pg 164Critical Apparatus82CIn Senatu in Toga Candida Contra C. Antonium et L. Catilinam Competitores
- 4 Sex competitores in consulatus petitione Cicero habuit,
- 5duos patricios, P. Sulpicium Galbam, L. Sergium Catilinam;
- Critical Apparatus6quattuor plebeios ex quibus duos nobiles, C. Antonium,
- 7M. Antoni oratoris filium, L. Cassium Longinum, duos qui
- Critical Apparatus8tantum non primi ex familiis suis magistratum adepti erant,
- 9Q. Cornificium et C. Licinium Sacerdotem. Solus Cicero
- 10ex competitoribus equestri erat loco natus; atque in peti-
- 11tione patrem amisit. Ceteri eius competitores modeste se
- Critical Apparatus12gessere, visique sunt Q. Cornificius et Galba sobrii ac sancti
- Critical Apparatus13viri, Sacerdos nulla improbitate notus; Cassius quamvis
- Critical Apparatus14stolidus tum magis quam improbus videretur, post paucos
- Critical Apparatus15menses in coniuratione Catilinae esse eum apparuit ac
- Critical Apparatus16cruentissimarum sententiarum fuisse auctorem. Itaque hi
- Critical Apparatus17quattuor prope iacebant. Catilina autem et Antonius,
- pg 166Critical Apparatus183Cquamquam omnium maxime infamis eorum vita esset,
- Critical Apparatus2tamen multum poterant. Coierant enim ambo ut Ciceronem
- 3consulatu deicerent, adiutoribus usi firmissimis M. Crasso
- 4et C. Caesare. Itaque haec oratio contra solos Catilinam
- Critical Apparatus5et Antonium est. Causa orationis huius modi in senatu
- Critical Apparatus6habendae Ciceroni fuit quod, cum in dies licentia ambitus
- Critical Apparatus7augeretur propter praecipuam Catilinae et Antoni audaciam,
- 8censuerat senatus ut lex ambitus aucta etiam cum poena
- Critical Apparatus9ferretur; eique rei Q. Mucius Orestinus tr. pl. intercesserat.
- 10Tum Cicero graviter senatu intercessionem ferente surrexit
- Critical Apparatus11atque in coitionem Catilinae et Antoni invectus est ante dies
- 12comitiorum paucos.
- 14 D i c o , P . C . , s u p e r i o r e n o c t e c u i u s d a m h o m i n i s
- Critical Apparatus15n o b i l i s e t v a l d e i n h o c l a r g i t i o n i s q u a e s t u n o t i e t
- 16c o g n i t i d o m u m C a t i l i n a m e t A n t o n i u m c u m s e -
- 17q u e s t r i b u s s u i s c o n v e n i s s e .
- Critical Apparatus18 Aut C. Caesaris aut M. Crassi domum significat. Ei
- Critical Apparatus19enim acerrimi ac potentissimi fuerunt Ciceronis refraga-
- Critical Apparatus20tores cum petiit consulatum, quod eius in dies civilem
- Critical Apparatus21crescere dignitatem animadvertebant: et hoc ipse Cicero in
- Critical Apparatus22expositione consiliorum suorum significat; eius quoque
- Critical Apparatus23coniurationis quae Cotta et Torquato coss. ante annum
- Critical Apparatus24quam haec dicerentur facta est a Catilina et Pisone arguit
- 25M. Crassum auctorem fuisse.
- Critical Apparatus26 Q u e m e n i m a u t a m i c u m h a b e r e p o t e s t i s q u i t o t
- pg 168Critical Apparatus184Cc i v i s t r u c i d a v i t , a u t c l i e n t e m q u i i n s u a c i v i t a t e
- 2c u m p e r e g r i n o n e g a v i t s e i u d i c i o a e q u o c e r t a r e
- 3p o s s e ?
- Critical Apparatus4 Dicitur Catilina, cum in Sullanis partibus fuisset, crude-
- Critical Apparatus5liter fecisse. Nominatim etiam postea Cicero dicit quos
- Critical Apparatus6occiderit, Q. Caecilium, M. Volumnium, L. Tanusium.
- Critical Apparatus7M. etiam Mari Gratidiani summe popularis hominis, qui ob
- Critical Apparatus8id bis praetor fuit, caput abscisum per urbem sua manu
- 9Catilina tulerat: quod crimen saepius ei tota oratione
- 10obicit. Fuerat vero hic Gratidianus arta necessitudine
- 11Ciceroni coniunctus.
- Critical Apparatus12 Clientem autem negavit habere posse C. Antonium: nam
- 13is multos in Achaia spoliaverat nactus de exercitu Sullano
- Critical Apparatus14equitum turmas. Deinde Graeci qui spoliati erant edu-
- 15xerunt Antonium in ius ad M. Lucullum praetorem qui ius
- Critical Apparatus16inter peregrinos dicebat. Egit pro Graecis C. Caesar etiam
- 17tum adulescentulus, de quo paulo ante mentionem fecimus;
- Critical Apparatus18et cum Lucullus id quod Graeci postulabant decrevisset,
- Critical Apparatus19appellavit tribunos Antonius iuravitque se ideo eiurare quod
- Critical Apparatus20aequo iure uti non posset. Hunc Antonium Gellius et
- Critical Apparatus21Lentulus censores sexennio quo haec dicerentur senatu
- Critical Apparatus22moverunt titulosque subscripserunt, quod socios diripuerit,
- Critical Apparatus23quod iudicium recusarit, quod propter aeris alieni magni-
- Critical Apparatus24tudinem praedia manciparit bonaque sua in potestate non
- Critical Apparatus25habeat.
