The substratum is that which is subject of everything else, never predicate; it is thought to be, most of all things, substance.
1029a 2. In one sense matter, in another sense form, in another sense their compound, is said to be the substratum.
5. If form is prior to matter, it is prior to their compound.
7. Our account of substance as that which is always subject is inadequate; for it would follow that matter is substance, since it is what persists when all attributes are taken away.
20. By matter I mean that which in itself is not any particular thing nor of any quantity nor otherwise determined. The other attributes are predicated of substance, and substance of matter.
27. But substance must be capable of separate existence and be a 'this', so that form, and the compound of form and matter, are more truly substance than matter is.
30. The compound we defer, as posterior in nature and familiar; we will study form, the most difficult of the three. We look for it first in certain generally recognized sensible substances.
b 3. For the order of learning is from the less intelligible by nature and more intelligible to us to the more intelligible by nature.
 
Editor’s Note
1029a 1–28. The two characteristics of substance here signalized as primary—that of being ultimate subject of predication and that of having separate individual existence—are the same two that are mentioned in Δ‎. 1017b 23–26.
Critical Apparatus
1029a 2 λέγεται‎ EJΓ‎Al.: φαίνεται‎ Ab Asc.
Editor’s Note
2. The treatment of τὸ ὑποκείμενον‎ as ambiguous, meaning (1) matter and (2) the concrete unity of matter and form, is natural, and common enough in Aristotle (matter underlies actuality or form, the concrete individual underlies its affections or accidents, l. 23, cf. 1038b 5); but it is surprising to find (3) form put forward as one of its meanings. The same suggestion, however, occurs in H. 1042a 28. Aristotle's meaning is that the form or essence, instead of the concrete individual, may be thought to be what underlies properties and accidents; cf. the description of the soul as the ὑποκείμενον‎ of life, Δ‎. 1022a 32. The reference to form, then, is not as Bz. suggests a slip due to the constant association of matter, form, and the unity of the two, in Aristotle's thought. Nor is the fact that form is discussed under the head of τί ἦν εἶναι‎, not of ὑποκείμενον‎ (Bz. 301) a real objection to its presence here. Substratum and essence present themselves with the universal and genus as rival candidates for the position of substance. If essence turns out to be a kind of substratum, the original division into four turns out to be a cross-division; but we already know from the case of τὸ καθόλου‎ and τὸ γένος‎ that that is so. The original fourfold division is merely a prima facie one.
Critical Apparatus
3 λέγω δὲ‎ et 5 τὸν‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
3. ἡ μορφή‎. μορφή‎ is often identified with εἶδος‎ and τί ἦν εἶναι‎, but means primarily sensible shape; cf. τὸ σχῆμα τῆς ἰδέας‎ l. 4, τὴν ἐν τῷ αἰσθητῷ μορφήν‎ 1033b 6.
Critical Apparatus
6 τοῦ‎ E1JΓ‎ Asc.: τὸ‎ E2 Al. et fecit Ab
Editor’s Note
6. καὶ τοῦ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν‎. The evidence is pretty equally divided between τοῦ‎ and τό‎, but the former gives a better sense. If A is prior to B it is clear that it is prior to A+B, but it is not so clear that A+B is prior to B, which is what τό‎ would imply. Further, while it is true that in l. 29 Aristotle says the concrete unity is substance more truly than matter, he says nothing of its logical priority; but in l. 31 he says that form is prior to the concrete unity; this again confirms τοῦ‎.
Critical Apparatus
10 αὐτό τε γὰρ‎ E
Editor’s Note
10. αὐτὸ … τοῦτο‎, i. e. the vague statement (τύπῳ εἴρηται‎) in l. 8 f.
Critical Apparatus
11 αὐτὴ‎ AbΓ‎
ἔσται‎ ci. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
12–16. Aristotle divides the process of 'stripping off' (περιαιρουμένων‎) into two stages. τὰ ἄλλα‎, the elements in the nature of a sensible thing other than length, breadth, and depth (i. e. the secondary qualities), are mere affections, actions, and powers of bodies. But secondly, length, breadth, and depth are themselves not substances but qualities and may be 'stripped away' in thought.
Critical Apparatus
16 ταῦτα‎ Ab Al. Asc.: ταῦτα αὐτὰ‎ EJΓ‎
πρώτῳ‎ Ab Al.: πρώτως‎ EJΓ‎ Asc. ἐκείνως‎ J
οὐσία‎ Ab Asc.: ἡ οὐσία‎ EJ
μὴν] μὴν καὶ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
20 μήτε τὶ] μηκέτι γρ‎. E
Critical Apparatus
22 ᾧ ὥστε‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
22–23. ᾦ τὸ εἶναι‎ … ἑκάστῃ‎. The being of matter is different from that of any of the categories, because, while matter is not predicated of anything, substance is predicated of matter and the other categories are predicated of substance. It is noteworthy that even in working out the line of thought from which it might be inferred that matter is substance, Aristotle implies (in αὕτη δὲ τῆς ὕλης‎) that substance is something other than matter, something not entirely stripped of attributes but including certain attributes.
Critical Apparatus
a 23 ἑκάστη‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
25. οὐδὲ δὴ αἱ ἀποφάσεις‎, 'nor will the ultimate subject per se be the negations of these', i. e. οὐ τί, οὐ ποσόν‎, &c. This is difficult; one would suppose that it was just the essence of matter, as Aristotle conceives it, to be not τί‎, not ποσόν‎, &c. But he seems here to feel that to say even this of it is to assign it a character, while its character is to have no character.
Editor’s Note
27. Aristotle does not criticize the line of thought according to which matter is substance, precisely in the way which might seem most natural, by pointing out that the effort to find the truest reality in that of which attributes are predicated has left us with that of which nothing can be predicated. He puts the case differently. Matter lacks two of the characteristic marks of substance. It is not capable of separate existence, and it is not individual. It fails in both respects, we may say, because it is characterless.
Critical Apparatus
28 τὸ‎ EJ Al.c: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
29. In what sense are separate existence and individuality more characteristic of form than of matter (that they are more characteristic of the concrete individual than of matter is intelligible enough)? A similar remark about form occurs in Δ‎. 1017b 25, and the note on that passage may be referred to.
Critical Apparatus
31 τε‎ om. EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
31. ὑστέρα‎, cf. l. 6 n.
Editor’s Note
32. δήλη‎, 'obvious to sense'.
Editor’s Note
φανερὰ δέ πως καὶ ἡ ὕλη‎, i. e. τῇ ἀναλογίᾳ φανερά‎, as Alexander says. Cf. Phys. 191a 7–11 ἡ δʼ ὑποκειμένη φύσις ἐπιστητὴ κατʼ ἀναλογίαν. ὡς γὰρ πρὸς ἀνδριάντα χαλκός … οὕτως αὕτη πρὸς οὐσίαν ἔχει‎.
Editor’s Note
33–34. Bonitz translates 'Es wird nun aber allgemein anerkannt, dass es gewisse Wesenheiten der sinnlichen Dinge giebt'. But it seems more likely that οὐσιῶν‎ should be understood with τῶν αἰσθητῶν‎, to account for the feminine τινές‎, and that οὐσίαι‎ is predicate.
Critical Apparatus
b 3 πρὸ‎ … 12 αὐτῶν‎ hic codd. Γ‎ Al. invitis ponenda censuit Bonitz
γὰρ‎ pr.] γὰρ εἰς‎ E1J
Editor’s Note
b 3–12. Bz. has pointed out that (1) ll. 1, 2 do not naturally lead up to ll. 3–12, since the τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is far from being γνώριμον ἡμῖν‎, and (2) ll. 3–12 do not naturally lead up to ll. 13 ff., since then there is nothing in what immediately precedes καὶ πρῶτον κτλ‎. l. 13 for αὐτοῦ‎ to refer to. It plainly refers to the τί ἦν εἶναι‎, which has not been mentioned since l. 2. His suggestion that 3 πρὸ ἔργου‎ … 12 αὐτῶν‎ should be placed after a 34 πρῶτον‎ meets both these difficulties. This section is meant to justify the treatment of form as it exists in sensible things (a 34) before passing to pure self-existent form. Jaeger suggests with much probability (Arist. 205 n.) that the whole section, with the preceding sentence, was a note added later by Aristotle; the first sentence of the note was written between the lines of Aristotle's manuscript and therefore appears in its proper place, but the remainder of the note had to be written on a separate sheet and has therefore been misplaced. Jaeger holds that the section belongs to a later period, when Aristotle first began to view the discussion of sensible substance in Z as preliminary to the discussion of insensible substance in Λ‎. Cf. 1037a 10–20 n.
Critical Apparatus
5 τὸ αὐτὸ‎ E
ἐν ταῖς] ἐνίαις‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
5. ὥσπερ ἐν ταῖς πράξεσι‎. The passage is to some extent explained by E. N. 1129b 5, where we learn that we should choose what is good for us (i. e. what aids us towards the good life) and pray that what is good in itself (i. e. external goods) may be good for us. Here he simply says 'make' instead of 'pray'. Originally, owing to some defect in us, what is good in itself may not be good for us; but we must (starting by choosing the things that are good for us) transform ourselves till this is no longer so. So too what is intelligible in itself is originally not intelligible to us; but we must clarify our minds until it is intelligible to us, by starting with the apprehension of what is already intelligible to us.
Critical Apparatus
7 αὐτῶν‎ J
Critical Apparatus
8 αὐτῷ γνώριμα‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
9 ἐστὶ‎ Ab Al.c: om. EJΓ‎ Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
10 ὄντος‎ JAbΓ‎, ex ὄντως‎ fecit E
Critical Apparatus
11 αὐτῷ δὲ γνωστῶν‎ om. E1
Critical Apparatus
12 μεταβαίνοντας‎ EJΓ‎Al. Asc.: μεταβαίνοντα‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
1029b 1. (A) We proceed to study essence,
13. (1) in the abstract. The essence of a thing is what it is said to be per se (e. g. (a) your essence is not to-be-musical).
16. But not all of this; e. g. (b) the essence of surface is not whiteness; nor (c) to be a white surface, for here 'surface' itself is added improperly in the definition. The account of the essence of a thing is the account that states its nature but does not use its name.
22. (d) There are compounds of substance and another category; is there an account of the essence of each such compound? Have they an essence?
27. E. g. has 'white man' an essence? It might be objected that 'essence of white man' is not a thing that exists per se. But a proposed definition can be 'not per se' to its subject only (i) because of an improper addition (thus whiteness must not be defined by giving the account of 'white man'),
33. or (ii) because the subject has a qualification which is omitted in the definition (e. g. 'white man' must not be defined by giving the account of whiteness).
1030a 2. But is 'being a white man' an essence at all? No, for an essence is 'just what something is', but where one thing is asserted of another, as in 'white man', this is not 'just what something is', since it is not a substance. Only those things have an essence whose account is a definition.
7. It is not a definition if we merely have an account which means the same as a name (for then all accounts would be definitions, since any might have a name put to it), but only if it is the account of a primary real, I. e. of one which does not imply the assertion of something about something else.
11. Thus only a species has an essence or definition (for in a species, and only in a species, one element does not belong to the other by mere participation or by accident); but there can be an account of the meaning of any name (saying that 'this belongs to that'), or an accurate account can be given instead of a vague one.
17. Or perhaps definition has more than one sense, just as 'what a thing is' means now substance, now one of the other categories. 'What a thing is', like 'is' itself, belongs primarily to substance, secondarily to the others.
23. For we may ask even of a quality what it is; just as not-being is, in so far as it is not-being, so quality is in a sense a 'what it is'.
27. (2) Since the proper way of using the term essence is now clear, we may say that in fact essence belongs (a) primarily to substance, (b) secondarily to the other categories, being in their case 'the essence of a quality', &c.
32. The other categories are said to 'be' by an equivocation or with a qualification; or rather, they 'are' neither in the same sense as substance nor in a merely equivocal sense, but just as various things are 'medical' by virtue of relation to a single end.
b 4. Definition and essence, then, are primarily of substance, secondly of the other categories.
7. But there is definition only if there is a name meaning the same as an account which is one in one of the senses of 'one' answering to the senses of 'being', viz. to the categories.
12. Hence (c) there is a definition of 'white man', but in a different sense of definition from that in which there is one of 'white' or of a substance.
 