- pg 170
- Critical Apparatus185C N e c s e n a t u m r e s p e x i t c u m g r a v i s s i m i s v e s t r i s
- 2d e c r e t i s a b s e n s n o t a t u s e s t .
- Critical Apparatus3 Catilina ex praetura Africam provinciam obtinuit: quam
- Critical Apparatus4cum graviter vexasset, legati Afri in senatu iam tum
- Critical Apparatus5absente illo questi sunt, multaeque graves sententiae in
- 6senatu de eo dictae sunt.
- 7 I n i u d i c i i s q u a n t a v i s e s s e t d i d i c i t c u m e s t
- 8a b s o l u t u s : s i a u t i l l u d i u d i c i u m a u t i l l a a b s o l u t i o
- 9n o m i n a n d a e s t .
- 10 Ante annum quam haec dicerentur Catilina, cum redisset
- 11ex Africa Torquato et Cotta coss., accusatus est repe-
- 12tundarum a P. Clodio adulescente, qui postea inimicus
- Critical Apparatus13Ciceronis fuit. Defensus est Catilina, ut Fenestella tradit,
- Critical Apparatus14a M. Cicerone. Quod ego ut addubitem haec ipsa
- 15Ciceronis oratio facit, maxime quod is nullam mentionem
- 16rei habet, cum potuerit invidiam facere competitori tam
- 17turpiter adversus se coeunti: praesertim cum alterum
- 18competitorem suum Antonium in eadem hac oratione sua
- 19admoneat suo beneficio eum ex ultimo loco praeturae
- 20candidatum ad tertium pervenisse.
- Critical Apparatus21 N e s c i s m e p r a e t o r e m p r i m u m e s s e f a c t u m , t e
- Critical Apparatus22c o n c e s s i o n e c o m p e t i t o r u m e t c o l l a t i o n e c e n t u r i a -
- Critical Apparatus23r u m e t m e o m a x i m e b e n e f i c i o e x p o s t r e m o i n
- 24t e r t i u m l o c u m e s s e s u b i e c t u m ?
- Critical Apparatus25 Qui igitur Antonio suffragationem suam imputandam
- Critical Apparatus26putat, is si defendisset Catilinam, caput eius protectum
- Critical Apparatus27a se nonne imputaret? Quod ita esse manifestum est ex
- 28eo quod statim dicit. Q. enim Mucius tr. pl. intercedebat
- pg 172186Cne lex ambitus ferretur; quod facere pro Catilina videbatur.
- Critical Apparatus2Hunc Mucium in hac oratione Cicero appellans sic ait:
- Critical Apparatus3 T e t a m e n , Q . M u c i , t a m m a l e d e p o p u l o R o m a n o
- Critical Apparatus4e x i s t i m a r e m o l e s t e f e r o q u i h e s t e r n o d i e m e e s s e
- 5d i g n u m c o n s u l a t u n e g a b a s . Q u i d ? p . R . m i n u s
- Critical Apparatus6d i l i g e n t e r s i b i c o n s t i t u e r e t d e f e n s o r e m q u a m t u
- Critical Apparatus7t i b i ? C u m t e c u m f u r t i L . C a l e n u s a g e r e t , m e p o t i s -
- 8s i m u m f o r t u n a r u m t u a r u m p a t r o n u m e s s e v o l u i s t i .
- Critical Apparatus9C u i u s t u t e c o n s i l i u m i n t u a t u r p i s s i m a c a u s a d e l e -
- 10g i s t i , h u n c h o n e s t i s s i m a r u m r e r u m d e f e n s o r e m p .
- 11R . a u c t o r e t e r e p u d i a r e p o t e s t ? N i s i f o r t e h o c
- Critical Apparatus12d i c t u r u s e s , q u o t e m p o r e c u m L . C a l e n o f u r t i
- Critical Apparatus13d e p e c t u s s i s , e o t e m p o r e i n m e t i b i p a r u m e s s e
- Critical Apparatus14a u x i l i v i d i s s e .
- Critical Apparatus15 Vere cum egerit Muci causam Cicero sicut Catilinae
- Critical Apparatus16egisse eum videri vult Fenestella, cur iam, quamvis male
- Critical Apparatus17existimet de causa Muci, tamen ei exprobret patrocinium
- Critical Apparatus18suum, non idem in Catilina faciat, si modo pro eo dixit? et
- Critical Apparatus19cur ipsum illud iudicium saepius in infamiam vocat? quod
- Critical Apparatus20parcius videtur fuisse facturus, si in eo iudicio fuisset patronus.
- 21Atque ut alia omittam, hoc certe vix videtur dicturus fuisse,
- Critical Apparatus22si illo patrono Catilina repetundarum absolutus esset:
- 23 S t u p r i s s e o m n i b u s a c f l a g i t i i s c o n t a m i n a v i t ;
- 24c a e d e n e f a r i a c r u e n t a v i t ; d i r i p u i t s o c i o s ; l e g e s
- Critical Apparatus25q u a e s t i o n e s i u d i c i a v i o l a v i t — e t p o s t e a :
- 26 Q u i d e g o u t v i o l a v e r i s p r o v i n c i a m p r a e d i c e m ?
- Critical Apparatus27N a m u t t e i l l i c g e s s e r i s n o n a u d e o d i c e r e , q u o -
- pg 174187Cn i a m a b s o l u t u s e s . M e n t i t o s e s s e e q u i t e s R o m a -
- 2n o s , f a l s a s f u i s s e t a b e l l a s h o n e s t i s s i m a e c i v i t a t i s
- Critical Apparatus3e x i s t i m o , m e n t i t u m Q . M e t e l l u m P i u m , m e n t i t a m
- Critical Apparatus4A f r i c a m : v i d i s s e p u t o n e s c i o q u i d i l l o s i u d i c e s
- 5q u i t e i n n o c e n t e m i u d i c a r u n t . O m i s e r q u i n o n
- 6s e n t i a s i l l o i u d i c i o t e n o n a b s o l u t u m v e r u m a d
- 7a l i q u o d s e v e r i u s i u d i c i u m a c m a i u s s u p p l i c i u m r e -
- 8s e r v a t u m !