Editor’s Note
1029b 1. ἐν ἀρχῇ‎, 1028b 33.
Critical Apparatus
2 ἐδοκεῖ‎ ex δοκεῖ‎ fecit E: δοκεῖ‎ Γ‎
Editor’s Note
13. λογικῶς‎ suggests plausibility rather than truth (Top. 162b 27), dialectic or sophistic as opposed to science (An. Post. 93a 15, and cf. Γ‎. 1005b 22, N. 1087b 20 with De Int. 17a 36), a reference to abstract considerations (λόγοι‎) rather than to the precise nature of the facts in question [ )(φυσικῶς, ἀναλυτικῶς, ἐκ τῶν οἰκείων ἀρχῶν‎, Phys. 204b 4, 10, De Gen. et Corr. 316a 11, G. A. 747b 28, 748a 8, and cf. Λ‎. 1069a 28 with ἐν τοῖς λόγοις‎ A. 987b 31, Θ‎. 1050b 35]. Usually its sense is depreciatory, but where abstract arguments are those that are required λογικός‎ may = ἀκριβής‎, M. 1080a 10. It probably always refers to linguistic inquiries or considerations, cf. λογικῶς‎ here and in 1030a 25 with 1030a 27–28 n. It is in 1030a 28 that the real as opposed to the verbal inquiry begins.
Critical Apparatus
14 ἑκάστου ὃ λέγεται‎ scripsi: ἕκαστον ὃ λέγεται‎ codd. Γ‎: ἑκάστῳ ὃ λέγεται‎ Bonitz: ὃ λέγεται ἕκαστον‎ fort. Al.
Editor’s Note
14. There is no other case in Aristotle of the accusative with τί ἦν εἶναι‎ (in Δ‎. 1016a 34 τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is probably a gloss, cf. n. ad loc.), so that the manuscript reading ἕκαστον ὃ λέγεται‎ will not stand (unless, which is unlikely, the meaning is 'the τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is each thing, viz. what it is said per se to be', or 'the τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is what each thing is said per se to be'). ἑκάστου ὃ λέγεται‎ is palaeographically better than Bz.'s ἑκάστῳ ὃ λέγεται‎. For the genitive cf. 1032a 3, b 2.
Critical Apparatus
15 ὃ‎ … 16 σαυτόν‎ EJΓ‎ et ut vid. Al.: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
16. οὐδὲ δὴ τοῦτο πᾶν‎. Aristotle rules out, as not the τί ἐστι‎ of A, a term B which is καθʼ αὑτό‎ to A in the second sense recognized in An. Post. (73a 37), viz. that (1) it ἐνυπάρχει‎ in A, is an attribute of A, and (2) A ἐνυπάρχει‎ in the definition of it. For this sense and the instance cf. Δ‎. 1022a 30. He thus in effect implies that the τί ἧν εἶναι‎ of A is that which is καθʼ αὑτό‎ to it in the first sense (73a 34), viz. that it is present in the τί ἐστι‎ and definition of A.
Critical Apparatus
17 ἐπιφανείᾳ‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: ἐπιφάνεια‎ Ab
ἐπιφανείᾳ‎ E2JΓ‎ Al. Asc.c: ἐπιφάνεια‎ AbE1
Critical Apparatus
b 18 λευκῷ‎ EJ Al. Asc.c: λευκὸν‎ AbΓ‎
ἐπιφάνεια λευκή‎ Ab et ut vid. Asc.: ἐπιφανείᾳ λινκῇ εἶναι‎ E2J2Γ‎ Asc.c et fort. Al.
Critical Apparatus
19 ὅτι‎ Ab Al.: διὰ τί; ὅτι‎ EJΓ‎ γρ‎. Al.
αὐτό‎ AbΓ‎ Al.: αὐτό‎ J2: αὐτῆι‎ E: αὕτη‎ J1: αὐτή γρ‎. Al.
Editor’s Note
19. ὅτι πρόσεστιν αὐτό‎, i. e. such a statement of the essence of surface as 'to be a white surface' is wrong because it is tautologous.
Critical Apparatus
20 αὐτό‎ pr. EJΓ‎Al.: om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
21 ἑπιφανείᾳ λευκῇ‎ EJΓ‎Al.: ἐπιφάνεια λευκὴ‎ Ab
ἐπιφανείᾳ‎ E2JΓ‎ Al.: ἐπιφάνεια‎ E1JAb
Editor’s Note
21–22. ὥστʼ εἰ … ἕν‎, 'so that if to be a white surface is to be a smooth surface, then, though we are not told the essence of surface, it is implied that "to be white" and "to be smooth" are identical'. Aristotle is thinking of Democritus, who identified them (De Sensu 442b 11, Theophr. De Sensu 13, cf. De Gen. et Corr. 316a 1).
Critical Apparatus
22 λείᾳ‎ recc. Al.: λεία‎ AbE2 at in marg. J: ἀεί‎ E1JΓ‎
Editor’s Note
22–23. ἐπεὶ δʼ ἔστι‎ … σύνθετα‎. There are σύνθετα‎ or σύνολα‎, not only within the category of substance (a 5, Δ‎. 1023a 31) but also corresponding to the other categories, i. e. not only combinations of matter and form but also (more complicated) combinations of substance and accidental attribute. In fact every term in any category other than substance presupposes an underlying substance in which it inheres.
Critical Apparatus
25 τῇ‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
25. τῇ κινήσει‎. The mention of this among the categories is unusual, but cf. E. E. 1217b 29, where κινεῖσθαι, κινεῖν‎ occur as categories. κίνησις‎ is a synonym for ποιεῖν‎ and πάσχειν‎ (cf. Top. 120b 26); it occurs in less formal lists of categories in I. 1054a 6, Λ‎. 1071a 2. More strictly, κίνησις‎ is said to occur in the categories of substance, quality, quantity, place (Phys. 261a 27–36, De Gen. et Corr. 315a 28 sqq.).
Critical Apparatus
26 εἶναι ἑκάστῳ αὐτῶν‎ Ab Al.: ἑκαστου αὐτῶν εἶναι‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
27 τί … ἀνθρωπῳ‎ om. Ab
ἦν] ἦν εἶναι‎ ci. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
27. The omission of εἶναι‎ with τί ἦν‎ is unparalleled in Aristotle, and it is probable that the bracketed words are a gloss.
Editor’s Note
28. For a similar use of ἱμάτιον‎ cf. H. 1045a 26, De Int. 18a 19.
Editor’s Note
ἀλλὰ μὴν οὐδὲ τῶν καθʼ αὑτὸ λεγομένων οὐδὲ τοῦτο‎. Aristotle here anticipates an objection. Some one may say 'it is no use asking what τὸ ἱματίῳ εἶναι‎ is. The thing denoted is not καθʼ αὑτὸ λεγόμενον‎—white is not καθʼ αὑτό‎ to man—and therefore cannot be the essence of 'white man'. The objection assumes, arbitrarily enough, that only what is internally καθʼ αὑτό‎ can be a καθʼ αὑτό‎ predicate to something else. But Aristotle takes it seriously and shows that 'white man' may have something said of it which is not οὐ καθʼ αὑτό‎ in either of the senses in which a definition should not be οὐ καθʼ αὑτό‎ to its subject.
Critical Apparatus
29 οὐδὲ‎ pr. om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
30 ἐστί τι τὸ‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
30. τὸ δὲ οὔ‎. 'The other errs not by addition', which is idiomatically equivalent to saying that it errs by omission; cf. Bz. Index 539a 14–47.
Editor’s Note
31–33. τῷ αὐτὸ ἄλλῳ προσκεῖσθαι‎ … τῷ ἄλλο αὐτῷ‎. The antithesis is misleadingly stated. Really the error arises in one case because in the definition the definiendum is added to something else; in the other because in the definiendum something else is conjoined with what is stated in the definition. προσκεῖσθαι‎ in l. 31 refers, as προσθέσεως‎ does in l. 30, to the addition in thought of a qualification; the προσκεῖσθαι‎ which has to be understood in l. 33 refers to the conjunction of a qualification in fact. Alexander's understanding of δεῖν προσκεῖσθαι‎ in this line, which would remove the ambiguity, is indefensible.
Critical Apparatus
33 σημαίνει‎ Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
34 ὁ δὲ‎ om. J
ὁρίζοιτο‎ JAb Asc. et fort. Al.: ὁρίζοι τὸ‎ E1: ὀρίζοιτο τὸ‎ E2
Editor’s Note
34. To define is not ὁρίζειν‎ but ὁρίζεσθαι‎ (Bz. Index 524b 8). JAb's reading ὁρίζοιτο ἱμάτιον‎ must therefore be right. Alexander (470. 18) read either this or ὁρίζοιτο τὸ ἱμάτιον‎ (so E2).
Critical Apparatus
1030a 1 δὲ‎ recc.
τὸ‎ addidi
εἶναι‎ codd. Γ‎ Al.: incl. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
1030a 1–2. It seems necessary to insert τό‎ before τί ἦν εἶναι‎. 'But its essence is not to be white'. For the omission of τό‎ before λευκῷ εἶναι‎ cf. Δ‎. 1014b 6 n., An. Pr. 67b 12, 13, Pl. Crat. 385 b 2, 10, 408 a 5, Theaet. 176 b 3.
Critical Apparatus
2 ante ἀλλὰ‎ interpunxerunt Asc. Bonitz, ante ἆρα‎ ceteri
τὸ‎ codd. Γ‎ Al.: τῷ‎ Bonitz
Editor’s Note
2. In pointing out the relevant senses of οὐ καθʼ αὑτό‎ Aristotle has shown that the essence of 'white man' is not 'to be white'. But is being white man an essence at all, he now asks, and answers that it is not, though for a different reason from that suggested in 1029b 28 and subsequently set aside. An essence is ὅπερ τι‎, 'just what a particular thing is', and a term like 'white man', in which an attribute is assigned to a subject distinct from itself (ὅταν ἄλλο κατʼ ἄλλου λέγηται‎), is not ὅπερ τόδε τι‎ (= ὅπερ τι‎), since thisness belongs only to substance and 'white man' is not a substance but a substance + an accidental attribute.
The editions before Bz. place the full stop after the second instead of the first εἶναι‎ in this line; the sense makes the change quite necessary.
Critical Apparatus
3 ἢ‎ incl. Bonitz
τί‎ pr. Ab γρ‎. E Al.c: τί ἦν εἶναι‎ EJΓ‎: τόδε τι‎ Bonitz
Editor’s Note
3. ὅπερ γάρ τί‎, the reading of Ab γρ‎. E, gives a good sense, and it is not necessary to read with Bz. ὅπερ γὰρ ⟨τόδε⟩ τι‎. For τι = τόδε τι‎ cf. 1029a 20, 24.
Editor’s Note
ὅταν δʼ ἄλλο κατʼ ἄλλου λέγηται‎. It might be said that a term like 'man', of which Aristotle thinks there is an essence, implies the predication of one term of another ('rational' of 'animal'). Aristotle would reply that these are not ἄλλα‎ to one another since 'rational' exists only as an attribute of 'animal' and has no separate existence. Cf. Z. 12, H. 6. On the other hand a man need not be white, nor a white thing a man.
Critical Apparatus
4 οἷον‎ … 5 τι‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.c: om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
5 τόδε‎ alt.] τόδε τι‎ recc. et ut vid. Al. Asc.
Editor’s Note
6. ὅσων ὁ λόγος ἐστὶν ὁρισμός‎. Any ὄνομα‎ (like ἱμάτιον‎) can have a λόγος‎ or combination of words, and any λόγος‎ (like 'white man') can have a λόγος ἀκριβέστερος‎, which means the same as it; but that λόγος‎ is not a definition, unless that which is thus explained is a πρῶτον‎, a primary or simple real which is not the union of a subject with an irrelevant attribute.
Critical Apparatus
9 λόγῳ‎ Ab Al.: λόγῳ ταὐτόν‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
9. Ab and apparently Alexander (471. 28, 29) have λόγῳ‎ where our other authorities have λόγῳ ταὐτόν‎. The shorter reading is supported by An. Post. 92b 31 εἴη γὰρ ἂν ὄνομα θέσθαι ὁποιῳοῦν λόγῳ‎.
Editor’s Note
ὥστε καὶ ἡ Ἰλιὰς ὁρισμὸς ἔσται‎, i. e. the poem, being a combination of words, would be a definition of the word 'Iliad'. The Iliad is a typical instance of the things that are only συνδέσμῳ ἕν‎, Z. 1030b 9, H. 1045a 13, An. Post. 93b 36, Poet. 1457a 29.
Critical Apparatus
a 10 ᾖ‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
11 κατʼ ἄλλου‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.: om. Ab Al.
Editor’s Note
11–14. Only γένους εἴδη‎ have an essence, i. e. genuine species as opposed both to Platonic εἴδη‎ (cf. A. 991a 31 n.) and to collocations of substance+accident like 'white man'. Platonic Forms κατὰ μετοχὴν λέγεται‎—'participation' is one of Plato's favourite ways of expressing the relation of particulars to the Form. Again, the Platonic Form need not express the innermost nature of its particulars, but is any universal under which they happen to fall, and may be a mere πάθος‎ or συμβεβηκός‎ of them. In 'white man' the relation between the two elements is of the same external and accidental character. On the other hand, the genus which is implied in the name of a species does not 'share' in the differentia; the differentia is not a mere 'affection' or 'concomitant' of it, but is its proper differentia. That κατὰ μετοχήν‎ is to be interpreted as above seems to be shown by 1037b 18, where also Aristotle is speaking of the unity of a species as opposed to a term like 'white man', and says ἐνταῦθα δʼ‎ (in the species) οὐ μετέχει θατέρου θάτερον· τὸ γὰρ γένος οὐ δοκεῖ μετέχειν τῶν διαφορῶν‎. No important distinction seems to be intended here between κατὰ μετοχήν, κατὰ πάθος‎, and ὡς συμβεβηκός‎.
Critical Apparatus
18 γὰρ‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
21 τὸ τί ἐστιν‎ Ab Al.
Editor’s Note
22. τῷ μέν‎, to substance.
Critical Apparatus
23 τοῖς … γὰρ‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: καὶ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
24 ἀλλʼ‎ Ab Al.c Asc.: μὲν ἀλλʼ‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
25. λογικῶς‎, i. e. that which is not cannot be said to 'be' in the plain sense of that word, but speaking λογικῶς‎, with reference to linguistic usage (οἱ λόγοι‎—cf. πῶς δεῖ λέγειν‎, l. 27), we may say that it is, since we can say it is non-existent. Cf. Λ‎. 1069a 21. For λογικῶς‎ cf. 1029b 13 n. So too a qualitative term is never the answer to the question τί ἐστι‎ in its primary sense, i. e. what is such and such a thing, but is an answer to the question what is such and such a quality. 'A colour' is the answer to the question 'what is white?'. Cf. 1028b 1, B. 996b 18–22, Top. 103b 27 ff.
Editor’s Note
26. τινες‎ is perhaps a reference to Plato; cf. Soph. 237, 256 ff.
Editor’s Note
27–28. δεῖ μὲν … ἔχει‎, i. e. such linguistic inquiries as Aristotle has been conducting since 1029b 13 (λογικῶς‎) and has referred to in l. 25 are important enough, but it is still more important to study the facts themselves. The mode of using the term τί ἦν εἶναι‎ being now plain, Aristotle proceeds to draw the conclusion about the facts with regard to the τί ἦν εἶναι‎, viz. that non-substances have in a qualified sense a τί ἦν εἶναι‎, not an essence simply, but 'the essence of a quality', &c. (l. 31).
Editor’s Note
29. ὁμοίως‎ is explained by ὥσπερ καὶ τὸ τί ἐστιν‎, l. 30. The distinction between τί ἐστι‎ and τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is that while the former may stand for either a partial or a complete answer to the question 'what is so and so?', i. e. either for the genus or for the genus+the differentia, the latter always means the complete answer. Thus, while every τί ἦν εἶναι‎ is a τί ἐστι‎, the converse is not true. τί ἐστι‎ is sometimes distinguished from τί ἦν εἶναι‎ (An. Post. 82b 31, 92a 7, De An. 430b 28), sometimes used in the same sense (An. Post. 91a 1, 93b 29, A. 987a 20, 988b 29). Cf. Bz. Index 763b 47–764a 16.
Critical Apparatus
32 ταὐτὰ‎ J
Editor’s Note
32–34. δεῖ γὰρ … ἐπιστητόν‎. We must say that substance and non-substance 'are' in different senses of that term, or we must add a qualification in the latter case, saying that non-substance 'is' in a qualified sense (as we say the unknowable can be known—to be unknowable, cf. Rhet. 1402a 6), and remove the qualification in the former, saying that substance 'is' simply. So Alexander. But it is equally likely that προστιθέντας‎ and ἀφαιροῦντας‎ both refer to the things which are not ὄντα‎ in the full sense. If we say that they are ὄντα‎ we add a qualification to, and deduct from the full meaning of, ὄν‎.
Critical Apparatus
34 τό τε‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
35. ὡσαύτως = συνωνύμως‎, 'in the same sense'.
Editor’s Note
πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ … καὶ ἕν‎, i. e. to the surgical art (πρὸς ἰατρικήν, Γ‎. 1003b 1).
Terms which are neither ὁμώνυμα‎ nor συνώνυμα‎ are, as here, said to be πρὸς ἕν‎ in Γ‎. 1003a 33, K. 1061a 11. In E. N. 1096b 27 Aristotle offers ἀφʼ ἑνός‎ and κατʼ ἀναλογίαν‎ as alternatives to πρὸς ἕν‎, and seems to prefer, at least in the case of the various goods, κατʼ ἀναλογίαν‎.
Critical Apparatus
b 2 οὐδὲ‎ Ab Al.: οὐδὲν‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
3 ἀλλὰ πρὸς ἕν‎ in marg. J
ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν‎ Ab Al.c: ταῦτα μὲν οὖν‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
4 διαφέροι‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
b 4. ὁποτέρως‎, i. e. whether we say that various categories 'are' in the same sense but with qualifications or deductions (a 33) or that they 'are', not in the same sense (καθʼ ἕν)‎ but πρὸς ἕν‎ (a 35–b 3). ὁποτέρως‎ can hardly refer to the alternatives stated in a 32, 33, for Aristotle would not regard it as immaterial whether ὄν‎ is a mere ὁμώνυμον‎, applied to the various 'beings' by a mere play upon words.
Critical Apparatus
5 πρώτως‎ EJΓ‎ Al.c: πρῶτος‎ Ab Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
6 οὐ μὴν] καὶ οὐ μόνον‎ Γ‎
ὁμοίως‎ secl. Christ: ὅμως‎ Ab et ut vid. Al.
ἐστί, πλὴν οὐ πρώτως‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.: om. Ab et fort. Al.
Editor’s Note
8–10. τοῦτο δὲ … ἕν‎, 'i. e. with a λόγος‎ which is the λόγος‎ of something that is one, not by continuity …, but in one of the senses of "one" which answer to the essential senses of "being" '. ὁσαχῶς λέγεται τὸ ἕν‎ is to be interpreted in the light of ll. 10–12. For the correspondence of the senses of 'one' to the categories cf. Γ‎. 1003b 33, Δ.‎ 1018a 35, I. 1053b 25, De An. 412b 8.
Critical Apparatus
b 9 ᾖ‎ om. Ab
ὅσαι‎ E
Critical Apparatus
10 λέγηται τὸ‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
12. Since unity in some sense can be found in any of the categories, 'white man' (which is a union of terms from two categories) has a certain unity and can have a definition, though not in the same sense in which 'white' has one, while this again has a definition in a different sense from that in which a substance has one.
It is clear that the chapter does not do what it set out to do, viz. to discover whether essence is substance. It only tells us that it is substances alone that in the primary sense have essence. But this may be found to be a step towards the answering of the original question.
Critical Apparatus
13 δὲ‎ et τοῦ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
1030b 14. With regard to (d) a coupled term like 'snubness', which per se belongs to the nose, not as 'white' belongs to Callias or to man but as 'male' belongs to animal, (i) how can such a term be defined, if definition must not involve an improper addition?
23. Per se attributes are those in whose definition the account or the name of the subject must be present. If they have an essence, it must be in a sense different from the strict sense.
28. (ii) There is another difficulty about these. If snub nose = hollow nose, snub = hollow; but if this cannot be so because we cannot say 'snub' without implying the nose, 'snub nose' is tautological, being = 'hollow nose nose'. Thus, if such terms had an essence, an infinite regress would be involved.
1031b 1. Only substance, then, is definable, for definition of anything else would involve an improper addition; 'odd' cannot be defined apart from number.
5. Therefore (e) if the terms are coupled, as in 'odd number', such combinations cannot be defined, any more than terms like 'odd', or can be defined only in another sense of 'definition'.
11. Substance, then, is the only or the primary subject of definition.
 
Critical Apparatus
15 ὁ ὁρισμὸς‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
17 τοῖν δυοῖν‎ J
Critical Apparatus
18 τῷ‎ om. E
Critical Apparatus
19 οὔθʼ‎ alt.] οὐδʼ‎ J
Editor’s Note
In this chapter Aristotle raises two problems about τὰ οὐχ ἁπλᾶ ἀλλὰ συνδεδυασμένα‎, terms which stand for an attribute which is coupled with a subject (τόδε ἐν τῷδε‎ l. 18) not accidentally but in virtue of the very nature of the attribute; the attribute being καθʼ αὑτό‎ to the subject in the sense that it cannot be defined without either naming or defining the subject (l. 23), i. e. in the second of the senses recognized in the Posterior Analytics (73a 37–b 3). τὰ συνδεδυασμένα‎ are in fact propria (e. g. snub) or unions of subject and proprium (e. g. snub nose), which are initially distinguished from (a) substances, (b) terms in other categories, and (c) combinations of substance and accident (e. g. white man), all of which have been shown in ch. 4 to be definable, though (a) are definable in a more proper sense than (b), and (b) than (c). But ultimately all terms in categories other than substance are shown to be in principle of the same type as 'snub', in that the 'definition' of them must be ἐκ προσθέσεως‎, must involve a reference to the substance to which they belong (1031a 2–5). The question whether 'the snub' has a definition is significant for Aristotle because πάντα τὰ φυσικὰ ὁμοίως τῷ σιμῷ λέγονται‎ (E. 1025b 34). But there is an important difference between τὸ σιμόν‎ and natural substances; cf. n. ad loc. The conclusion drawn from the first problem (1030b 14–28) is that such terms cannot be defined, or can be defined only in a secondary sense, καθάπερ εἰρήκαμεν‎. The reference here is to a 17–b 13, but Aristotle does not mean that he has already mentioned this particular sense (for the συνδεδυασμένα‎ are a different class of terms—cf. b 20—from terms like 'white man', which he was there referring to), but that he has said there are secondary kinds of definition.
There cannot be a proper definition of τὰ συνδεδυασμένα‎ because the account of them must be ἐκ προσθέσεως‎, and this prevents it from being a proper definition (1029b 30). The συνδεδυασμένον‎ is a quality; yet you cannot give an account of it without mentioning its subject as well as it. 'The equal' is 'a quantity which is equal'; 'the male' is 'an animal which is male'. Thus you define X as XY and break the rule against πρόσθεσις‎.
The second problem of the chapter is stated in 1030b 28–1031a 1:

If 'snub nose' = 'hollow nose', 'snub' = 'hollow'.

But 'snub' is not = 'hollow', since 'snub' implies a reference to the nose while 'hollow' does not.

∴ 'Snub nose' is not = 'hollow nose'.

∴ If we say 'snub nose' at all, we are saying what is = not to 'hollow nose' but rather to 'nose which is a nose-which-is-hollow'.

Such terms cannot have an essence, since this would involve an in-finite regress; 'nose which is a nose-which-is-snub' will involve 'nose' once more.
By 'such terms' (1030b 34) Aristotle seems to mean such terms as 'snub', since this is the class of terms which he is throughout the earlier part of the chapter trying to prove indefinable (he advances to 'snub nose' only in 1031a 5). But he is evidently assuming that 'snub' is equivalent to 'snub nose' (which is what is implied in saying that the account of it must be ἐκ προσθέσεως‎); for it is only by applying this equation that he reaches the term 'snub nose nose' in l. 35. He had previously (l. 33) reduced 'snub nose' to 'hollow nose nose', which leads to no infinite regress, but now, substituting for 'snub' its equivalent 'snub nose', he gets the form 'snub nose nose', and has no difficulty in showing that if the same substitution be repeated we are landed in an infinite regress.
I take εἰ δὲ μή‎ l. 35 as = εἰ δέ τις λέγει ὅτι ἔσται καὶ ἐν τούτοις τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ ὁρισμός‎ (Al. 478.15). Alternatively, we might treat διὸ … εἶναι‎ ll. 34, 35 as parenthetical, and interpret 'otherwise—i. e. if it be denied that the snub-nose is a hollow-nose-nose—we shall be committed to a process ad infinitum. For ⟨since the snub is the nose that is snub, the snub nose will be the snub-nose nose: and⟩ the snub-nose nose will contain yet another nose ⟨and so on ad infinitum⟩'. This may well be right. In any case Bz. is wrong in supposing that the introduction of ῥὶς ῥὶς σιμή‎ in l. 35 is a mere slip.
To this 'infinite regress' argument for the indefinability of 'snub' Aristotle himself in effect supplies the answer in Soph. El. 182a 4. 'The snub' = 'a snub nose', but it does not follow that in 'snub nose' we can substitute 'snub nose' for 'snub', and so ad infinitum. For in 'snub nose' 'snub' does not mean 'the snub', i. e. 'that which is snub', but a quality of the nose (ῥινὸς τοδί, οἷον πάθος‎), so that 'snub nose' is analysed not into 'snub nose nose' but into 'nose having the kind of hollowness proper to a nose', in which no infinite regress is involved (ὥστʼ οὐδὲν ἄτοπον, εἰ ἡ ῥὶς ἡ σιμὴ ῥίς ἐστιν ἔχουσα κοιλότητα ῥινός‎). I. e. the Sophistici Elenchi draws the distinction which Aristotle fails to draw here between τὸ σιμόν‎ in the sense of 'snub' and τὸ σιμόν‎ in the sense of 'that which is snub'. The corresponding distinction between the two senses of τὸ λευκόν‎ is drawn in 1031b 23. The main upshot of the discussion of both problems is that τὸ σιμόν‎ is not strictly definable because the account of it must be ἐκ προσθέσεως‎. The two problems bring out the two aspects in the notion of ἐκ προσθέσεως‎.The first shows that the account of such a term must introduce something other than the term, viz. the underlying substance (1030b 23–26); the second, that it must involve a tautology (1031a 4).
Editor’s Note
1030b 24. οὗ = τούτου οὗ‎.
Critical Apparatus
26 καὶ‎ Ab Al.c Asc.: καὶ ὁ‎ EJ
Critical Apparatus
27 εἰ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.: om. Ab Al.
ἀλλὰ‎ ut vid. Al.
Editor’s Note
27. καθάπερ εἰρήκαμεν‎, a 17–b 13.
Critical Apparatus
31 ἔστι γὰρ] καὶ ἔστι‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
33 ῥὶς‎ pr.… 34 κοίλη‎ EJ Al. et (omisso ῥὶς‎ l. 34) Γ‎ Asc.: σιμὴ ῥὶς εἰ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
35 ῥῖν‎ Ab
ῥινὶ σιμὴ‎ Ab: ῥινις εἰ μὴ‎ J: ῥινὸς εἰ μὴ‎ Γ‎
ἔτι‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
1031a 1 ἔσται‎ Ab
μόνης‎ EJΓ‎ Al.l Asc.c: μόνον‎ Ab γρ‎. E γρ‎. J
ὁ‎ om. J
Editor’s Note
1031a 1. Aristotle now concludes that in general only substance is definable. If there be a non-substance X, there is always a subject Y which it presupposes, and it could only be defined as XY, i. e. ἐκ‎ προσθέσεως‎. Therefore it cannot be defined at all. To this also the Sophistici Elenchi evidently provides the answer.
Critical Apparatus
a 3 ποιοῦ‎ codd. Γ‎ Asc.: ποσοῦ‎ Al.: ἀρτίου‎ ci. Bonitz, πολλοῦ‎ Goebel
Editor’s Note
3. ποιοῦ‎ can hardly be right, but neither Bz.'s ἀρτίου‎ nor Goebel's πολλοῦ‎ is convincing.
Critical Apparatus
4 τὸ θῆλυ‎ Ab Asc.c: ὁ τοῦ θήλεος‎ EJΓ‎
λέγομεν οἷς‎: Ab
Critical Apparatus
7 λαμβάνει‎ fecit E
Editor’s Note
8–9. ἤτοι‎ … τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι‎. I.e. either such terms can be properly defined in some way which does not involve the addition of the subject (which Aristotle does not admit that they can), or we must distinguish improper from proper definition and say they can only be defined in an improper sense of 'define'.
Editor’s Note
8–9. καθάπερ‎ … τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι‎. The construction is due to a fusion of two possible constructions, καθάπερ ἐλέχθη, λεκτέον ἐστὶ πολλαχῶς λέγεσθαι τὸν ὁρισμόν‎, &c., and καθάπερ ἐλέχθη πολλαχῶς λέγεσθαι ὁ ὁρισμός‎, &c., οὕτω νῦν λεκτέον‎. For similar fusions cf. De An. 414a 22, H. A. 498b 17, 600b 25, P. A. 656a 15, E. N. 1135b 29, Rhet. 1356a 10, 1405b 9. Cf. also B. 1000a 1 n.
Editor’s Note
καθάπερ ἐλέχθη‎, 1030a 17–b 13.
Critical Apparatus
12 ὁ‎ pr. om. EJ Al.c Asc.
Critical Apparatus
13 μόνον‎ JAbΓ‎, ex μόνων‎ fecit E
Editor’s Note
1031a 15. Is a thing the same as its essence? This bears on the study of substance, for a thing seems to be = its substance, and its substance to be = its essence.
19. (1) An accidental unity like 'white man' would seem not to be = its own essence. For else essence of man = essence of white man, since man = white man.
24. But perhaps it does not follow from white man being = essence of white man that the essence of accidental unities is the same as that of the simple terms (essence of white man = essence of man); for the extreme terms of the syllogism are not identical in the same way with the middle term. It might, however, seem at least to follow that the accidental extremes (e. g. essence of white and essence of musical) are the same; but they are not.
28. (2) Is a per se term necessarily the same as its essence? Take (a) primary terms like the Ideas? If the Good Itself is to be different from the essence of good, (i) there will be substances prior to the Ideas, if essence is substance.
b 3. (ii) If the Ideas are separated from their essences, (α‎) they will not be known, and (β‎) the essences will not be existent. For (α‎) we know a thing only when we know its essence, and
7. (β‎) if the essence of good is not good, the essence of being will not be, and since all essences are on the same footing, no essence will be.
11. (iii) That to which 'being good' will not attach (sc. the Good Itself) will not be good.
Therefore all terms (whether Ideas or not) which are self-subsistent must be the same as their essences.
(15. If the Ideas are such as the Platonists suppose, it will not be substratum that is substance, since they are substances which do not imply a substratum.)
18. (b) That a thing is the same as its essence is also clear from this, that to know a thing is to know its essence.
(22. If we consider an accidental term like 'the white', the essence of white will not be the same as that which is white (the white man), but it will be the same as the quality white.)
28. (c) The absurdity of separating a thing and its essence is further seen if we put a name to each essence, for then it will have another essence of its own; it is better to recognize at once that some things = their essences.
32. The definition of a thing, also, = the definition of its essence; for it is not per accidens that e. g. unity and its essence are one. To separate them would produce an infinite regress.
1032a 4. Each simple per se term, then, is the same as its essence.
6. The sophistical objections are to be met in the same way as the question whether Socrates = being Socrates.
 