- Critical Apparatus9 Verine ergo simile est haec eum Catilinae obicere, si illo
- Critical Apparatus10defendente absolutus esset? Praeterea movet me quod,
- 11cum sint commentarii Ciceronis causarum, eius tamen
- 12defensionis nullum est commentarium aut principium.
- Critical Apparatus13 Ita quidem iudicio absolutus est Catilina ut Clodius
- Critical Apparatus14infamis fuerit praevaricatus esse: nam et reiectio iudicum
- 15ad arbitrium rei videbatur esse facta.
- 16 P o p u l u m v e r o c u m i n s p e c t a n t e p o p u l o c o l l u m
- 17s e c u i t h o m i n i s m a x i m e p o p u l a r i s q u a n t i f a c e r e t
- 18o s t e n d i t .
- Critical Apparatus19 Diximus et paulo ante Mari caput Catilinam per urbem
- Critical Apparatus21 M e q u a a m e n t i a i n d u c t u s s i t u t c o n t e m n e r e t c o n -
- Critical Apparatus22s t i t u e r e n o n p o s s u m . V t r u m a e q u o a n i m o l a t u r u m
- 23p u t a v i t ? A t i n s u o f a m i l i a r i s s i m o v i d e r a t m e n e
- Critical Apparatus24a l i o r u m q u i d e m i n i u r i a s m e d i o c r i t e r p o s s e f e r r e .
- Critical Apparatus25 Manifestum est C. Verrem significari.
- 26 A l t e r p e c o r e o m n i v e n d i t o e t s a l t i b u s p r o p e
- Critical Apparatus27a d d i c t i s p a s t o r e s r e t i n e t , e x q u i b u s a i t s e c u m
- 28v e l i t s u b i t o f u g i t i v o r u m b e l l u m e x c i t a t u r u m .
- 29 C. Antonium significat.
- pg 176
- 188C A l t e r i n d u x i t e u m q u e m p o t u i t u t r e p e n t e g l a d i a -
- Critical Apparatus2t o r e s p o p u l o n o n d e b i t o s p o l l i c e r e t u r ; e o s i p s e
- Critical Apparatus3c o n s u l a r i s c a n d i d a t u s p e r s p e x i t e t l e g i t e t e m i t ; i d
- 4p r a e s e n t e p o p u l o R o m a n o f a c t u m e s t .
- 5 Q. Gallium, quem postea reum ambitus defendit, signifi-
- 6care videtur. Hic enim cum esset praeturae candidatus,
- Critical Apparatus7quod in aedilitate quam ante annum gesserat bestias non
- Critical Apparatus8habuerat, dedit gladiatorium munus sub titulo patri se
- 9id dare.
- Critical Apparatus10 Q u a m o b r e m a u g e t e e t i a m m e r c e d e m , s i v o l t i s ,
- Critical Apparatus11Q . M u c i u t p e r s e v e r e t l e g e m i m p e d i r e , u t c o e p i t
- Critical Apparatus12s e n a t u s c o n s u l t u m ; s e d e g o e a l e g e c o n t e n t u s
- 13s u m q u a d u o s c o n s u l e s d e s i g n a t o s u n o t e m p o r e
- 14d a m n a r i v i d i m u s .
- 15 Legem Calpurniam significat quam C. Calpurnius Piso
- Critical Apparatus16ante triennium de ambitu tulerat. Quod dicit autem da-
- Critical Apparatus17mnatos esse designatos consules, P. Sullam et P. Autronium,
- 18de quibus iam diximus, vult intellegi. Cognomen autem
- 19Q. Mucio tribuno quem nominat fuit Orestinus.
- Critical Apparatus20 A t q u e u t i s t u m o m i t t a m i n e x e r c i t u S u l l a n o
- 21p r a e d o n e m , i n i n t r o i t u g l a d i a t o r e m , i n v i c t o r i a
- 22q u a d r i g a r i u m .
- Critical Apparatus23 De Antonio dici manifestum est. Dicit eum in
- 24exercitu Sullae praedonem propter equitum turmas
- Critical Apparatus25quibus Achaiam ab eo vexatam esse significavimus; in
- 26introitu gladiatorem pertinet ad invidiam proscriptionis
- 27quae tum facta est; in victoria quadrigarium, quod,
- Critical Apparatus28cum Sulla post victoriam circenses faceret ita ut honesti
- 29homines quadrigas agitarent, fuit inter eos C. Antonius.
- pg 178
- 189C T e v e r o , C a t i l i n a , c o n s u l a t u m s p e r a r e a u t c o g i -
- Critical Apparatus2t a r e n o n p r o d i g i u m a t q u e p o r t e n t u m e s t ? A
- 3q u i b u s e n i m p e t i s ? A p r i n c i p i b u s c i v i t a t i s ? q u i
- Critical Apparatus4t i b i , c u m L . V o l c a c i o c o s . i n c o n s i l i o f u i s s e n t ,
- 5n e p e t e n d i q u i d e m p o t e s t a t e m e s s e v o l u e r u n t .
- Critical Apparatus6 Paulo ante diximus Catilinam, cum de provincia Africa
- 7decederet petiturus consulatum et legati Afri questi de eo in
- Critical Apparatus8senatu graviter essent, supervenisse. Professus deinde est
- Critical Apparatus9Catilina petere se consulatum. L. Volcacius Tullus consul
- 10consilium publicum habuit an rationem Catilinae habere
- 11deberet, si peteret consulatum: nam quaerebatur repetun-
- 12darum. Catilina ob eam causam destitit a petitione.
- Critical Apparatus13 A s e n a t o r i b u s ? q u i t e a u c t o r i t a t e s u a s p o l i a t u m
- 14o r n a m e n t i s o m n i b u s v i n c t u m p a e n e A f r i c a n i s
- Critical Apparatus15o r a t o r i b u s t r a d i d e r u n t ?
- 16 Diximus modo de hoc. Nam iudicium quoque secutum
- Critical Apparatus17est repetundarum, quo ipse per infamiam liberatus est Cati-
- Critical Apparatus18lina, sed ita ut senatorum urna damnaret, equitum et
- 19tribunorum absolveret.
- 20 A b e q u e s t r i o r d i n e ? q u e m t r u c i d a s t i ?
- Critical Apparatus21 Equester ordo pro Cinnanis partibus contra Sullam
- Critical Apparatus22steterat, multique pecunias abstulerant: ex quo saccularii
- 23erant appellati, atque ob eius rei invidiam post Sullanam
- 24victoriam erant interfecti.
- Critical Apparatus25 A p l e b e ? c u i s p e c t a c u l u m e i u s m o d i t u a c r u d e l i -
- Critical Apparatus26t a s p r a e b u i t , u t t e n e m o s i n e g e m i t u a c r e c o r d a -
- 27t i o n e l u c t u s a s p i c e r e p o s s i t ?
- pg 180
- Critical Apparatus190C Eiusdem illius Mari Gratidiani quod caput gestarit obicit.
- Critical Apparatus2 Q u o l o c o d i c i t C a t i l i n a m c a p u t M . M a r i g e s t a s s e :
- 3 Q u o d c a p u t e t i a m t u m p l e n u m a n i m a e e t s p i r i t u s
- Critical Apparatus4a d S u l l a m u s q u e a b I a n i c u l o a d a e d e m A p o l l i n i s
- 5m a n i b u s i p s e s u i s d e t u l i t .
- Critical Apparatus6 Omnia sunt manifesta. Ne tamen erretis, quod his
- Critical Apparatus7temporibus aedes Apollinis in Palatio fuit nobilissima,
- Critical Apparatus8admonendi estis non hanc a Cicerone significari, utpote
- Critical Apparatus9quam post mortem etiam Ciceronis multis annis Imp.
- Critical Apparatus10Caesar, quem nunc Divum Augustum dicimus, post Actia-
- 11cam victoriam fecerit: sed illam demonstrari quae est extra
- 12portam Carmentalem inter forum holitorium et circum
- Critical Apparatus13Flaminium. Ea enim sola tum quidem Romae Apollinis
- Critical Apparatus15 Loquitur cum Catilina:
- 16 Q u i d t u p o t e s i n d e f e n s i o n e t u a d i c e r e q u o d i l l i -
- Critical Apparatus17n o n d i x e r i n t ? a t i l l i m u l t a d i x e r u n t q u a e t i b i
- 18d i c e r e n o n l i c e b i t —
- 19 et paulo post:
- 20 D e n i q u e i l l i n e g a r e p o t u e r u n t e t n e g a v e r u n t : t u
- 21t i b i n e i n f i t i a n d i q u i d e m i m p u d e n t i a e l o c u m r e l i -
- Critical Apparatus22q u i s t i . Q u a r e p r a e c l a r a d i c e n t u r i u d i c i a t u l i s s e
- Critical Apparatus23s i , q u i i n f i t i a n t e m L u s c i u m c o n d e m n a r u n t , C a t i l i -
- 24n a m a b s o l v e r i n t c o n f i t e n t e m .
- Critical Apparatus25 Hic quem nominat L. Luscius, notus centurio Sullanus
- Critical Apparatus26divesque e victoria factus—nam amplius centies possederat—
- Critical Apparatus27damnatus erat non multo ante quam Cicero dixit. Obiectae
- pg 182191Csunt ei tres caedes proscriptorum. Circa eosdem dies L.
- 2quoque Bellienus damnatus est quem Cicero ait avunculum
- Critical Apparatus3esse Catilinae. Hic autem Lucretium Ofellam consulatum
- 4contra voluntatem Sullae ad turbandum statum civitatis
- Critical Apparatus5petentem occiderat iussu Sullae tunc dictatoris. His ergo
- Critical Apparatus6negat ignotum esse, cum et imperitos se homines esse et,
- Critical Apparatus7si quem etiam interfecissent, imperatori ac dictatori paruisse
- Critical Apparatus8dicerent, ac negare quoque possent: Catilinam vero infitiari
- 9non posse. Huius autem criminis periculum quod obicit
- 10Cicero paucos post menses Catilina subiit. Post effecta
- 11enim comitia consularia et Catilinae repulsam fecit eum
- Critical Apparatus12reum inter sicarios L. Lucceius paratus eruditusque, qui
- Critical Apparatus13postea consulatum quoque petiit.
- 14 H a n c t u h a b e s d i g n i t a t e m q u a f r e t u s m e c o n -
- Critical Apparatus15t e m n i s e t d e s p i c i s , a n e a m q u a m r e l i q u a i n v i t a e s
- 16c o n s e c u t u s ? c u m i t a v i x i s t i u t n o n e s s e t l o c u s t a m
- Critical Apparatus17s a n c t u s q u o n o n a d v e n t u s t u u s , e t i a m c u m c u l p a
- 18n u l l a s u b e s s e t , c r i m e n a f f e r r e t .