Critical Apparatus
17 τε‎ om. E
Critical Apparatus
21 καὶ τὸ‎ Ab Al.: om. EJΓ‎ Asc.
τὸ‎ Ab Al.: om. EJ Asc.
Critical Apparatus
22 τὸ αὐτό‎ sup. lin. J
Critical Apparatus
23 ὥστε‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: εἶναι‎ Ab
τὸ‎ JAb, ex τῷ‎ fecit E
Critical Apparatus
24 τὸ‎ ex τῷ‎ fecit E: τῷ‎ J
Critical Apparatus
25 οὐ γὰρ‎ om. Ab1
Critical Apparatus
26 τ'‎ Ab
ἂν‎ om. Ab
γενέσθαι‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
27 τὰ‎ Ab Al.: om. EJΓ‎ Asc.
μουσικῷ‎ EJAbΓ‎ Al. Asc.c: εἶναι‎ add. E2J sup. lin.: εἶναι ὡς‎ add. E
Critical Apparatus
29 ἆρʼ‎ AbAl. Asc.: ἀεὶ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.l
Editor’s Note
Aristotle's doctrine in this chapter is that τὰ λεγόμενα κατὰ συμβεβηκός‎ (i. e. terms denoting a union of a subject with an accident) are not, and τὰ καθʼ αὑτὰ λεγόμενα‎ (terms denoting a self-subsistent unity, i. e. either a summum genus or a species, either in the category of substance or in some other, 1031b 27, 28) are, identical with their essence. E. g. 'to be a man' sums up the whole substantial, permanent nature of each individual man and is identical with each and every man; 'to be a sitting man' does not express the permanent nature of any man, and 'to be a white man' expresses the permanent nature of some men but not of others.
Aristotle first discusses accidental terms (1031a 19–28) and puts forward a proof of their non-identity with their essences. If

(1) a white man = the essence of white man,

then, since (2) a man = a white man,

∴ a man = the essence of white man.

Now, if (1) is true, similarly (3) the essence of man = a man,

∴ the essence of man = the essence of white man.

But this is evidently not true. Therefore a white man is not = the essence of white man.
This reductio ad absurdum, however, Aristotle points out in l. 24, fails. It does not follow that the essence of accidental combinations is identical, sc. with that of the corresponding simple terms. For the extremes are not identical in the same way, sc. with the middle term. In the first syllogism the major term is absolutely identified with the middle, while the minor is identical with the middle only per accidens; in the second syllogism the converse is true.
Aristotle next puts forward ⟨l. 25 ἀλλʼ ἴσως κτλ‎.⟩ an alternative reductio ad absurdum. If the fallacy of the above reductio be detected, it might at any rate seem to follow from the identification of an accidental term with its essence that the accidental extremes, essence of white and essence of musical, are identical. But evidently they are not. Therefore accidental terms are not identical with their essences. The argument here implied is:

The musical man = the essence of musical man.

The man = the musical man.

The white man = the man.

The essence of white man = the white man.

∴ The essence of white man = the essence of musical man.

∴ The essence of white = the essence of musical.

This conclusion might seem to follow, because here musical man and white man are both identical with the middle term man in the same way, i. e. per accidens. The argument is, of course, unsound; but Aristotle does not commit himself to its accuracy—he merely says δόξειεν ἂν συμβαίνειν‎.
Editor’s Note
1031a 29. It is not obvious why Aristotle should have chosen as his illustration of the identity of a καθʼ αὑτό‎ term with its essence a class of καθʼ αὑτό‎ terms which he does not believe in, the Ideas. The reason doubtless is that the argument in a 29–b 11 conveys a covert criticism of the ideal theory. Plato, so Aristotle thinks, believes in a separate good which is neither a particular good thing nor 'being good' (or the essence of good). But the separation of the good itself from the essence of good leads to insuperable difficulties and is therefore condemned. Instead of Ideas we should believe simply in essences or universals.
Critical Apparatus
30 πρότεραι οἵας‎ EJΓ‎ Al: πρότερον οἷον‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
a 32 τὸ‎ JAb, ex τῷ‎ fecit E
καὶ‎ alt. om. J
τὸ ὄντι καὶ τὸ ὄν] ὂν‎ (sup. lin.) τὸ ὄντι‎ J
Editor’s Note
32. ζῷον‎, sc. αὐτὸ τὸ ζῷον‎. τὸ ὄν‎, sc. αὐτὸ τὸ ὄν‎.
Critical Apparatus
b 2 οὐσίαι] καὶ οὐσίαι‎ Ab et fort. Al.
εἰ‎ om. J
Critical Apparatus
3 οὐσία‎ Ab Al. Asc.c: οὐσίας‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
b 3–11. These arguments only show that the Idea and the essence must not be thought of as existing independently of one another (ἀπολελυμέναι‎, l. 3). But Aristotle uses them to show that Idea and essence are identical and cannot even be logically distinguished. One might hold that they are distinguishable but not independent, as is the case with any pair of correlatives. μέν‎ in εἰ μέν‎ (l. 3) looks as if Aristotle had noticed this point and meant to add another argument to show that if they are thus distinguished, but not treated as ἀπολελυμέναι‎, other difficulties follow. But if this was his intention, he has not carried it out.
Editor’s Note
3. τῶν μέν‎, the Ideas. That they will not be knowable is proved in ll. 6, 7.
Editor’s Note
4. τὰ δʼ‎, the essences. That they will not exist is proved in ll. 7–10.
Critical Apparatus
6 τε‎ om. Ab Al.c
ἐστὶν ὅταν‎ Ab Al.: αὕτη‎ EJ: αὕτη ἐστὶν‎ Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
7 εἶναι ἐκεῖνο‎ Ab
γνῶμεν‎ Ab Al.: om. EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
8 τὸ‎ Γ‎ Al. et fecit E: τῷ‎ JAb
Critical Apparatus
9 τὸ … τὸ‎ JΓ‎Al. et fecit E: τῷ … τῷ‎ Ab Asc.
ἔσται‎ ci. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
10. Bz. objects that Aristotle has no right to say that if the essence of being is not, no other essence will be. The corresponding result for the other essences would be that the essence of good is not good, and so on. But the argument seems sound enough. The reason for believing in essences holds of all terms alike. If the essence of being does not exist, there is no reason for supposing that any other essence exists.
Editor’s Note
11. To his two main arguments against the separation of the Ideas from their essences (ll. 1–10) Aristotle now adds a third, that if the essence does not belong to the Idea or thing-itself, the 'good-itself' will not be good, which is absurd. Alexander takes this sentence as proving that the essence of good is not good. But this has already been stated in ll. 6, 8, so that ἔτι‎ would be unexplained. Besides, it would be tautologous to say 'that to which being good does not belong is not good'. There is more point in saying 'that to which being-good (the essence of good) does not belong is not good'. Aristotle has already said (l. 5) that being-good will not belong to the Good-itself'; he now draws the inference that the Good-itself will not be good. ἀγαθῷ εἶναι‎ is used = τὸ ἀγαθῷ εἶναι‎, cf. 1030a 1–2 n.
Critical Apparatus
12 καὶ‎ pr. Ab Al.c Asc.c: καὶ τὸ‎ EJ
Critical Apparatus
13 καὶ‎ Al.l Joachim: om. codd. Γ‎
καθʼ αὑτὰ καὶ πρῶτα‎ Ab Al.c: πρῶτα καὶ καθ' αὑτά‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.
Editor’s Note
13. The question Aristotle stated in a 28 was the general one whether self-subsistent entities are identical with their essences. He has discussed it in connexion with one class of alleged self-subsistent entities, the Ideas, but he now applies his conclusion to all self-subsistent or primary entities. These include not only substances (like horse, l. 30) but also terms like 'white' (l. 27) and 'one' (1032a 2), in fact presumably all terms except compounds of terms in two categories (1029b 23) like 'white man' (1031a 20). Things are identical with their essences if they are self-subsistent, even if they are not Ideas, or rather (Aristotle contemptuously adds), even if they are Ideas.
Critical Apparatus
14 ἂν‎ Ab Al.: ἐὰν‎ EJ Asc.l
ὑπάρχοι‎ ut vid. Ab
ᾖ εἴδη‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.l: εἴδη ᾖ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
15 ᾖ‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
15–18. The reference to Ideas suggests to Aristotle a parenthetical remark about them. 'If the Ideas are separate entities, it will not be substratum that is substance; for they are substances which involve no substratum, since if they were predicable of a substratum they would exist merely by being participated in by the substratum.'
Editor’s Note
16. οὐκ ἔσται τὸ ὑποκείμενον οὐσία‎. Thus the belief in Ideas conflicts with a well-founded view about the nature of substance (1029a 1).
Critical Apparatus
17 ἀναγκαῖον‎ EJ Asc.c: ἀνάγκη‎ AbΓ‎
Editor’s Note
18. κατὰ μέθεξιν‎ seems to mean not 'in the sense that they participate in the substratum', but 'in the sense that they are participated in by the substratum', i. e. immanent in it; so Al. 483. 37. For the passive sense of κατὰ μέθεξιν‎ cf. Top. 132b 35–133a 11. The Ideas according to Plato are participated in by the particulars, but he would not admit that they exist only by being participated in.
Critical Apparatus
20 τοῦτό‎ Ab Al.c Asc. et fecit E: τούτων‎ JΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
21 καὶ‎ Ab Al.: om. EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
21. ὥστε καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἔκθεσιν ἀνάγκη ἕν τι εἶναι ἄμφω‎. On the meaning of ἔκθεσις, ἐκτιθέναι, ἐκτίθεσθαι‎ cf. A. 992b 10 n. Bz. interprets here si quis seorsim ponere susceperit rem et eius τηε‎, is intelliget, ut possit omnino esse scientia, utrumque potius idem debere esse. But κατὰ τὴν ἔκθεσιν‎ would be a rather odd way of expressing the meaning here indicated. Schwegler translates der gegebenen Entwicklung zufolge, which clearly will not do. In his commentary he suggests alternatively that καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἔκθεσιν‎ may mean 'even from the standpoint of the Platonic separation of the Idea from particulars'. What Aristotle says, however, is: 'that each thing and its essence are per se one and the same follows both from these arguments (those directed above against the Platonists), and from the fact that to know each thing is to know its essence, so that according to ἡ ἔκθεσις‎, also, both are necessarily identical'. ἔκθεσις‎ seems therefore to be a way of proving, without reference to the ideal theory, that a thing and its essence are one. Alexander paraphrases ἔκθεσις‎ here by ἐπαγωγή‎, and this seems to be substantially right. ἔκθεσις‎ here is ἔκθεσις‎ in the first of the technical senses explained in the note on A. 992b 10—proof by means of instances. Take anything you please, and you will find that to know it is to know its essence.
Critical Apparatus
22 τι‎ EJΓ‎ Asc. et ut vid. Al.: om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
23 ἢ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c: καὶ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
25 συμβέβηκε‎ EJ Al. Asc.: συμβαίνει‎ Ab
λευκὸν‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
b 27 τὸ‎ Al.
τῷ‎ alt. EJΓ‎ Asc.c: τὸ‎ Ab Al.
Editor’s Note
27. 'The essence of white is not identical with the man (sc. who is white) or with the white man, but it is identical with the quality white.' The reading τῷ μὲν‎ … καὶ τῷ‎ clearly gives a better sense than Alexander's and Bz.'s τὸ μὲν … καὶ τό‎.
Critical Apparatus
29 θεῖτο‎ EJ Al. Asc.: τιθεῖτο‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
30 οἷον‎ Ab et fort. Al.: om. EJΓ‎ Asc.c
τὸ‎ Γ‎ et fecit E
ἵππῳ‎ JAb Al. Asc.c: ἵππῳ αὐτῷ‎ Γ‎: τὸ γὰρ‎ E sed γὰρ‎ postea additum
τί … ἵππῳ‎ om. J
ἵππῳ‎ codd. Γ‎ Al.: secl. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
30. Bz.'s excision of the second ἵππῳ‎ seems necessary.
Editor’s Note
31. καίτοι τί κωλύει κτλ‎. 'Why should we not, to avoid such a duplication of essences, identify some things straight off with their essences?'
Critical Apparatus
1032a 2 καὶ‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
3 τοῦ ἑνὸς] τὸ ἑνὶ εἶναι‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
4 ὁ αὐτὸς ἔσται‎ EJ Asc.c: ἔσται ὁ αὐτὸς‎ AbΓ‎
Editor’s Note
1032a 4. ἐπʼ ἐκείνων‎, 'in the case of terms like "essence of unity" '. As we got one of the original terms by asking what was the essence of the other, we shall get a third by asking what is the essence of that essence, and so on. καὶ ἐπʼ ἐκείνων‎ might be taken to mean 'in the case of unity and essence of unity, as in the case of horse and essence of horse' (1031b 28–30). But then we should expect τούτων‎, not ἐκείνων‎.
Critical Apparatus
6 καὶ‎ alt. om. Ab
Editor’s Note
7. θέσιν‎ is used not in the technical sense defined in An. Post. 72a 15, but = thesis. Cp. Bz. Index 327b 29–41.
Critical Apparatus
8 εἰ] εἰς‎ Ab
Σωκράτει‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: Σωκράτην‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
8. The sophistical difficulties about Socrates and 'being Socrates' were probably, as Alexander says, of the following type: If Socrates and being Socrates are different, Socrates will be different from himself. If they are the same, and Socrates is white, being Socrates will be the same as being white Socrates, a substance the same as its accident.
The fact that Aristotle treats the question whether Socrates and being Socrates are the same, as different from, though allied to, the question he has been discussing throughout the chapter, indicates that the latter is a question about universals. Regarding universals we should agree that they should not be distinguished from essences, but if Aristotle means that we should answer that Socrates and being Socrates are the same, as the universal of a group of substances is the same as their essence, it seems that he is either using Socrates in the sense of the form or soul of Socrates, or including matter in the essence of Socrates. He would answer the question about Socrates by saying (cf. 1037a 7) that if by Socrates you mean his soul, that is the same as his essence; if you mean the union of soul and body, that is not.
Critical Apparatus
9 ἐρωτηθεὶς‎ Ab: ἐρωτηθείη‎ Asc.c
Editor’s Note
9–10. οὐδὲν‎ … ἐπιτύχοι‎, i. e. the basis of both problems is a confusion between substance and accident; the basis of the answer to both is the clearing up of the confusion.
Critical Apparatus
12 δὲ‎ om. Ab
γινόμενον‎ J
Editor’s Note
1032a 12. Things that come to be do so (1) by nature, (2) by art, or (3) spontaneously. Genesis is by something, from something, of something; the 'things' may be in any category
15. (1) Natural genesis is that in which the agent and the resultant are natural beings such as man or plant; the 'from which', here as in artistic production, is matter, i. e. the power of being or not being.
22. That from which and that according to which natural genesis takes place are both nature; so is that by which it is produced, viz. the specifically identical nature in the parent.
26. (2) All other genesis is called making; it proceeds from art, faculty, or thought. Some artificial products, like some natural products, can also be produced spontaneously.
32. Artistic production presupposes the presence of the form of the product in the soul of the artist. Contraries have in a sense the same form; disease is just the absence of health, and health is the definition in the physician's soul and is the art of medicine.
b 6. Health is produced (a) by thinking of the conditions of health and the conditions of those conditions, till we come to something that it is in our power to produce. (b) When the thought is complete, the making begins.
11. Thus in a sense health comes from health, house from house (the material from the immaterial); for medical science is the form of health.
15. The genesis, then, has two stages, thinking and making. Each intermediate stage in the production is produced similarly.
21. While the agent in artistic production is the form in the soul, the agent in (3) spontaneous production is that which starts the making in artistic production, e. g. the heat in the body, which is either a part or followed by a part of health. This, viz. that which produces a part of health, is the minimum necessary basis of health, as stones are of a house.
30. Thus some part of the product must pre-exist, viz. the matter. Is matter also an element in the definition of the thing? Yes; in defining a bronze circle we state both its matter and its form.
1033a 5. Some things are described by a name derived from the name of that from which they come, like 'wooden';1 but a healthy man is not so described. The reason is that while genesis presupposes both a privation and a substratum, it is said to proceed from the privation, 'sick', rather than from the substratum, 'man' (so that the healthy are not said to be sick but to be men);
13. but when the privation has no name, e. g. the privation-of-the-shape-of-a-house in wood, the house is thought to come from the wood as the healthy was said to come from the sick, so that as the healthy man was not said to be sick, the house is not said to be wood, but wooden;
19. though strictly it does not come from wood, since the 'from which' must change and not persist.
 