- 19 Fabia virgo Vestalis causam incesti dixerat, cum ei
- 20Catilina obiceretur, eratque absoluta. Haec Fabia quia
- 21soror erat Terentiae Ciceronis, ideo sic dixit: etiam si
- 22culpa nulla subesset. Ita et suis pepercit et nihilo levius
- Critical Apparatus23inimico summi opprobrii turpitudinem objecit.
- 24 C u m d e p r e h e n d e b a r e i n a d u l t e r i i s , c u m d e p r e -
- 25h e n d e b a s a d u l t e r o s i p s e , c u m e x e o d e m s t u p r o t i b i
- 26e t u x o r e m e t f i l i a m i n v e n i s t i .
- Critical Apparatus27 Dicitur Catilina adulterium commisisse cum ea quae ei
- Critical Apparatus28postea socrus fuit, et ex eo natam stupro duxisse uxorem,
- pg 184
- Critical Apparatus192Ccum filia eius esset. Hoc Lucceius quoque Catilinae obicit
- Critical Apparatus2in orationibus quas in eum scripsit. Nomina harum mulie-
- 3rum nondum inveni.
- Critical Apparatus4 Q u i d e g o u t v i o l a v e r i s p r o v i n c i a m p r a e d i c e m ,
- Critical Apparatus5c u n c t o p o p u l o R o m a n o c l a m a n t e a c r e s i s t e n t e ?
- 6n a m u t t e i l l i c g e s s e r i s n o n a u d e o d i c e r e , q u o n i a m
- 7a b s o l u t u s e s .
- 8 Dictum est iam saepius Catilinam ex praetura Africam
- 9obtinuisse et accusante eum repetundarum P. Clodio
- 10absolutum esse.
- 11 Praetereo nefarium illum conatum tuum et paene
- 12acerbum et luctuosum rei publicae diem, cum Cn.
- Critical Apparatus13Pisone socio, ne quem alium nominem, caedem
- 14optimatum facere voluisti.
- Critical Apparatus15 Quos non nominet intellegitis. Fuit enim opinio Cati-
- 16linam et Cn. Pisonem, adulescentem perditum, coniurasse
- 17ad caedem senatus faciendam ante annum quam haec
- 18dicta sunt, Cotta et Torquato coss., eamque caedem
- 19ideo non esse factam quod prius quam parati essent
- 20coniuratis signum dedisset Catilina. Piso autem, cum
- Critical Apparatus21haec dicerentur, perierat, in Hispaniam missus a senatu
- Critical Apparatus22per honorem legationis ut †auus suus ablegaretur. Ibi
- 23quidem dum iniurias provincialibus facit, occisus erat, ut
- Critical Apparatus24quidam credebant, a Cn. Pompeii clientibus Pompeio non
- 26 A n o b l i t u s e s t e e x m e , c u m p r a e t u r a m p e t e r e -
- Critical Apparatus27m u s , p e t i s s e u t t i b i p r i m u m l o c u m c o n c e d e r e m ?
- 28Q u o d c u m s a e p i u s a g e r e s e t i m p u d e n t i u s a m e
- pg 186193Cc o n t e n d e r e s , m e m i n i s t i m e t i b i r e s p o n d e r e i m p u -
- Critical Apparatus2d e n t e r t e f a c e r e q u i i d a m e p e t e r e s q u o d a t e
- Critical Apparatus3B o c u l u s n u m q u a m i m p e t r a s s e t ?
- Critical Apparatus4 Diximus iam supra Sullae ludis quos hic propter victo-
- 5riam fecerit quadrigas C. Antonium et alios quosdam
- 6nobiles homines agitasse. Praeterea Antonius redemptas
- 7habebat ab aerario vectigales quadrigas, quam redemptionem
- Critical Apparatus8senatori habere licet per legem. Fuit autem notissimus in
- 9circo quadrigarum agitator Boculus.
- 10 Dicit de malis civibus:
- Critical Apparatus11 Q u i p o s t e a q u a m i l l o q u o c o n a t i e r a n t H i s p a n i -
- Critical Apparatus12e n s i p u g i u n c u l o n e r v o s i n c i d e r e c i v i u m R o m a n o -
- 13r u m n o n p o t u e r u n t , d u a s u n o t e m p o r e c o n a n t u r
- Critical Apparatus14i n r e m p u b l i c a m s i c a s d e s t r i n g e r e .
- 15 Hispaniensem pugiunculum Cn. Pisonem appellat, quem
- Critical Apparatus16in Hispania occisum esse dixi. Duas sicas Catilinam et
- 17Antonium appellari manifestum est.
- Critical Apparatus18 H u n c v o s s c i t o t e L i c i n i u m g l a d i a t o r e m i a m i m -
- Critical Apparatus19m i s i s s e c a p i l l u m C a t i l i n a e † i u d i c . q u ā Q . u e C u -
- Critical Apparatus20r i u m h o m i n e m q u a e s t o r i u m .
- 21 Curius hic notissimus fuit aleator, damnatusque postea
- Critical Apparatus22est. In hunc est hendecasyllabus Calvi elegans:
- Critical Apparatus23Et talos Curius pereruditus.