Editor’s Note
1 I use this instance instead of translating λίθινος‎, because we cannot speak of a 'stony statue'. The instance of wood occurs below, ll. 15–20.
Editor’s Note
1032a 12. Aristotle's object, says Alexander, is to prove that form is not generated. This will help him to show whether natural forms can exist without matter, as Plato maintained that they could. To show that form is not generated Aristotle shows that generation always presupposes a given substratum, whether it takes place (1) by nature, (2) by art, or (3) spontaneously. From this it follows that if form were generated, it would be generated from a substratum, and an infinite regress would be involved. The summaries in 11. 1037a 21–b 7 and in H. 1. 1042a 4–22 contain no reference to chs. 7–9, and confirm the view which the chapters themselves suggest, that they originally formed a separate treatise. They are, however, referred to in 15. 1039b 26. Natorp considers that Z. is a combination of two treatises, viz. (1) chs. 1–6, 10–14 (with the addition of 16. 1041a 3–5, which refers to 13. 1038b 8, 35, 1039a 3, 16).
(2) Chs. 17, 7–9, 15, 16.
Ch. 17, he thinks, contains the transition from the first to the second treatise; cf. the first words of the chapter, in which Aristotle speaks of starting the inquiry from a fresh standpoint. The transition is from discussing the cause of being to discussing the cause of becoming (cf. 17. 1041a 31). Chs. 15, 16 conclude the whole inquiry by saying what substance is not.
Natorp is right in regarding chs. 1–6, 10–12 as forming a continuous treatise which is interrupted by chs. 7–9. But chs. 15, 16 (though the former refers to the doctrine of chs. 7–9), in the main continues the line of thought of chs. 13, 14 (cf. 1041a 3–5 with 1039a 15–17); nor does ch. 17 form a natural transition from the main thought of the book to the doctrine of γένεσις‎ in chs. 7–9. Rather the new attempt in ch. 17 to say what substance is follows naturally on the statement in chs. 13–16 of what it is not.
Editor’s Note
12–13. τὰ μὲν‎ … ταὐτομάτου‎. The triple division φύσις, τέχνη, ταὐτόματον‎ recurs only in Λ‎. 1070a 6, but cf. ταὐτόματον, τύχη, νοῦς, φύσις‎ Phys. 198a 10, K. 1065b 3.
Editor’s Note
14. καθʼ ἑκάστην κατηγορίαν‎. This is not exact. Change takes place, according to Aristotle, in respect of the four categories here named, and cannot take place with respect to any other (Phys. 225b 10–226a 26). Sometimes all four kinds of change are included under κίνησις‎ (Phys. 261a 27–36, De Gen. et Corr. 315a 28); sometimes only three are included under κίνησις‎, and change κατʼ οὐσίαν‎ is called γένεσις‎ in distinction from them (Phys. 192b 14, 225a 26, 32, b 7, 226a 24, 243a 6, 260a 26, De Caelo 310a 23, K. 1067b 31, 36, 1068a 9, b 16). All are included under μεταβολή‎ (Λ‎. 1069b 9, H. 1042a 32, De Gen. et Corr. 319b 31); or else all except γένεσις‎ (Meteor. 465b 30).
Critical Apparatus
15 ποσὸν‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: τοσόνδε‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
16 φυσικαὶ αὗταί‎ secl. Bywater
Editor’s Note
16. αἱ μέν‎ is resumed by οὕτω μὲν οὖν‎ in l. 25, and the antithesis to it comes in l. 26.
Critical Apparatus
18 τὶ] τι ὁ‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
20. The ἐξ οὗ‎ of natural generation having been said in l. 17 to be matter, Aristotle here breaks off to say that the ἐξ οὗ‎ of all generation is matter. In l. 22 he returns to his main point, and sums up what he has said in ll. 17–19 by saying that in natural generation ἐξ οὗ, καθʼ ὅ‎, and ὑφʼ οὗ‎ are alike nature.
Critical Apparatus
22 ἡ‎ om. Ab Asc.
ἐν‎ om. E
καθʼ‎ secl. Cannan
Editor’s Note
22. For the description of the ἐξ οὗ‎ or matter as φύσις‎ cf. Δ‎. 1014b 26–35, Bz. Index 839a 1–12.
Editor’s Note
καὶ καθʼ ὃ φύσις‎. καθʼ ὅ‎ corresponds to τί‎ in ll. 14, 18, i. e. that which a thing becomes is identified with the form which it acquires and in virtue of which it is what it is after the change. For this sense of καθʼ ὅ‎ cf. Δ‎. 1022a 14.
Editor’s Note
23. τὸ γὰρ‎ … φύσιν‎, 'for that which comes to be has a nature', sc. in virtue of which it is what it is.
Editor’s Note
24. The ὑφʼ οὗ‎ of change is strictly not the parent considered as a unity of form and matter, but its nature in the sense of its form, which is the same in species with the form acquired by the offspring, for it is only a man that can beget a man. Aristotle holds that the form comes from the father, the matter from the mother, G.A. 730b 1, 10.
Critical Apparatus
a 27 ἢ‎ EJ Asc.c: om. Ab Γ‎: αἱ‎ Joachim
Editor’s Note
27–28. ἢ ἀπὸ τέχνης‎ … διανοίας‎, cf. E. 1025b 22 n.
Critical Apparatus
28 ἀπὸ‎ alt. om. EJ Asc.c
Editor’s Note
29. καὶ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου καὶ ἀπὸ τύχης‎. The first καί‎ means 'also', so that the distinction between τὸ αὐτόματου‎ and τύχη‎ is not stressed. The former includes the latter (Phys. 197a 36). Only those beings can act ἀπὸ τύχης‎ which can act deliberately (i. e. adult human beings, 197b 7); τύχη‎ is αἰτία κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς‎ ἐν τοῖς κατὰ προαίρεσιν‎ τῶν ἕνεκά του‎ (197a 5). I. e. chance is found when an action incidentally and exceptionally produces a result which might naturally have been the object of deliberate action. Since one such result may be produced incidentally by a variety of actions, chance is of the nature of the indefinite (197a 9), and since the result could not have been foreseen, chance is 'a cause obscure to human thought' (196b 6). τὸ αὐτόματον‎, on the other hand, occurs 'in events that normally happen for an end, whenever something whose cause is external happens not for the sake of the result which actually follows' (197b 18), e. g. when a horse (sc. being pursued by thieves) is saved by going to a certain place, but did not go in order to be saved (197b 15), or when a stone (sc. being pushed) falls and hits some one without having been meant to do so (197b 30). But besides the cases in which something moved by an external force achieves an unintended result, τὸ αὐτόματον‎ also occurs when an internal cause, i. e. nature, produces an exceptional result (197b 33), e. g. when an illness cures itself (H. A. 604b 9). A specially important instance of the latter kind of spontaneity is 'spontaneous generation' of plants or animals from rotting earth, dew, mud, excrements, wood, &c., for which cf. Bz. Index 124b 3–30. In general, then, chance simulates the action of art or, more generally, of thought, while in spontaneity (the more general term) (1) the action of thought is simulated, or (2) the normal action of nature is simulated by nature producing in an exceptional way (e. g. ἄνευ σπέρματος‎, 1032a 31) what it normally produces otherwise (e. g. ἐκ σπέρματος‎). Thus chance is more appropriate to τούτων τινές‎ 'makings', and spontaneity to τὰ ἀπὸ φύσεως γιγνόμενα‎.
Critical Apparatus
30 ἀπὸ‎ Ab Al.: ὑπὸ‎ EJ Asc.c
Editor’s Note
30–31. ἔνια γὰρ‎ … ἄνευ σπέρματος‎, e. g. eels (H. A. 570a 7), fishes (569a 11), testaceans (547b 18, G. A. 761b 23), insects (539a 24, G. A. 732b 12).
Editor’s Note
32. τούτων‎, i. e. τῶν ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου καὶ ἀπὸ τύχης‎.
Editor’s Note
ὕστερον ἐπισκεπτέον‎, cf. b 23–30, 1034a 9–21, b 4–7.
Critical Apparatus
b 2 ἑκάστου‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c: ἑκάστῳ‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
b 2. τὴν πρώτην οὐσίαν‎, i. e. the οὐσία ἄνευ ὕλης‎ (l. 14), matter being only in a secondary way part of the substance of the concrete product.
Editor’s Note
2–4. καὶ γὰρ‎ … νόσου‎. Aristotle has said that 'by art are produced those things whose form is in the soul'. But, he reflects, disease can be produced by medical art no less than health, yet the doctor has not in his soul the form of disease; disease has no form but is merely a privation. To meet this objection he now adds that the form is in a sense the form of the privation (only 'in a sense, because it is not by its presence but by its absence that it produces the privation). Thus if the doctor knows the form of health, he can produce either health or disease.
Critical Apparatus
3–4 οὐσία ἡ οὐσία ἡ‎ Al.: οὐσία ἡ τῆι οὐσία‎ Ab (sed τῆι‎ expunctum) EJΓ‎: τῆ οὐσία ἡ γρ‎. E
Critical Apparatus
4 ἀπουσίᾳ‎ Al.: ἀπουσίᾳ δηλοῦται‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.
Editor’s Note
4. For ἐκείνης γὰρ ἀπουσία ἡ νόσος‎, the reading of Ab, cf. Γ‎. 1004a 14.
Critical Apparatus
5–6 καὶ ἐν τῇ ἐπιστήμῃ‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
6 δὲ‎ Ab Asc.: δὴ‎ EJΓ‎ Al.l
Editor’s Note
6–10. This account of production may be compared with the account of moral deliberation and action, in which τὸ ἔσχατον ἐν τῇ ἀναλύσει‎ is said πρῶτον εἶναι ἐν τῇ γενέσει‎ (E. N. 1112b 23). Still nearer is E. E. 1227b 28–33.
Critical Apparatus
7 ἔσται‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
7. οἷον ὁμαλότητα, εἰ δὲ τοῦτο, θερμότητα‎. Heat produces πέψις‎, by which different elements in the body (i. e. portions with unequal temperature or unequal humidity) are chemically changed into a homogeneous whole (πέψις ἐστὶ τελείωσις ὑπὸ τοῦ φυσικοῦ καὶ οἰκείου θερμοῦ ἐκ τῶν ἀντικειμένων παθητικῶν‎, Meteor. 379b 18, cf. 381a 20).
Critical Apparatus
9 τοῦτο … δύναται‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.: τὸ αὐτὸ δύνασθαι τὸ‎ Ab: τὸ αὐτὸς δύνασθαι τὸ‎ Cannan
Critical Apparatus
11 τὴν ὑγίειαν ἐξ ὑγιείας‎ Ab Al. Asc.c: ἐξ ὑγιείας τὴν ὑγίειαν‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
13 ἡ‎ alt. EJ Asc.c: om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
14 οἰκίας‎ JAbΓ‎ Al. Asc.c: οἰκοδομίας‎ E
Editor’s Note
14. λέγω δὲ‎ … εἶναι‎, 'when I speak of substance without matter (l. 12) I mean the essence'.
Critical Apparatus
15 δὴ‎ Bywater: δὲ‎ codd. Γ‎
Editor’s Note
15. There is much probability in Bywater's conjecture of τῶν δή‎ for τῶν δέ‎. δή‎ would naturally introduce the summing up of the account given in ll. 6–14.
Critical Apparatus
17 τῶν‎ Ab Al.c: ἐπὶ τῶν‎ EJΓ‎ et fort. Asc.
Editor’s Note
17. τῶν ἄλλων τῶν μεταξύ‎, i. e. the things that have to be done before the final object is achieved.
Critical Apparatus
18 ὑγιαίνει‎ Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
19 δέοι ἂν] δεῖ‎ EJΓ‎ Asc.c et fort. Al.
Critical Apparatus
b 20 τί‎ om. Ab Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
21 τοδὶ‎ Ab2 γρ‎. EJΓ‎ Al.: τῳδὶ‎ EAb1 Asc.
Critical Apparatus
22 τὸ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
24 ὅ ποτε] ὅπερ‎ Al.c, ci. Bonitz
ἀρχὴ‎ Γ‎ST Al.c et ut vid. Al.
Editor’s Note
24. τοῦ ποιεῖν‎ is emphatic, being opposed to τὸ νοεῖν‎; cf. l. 15. For ἄρχει‎ cf. 1034a 11.
Critical Apparatus
26 τοίνυν‎ EJ Asc.l: οὖν‎ Ab
ἡ‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
26. The heat in the body is (1) an element in health, or (2) is followed (a) directly, or (b) indirectly (διὰ πλειόνων‎) by an element in health. Thus, if once heat is present, health may be produced without the action of a doctor just as it is produced by his action. The 'making' is the same; only the thought is missing.
Critical Apparatus
27 ἢ‎ alt.… 28 ὑγιείας‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
27. τι‎ … τοιοῦτον‎, something of the same kind, e. g. uniformity (ll. 7, 19).
Critical Apparatus
28 ἔσχατόν ἐστι] ἔσχατον‎ EJΓ‎Al.c: ἐστὶν ἔσχατον‎ Asc.c
Editor’s Note
28–30. I follow here the reading of Ab, which seems to have been that of Alexander, with the unimportant exception that Alexander may not have read the ἐστι‎ after ἔσχατον‎. Alexander's words are (492. 11) τὸ δὲ τοῦτο δʼ ἔσχατον τὸ ποιοῦν‎ (add. τὸ μέρος τῆς ὑγιείας‎ LF) τοιοῦτον ἂν εἴη, ὅτι ἡ τρῖψις ἡ ποιοῦσα τὸ μέρος τῆς ὑγιείας ἐσχάτη ἐστὶ καὶ τῆς θερμότητος καὶ τῆς ὁμαλότητος καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν‎. Aristotle's meaning is 'and this, viz. that which produces the part of health, is the limiting point, or minimal necessary basis, and there is similarly a necessary basis for a house (sc. the stones) and for every other product'. It would be also possible (1) to put a comma after μέρος‎ and make τῆς ὑγιείας‎ depend on ἔσχατον‎; and (2 a) to read καὶ τὸ οὕτως μέρος‎ for τὸ μέρος‎ (following EJ except that ἐστί‎ is omitted) and translate 'that which produces health and is in that sense a part of it'; or (2 b) to read τὸ ποιοῦν τὸ μέρος καὶ τὸ οὕτως μέρος‎, 'that which produces the part of health and in that sense is a part of it'.
καὶ τῆς οἰκίας‎ (οἷον οἱ λίθοι‎) καὶ τῶν ἄλλων‎ is tacked on very loosely, like καὶ τὸ πῦρ‎ in 1034a 17.
It is difficult, however, to regard the relation of heat (or rubbing) to health as analogous to that of stones to the house that is made of them. In the generalization which follows, Aristotle regards himself as having shown that the matter of that which is produced must exist before the production takes place (l. 31); and stones evidently are the matter of a house. But the heat in the body is naturally conceived not as the material but as the efficient cause of health, and so it seems to be conceived in l. 21. Aristotle has got into difficulties through taking as parallel two things that are not parallel—health and a house (l. 11). That which is to the doctor as a house is to the builder is not health but a healthy body. Having stated the product abstractly Aristotle also states the cause abstractly, not as 'a body having heat' but as 'heat in the body'; and thus he gets something not really parallel to the stones—which are the material cause of a house—and not really a material cause. There is, however, in his view a. real difference between the two cases (1034a 9). Stones are inert, at least so far as grouping themselves into a house is concerned, and are therefore simply ὕλη‎. But a body with heat in it has an innate power of transforming itself into a healthy state. It is thus both a material and an efficient cause; it is ἡ ὕλη ἡ ἄρχουσα τῆς γενέσεως‎ (1034a 11). So, too, here it is first spoken of as an efficient (l. 21) and then as a material cause (l. 32).
Shute suggests that heat is the material cause of health as the genus is the material of its species (Δ‎. 1024b 8, Z. 1038a 6), since heat has to be specifically qualified in order to become health. But even so its relation to health is not a very close analogue to the relation of the stones to the house.
Critical Apparatus
29 τὸ μέρος‎ Ab Al. et ut vid. Asc.: καὶ τὸ οὕτως μέρος ἐστὶ‎ EJΓ‎: an τὸ μέρος καὶ τὸ οὕτως‎ μέρος?: καὶ αὑτό πως μέρος ἐστὶ‎ ci. Bonitz, καὶ τὸ οὕτως μέρoς‎ Shute, καὶ τὸ οὕτως μέρος ἐστὶν ὕλη‎ Christ, καὐτὸ οὕτως μέρος ἐστὶ‎ Bullinger
Editor’s Note
30. καθάπερ λέγεται‎, 'as we (in general) maintain', not referring to any particular passage. Cf., however, Λ‎. 1069b 6, Phys. i. 6–10.
Critical Apparatus
31 τι‎ Ab Al. Asc.: τὸ‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
32. φανερόν· ἡ γὰρ ὕλη μέρος‎. It has been expressly remarked with regard to natural generation that it presupposes a pre-existing matter (a 17), and the same has been implied in the account of artistic and fortuitous production.
Critical Apparatus
1033a 1 ἆρα‎ Asc. i: ἄρα‎ codd. Γ‎
Editor’s Note
1033a 1. γίγνεται‎, not 'comes into being' but 'comes to be something'.
Editor’s Note
1–5. It is most natural to take ἀλλʼ ἆρα κτλ‎. as answering to ὅτι μὲν οὖν κτλ‎. The whole section will then mean 'It is evident then that a part of the product must necessarily pre-exist; for the matter is a part, since it is already present in the thing and undergoes genesis. But does some element in the definition also pre-exist? Well, we state in two ways what bronze circles are, naming both their matter—bronze, and their form—such and such a shape; and shape is the proximate genus in which the circle is placed. The bronze circle therefore has its material (or generic) element in its definition 〈as well as matter in the more ordinary sense—viz. sensible matter, bronze—in its concrete wholeness. And this must pre-exist as well as the sensible matter; the bronze which is given a circular figure must already have figure of some kind〉'.
The section, on this view, refers to the doctrine that genus is related to differentia as matter to form, and thus is in a sense matter (Δ‎. 1024b 8).
The objections to this interpretation are: (1) the ellipticalness of the expression. The section concludes not, as would be expected on this interpretation, by saying 'thus part of the form must pre-exist, as well as of the matter', but by saying 'the bronze circle, then, has its matter in its definition'. (2) The question of the pre-existence of form is raised in the next chapter as a new question, while the pre-existence of matter is assumed to have been proved in ch. 7. (3) In the discussion of the pre-existence of form, Aristotle expressly sets aside the notion that part of the form pre-exists while the rest supervenes (b 11–16).
For these reasons I am inclined to think that Alexander and Bz. are wrong in finding here a reference to the doctrine that genus is ὕλη‎. What answers to ὅτι μὲν οὖν‎, then, is not ἀλλʼ ἆρα‎ but ἐξ οὗ δέ κτλ‎. l. 5. The words to be supplied with ἀλλ' ἆρα καὶ τῶν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ‎; are ἡ ὕλη μέρος‎ (from 1032b 32), as is shown by the conclusion ὁ δὴ χαλκοῦς κύκλος ἔχει ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τὴν ὕλην‎. The passage simply points out that the bronze circle is a λόγος ἔνυλος‎ (De An. 403a 25), that bronze is present not only in its concrete wholeness but in its definition. The main difficulty for this interpretation is καὶ τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ γένος εἰς ὃ πρῶτον τίθεται‎, which becomes pointless. These words are perhaps a gloss due to some one who thought there was a reference to the doctrine that genus is ὕλη‎. For glosses of similar form cf. Γ‎. 1009a 26, Λ‎. 1073b 33, and possibly A. 984b 1, Z. 1041a 28, b 8.
Editor’s Note
ἀλλ' ἆρα καὶ τῶν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ‎; The form ἀλλ' ἆρα‎ is a regular Aristotelian one, while ἀλλ' ἄρα‎ is not. I have therefore, with Asclepius and Bessarion, read ἆρα‎ and treated the sentence as a question. Bz. recommends this in Index 90b 28.
Critical Apparatus
2 δὴ‎ Bullinger: δὲ‎ codd. Γ‎: γε‎ i
χαλκοῦς‎ Ab γρ‎. EΓ‎ Al. Asc.: πολλοὺς‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
2. I have followed Bullinger's suggestion and written δή‎ for δέ‎. 'Particula δή‎ inserta enunciationi, quae pro fundamento ponitur proximae argumentationis, eam vel ex communi omnium opinione vel ex argumentis alibi allatis firmam et evidentem esse significat.' Bz. Index 172a 58. This seems better than Bessarion's γε‎.
Critical Apparatus
3 τὴν] εἰ τὴν‎ Ab1: οἱ τὴν‎ Ab2
Critical Apparatus
4 καὶ … τίθεται‎ an spuria?
Critical Apparatus
5 χαλκὸς‎ Ab
ἐν‎] καὶ ἐν‎ fort. Al.
δὲ‎ EJΓ‎ Al.l: δὴ‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
5–23. Aristotle passes from the implication of the previous existence of something ἐξ οὗ τὸ γιγνόμενον γίγνεται‎, to mention, rather irrelevantly, his favourite linguistic point about the use of such words as λίθινος‎ (cf. Θ‎. 1049a 18, Phys. 190a 25, 245b 9). The connexion is that this usage arises out of an ambiguity in the meaning of ἐξ οὗ‎.
Critical Apparatus
7 ἐκεῖνον‎ J
ὁ‎ om. EJ
λίθος‎ EJΓ‎ Al.: λίθοι‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
7. ἐκείνινον‎. For this Aristotelian coinage cf. Θ‎. 1049a 19, 21.
Critical Apparatus
8 ὁ‎ om. Ab Asc.
Editor’s Note
8. ἐκεῖνο ἐξ οὗ‎, i. e. κάμνων‎ (cf. l. 12). This, however, as Aristotle proceeds to point out, is not really analogous to 'stone', which the statue is 'not said to be'. Stone is the matter of the statue; disease is the privation of health. Where the privation is clearly apprehended and has a name, we say the result comes from the privation rather than from the matter (since that from which a thing comes is properly something that ceases to be, not something that persists, l. 21); and what comes from X cannot be said to be X. Where the privation is not clearly recognized and named, we say, less properly (ll. 19–22), that the thing comes from its matter, and, since here too we feel the difficulty of saying that a thing is what it comes from, we say not that the statue is wood but that it is 'wooden'. This is the origin of such words (διὰ μὲν oὖv τοῦτο οὕτως λέγεται‎, l. 22).
Editor’s Note
8–11. γίγνεται … ὑγιής‎ is concessive; μᾶλλον μέντοι κτλ‎. is in sense the principal clause.
Critical Apparatus
11 γίγνεσθαι‎ post στερήσεως‎ EJ
Critical Apparatus
12 ὁ‎ om. Ab Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
13 ὁ‎ om. recc. Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
a 14 ἐν] ἐκ‎ J γρ‎. E
χαλκοῦ γρ‎. E
ὁποι οὖν‎ fecit E
Editor’s Note
15. τούτων‎, sc. bronze, bricks, timbers.
Editor’s Note
δοκεῖ‎. Schwegler and Bz. are wrong in their suspicion that Alexander read, as Bessarion did, οὐ δοκεῖ‎. Cf. Al. 493. 17.
Critical Apparatus
17 προάγεται‎ Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
18 οὐ ξύλον‎ secl. Christ
Critical Apparatus
21 σφόδρα ἐπιβλέπῃ‎ AbΓ‎
εἴπειεν‎ J: εἶπε‎ Ab: εἴποιε‎ E: εἴποι‎ Al. Asc.c
Editor’s Note
1033a 24. What comes to be comes to be by something and from something (let us take this to be not the privation, but the matter) and comes to be something, e. g. a sphere. The sphere is not made, any more than the bronze, which is the matter; save per accidens, since the bronze sphere is a sphere and is made.
31. For to make a 'this' is to make it out of the substratum, in the full sense (i. e. out of a given form as well as a given matter). If the substratum were made, it would be made out of something else, and so ad infinitum.
b 5. Evidently, then, the form is not made; the concrete thing is made by putting the form into the matter; if the form were made it would have to be divisible into matter and form.
19. Is there a sphere apart from the particular spheres, a house apart from the bricks? Surely there would never have come into being a 'this' at all if that were so. The form is a 'such', not a 'this'; in making, a 'this such' is made out of a 'this'. The whole 'this', e. g. Callias, is analogous to 'this bronze sphere', man to 'bronze sphere'.
26. The Forms, if there are any Forms apart from particulars, do nothing to explain becomings or substances, and are not, on that account at least, to be viewed as self-subsistent substances.
29. In some cases it is obvious that the producer is something one in kind with the product, i. e. in natural generation, except in abnormal cases such as the production of a mule by a horse, and even there the class that comprises both parents presumably has the characteristics of both, and is something like a mule.
1034a 2. Thus we need not posit a Platonic Form as pattern, for living things are what are most truly substances, and there would be a Form here if anywhere. The begetter is adequate to the putting of the form into the matter. The individual is 'such a form in this matter', matter being what differentiates individuals identical in form.
 