- 24 Huic orationi Ciceronis et Catilina et Antonius contu-
- Critical Apparatus25meliose responderunt, quod solum poterant, invecti in
- pg 188194Cnovitatem eius. Feruntur quoque orationes nomine illorum
- 2editae, non ab ipsis scriptae sed ab Ciceronis obtrecta-
- Critical Apparatus3toribus: quas nescio an satius sit ignorare. Ceterum Ci-
- 4cero consul omnium consensu factus est: Antonius pauculis
- 5centuriis Catilinam superavit, cum ei propter patris nomen
- Critical Apparatus6paulo speciosior manus suffragata esset quam Catilinae.
pg 165Editor’s NoteThe Speech in the Senate as a Candidate against his Electoral Rivals C. Antonius and L. Catilina 82C
This speech was delivered in the consulship of L. Caesar and C. Figulus, the year after he had spoken for Cornelius.
Editor’s NoteExplanatory preface
Cicero had six rivals in his bid for the consulship, two of them patricians, P. Sulpicius Galba and L. Sergius Catilina; four plebeians, of whom two were nobles, C. Antonius, son of M. Antonius the orator, and L. Cassius Longinus, and two who were merely not the first of their families to attain office, Q. Cornificius and C. Licinius Sacerdos. Cicero alone from this field of competitors was born of equestrian rank, and during the campaign he lost his father. The rest of his rivals behaved with decorum, and Q. Cornificius and Galba were of proven sobriety and integrity, Sacerdos with no mark of immoral conduct against him. Cassius, although at the time he seemed more stupid than immoral, a few months later was evidently included in Catilina's conspiracy and the origin of some extremely bloodthirsty expressions of opinion. So these four were all but beaten. But Catilina and Antonius, pg 167despite having led the most disgraceful lives of all of them, even so 83Chad much power at their disposal. For both had entered an electoral pact to keep Cicero out of the consulship, enjoying very strong support from M. Crassus and C. Caesar. For this reason, the speech is directed solely against Catilina and Antonius. The occasion for Cicero to deliver an oration of this kind in the senate was that since the scope for ambitus was increasing by the day through the blatant effrontery of Catilina and Antonius, the senate had resolved that a law should be carried de ambitu with increased penalties; and Q. Mucius Orestinus, tribune of the plebs, had interposed his veto against this initiative. At that point Cicero, with the senate much displeased at the veto, rose and inveighed against the electoral pact of Catilina and Antonius, a few days before the day of the elections.
It is my contention, Conscript Fathers, that last night Catilina and Antonius met, with their followers, in the house of a certain person of noble rank, a well-known and recognized figure in this business of funding largesse. He means the house of either C. Caesar or M. Crassus. For they were the most determined and powerful of Cicero's adversaries when he stood for the consulship, since they were becoming aware that his standing in the community was growing by the day—and Cicero himself notes this in his Explanation of his Political Calculations. And he charges Crassus with having also been the instigator of the conspiracy which was formed by Catilina and Piso in the consulship of Cotta and Torquatus [65 bc], the year before this speech was delivered.
Whom can he count as a friend, he who pg 169butchered so many fellow-citizens, or whom can he count as a client, he 84Cwho claimed that in his own state he could not contend with an alien in a fair trial? Catilina, when he had been one of Sulla's partisans, is said to have acted with brutality. Cicero also later mentions by name those whom he killed—Q. Caecilius, M. Volumnius, L. Tanusius. Catilina had also cut off the head of M. Marius Gratidianus, a man in great favour with the people, who on this account was twice praetor, and had carried it through the city in his own hand—a charge which he hurls at him several times throughout this speech. To be sure, this Gratidianus had been linked by close family ties with Cicero.
He also declared it impossible for C. Antonius to have any clients. For he had robbed many persons in Achaea on getting the use of cavalry squadrons from Sulla's army. Then the Greeks who had been robbed took Antonius to court before the praetor M. Lucullus, who had jurisdiction in cases involving aliens. The action for the Greeks was brought by C. Caesar, at the time only young, of whom we have made mention a little earlier. When Lucullus decided the case in accordance with what the Greeks were demanding, Antonius summoned the tribunes and swore an oath that he rejected the validity of the court for the reason that he was unable to enjoy an equality of rights. Six years before this speech was delivered, the censors Gellius and Lentulus removed this Antonius from the senate and put their signatures to a public listing of their reasons—that he had plundered allies, rejected the judgment of a court, that on account of his vast debts he had made over estates and held no property in his own name.
pg 171Nor did he respect the senate's will, when in his absence he was 85Cbranded a criminal by your most weighty decrees. Catilina after his praetorship held the command of Africa. After he had inflicted serious harm on the province, African envoys while he was still absent lodged formal complaints against him in the senate, and many highly critical opinions were expressed about him in the senate.
He found out how effective the courts were on his acquittal—if that (process) can be called a court or that (verdict) an acquittal. A year before this speech was delivered Catilina on return from Africa in the consulship of Torquatus and Cotta, was accused de repetundis by the young P. Clodius, who was later Cicero's enemy. Catilina was defended, according to Fenestella, by M. Cicero. This very speech of Cicero makes me doubt this, especially since it contains no mention of the fact at a time when he could have aroused ill-feeling against his electoral rival for so shamefully entering into a pact against him, and particularly since he reminds his other rival Antonius in this same oration of his that it was thanks to his kindness that he [Antonius] had, as a candidate for the praetorship, managed to win third place instead of last.