Editor’s Note
1033a 26. ἤδη γὰρ διώρισται‎, in 1032a 17.
Critical Apparatus
27 τὶ‎ Al. Bonitz: ὃ‎ codd. Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
31 ποιεῖν‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
31. ἐκ τοῦ ὅλως ὑποκειμένου‎, 'from the substratum in the full sense of the word', including form as well as matter (1029a 2). So Al. 495. 9.
Critical Apparatus
32 τι‎ Ab Al.: om. EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
32. For the absence of the article before τὸν χαλκὸν στρογγύλον ποιεῖν‎ cf. Δ‎. 1014b 6 n., Kuhner ii. 2. § 472 a. A good example is found in Pl. Rep. 493 c ὁ τὴν τῶν πολλῶν … ὀργὴν καὶ ἡδονὰς κατανενοηκέναι σοφίαν ἡγούμενος‎.
Critical Apparatus
33 οὐδὲ‎ J
Editor’s Note
34. It is doubtful whether we should not insert a comma after τοῦτο‎ and translate 'but is to make one of two different elements—e. g. this form, viz. sphericity—in another'. This is attractive, but the combination ἕτερόν τι ἐν ἄλλῳ‎ does not seem very likely; we should expect τόδε ἐν τῷδε‎ or τὶ ἐν τινί‎.
Critical Apparatus
b 1 ποιεῖ‎ Ab Al.: ποιεῖν‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
b 1. τοῦτο γὰρ ὑπέκειτο‎, 'for this was assumed' (a 25).
Critical Apparatus
3 τοδὶ‎ EJ Asc.c: τόδε‎ Ab
ὅ] ὅτι‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
3. τοῦτο‎ seems to refer to τοῦ ὅλως ὑποκειμένου‎ a 31, the intervening passage being parenthetical.
Critical Apparatus
5 οὐδὲ‎ Ab Al.: οὔτε‎ EJ
Editor’s Note
5–6. οὐδὲ τὸ εἶδος … γίγνεται‎. Aristotle does not necessarily mean that form is eternal. Sometimes he says that it comes into being and passes out of being instantaneously. Cf. 1039b 26, H. 1044b 21. In one passage (H. 1043b 14) he gives both alternatives—ἢ ἀΐδιον εἶναι ἢ φθαρτὴν ἄνευ τοῦ φθείρεσθαι καὶ γεγονέναι ἄνευ τοῦ γίγνεσθαι‎. He apparently means these two alternatives to apply to different kinds of form. Pure forms which exist untrammelled by any conjunction with matter—God, the intelligences that move the spheres, the human reason—are eternal. Among the forms the acquisition of which by matter constitutes becoming or change, a distinction must be drawn. Where what is produced is a new substance, its form must have pre-existed in another individual; where what is produced is a substance with a new quality, quantity, &c., the quality, quantity, &c., need not have pre-existed actually; it may have existed only potentially (1034b 18). ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπον γεννᾷ‎, but there is no corresponding principle λευκὸν λευκὸν γεννᾷ‎. I. e. in the former case the form is eternal; in the latter it comes into being instantaneously; it supervenes in a moment on a change which has taken time.
Critical Apparatus
6 οὐ‎ om. Ab et fort. Al.
Editor’s Note
6. For the superfluous οὐ‎ cf. a 16, 21.
Critical Apparatus
7 εἶναι] εἶναι τούτωι‎ EJΓ‎: εἶναι τοῦτο‎ Al.
Editor’s Note
7. οὐδὲ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι‎. In these words Aristotle simply brings out another aspect of what has already been called τὸ εἶδος‎ and ἡ ἐν τῷ αἰσθητῷ μορφή‎, viz. that it is what is stated in a definition.
Critical Apparatus
8 ἢ‎ pr. EJΓ‎ Asc.c: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
8. φύσις‎ as opposed to τέχνη‎ and δύναμις‎ is ἀρχὴ ἐν αὐτῷ‎ as against ἐν ἄλλῳ‎ (Λ‎. 1070a 7, De Caelo 301b 17). For the difference between τέχνη‎ and δύναμις‎ cf. E. 1025b 22 n.
Critical Apparatus
9 καὶ σφαίρας‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.c: σφαῖραν‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
10 τὸ] τοδὶ τὸ‎ EJΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
b 11 τοῦ] τοῦτο δὲ σφαίρᾳ εἶναι τοῦ‎ Γ‎: τοῦτο δὲ σφαῖραν εἶναι ὅλως δʼ εἰ ἔσται γένεσις τοῦ‎ J
σφαίρᾳ‎ recc. Γ‎: σφαῖρα‎ EJAb
ἔσται‎ AbΓ‎ Al. et fecit E: ἔστι‎ J Asc.
ἔκ τινος τὶ] ἔκ τινος‎ Al.: ἐκ τίνος τί‎ Joachim
Critical Apparatus
12 ἀεὶ‎ et 13 τὸ δὲ‎ pr. om. Ab
Editor’s Note
14–15. τὸ μέν‎, the genus, which is to the differentia as ὕλη‎ to εἶδος‎ (cf. Δ‎. 1024b 3, 8). τό δʼ‎, the differentia. τὸ δέ‎, the specific form.
Critical Apparatus
15 ὃ‎ EJΓ‎ Al.: οὐ‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
16. οἷον‎ here introduces not an example but a comparison. The specific form, as composed of genus and differentia, answers to the concrete thing, as composed of matter and form. For this use of οἷον‎ cf. Bz. Index 501b 55–60.
Critical Apparatus
17 ἢ‎ Ab Asc.c: ἢ ὡς‎ EJΓ‎ Al.c
σύνολος‎ Jaeger: σύνοδος‎ codd. Γ‎
Editor’s Note
17. It is possible that the manuscript reading σύνοδος‎ might mean 'the coalescence of matter and form'. But such a meaning for the word would be without parallel in Aristotle or, as far as I know, elsewhere, and Jaeger is almost certainly right in reading σύνολος‎. For ἡ σύνολος‎ ( = ἡ σύνολος οὐσία‎) cf. 1037a 26, 30. The same confusion has occurred in manuscripts in both those passages; Δ‎ and Λ‎ are easily interchanged.
Critical Apparatus
18 παντὶ‎ Ab Al.c: ἅπαντι‎ EJ Asc.c
Critical Apparatus
19 γενομένῳ‎ Ab: γινομένῳ‎ Al.c Asc.c
ἔνεστι‎ EJΓ‎ Al.c: ἔστι‎ Ab Asc.c
Editor’s Note
19. γεννωμένῳ‎, the reading of EJ, is supported by γεννᾷ‎, l. 23 (cf. l. 30).
Editor’s Note
τόδε … τόδε‎, sc. ὕλη … εἶδος‎, cf. l. 13.
Editor’s Note
πότερον κτλ‎. Aristotle passes now to consider a doctrine which might seem to follow from his denial of the creation of form, viz. the Platonic doctrine that Forms exist eternally and independently. To this Aristotle answers that form is never a substance, always a characteristic; never a τόδε‎, always a τοιόνδε‎. Before it existed as the form of the offspring it existed as the form of the parent.
Critical Apparatus
20 τι‎ J
τάδε‎ E
Critical Apparatus
21 ἄν‎ om. Γ‎
ἀλλὰ τὸ‎ Ab Al.: ἀλλʼ ὅτι‎ EΓ‎: ἄλλο τι‎ J
Editor’s Note
21. ἢ οὐδ' ἄν … τι‎. Since one substance cannot contain another actually existing substance (1039a 3), it follows that if the form were a substance there could never come into being an individual substance containing it as an element. So Al. Bz. But quite probably we should omit the comma after ἦν‎, and translate 'Perhaps the answer is that if the form were an individual subsistent in this manner, coming-to-be would never take place at all'.
Critical Apparatus
22 δὲ‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
24. Καλλίας‎, cf. A. 981a 8 n.
Editor’s Note
26. ἡ τῶν εἰδῶν αἰτία‎, 'the cause which consists of the Forms'.
Critical Apparatus
28 τε‎ EJ Asc.
τὰς‎ alt. om. EJ
χρήσιμα‎ EJΓ‎ Al.
Editor’s Note
28. πρός γε τὰς γενέσεις‎, the reading of Ab, is clearly an improvement on the vulgate πρός τε τὰς γενέσεις‎.
Critical Apparatus
29 μὲν δή] μὴ δή‎ Ab: δέ‎ Γ‎
Critical Apparatus
30 καὶ‎ om. AbΓ‎
Critical Apparatus
31 ἀλλὰ] ἀλλʼ ἓν‎ EΓ‎: ἀλλʼ ἐν‎ J
Editor’s Note
33. Aristotle's account is that the form of the mule is not the same as that of its sire, the horse, since this has failed to master the opposition offered by the material element coming from the dam, the ass; but it is identical with the generic form of the sire, since this is also the generic form of the dam and thus has no opposition to conquer. Thus the mule is a sort of abstract universal, with the generic qualities common to horse and ass but without (or at least not having all) the specific qualities of either.
Editor’s Note
1034a 1. οὐκ ὠνόμασται‎. Aristotle himself uses the word λάφουρον‎, 'bushy-tailed creature' (e. g. in H. A. 491a 1).
Editor’s Note
3. τούτοις‎, sc. τὰ φυσικά‎ (1033b 32), living things.
Critical Apparatus
1034a 4 αἱ‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
a 8 ταυτὰ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
9 καὶ τέχνῃ‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: om. Ab
Editor’s Note
1034a 9. (1) (a) Why are some things (e. g. health) produced spontaneously as well as by art, and others not (e. g. a house)? The reason is that in some cases the matter which begins the production is such as to be moved by itself, in some not; sometimes again it can move itself in the particular way required, sometimes not.
18. Accordingly the product will or will not need the artist for its production; in the latter case it can be set in motion by what has not the art but can be moved either by something else that has not the art or by a movement starting from an already existing part of the product.
21. Thus all artefacta are produced from something else with the same name as themselves, as living things are produced, or from a part which is of the same name (e. g. a house from a house, since the art of building is identical with the formal element in a house) or from what contains a part—unless the production be merely incidental.
25. For the cause of direct per se production is a part of the product; the heat in the rubbing produces heat in the body, which is or is followed by health or a part of health; whence it is said to produce health, since it produces that on which health follows.
30. Thus production, like syllogism, starts from the substance or essence.
33. (b) Natural production is like artificial; (i) the seed operates like the things which work by art; the source of the seed is something which has the same name, in a sense, as the offspring (only in a sense, for woman is produced from man)—unless the offspring is an abnormality (which is why the parent of a mule is not a mule).
b 4. (ii) Spontaneous production, as before, occurs when the matter can give itself the movement which normally the seed gives to it; when it cannot, generation by parents is necessary.
7. (2) As the form of a substance is not produced, so too with other categories.
14. It is not the quality or quantity but the wood of that quality or quantity that is produced; but another individual of the same kind need not pre-exist actually as in the case of substance; it is enough if the quality, &c., pre-exist potentially.
 