Do you not realize that I was made praetor in first place, but you (only) by compliance of our competitors, whipping in the votes of the centuries, and in particular the good turn that I did you, were tacked on in third place instead of last? Now a man who considers that his electoral support for Antonius should count to his credit—surely if he had defended Catilina, would he not claim credit for the protection of his citizen rights? It is obvious that this is so from what he says in the immediate sequel. For Q. Mucius Orestinus was using his veto pg 173to prevent passage of a law de ambitu—a move evidently in Catilina's 86Cfavour. In citing Mucius in this oration, Cicero speaks as follows: As for you, however, Q. Mucius, who yesterday alleged that I am not worthy of the consulship, I am angered that you should have such a low opinion of the Roman people. How so? Would the Roman people set up a champion for itself with less circumspection than you did for yourself? When L. Calenus sued you for theft, I was your first choice as protector of your fortunes. Can the Roman people at your behest reject as its champion in business of the highest honour the man whose advice you preferred in your own most sordid little affair? Unless, I suppose, you are going to say this—that at the time when you did your deal with Calenus over theft, you saw that you could not get sufficient assistance from me. Since Cicero really did take Mucius' case, just as Fenestella would have it that he apparently took Catilina's, why at this point, when, although he has a low opinion of Mucius' case, he nonetheless reproaches him with the fact that he gave him his services as an advocate, would he not do likewise with Catilina, if he spoke for him at all? And why does he invoke that very trial [sc. the trial of Catilina] so often as a matter of scandal? He seems likely to have done this far more sparingly, if he had been his advocate in that trial. And leaving aside other examples, if Catilina had been acquitted de repetundis with his advocacy, he certainly seems hardly likely to have said: He besmirched himself with all manner of sexual misconduct and disgraceful acts, bloodied himself in criminal slaughter, despoiled our allies; did violence to the laws, the courts, the judiciary—and later: Why should I stress the violence you did to your province? For I hesitate to tell of your conduct there, pg 175since you were found not guilty. I must suppose that Roman knights told 87Clies, the written depositions of a most honourable community were falsified, that Q. Metellus Pius told lies, that Africa told lies; that those jurymen who adjudged you innocent saw something or other (in your favour). What a wretch, that you should not perceive that by that judgment you were not so much acquitted as preserved for some sterner court-hearing and greater punishment! So is it probable that he would hurl these reproaches at Catilina, if he had been acquitted with Cicero defending him? Besides, I am also influenced by the fact that although there exist notes of Cicero's cases, even so there is no précis or preface extant for this one.
The manner of Catilina's judicial acquittal was such as to bring Clodius into ill-repute for collusion, for even the rejection of jurors seemed to have been performed to accord with the wishes of the accused.
How great is his regard for the people he demonstrated when in full sight of the people he severed the neck of a man who was a favourite of the people. We have said a little earlier that Catilina carried the head of Marius through the city.
By what fit of madness he was induced to show me contempt, I cannot establish. Did he suppose that I would accept it with indifference? Yet in the case of a very close associate of his he had seen that I could not take calmly even the wrongs done to others. It is obvious that C. Verres is meant.
The other, after selling all his livestock and more or less making over his grasslands, retains his shepherds, from whom, he says, he can whenever he wishes at a moment's notice whip up a runaway slave war. He means C. Antonius.
pg 177The other influenced a person (whom he was able so to influence) 88Cunexpectedly to promise the people gladiators that were not required of him. These the consular candidate himself looked over, selected, and bought. This was done in the presence of the Roman people. He appears to mean Q. Gallius, whom he later defended on a charge de ambitu. For this man, when he was candidate for the praetorship, since he had had no beast to show in his aedileship which he had discharged the year before, presented a gladiatorial event on the pretext that he was giving it 'for his father'.
So then raise the price, if you wish, to be paid to Q. Mucius for persisting in blocking the law, in the opening words of the senate's decree. But I rest content with the law under which we have seen two consuls designate condemned at one and the same time. He means the Calpurnian Law which C. Calpurnius Piso had carried three years earlier  de ambitu. In mentioning the condemnation of two consuls designate, he wishes to be understood P. Sulla and P. Autronius, of whom we have already spoken. The cognomen of the tribune whom he names, Q. Mucius, was Orestinus.
And to say nothing of this man as a brigand in Sulla's army, gladiator at his entry (to Rome), charioteer in his Victory Games. It is clear that Antonius is the subject of these remarks. He calls him brigand in Sulla's army by reason of the cavalry squadrons by which we have indicated that Achaea was harried by him; (the phrase) gladiator at his entry applies to the hostility aroused by the proscription which took place at that time; (he calls him) charioteer in his Victory Games because when Sulla after his victory celebrated circus games which involved respectable men driving four-horse chariots, C. Antonius was among them.
pg 179But come, Catilina, for you to hope for or even to think about a 89Cconsulship—is that not a prodigy and a portent? Well, from whom are you seeking to get it? From our leading statesmen? But when they acted as advisers to the consul L. Volcacius, they were unwilling for you to have even the right to stand. A little earlier we said that Catilina turned up when he was retiring from his command in Africa with the intention of seeking the consulship and African envoys had made serious complaints about him in the senate. Then Catilina declared his intention to seek the consulship. L. Volcacius Tullus the consul held a meeting of his advisers on public affairs to consider whether he ought to recognize the candidature of Catilina, if he were to seek the consulship, since he was under investigation de repetundis. Catilina for this reason gave up his candidature.
From the senators? Who on their own authority all but stripped you of all honours and handed you over to spokesmen from Africa? We have just said something on this. For a trial ensued de repetundis, in which Catilina himself was scandalously acquitted, but by a verdict in which the senatorial vote was for conviction, that of the knights and tribuni aerarii for acquittal.
From the equestrian order? Which you butchered? The equestrian order had stood for the Cinnan party against Sulla, and many had stolen funds. On that score they were termed 'pickpockets', and on account of the hostility that this aroused were killed after Sulla's victory.
From the plebs? To whom your brutality presented a spectacle such that no one can set eyes upon you without a groan and remembrance of sorrow?
pg 181He casts in his teeth the reproach of having brandished the head of 90Cthat same Marius Gratidianus.
In the place where he says that Catilina brandished the head of M. Marius: That head, even then still showing every sign of life and breath, he brought to Sulla in his own hands all the way from the Janiculum to the Temple of Apollo. Everything is obvious enough. However, to avoid being misled by the fact that in our own day the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine has been the best known, you should be warned that it is not this one which is meant by Cicero—to wit, the one which many years even after the death of Cicero the Imperator Caesar, whom we now call the Deified Augustus, constructed. Rather, the one indicated is that which is outside the Gate of Carmentis, between the Vegetable Market and the Circus Flaminius. For at that time this was the only Temple of Apollo in Rome.
He converses with Catilina: What can you say in your defence which they did not say (in theirs)? Yet they said a good deal which it will not be open to you to say. And a little further on: In short, they were able to make denial, and made it: you have left yourself no scope for the impudence even of making a plea of Not Guilty. It follows that they (the jurors) will be said to have brought in notable verdicts if, having convicted Luscius on a plea of Not Guilty, they then acquit Catilina despite his confession. This man whom he names, L. Luscius, a notorious centurion of Sulla's who made rich pickings from his victory—for he had property worth more than HS 100,000—had been convicted not long before Cicero's speech. He was charged pg 183with the murder of three of the proscribed. At about the same 91Cdate, L. Bellienus too was convicted, who Cicero says was an uncle of Catilina's. This man, on the order of Sulla, who was dictator at the time, had killed Lucretius Afella, who was standing for the consulship against the wishes of Sulla with a view to destabilizing the state. He therefore declares that they were not excused, even though they claimed that they were ignorant folk, and even if they had killed anyone, had done it in obedience to their commander and dictator, and could also offer denial; whereas Catilina could not plead Not Guilty. A few months later Catilina did face the peril of trial on this charge which Cicero levels at him. For after completion of the consular elections and Catilina's electoral defeat, L. Lucceius, an accomplished and learned man, who later also sought the consulship, indicted him for murder.
Do you possess the standing to justify your despising and insulting me—or rather that which you have earned in the rest of your life? For your life has been such that there has been no place so sacred that your arrival there, even if there was no underlying guilt, did not occasion criminal charges. Fabia the Vestal Virgin had pleaded her defence on a charge of fornication, when (misconduct with) Catilina was alleged against her, and had been acquitted. It is because this Fabia was sister to Cicero's wife Terentia that he said: even if there was no underlying guilt. In this way he both spared his family embarrassment and lost no weight at all from allegations against his enemy of sordid immorality deserving of the deepest opprobrium.
Whenever you were caught in adultery, whenever you caught adulterers yourself, when arising from the same act of gross indecency you found yourself a woman to be both wife and daughter. It is said that Catilina committed adultery with the woman who was later his mother-in-law, and took to wife the female offspring of that fornication, pg 185although she was his daughter. This charge Lucceius also levels 92Cagainst Catilina in the orations which he wrote attacking him. I have not yet discovered the names of these women.
Why need I proclaim the damage you inflicted on your province, amid the protests and opposition of the whole Roman people? For I hesitate to say how you behaved there, in view of your acquittal. It has been remarked often enough already that Catilina held the command of Africa after his praetorship and was acquitted on the accusation de repetundis brought by P. Clodius.
I let pass that criminal enterprise of yours, very nearly a day of bitterness and grief for the State, when in collusion with Cn. Piso, not to name any other, you wished to perpetrate a massacre of the best men in the state (optimates). You are well aware of the identity of those whom he forbears to name. For there was a belief that Catilina and Cn. Piso, a young desperado, conspired to perpetrate a massacre of the senate a year before this speech was delivered, in the consulship of Cotta and Torquatus, and that this massacre did not take place simply because Catilina gave the signal to the conspirators before they were ready. Now Piso, when this speech was being delivered, had perished in Spain on being sent there by the senate by way of an honorific mission to get him out of harm's way. There, in fact, while inflicting wrongs on the provincials, he was slain, as some believed, by clients of Cn. Pompeius, not without Pompeius' approval.
Or have you forgotten that when we sought the praetorship you besought me to yield first place to you? And when you kept on doing this time after time, and pressed me pg 187with excessive impudence, do you recall that I replied that it was 93Cimpudent conduct on your part to request from me what Boculus would never have obtained from you? We have already said above that at Sulla's games which he celebrated to mark his victory C. Antonius and certain other nobles drove four-horse chariots. In addition Antonius had contracted with the treasury to supply four-horse chariots for a fee—a contract which is legally available to senators. And Boculus was the most notorious four-horse chariot driver in the Circus.
He is speaking of bad citizens: Those persons who, after they failed with the Spanish stiletto by which they made the attempt to slit the sinews of Roman citizens, are now attempting to unsheathe two daggers at once against the state. 'Spanish stiletto' is his term for Cn. Piso, who as I said was killed in Spain. It is obvious that Catilina and Antonius are termed the 'two daggers'.
You must note that this ruffian Licinius has already let his hair grow on information being laid against Catilina, and so has Q. Curius, a fellow of quaestorian rank. This Curius was a notorious gambler, and was later convicted. Against him there is extant an elegant hendecasyllabic line of Calvus:
- And Curius, of unmatched scholarship in dice.
To this speech of Cicero Catilina and Antonius made reply with insults, which was all that they could manage, by way of attacking pg 189his standing as a novus homo. There are in circulation also orations 94Cpublished in their names, not written by them but by detractors of Cicero, which I imagine it is better to disregard. Anyhow, Cicero was made consul by general agreement. Antonius marginally beat Catilina by a handful of centuries, since on account of his father's name a somewhat more reputable bunch canvassed for him than for Catilina.