Critical Apparatus
11 ἡ‎ alt. om. Ab
Editor’s Note
In a 9–32 Aristotle discusses the conditions under which spontaneity mimics art, in a 33–b 7 those under which it mimics nature. In b 7–19 he discusses the genesis of qualities, quantities, &c., as distinct from that of substances.
Editor’s Note
1034a 11–13. τῶν μὲν ἡ ὕλη … ἡ μὲν τοιαύτη‎. As Bz. observes, the insertion of the explanatory words ἡ ἄρχουσα‎, &c., has caused Aristotle to forget the original structure of the sentence. The anacolouthon is a natural one.
Editor’s Note
11. ἡ ὕλη ἡ ἄρχουσα τῆς γενέσεως‎. The phrase might seem peculiar, in view of the passivity commonly ascribed to matter by Aristotle. The explanation is that it is only prime matter that is entirely passive; other matter has some quality of its own and can thus initiate movement. Cf. 1032b 28–30 n.
Editor’s Note
12. τι μέρος τοῦ πράγματος‎. The notion that a part of the result must be pre-existent has been already expounded in 1032b 26–1033a 1.
Editor’s Note
13–18. Aristotle divides matter thus:

(1) some matter can initiate motion, (2) some cannot.

Of (1), (a) some can initiate motion of the particular sort required to produce a certain result; (b) some can initiate motion of some kind but not of the kind required; e. g. stones of themselves can fall but cannot arrange themselves into a house, fire can rise but cannot move so as to heat bronze.
Two mistakes seem to be involved in this classification. (i) Aristotle assumes wrongly that the elements have a natural motion in certain directions, earth downwards, fire upwards. (ii) This once assumed, it is hard to see what is the matter he describes as having no power of starting motion on its own account. Apelt suggests that great masses of rock may be meant, and this is possible, though, as he says, inkonsequent genug.
Critical Apparatus
14 ὧδε‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
15 δύναται‎ Γ‎
ὡδί‎ EJ Al.: ὧδε‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
16 ἀδύνατοι‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
17 ὧδε‎ Ab
εἰ] ἢ‎ J
μέντοι ναί—καὶ] μέντʼ εἶναι καὶ‎ Ab: μέντοι κινεῖται‎ Apelt
Editor’s Note
17. For ὡδὶ μέντοι ναί‎ cf. Top. 171a 20 ἔστι μὲν ὡς οὔ, ἔστι δ' ὡς ναί‎.
Editor’s Note
18–19. τὰ μέν‎, those products whose matter is of type (1 b) (e. g. a house), τὰ δέ‎, those whose matter is of type (1 a) (e. g. health).
Editor’s Note
19. It seems clear that κινηθήσεται‎ is used in a peculiar sense. The subject of the sentence is 'the products which can come into existence without the agency of an artist', and κινηθήσεται‎ must mean 'the motion which produces them will be started', very much as if we had had γενήσεται‎ (cf. ἄμφω κινήσει, Θ‎. 1046b 21). The sentence then means 'the motion leading to such products will be originated by these things (the things which have some power of originating the required motion, cf. l. 14), which have not the art in question but can themselves be moved either by other things which have not the art, or with a motion that starts from a part of the product which already exists in the things themselves'. Thus Aristotle recognizes three modes of production of, e. g., health; it may be produced
  1. (1) purposely, by the physician,

  2. (2) spontaneously, (a) by some action of a non-physician (or a material object) on the sick body, (b) by a motion starting from some element of health (e. g. heat) present in the sick body.

Critical Apparatus
20 τὴν‎ Ab Al. Asc.c: μὲν τὴν‎ EJΓ‎
κινεῖσθαι‎ … 21 τέχνην‎ om. Al.: an secludenda?
ὑπʼ] ἢ ὑπ'‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
20–21. κινεῖσθαι … τέχνην‎. There is no trace of these words in Alexander (498. 29), and they are decidedly suspicious; the μέν‎ of EJ in l. 20 looks like a piece of patchwork inserted in view of an intrusive δέ‎ clause following. Christ conjectured very reasonably (Studia, 45) that κινεῖσθαι δυναμένων αὐτῶν‎ (loosely used for κινεῖσθαι δυνάμενα αὐτά‎) was a gloss on κινηθήσεται‎, and ὑπ' ἄλλων οὐκ ἐχόντων τὴν τέχνην‎ a variant of ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν οὐκ ἐχόντων τὴν τέχνην‎.
Critical Apparatus
21 ἢ ἐκ μέρους‎ an secludenda?
Editor’s Note
21. ἐκ μέρους‎ is difficult, but a comparison with 1032b 26–1033a 1, 1034a 12, 24–30 shows what is meant. Asc. gives a good instance of Aristotle's meaning, τοῦ ἐμφύτου θερμοῦ πλεονάσαντος καὶ κατασβέσαντος τὴν ψυχρὰν δυσκρασίαν‎ (407. 6). Not improbably, however, ἢ ἐκ μέρους‎ has been wrongly inserted here, as in l. 24, from the margin.
Editor’s Note
21–26. The section a 9–32 is concerned with the conditions under which products normally produced by art are occasionally produced spontaneously. It is not till a 33 that Aristotle passes to consider natural products and the conditions under which spontaneity mimics the work of nature. πάντα‎, then, means 'all artefacta', i. e. things of the type of artefacta, whether actually produced by art or spontaneously. The reference to natural products (ὥσπερ τὰ φύσει‎) is by way of comparison—just as artefacta are referred to by way of comparison in the account of natural products (a 34, b 4). 'All artefacta are produced from a thing having the same name as themselves, as are natural products, or (more exactly) from an element in themselves which has the same name as themselves (e. g. a house is produced from a house, inasmuch as it is produced by reason, for the art of building is identical with the formal element in a house), or from something involving an element in them (and having the same name as it)'.
One is tempted to punctuate so as to take ἐξ οἰκίας, ἐκ μέρους‎ (sc. ὁμωνύμου‎) ἢ ἔχοντός τι μέρος‎ as stating for the case of the house the alternatives stated generally as ἐξ ὁμωνύμου, ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου‎. But a house cannot be produced ἐκ μέρους‎ in the sense in which ἐκ μέρους‎ is used in l. 21 and presumably therefore in l. 24. For ἐκ μέρους‎ is used in l. 21 to indicate the way in which spontaneous production takes place, and a house is never produced spontaneously (l. 10).
The sentence is evidently corrupt; the repetition ἢ ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου … ἢ ἐκ μέρους‎ can hardly stand. Bonitz detected corruption but offered no cure. Christ bracketed ἢ ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου‎ in l. 23 and read ἢ ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου‎ in l. 24, assuming that Alexander read ἢ ἐκ μέρους συνωνύμου‎ (or ὁμωνύμου‎) there (Al. 499. 20). But Alexander seems to have had this phrase in l. 23 (499. 12), and perhaps only there; and the same is true of Asclepius (410. 3). It seems probable that ἢ ἐκ μέρους‎, having at some early date been displaced from l. 23, was added in the margin and later inserted in l. 24. Cf. previous note.
Critical Apparatus
22 πάντα‎ Ab Al.: ἅπαντα‎ EJ Asc.
Editor’s Note
22. ἐξ ὁμωνύμου‎. τὰ φύσει‎ are actually produced ἐκ συνωνύμου‎ (Λ‎. 1070a 5), from that which shares their nature as well as their name, but Aristotle occasionally ignores the distinction between ὁμώνυμον‎ and συνώνυμον‎, which did not exist in ordinary Greek usage; cf. A. 987b 9 n., De Gen. et Corr. 328b 21.
Critical Apparatus
23 ἢ … ὁμωνύμου‎ EJAbΓ‎Asc.c: secl. Christ
Critical Apparatus
24 ᾗ‎ Robin: ἢ‎ codd. Γ‎: ἡ‎ ci. Schwegler, τῆς‎ Bonitz
ἢ ἐκ μέρους‎ seclusi: μέρους‎ om. Ab: ἢ ἐκ μέρους ὁμωνύμου‎ Christ
ἢ‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
24. ᾗ ὑπὸ νοῦ‎. This emendation, which had occurred to me independently, has been proposed by L. Robin in Archiv f. Gesch. d. Phil. xxiii. 3. The manuscript reading ἢ ὑπὸ νοῦ‎ is not impossible, but a justification of ἐξ οἰκίας‎ rather than an alternative to it seems to be required. ᾗ‎ would easily be corrupted into ἤ‎ by the influence of the other ἤ‎ in the sentence.
Editor’s Note
ἢ ἔχοντός τι μέρος‎. For the absence of the article with ἔχοντος‎ cf. Δ‎. 1022a 6.
Critical Apparatus
25 τι‎ EJΓ‎ Al.c Asc.c: τὸ‎ Ab
Editor’s Note
25–26. ἐάν … μέρος‎. Aristotle notes here that what he has said in ll. 21–25 of the implications of production applies only to production which is not merely incidental. That by virtue of which A produces B directly per se is a part of B. τοῦ ποιεῖν πρῶτον καθ' αὑτό‎, 'of its producing the result directly per se'. Incidental production may be illustrated by the case of the builder's producing not a house simply (which he produces directly) but a house which is agreeable or injurious to its inmates (E. 1026b 6–10).
Critical Apparatus
26 αἴτιον‎ om. Ab
Critical Apparatus
28 ἢ‎ pr. Ab Asc.c: ἡ‎ Al.: ἤτοι‎ EJ
ἢ‎ tert. codd. Γ‎Al. Asc.c: ᾗ‎ Jaeger
Editor’s Note
28. ἢ ἀκολουθεῖ‎. Jaeger supposes ᾗ‎ to have been corrupted into ἤ‎ as in l. 24. But Alexander read ἤ‎ (499. 27, 30, 35); cf. also 1032b 27.
Critical Apparatus
29 αὕτη ὑγίεια‎ J
Editor’s Note
29–30. διὸ … [θερμότης]‎. The manuscript reading if kept would have to be translated 'that is why the rubbing (cf. 1032b 26) is said to produce health, because that of which health is a consequence produces health, viz. heat'. But a far better sense is got by treating (with Jaeger) τὴν ὐγίειαν‎ and θερμότης‎ as glosses on διὸ καὶ λέγεται ποιεῖν‎ and ὅτι ἐκεῖνο ποιεῖ‎ respectively. The sense then is 'and this is why the heat in the rubbing is said to produce health, viz. because it produces that on which health follows'. Alexander understood the passage rightly (499. 36–500. 6), though Al.c has ποιεῖ τὴν ὑγίειαν‎.
Critical Apparatus
30 τὴν ὑγίειαν‎ om. Al., secludenda ci. Bonitz
θερμότης‎ secl. Jaeger: ἡ θερμότης‎ fecit E: ἡ ὑγίεια‎ ci. Bonitz
Editor’s Note
30–32. In syllogism, i. e. in the scientific syllogism, a property is shown to belong to a subject in virtue of the subject's essence or definition (An. Post. 90b 31). So too in generation the product springs from its own essence. This applies to all three kinds of production described in ll. 21–30. (1) In natural production it is the specific essence of the father (which is identical with that of the offspring) that produces the offspring. (2) In artistic production the essence of the product, conceived by the artist, is the cause. (3) In spontaneous production heat, for example, which is the cause of the production of health, is the inner essence of which health is the manifestation.
Critical Apparatus
33 δὲ‎ Ab Al. Asc.l: δὴ‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
33–34. τὸ μὲν γὰρ σπέρμα … τέχνης‎, 'for the seed is productive in the same way as the things that work by art'.
Critical Apparatus
a 34 τὸ‎ E
δυνάμει‎ EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: δύναμιν‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
b 1 πως‎ Ab2 EJΓ‎ Al. Asc.: πρώτως‎ Ab1
Critical Apparatus
3 ἐὰν … ᾖ‎ ante διὸ‎ … 4 ἡμιόνου‎ transposui: sic fort. leg. Al.: post διὸ … ἡμιόνου‎ codd. Γ‎Asc.: omnia haec verba secl. Jaeger
ἐὰν‎ Ab Al. Asc.: ἀλλʼ ἐὰν‎ EJΓ‎
Editor’s Note
b 3–4. ἐὰν … ἡμιόνου‎. These clauses as traditionally arranged can be made intelligible only by reading ἀλλ' ἐάν‎ and punctuating as follows: οὐ γὰρ πάντα οὕτω δεῖ ζητεῖν ὡς ἐξ ἀνθρώπου ἄνθρωπος—καὶ γὰρ γυνὴ ἐξ ἀνδρός· διὸ ἡμίονος οὐκ ἐξ ἡμιόνου—ἀλλ' ἐὰν μὴ πήρωμα ᾖ‎. But this is excessively awkward. διὸ … ἡμιόνου‎ does not follow naturally on the previous clause. Alexander (500. 13, 35) and Asclepius (411. 7) as well as Ab read ἐάν‎ simply, and ἀλλά‎ is pretty evidently a piece of later patchwork; and not a successful one, since ἀλλ' ἐὰν … ᾗ‎ has to be taken rather unnaturally as = 'but only if it is not a πήρωμα‎'. Alexander interprets ἐὰν … ᾖ‎ as coming before διὸ … ἡμιόνου‎, and may have had the clauses before him in that order. The sense gained by the transposition is quite satisfactory; οὐ γὰρ … ἄνδρός‎ is interposed parenthetically to explain the cautious πως‎ in l. 1, and then the exception to ἐστί πως ὁμώνυμον‎ is stated in ἐὰν μὴ πήρωμα ᾖ‎ (cf. the position of ἐὰν μὴ κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς γίγνηται‎ in a 25), and illustrated. Cf. ἂν μή τι παρὰ φύατιν γένηται, οἶον ἴππος ἡμίονον‎ 1033b 33.
Editor’s Note
4. ὥσπερ ἐκεῖ‎, i. e. in the field of nature as in the already (a 9–32) discussed field of art. For 'spontaneous generation' cf. Bz. Index 124b 3–26.
Critical Apparatus
5 δύναται‎ om. Ab
Editor’s Note
7–19. Christ thinks this passage belongs properly to ch. 8. It is, more exactly, an appendix to the whole subject discussed in chs. 7–9.
Editor’s Note
7. ἐξ αὐτῶν‎, 'from the parent animals themselves'. Cf. Schwegler, Excursus III, on the pregnant use of αὐτός‎.
Editor’s Note
9. τῶν πρώτων‎. For this as a name for the categories cf. τὰ κοινὰ πρῶτα‎ An. Post. 96b 20, τὰ πρῶτα τῶν γενῶν‎ B. 998b 15.
Editor’s Note
11. καὶ ἐπὶ χαλκοῦ, εἰ γίγνεται‎, 'and as bronze, if it is generated, implies a form and a matter that are not generated at the same time as it'.
Critical Apparatus
12 εἰ‎ om. fort. Al.
ἀεὶ] εἰ‎ Ab
Critical Apparatus
13 οὕτως‎ om. JΓ‎
Editor’s Note
13. The coming into being of a bronze sphere is the imposition of a new shape (which is a kind of quality, Cat. 10a 11) on an existing substance; the coming into being of bronze is the generation of a new substance. Aristotle now generalizes and says 'so is it, sc. generally, both in the case of substance and in that of quality', &c.